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Full text of "Angel Chaushev. Spomeni. Sofia, 2010"

npoi|). a-p AHTEJI n.HAyiUEB 



CnOMEHH 



Co4>Ha,2010 



CT>A1>P5KAHHE 

Tjiaea I 

AETCTBO H K)HOIIIECTBO 6 

PCMJHO M5ICTO 7 

Po,n;ocjioBHe h ceMeiicTBO 10 

Po/jHTejiHTe 12 

/Jctckh to^hhh - Bt3nHTaHHe b Tpy,n; 15 

HanajiHo ynHJinnje h nporHMHa3H5i (1928-1935) 21 

Me6ejiHOTO ("cTOJiapcKOTo") ynnjiHiije 25 

IIojiHTHHecKo Bt3nHTaHHe h (J)opMHpaHe Ha Bi>3rjie,zmTe mh 26 

B Co(J)HHCKaTa TtproBCKa rHMHa3iw (1938-1942) 29 

YhcGhh 3aHHTHH 5 npiwTejiH, yHHTejin 29 

/JeHHOCT B Pa60THHHeCKHfl MJia^OKKH CT>K)3 35 

Tjiaea II 

CTPAHHIJH OT MOHTE 666 AHH B1>B OAUIHCTKHTE 3ATBOPH 

(10.XI.1942-8.IX.1944) 58 

ApecTbT: b /jHpeicijHfl Ha nojinijHflTa 58 

B Co(J)HHCKHa i^eHTpajieH 3aTBOp 80 

IlbpBHTe £HH B Co<|)HHCKHfl ijeHTpajieH 3aTBop 84 

IIpoijecT>T bi>b BoeHHonojieBHa chj\ 87 

3aTBopHHHecKH ^chbot cjie,ni npncb^aTa 115 

B CKoncKHH o6jiacTeH 3aTBop - (])HJiHaji "ftUprooBo" 134 

IIpeMecTBaHe h ntTyBaHe jxo na3ap,zpKHiiiKHfl 3aTBop 148 

B HOBHfl IIa3ap,ZJflCHIIIKH 3aTBop 154 

rjiaea III 

nOBEMTA HA ^EBETOCEMnTEMBPHHCKOTO BfcCTAHHE 

(B BATAK H IIEIIJEPA, 1944 - 1948) 216 

/JeBeTH cemreMBpH 1944 r. b BaTaK 216 

H36op Ha KMeT h oSnjHHCKa ynpaBa. ITtpBH crtnicH Ha HOBaTa BjiacT 229 

CeKpeTap Ha PMC b BaTaK (1944-1945 r.) 243 

CeicpeTap Ha Okojihhckhh komhtct Ha Pa6oTHHHecKH MJia^e^CKH 

cbK)3 b Ilemepa 247 

Othobo b BaTaK (1945-1946) 255 

B Okojihhckhh komhtct Ha BPI1 (k) b Ilemepa (1947-1948) 267 

Tjiaea IV 

CTY^EHTCKH rO^HHH B MOCKBA (oktombph 1948 - AeKeMBpn 1952) 

277 



ITbTyBaHe /jo MocKBa 277 

Bi>b Bhcuihh HHCTHTyT 3a Hapo/jHo cTonaHCTBo "r. B. IljiexaHOB" 278 

ripHCTHraHeTO Ha Tepa. B CTy/jeHTCKOTo o6me)KHTHe "J\om KOMMyHbi" 281 

yneHHe h npeno/jaBarejiH 282 

JleTHH BaKaHiiiHH b EtJirapna 285 

CryAeHTCKaTa 3eMJMHecKa opraHH3aijHfl b MocKBa 289 

CTyAeHTCKH npHHTejicTBa 291 

/jHnjioMHpaHe h 3aBptni;aHe b Etjirapna 292 

TjiaBa V 

B KOMHTETA 3A HAYKA, H3KYCTBO H KYJITYPA 

H MHHHCTEPCTBOTO HA KYJITYPATA (1953-1956) 299 

CtBeTHHK b oxzjeji 'TIpeno^aBaHe Ha H/jeojiorHnecKHTe /mcminjiHHH" 300 

CMtprra Ha CTajiHH 303 

CtBeTHHK b oxueji "Bnciiie hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe" 

(cenTeMBpn 1953 - iojih 1956) 303 

Pe4>opMH 304 

AnpHJicKHOT njieHyM Ha LJK Ha BKn (1956) 310 

ripo$. HBaHCTe^aHOB 316 

FjiaBa VI 

B1>B BHCIIHM HKOHOMHHECKH HHCTHTYT "KAPJI MAPKC" 

(1952-1962) 321 

PeKTopHTe npo^. To^op HeHOB (1952-1958) h 

axaA. )KaK HaTaH (1958-1962) 321 

TtprOBCKH^T H OTpaCJIOBOHKOHOMHHeCKHHT <|)aKyJITeTH (1952-1962) 324 

Kareapa "BtTpeiima rtproBHa" (1953-1962) 326 

MoeTo ynacTHe b o6mecTBeHo-nojiHTHHecKHH )khbot (1953-1966) 329 

TjiaBa VII 

PEKTOP HA BHH "KAPJI MAPKC" (1962 - 1966) 332 

AKa,a;eMHHHOTo pt>kobo,uctbo npe3 MaH^aTHTe 1962-1964 h 1964-1966 r 332 

Toaop 5Khbkob bi>b BHH (8.XII.1962) 343 

HoBaTa cHCTeMa 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha Hapo/jHOTO CTonaHCTBo 347 

H36op Ha hobo aKa/jeMHHHO pt>kobo,uctbo (1966) 353 

TjiaBa VIII 

B KOPH^OPHTE HA A^MHHHCTPAIJHflTA (1966-1985 r.) 356 

HtpBH ceKpeTap Ha Ocmh (CTy/jeHTCKH) PK Ha BKn 

(OKTOMBpH-^eKeMBpH 1966) 356 

SaMecTHHK-npe/jce/jareji Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpy/ja 

h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa (1967) 357 



ITtpBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHcri>p Ha Hapo/jHara npocBeTa (1968) 367 

Bi>b BHH, KaTe^pa "BtTpeuiHa TbproBHH ( 1969- 1974) 372 

ITbpBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTbp Ha TtproBHOTa h ycjiyrHTe (1974-1975) 375 

TjiaBa IX 

MHHHCTiP HA TPy^A H COIJHAJIHHTE rPH5KH (16.VI.1975- 
18.VII.1976) H nPE£CE£ATEJI HA K OMHTETA no TPy^A H 
PABOTHATA 3AnJIATA (18.VI.1976-1.VIII.1981) 381 

Ilpn ToAop )Khbkob. Ha3HanaBaHeTO mh 3a mhhhctbp Ha Tpyjja 

H COIJHaJIHHTe rpH5KH 381 

Ili>pBHTe £hh b MTCr 384 

3aKpHBaHe Ha MTCr h ci>3;jaBaHe Ha Komhtct no Tpyjja 

h paGoTHaTa 3anjiaTa 386 

CnoMeHH h pa3d>^cnieHHa 3a AeHHOcrra Ha MTCr h KTP3 387 

3aicpHBaHe HaKoMHTeTano Tpyjjan paGoTHara 3anjiara 417 

3a /joKJia/ja Ha Tojjop )Khbkob othocho napTHHHaTa KOHijeniJiHfl 

3a hob Ko^eKc Ha Tpyjja (1982) 421 

Tjiasa X 

HAPO^EH nPE^CTABHTEJI B CE^MOTO (1976-1981) H OCMOTO 

(1981-1986) HAPO^HO CfcEPAHHE 431 

Tjiaea XI 

3AMECTHHK-CEKPETAP HA C1>BETA 3A HKOHOMHHECKA 

B3AHMOnOMOm (1981-1985) 436 

Ha3HanaBaHe ? nojjroTOBKa 3a 3aMHHaBaHe h BCTbnBaHe b ^jii>5khoct 436 

KpaTKH CBejjeHHfl 3a CHB 437 

AcneKTH Ha jjeHHocira mh KaTo 3aMecTHHK-ceicpeTap Ha CHB 439 

ObTpy/jHHHecTBOTo Ha CHB c AHrojia h Hnicaparya 443 

3aBpi>maHe b BtJirapna h neHCHOHHpaHe 445 

Tjiasa XII 

HAyHHO-nE^ArorHHECKA H OEIIJECTBEHO-nOJIHTHHECKA 

flEHHOCT (1986-2006) 454 

BtB BHCIHHfl HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT (1986-1990) 454 

OGmecTBeHo-nojiHTHnecKo h hkohomkhccko pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa 

npe3 1986-1990. npoMeHH b npaBHTejicTBOTO 456 

OGmecTBeHan 3eMJiiiHecKa /jeiiHOCT ( 1986- 1989) 459 

OGiijecTBeHa jjeftHocr. KyjiTypHo-npocBeTHo c^py^ceHHe 

"BMpa»waHe Ha rpajj EaTaic" (1990-2006) 463 

yHHBepcHTeT 3a HaiiiHOHajiHO h CBeTOBHO CTonaHCTBO (1990-2006) 464 



TJIAB A I 
#ETCTBO H K)HOUIECTBO 

POAHO MHCTO 

Po/ieH cbm b rp. BaTaK (ToraBa ceno), pa3nono^ceH b .nojiHHaTa Ha CTapa 
pena b ceBepHHTe ckjiohobc Ha BaTaniKaTa miaHHHa, koato e nacT ot 
3ana/i;HHTe Po/j;onH. BaTaK 3aeMa aoctohho macto b HCTOpMTa Ha ET>jirapHfl 
c ynacTHeTO Ha 6aTanaHH b^b bchhkh 6op6n Ha 6i>JirapCKHa Hapo/i; 3a 
HauHOHajiHO ocBo6o)KfleHHe ? 3a CBo6o/j;a, /jeMOKpaijHfl h coijHajiHa 
cnpaBeflJiHBOCT. 

BaTaK e hhcto 6i>jirapcKO cejnnije, ci>3,zj;a,zj;eHO bt>b BTOpaTa nonoBHHa Ha 
XVII b., b KoeTO c ro/iHHHTe ce 3acejiBaT ot pa3JiHHHH Kpawma Ha Ei>jirapHJi 
MH03HHa HenoKopHH h lOHaHHH 6T>JirapH - 6opuH cpeniy TypCKHTe nopo- 
6htcjih. H3non3BafiKH 6jiaronpH^THHTe npnpoflHH ycjiOBM (ropH, JiHBa^H, 
perai), 6aTanaHH ch ocnrypflBaT floG'bp CTonaHCKH noMHHi>K. Kbm HanajiOTO 
Ha XIX b. paHOHi>T Ha BaTaK CTaBa Ba^ceH ,m>pBO,zj;o6HBeH ueHTtp Ha OcMaH- 
CKara HMnepM. Pa3BHBaT ce ckotobvjctboto, 3eMe/i;ejiHeTO, 3aHaaTHHH- 

CTBOTO H TBprOBH^Ta. HeTOBaTa HKOHOMHHeCKa pojia B Ta3H nacT Ha 

Po/ionHTe HapacTBa oce3aTejiHO. 

Ha Ta3H ocHOBa ce yBejinnaBa caMonyBCTBHeTO, HaijHOHajiHOTO caMO- 
CT>3HaHHe h B^MCttKHOCTHTe Ha HacejieHHeTO ^a cbxpaHH npaBocnaBHaTa 
BHpa 5 ^a ynacTBa b 6op6HTe 3a LrbpKOBHara h HaijHOHajiHa He3aBHCHMOCT Ha 
6i>JirapHTe. IIpe3 1813 r. e H3ipa,zjeHa HOBa KaMeHHa nepKBa, npocjiaBHJia ce 
b 1876 r. IIo xtnMOBeTe okojio BaTaK ca H3rpa/j;eHH MHO)KecTBO napaKJiHCH 
(cb. ^HMHTbp, cb. Hjihh, cb. EoropoflHija, cb. IleTtp, cb. reopra, cb. Tpomja). 

B Kpaa Ha XVIII b. e otkphto khjihhho ynHJiHme, npe3 1835 r. e Cb3/j;a- 
fleHO m>pBOTO MecTHO CBeTCKO yHHJiHme, a npe3 1852 r. e nocTpoeHa HOBa 
rojiflMa yHHJiHmHa crpa/j;a, b kooto ce ynaT ctothijh MJiaflOKH. B BaTaK 
H3pacTBaT BH^HHTe npocBeTHTejiH Xafl)KH HaSfleH HoBaHOBHH, ^paraH 
MaHHOB, HHKona KoBaneBCKH, MnxaHJi KyMaHOB h ap., KaKTO h pe^Hua 
3a6ejie^cHTejiHH CBemeHocjiy)KHTejiH, H3Me)Kfly kohto H3m>KBaT R-bnro- 
roflHiHHHTe HryMeHH Ha Phjickha MaHacrap, 6paT5rra Hoch(|), KHpHJi h 
Hhkh(J)op, ptKOBOflHJiH Ta3H o6mo6T>JirapCKa o6htcji b npo/j;T>jraeHHe Ha 
HAKOJiKO aeceTHJieTH^. 

MH03HHa 6aTanaHH ycnaBar ^a nonynaT flo6po 3a BpeMeTO ch o6pa30- 

BaHHe H yCTaHOBHBaT TBpTOBCKH, npOCBCTHH H KyJITypHH BpT>3KH c 6i>Jirap- 

CKHTe BT>3po^c/i;eHi^H b HioBflHB, I],apHrpa,zj, H3MHp 5 ConyH h flpyra rpa,zjo- 
Be Ha OcMaHCKaTa HMnepHH. IIocTeneHHO ce oc])opMfl 6araiHKaTa BMpcttK- 



fleHCKa HHTejinreHijHfl (ynHTejin, CBemeHHijH, TbproBijH, 3aHaflTHHH, o6iu;e- 
ctbchhijh), kohto OKa3Ba rojiflMO BJiHHHHe He caMO Btpxy MecTHOTO Hacene- 

HHe, HO H BT>pXy OKOJIHHTe XpHCTHflHCKH cejrama 3a pa3BHTHe Ha npocBeT- 

hoto flejio, CTonaHCKHTe Bpt3KH h no^roTOBKaTa Ha AnpHJicKOTO BtCTaHHe. 

BaTaK B3eMa aKTHBHO ynacrae b AnpHJicKOTO BtcTamie npe3 1876 r. 
EaranaHH npo^BHBaT Mi>2KecTBO, aaBar xhjwah acepTBH npea ojiTapa Ha 
OreHecTBOTO. 3a HCTOpHHecKaTa pojia Ha BaTaK b AnpHJicKOTO Bi>CTaHHe h 
OcBo6o>KfleHHeTO Ha EtJirapM me nocona HanHcaHOTO ot HBaH Ba30B. 
„Eto 3amo caMO BaTaK 3ana3Ba npaBOTO «a nopa3ABa HauiHTe jsymu c HMeTO 
ch h «a HMa oGa^HHeTO Ha Hemo KaTO GtJirapcKa TojiroTa. TyK ATaraHa Ha 
nopoGHTejia Tbpceme ctpijeTO Ha Ei>jirapHfl, ho HaMepH KaMi>Ka, kohto ro 
cnynH. Gbc nyTOBeH noflBHr npe3 1876 r. BaTaK HaKapa CBeTa #a ch c noM- 
hh 3a CnapTa h Tpoa h aa ce Ha^Hine b 3amHTa Ha nopoGemrre 6i>JirapH." 

Cjiea OcBo6o»cfleHHeTO Ha EtJirapM, 6aTanaHH c npncbiijoTO hm Tpy- 
flOJnoGne, BepHH Ha HfleajiHTe Ha AnpHJicKOTO BtcTaHHe h Ha BMpoacfleH- 
CKHTe ijeHHOCTH, ycneuiHO Bt3CTaHOB^BaT pa3pymeHOTO cejinme h ocnrypfl- 
Bar no-HaTarbiHHOTO hkohomkhccko h KyjiTypHO pa3BHrae Ha BaTaK, npo- 
fltJi^KaBaT aKTHBHO aa ynacTBaT b 6op6nTe 3a HaijHOHajiHO o6eflHHeHHe Ha 
6i>JirapCKH5i Hapofl, 3a aeMOKpaijHfl, npoTHB eKcnjioaraijHflTa Ha ropCKHfl 
TbproBCKH^ KanHTaji, 3a no-flo6pH Tpy^OBH h 6htobh ycjioBM. 

Pa3BHBa ce iji>pkobhoto h npocBeTHOTO fleno. npe3 1912 r. b ijeHTBpa 
Ha rpaaa ce OTKpHBa HOBaTa KaTe/jpajia "Cb. EoropoflHija". Bt3CTaHOBeHa e 
h flByeTaacHaTa ynHJinmHa crpaaa, pa3pyuieHa npe3 BtcTaHHeTO. B BaTaK 
paGoTAT flo6pe noaroTBeHH yHHTejiH. IIoflBflBaT ce ni>pBHTe o6mecTBeHO- 
KyjiTypHH h nojiHTHHecKH opraHH3auHH. npe3 1897 r. e ocHOBaHO mccthoto 
HHTajinme "4 Man". Peanua 6aTanaHH 3a>KHBflBaT h pa6oT#r h3bt>h BaTaK - 
b Ila3ap,n5KHK, ILhobahb, Co(J)H5i h jjp. rpa^OBe Ha CTpaHaTa (IleTtp 
TopaHOB, ^paraH MaHHOB, AHreji TopaHOB, AHreji CeMepaacneB, Teoprn 
Ko5KyxapoB h ap.). 

EaranaHH ynacTBar b EajncaHCKara, Me>Kflyci>K)3HHHecKaTa h IltpBaTa 
CBeTOBHa BOHHa h aaBaT cbhahh 5KepTBH. Cjiea BoiiHHTe BaTaK npofl'bJDKaBa 
aa ce pa3BHBa hkohomhhcckh h aa ce GnaroycTpoflBa. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe 
ce o6pi>ma Ha npocBeTHOTO aejio. IIocTpoflBaT ce TpH hobh yHHJinmHH 
crpaflH (3a nporHMHa3Hfl h flBe 3a ochobhh ynnjinma). OTKpHBa ce npoc[>e- 
CHOHajiHO Me6ejiHO yHHJinme. npe3 1937 r. ce OTKpHBa HOBa HHTajinmHa 
crpaaa c tojihm cajiOH, 6n6jiHOTeKa h HHTanHH. 

BaTanaHH B3eMaT aKTHBHO ynacrae b fleHHOcrra Ha pa3JiHHHH oGnjecT- 
BeHH h CTonaHCKH opraHH3aitHH (IIonyji^pHa 6amca, Koon. "Op^efi", Koon. 
"Ct3HaHHe" ? Koon. "Poflonn"). Ci>3flafleHH ca h mccthh opramoauHH Ha 



pe^Hija napTHH (/JeMOKparanecKa, Pa#HKajiHa, JlnGepajiHa, Ei>jirapcKH 3e- 
MeflencKH HapofleH ct>k)3). EyflHaTa 6aTauiKa HHTejiHreHijHfl ome b Kpaa Ha 
XIX b. Bi>3npHeMa Hflejrre Ha coijHajiH3Ma. npe3 1900 r. e ci>3fla,ueHa ni>p- 
BaTa coijHajiHCTHHecKa rpyna, npe3 1919 r. - MecTHa opraraoaijHfl Ha Et>ji- 
rapcKaTa KOMyHHCTHHecKa naprafl, a npe3 1921 r. - Ha Komyhhcthhcckh^ 
MJiaae^cKH ci>K)3 (KMC). 

BaTanaHH aKTHBHO ce BKJiioHBaT b 6op6aTa npoTiie MOHapxo(J)amii3Ma. 
Ha 2.IX.1941 r. b BaTaK ce ci>3flaBa ni>pBaTa Btopi>^ceHa napTH3aHCKa neTa 
b PoflonHTe, koato nocTaBH HanajioTO Ha JiereHflapHM napTH3aHCKH OTp^a 
"Ahtoh HBaHOB". B HepaBHaTa Bi>opT>5KeHa 6op6a npoTHB MOHapxo<|)aiHH3- 
Ma npe3 3HMaTa h npojierra Ha 1944 r. 3arHBaT 32 6aTaniKH naTpHora-aHTH- 
4>aiHHCTH 5 onoacapemi ca 15 napTH3aHCKH kbiiih h rnieBHH. npe3 BpeMeTO 
1941-1944 r. ca apeeryBaHH 366 aHTH(|)aiiiHCTH, 150 ca HHTepraipaHH, a b 3ar- 
BOpHTe 23-Ma H3JieacaBaT npHCbflH no 3aKOHa 3a 3anjHTa Ha fltpflcaBara (33^). 

Cjiea ^eBeTocenTeMBpHHCKaTa no6eaa Has MOHapxoc|)aiHH3Ma h ycTaHo- 
BHBaHeTO Ha HapoflHOfleMOKparaHecKaTa BJiacT Ha OrenecTBeHHfl (J)pOHT npe3 
1944 r. ^KHTejiHTe Ha BaTaK, BepHH Ha 3aBeTHTe Ha ABeTe noKOJieHH^ 6opijH- 

anpHJmH H aHTH(])aiHHCTH, OTflaBaT CBOHTe CHJIH, yM H TajiaHT 3a HKOHO- 

MHHecKOTo h KyjiTypHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha BaTaK, 3a H3rpaac,n;aHe Ha cbo6oaho 5 
aeMOKpaTHHHO h coijHajiHO cnpaBeflJiHBO o6mecTBO b HaniaTa PoflHHa. 

Bt>b BTopaTa nojiOBinia Ha XX seic (1944-1990) BaTaK ce npeBi>pHa 
b 6jiaroycTpoeHO rpa^ne c pa3BHTa HKOHOMHKa, npocBeTa, Kyjrrypa, MeflH- 
ijhhcko h TLproBCKO o6cjiy2CBaHe. Ob3fla,ne ce h ycneuiHO ce pa3BHBa koo- 
nepaTHBHO 3eMeaejicKO CTonaHCTBO (TK3C). KbrpaaeHH 6axa TpH MOflepHH 
4>a6pHKH: Ai>pBonpepa6oTBaTejieH 3aBOfl (ci>c 150-200 pa6oTHH MecTa); 
3aBOfl 3a niHBaniKH H3flejiHfl (c noBene ot 400 pa6oTHH MecTa); ManiHHO- 
CTpoHTejieH 3aBOfl (c okojio 150-180 pa6oTHH MecTa) h flpyra no-MajiKH 
npeanpHHTHH h peMOHTHH 6a3H, kohto o6cjiy)KBaxa CHCTeMaTa Ha EaTani- 

KHfl BOflHOCHJIOB ni>T. IIlHpOKO pa3BHTHe nOJiyHHXa TypH3Ml>T H nOHHBHOTO 

aejio. B OKOJiHOCTHTe Ha BaTaK 6axa nocTpoeHH noBene ot 140 BeflOMCTBe- 
hh noHHBHH eraHijHH c okojio 5500 Jierna. PaftoKbT Ha BaTaK ce npeBtpHa b 
HaijHOHajieH h MOKflyHapoaeH noHHBeH h TypHcranecKH ijeHTbp. 

KopeHHO ce H3MeHH npo4)ecHOHajiHHOT h coijHajieH ci>CTaB Ha Hacejie- 
HHeTO. rioHBH ce HayqHO-TexHHnecKa HHTejiHreHijHH h hobh npo(|)ecHH: 
MexaHH3aT0pH 5 mohtboph, 6arepHcra, ino(|)i>opH. BaTaqaHH B3exa aKTHBHO 
ynacTHe b ctpohtcjictboto Ha EaTauiKHfl bo^hochjiob ntT h b MHoro apyrn 
o6eKTH b HamaTa h b qyac6HHa. 

3a ci>)KajieHHe ? b roflHHHTe Ha t. Hap. "npexoa kbm na3apHa hkohomh- 
Ka", 3anoqHaji npe3 AeBeTflecerre roflHHH Ha XX b., 6enie yHHmo^ceHa 3Ha- 



HHTejiHa nacT ot HKOHOMHKaTa Ha BaTaK (cejicKO cronaHCTBO, npoMHimie- 
hoct h flp.)- He3aBHCHMO ot bchhko, HaceneHHeTO Ha BaTaK flHec HMa chjih 
h bt>3mo)khocth fla npeoflojiee Tpy/jHOCTHTe h aa npofltiDKH CBoeTO bt>3- 

XOA^mO pa3BHTHC 

Po^ocjioBHe h ceMeiicTBO 

PofleH ct>m Ha 26 /jeKeMBpH 1921 r. b ccmchctboto Ha Ilerbp h EjieHa 
HaynieBH. Po/jocjiOBHeTO Ha HaynieBM poa npoH3JiH3a ot .flpKOBHfl pofl ? 
kohto e flOHTBn b BaTaK ot 3anaflHa MaKeflOHHH (t. Hap. "ApHayTJiyK") npe3 
BTOpaTa nojioBHHa Ha XVII BeK h e e^HH ot ni>pBHTe po/joBe, 3acenHJiH ce 
TyK h nono)KHJiH HanajioTO Ha flHeniHOTO cejiHme BaTaK. E/jhh ot ni>pBHTe 
npeflCTaBHTejiH Ha po/ja hh e Hjihh XpKOB, ^chbhji b cpe/jaTa Ha XVIII b. 
HeroBH^T chh JXHMimp Hjihcb (BTopaTa nojioBHHa Ha XVIII BeK h Hanajio- 
to Ha XIX b.) h BHyKbT My AHren (m>pBaTa nojioBHHa Ha XIX b.) ca ce cna- 
bhjih KaTO yMejiH cTpoHTejiH Ha napKOBe h rojieMH MaHCTOpH-fli>pBOfleniiH ? 

KOHTO H3pa60TBaJIH HaKpMJH, 6l>HBH H ApyTH flT>pBeHH H3fleJIHfl. Te 6HJIH 

"6ain" MaficTopH, h ot TyK - "naym" MaiicTopH (cTapniH MaiicTopH). noere- 
neHHO Ta3H nacT ot (JjaMHJiHOTa Ha #pkobh 3anoHBa fla ce HapHna HayuieBH. 

^HMHTbp h AHreji nojiaraT HanajiOTO Ha HaymeBHH poa ? kohto ei>me- 
CTByBa Bene flBa BeKa c TOBa HaHMeHOBaHHe. AHreji ,H,hmhtpob (Mhtob) 
HayuieB e HMaji TpHMa CHHOBe (Xphctocko, KocTa^HH h IIpoaaH) h TpH 
fli>mepH (HeflHJiKa, HnKOJiHHa h CrecJmHa). Ot TpHMaTa chhobc 3anoHBaT 
TpH rojieMH pa3KnoHeHHH Ha HaymeBHA pofl. Xphctocko Ahtcjiob HaymeB 
nocTaBA HanajioTO Ha HaniaTa nacT ot HaynieBaTa (JmMHJiHH. Toh HMa flBa 
CHHa: Ejiaroa h AHreji, h rbq fli>mepH: IleTpa h Mmpa. 

Moat jymo AHreji Xphctockob HayuieB (1856-1929) h 6a6a mh 
Bi>p6a ToMOBa BpaHneea (1861-1949) ci>3flaBaT ceMeiicTBO cjiea Ocbo- 
6o^cfleHHeTO Ha Ei>jirapHfl h HMaT oceM fleija: neT CHHa (Xphctocko -Tocko, 
IleTbp, Totfop, HnKona h Bopnc) h Tpn ,m>mepH (EneHa, Mapna h JIio6a). 

JlflKO AHreji noHHHa, KoraTO 6ax Ha 7 roflHHH. IIomh^ ro - cpe^eH Ha 
pi>CT ? )KHJiaB, ci>c cyxo JiHije ot kocto jn>xanie CHMnarafl h npHpo^Ha 
HHTejinreHTHOCT. BHHarn cnperaaT, c 6aTaniKH neniHpH, noac h chjijix, 
3a6yHne ? a npe3 3HMaTa c KiopK c xy6aBa Tonjia HKa. Toh h b HanpeflHajia 
Bi>3pacT pi>KOBOflenie orpoMHaTa pa6oTa Ha mhoto6pohhoto ceMeiicTBO. 
B3en e aKTHBHO ynacrae b AnpHJicKOTO Bi>CTaHHe. Bhji e 20 ro^HHieH. HMaji 
e nyniKa eB3ajiHmca, cjia6o opT>^cne. ,HyxT>T My o6ane e 6hji chjich. 
Bi>3nHTaH e 6hji b jsyx Ha CBo6o,a;ojiK)6He, b OMpa3a kbm nopo6HTejnrre. 
Cnyniaji e 3a lOHanHHTe no,n;BH3H Ha flHflo ch Xphctocko h npaflwo ch 
AHren. Ci&AaBa cojih^ho ropcKO-3eMeflencKO CTonaHCTBO. HMaji e chjiho 

10 



nyBCTBO kt>m hoboto, nporpecHBHOTO b Tpy^a H 6HTa. B'bSnHTaBa B Ao6pH 
TpaflHitHH HOBOct3flafleHHTe ceMeflcTBa Ha oceMTe ch aeu;a h na3H fltJiGoKO 
b ayniaTa ch H#eajiHTe Ha anpHJicKHTe BtcTaHHijH. 

JIpKOBH h HaymeBH He ca no/jBHBajra rpt6HaK npefl THpaHHTe h pa3- 
6oHHHijHTe. Chjiho e 6hjio y tax nyBCTBOTO 3a hccthoct, cnpaBe/yiHBOCT h 
He3aBHCHMOCT. Eto KaKBO nnnie e^HH jieTonnceii Ha 6aTaniKHTe po/jOBe: 
'Tp03HH pa6oTHHiiH ca HayuieBijH. TBtpflH, ynopHTH, peuiHTejiHH, phcko- 
BaHH ca. Ot tax HMa, kohto MoraT h 3a ropcKa h 3a nojicKa h CKOTOBtflCKa 
pa6oTa. MoraT ^a ce ynaT h cjiy^c6n /ja 3aeMaT, MoraT h /ja rtpryBaT. Otbo- 
peHH xopa, He ce nocpaMABaT b pa6oTaTa ch... B tax HMa Hemo Heo- 
6nKHOBeHO. 3amoTO, KoraTo bhaht HecnpaBefljiHBHa HaTHCK ot hakoto, hjih 
ot H^Ktfle, MoraT H3BeflHt^c m njiaMHaT 3a 6op6a". 

Ba6a Bi>p6a (c Hea acHBax 6jih30 TpH/jeceT ro#HHH), MafiKa Ha oceM 
aeija, ct3flajiH oceM hobh ceMeficTBa, 6a6a Ha 26 BHyiea h MHoro npaBHyitn. 
Th 6euie CBtp3aHa c /jctctboto Ha cbohtc BHyijH, c HaineTO /jctctbo, c 
HanieTO H3pacTBaHe KaTO xopa, KaTO rpaayiaHH. Ta BceKH/jHeBHO npnctc- 

TBaUie B HaineTO pa3BHTHe - (|)H3HHeCKH, /tyXOBHO, HpaBCTBeHO - CBC CBOH- 

Te ctBeTH, c aejiaTa ch, c jno6oBTa kbm aeiiaTa, BHyijHTe h npaBHyijHTe ch. 
H cera, KoraTo nnnia Te3H pe/jOBe (50 ro/jHHH cjiea HeiiHaTa CMtpT), t% e 
npefl MeH - cjia6a, >KHJiecTa, jieKO npHBejjeHa, c o/jyxoTBOpeHO jiHite. KaKBO 
jiHiie... Ot Hea BHHara Jibxauie /joGpoacejiaTejiHOCT, /jaace KoraTo HCKanie #a 
6t«e CTpora, /ja civrbMpH 3a jionia npoflBa. JfomeTO ft 6enie c6ptHKaHO ? ho 
mhjio, npH^THo; OHHTe ft H3JitHBaxa OMaflHa TonjioTa, 6a6nHaTa TonjiHHa, 
kohto Me e crpflBana b Haft-Tpy^HHTe momchth Ha acHBOTa mh. A ptiteTe ft - 
pa6oTHH ? Ma30JiecTH, aeHJiecTH, kohto o6ane rajiexa jinijaTa Ha BHyiiHTe Ka- 
to KaflH(|)e. Pi>iieTe Ha 6a6a 6axa BHHara b flBHaeemie, Te BHHara pa6oTexa: 
Konaexa, aetHexa, npe/jflxa, njieraxa, roTBexa. Pi>iieTe Ha 6a6a Bi>p6a - TOBa 
6enie ta b /jBHaceHHe, ycTpeMeHa b pa6oTa, b rpn^ca 3a fleija h BHyitH, 
He3aBHCHMO koh Kt/je ce HaMHpauie, Ha MeTpH hjih Ha ctothijh KHJioMeTpH 
pa3CTOHHHe. Ta ce CTpeMenie kbm bchhkh: c mhcjih, c /jejia, c mojihtbh. 

Ba6a Bi>p6a e Bt3nHTaHa b enoxaTa npe/jH OcBoGoayjeHHeTO b ceMeft- 
ctboto Ha poflOJiio6HBH poflHTejiH (6ama ToMa BpaHKOB BpaHneB), hccthh 
h npe^aHH Ha /jejioTO Ha anpHjmn. OaMHJiHjrra hm e /jana MHoro acepTBH 
npe3 BtcTaHHeTO. npe3 1876 r. e 6njia Ha 15-ro/jHHiHa. HecTO ch cnoMmmie 
3a Bi>CTaHHeTO, 3a ^cecTOKOCTHTe Ha TypiiHTe. Heftmrre pa3Ka3H 6axa no/j- 

po6HH H 06pa3HH! BCHHKH Cb6HTHfl OT OHOBa BpeMe Ce 6flXa Bp5I3aJIH JXbJl- 



AH^peH Toihkob, TeTpa^Ka N° 8, c.81, HcTopHHecKH My3en - rp. BaTaK. L],HTHpaM TeKCTa 6e3 
nonpaBKH. 



11 



6oko b naMeira h h ocTaHajiH HaBeKH ci>c CTpaxoBeTe h yacacme, c 

repOHCTBOTO Ha Bl>CTaHaJIHTe, C Ml>KHTe, C1>C CMl>pTTa H JIK)60BTa. 

C roiwMO Bi>oflynieBJieHHe ta pa3Ka3Bauie 3a npHCTHraHeTO Ha pycKHTe 
BoiicKii - ocBoSo/uixejiii b Ea ran. CnoMeHHTe Ha 6a6a o(|)opMHxa irbpBara 
mh aeTCKa npe^cTaBa 3a pycHaijHTe-ocBoGoAHTejiH. ToBa 6euie ntpBara 
jik)6ob KbM pycHTe, ni>pBaTa CBeTJia HCKpa b MOATa ayuia h b /jyuiara Ha 
MOHTe 6paTOBHeflH kbm BejiHiow pycKH Hapo^. Ta3H jik)6ob HHe 3ana3HXMe h 
pa3BHBaxMe npe3 ijejina ch achbot. Ta npepacHa no-KbCHO b jik)6ob kbm 
CCCP. ToBa 6eine MO)Ke 6h ocHOBara, ceMeTO ot kocto ce 3apoflH, H36ya h 
ce pa3BH HaineTO OTHOineHHe kbm coiinajiHCTHHecKHTe HaeajiH. 

JJflao AHreji h 6a6a Btp6a acHBJixa b flBe enoxn Ha HainaTa HcropHfl - 
TypcKOTO po6ctbo h CBo6oflHa Ei>jirapHfl, npe>KHBflxa e/jHO KJiaHe h nerapH 
bohhh. H bi>b bchhkh Te3H cbGhtha ca yHacreajiH TexHH HaS-6jiH3KH xopa. 
IfenpanuiH ca nerapH CHHa b ITbpBara CBeroBHa BOHHa h ca npeacHBejiH Hefi- 
HHTe yacacH b onaKBaHe Ha CHHOBere ch. Te ca 6hjih ynacTHHiiji h CBHfleTejiH Ha 
Haii-CBeTJiHTe h Haft-TbacHHTe mhtobc ot HCTOpHjrra Ha EaraK h Ei>JirapHfl. 

PoAHTejiHTe 

Kojiko TpyflHO e aa ce nnine 3a po/jHTejiHTe, kohto ca Te cb3,n;ajiH h bi>3- 
nHTajiH, kohto aeH h hohj ca ce rpH^CHJin 3a fleiwa ch, 3a BHyiiHTe h npa- 
BHyi^HTe. TpyflHO e, 3anjoTO HAMa jsyun, kohto /ja H3pa3OT jno6oBTa, nyB- 
CTBaTa, npH3HaTejiHOCTra ? kohto H3nHTBaM kbm tax. ToBa MO)Ke aa ce no- 
nyBCTBa caMO cbc ctpijeTO h ayniaTa. Po^HTejiHTe mh IIeTi>p AHrejioB 
HayuieB (1892-1974) h EjieHa TeoprHeBa HayiueBa (1903-1995) CBi>p- 
3BaT HaBeKH CBBMecTHHH ch 5khbot, ci>3flaBaT CBoe ceMeficTBO npe3 HHyapH 
1921 r. h c necT h aoctohhctbo H3m>JiHHxa cboh ceMeeH h rpaayjaHCKH atjir. 

Eama mh neTT>p 3aBtpHiBa nporHMHa3Hfl b EaTaK h asa KJiaca Ha 
IljioBAHBCKaTa MtacKa rHMHa3Hfl. IIpeKbCBa rHMHa3HajiHOTO ch o6pa30- 
BaHHe, 3a Aa ce bkjiiohh b rproKHTe no npenHTaHHeTO Ha ceMeficTBOTO ch. 

Cjiy5KH BOHHHK 6JIH30 HeTHpH TOAHHH (1914-1918), npe3 TpH OT KOHTO 

BoioBa Ha MaKeaoHCKHH (J)poHT npe3 ITbpBaTa CBeTOBHa BOHHa. B cjiea- 
BoeHHHTe roflHHH 3aeaHO c 6paTOTa ch, 3aBi>pHajiH ce ctmo ot $poHTa, 
npoa'bjraaBaT apyacHO ocHOBHara achhoct Ha julro AHren: fli>pBOflo6HB, 3e- 
Meflejine h ckotobi>actbo. C tojiamo TpynojuoGne neTHMaTa 6para nocTHrar 
flo6po 3a BpeMeTO hm MaTepnajiHO nojioaceHHe h ycn^BaT aa ocnrypaT ao6- 
pH ycjioBHfl 3a CBOHTe ceMeficTBa. J\o 1935 r. 6anja mh pa6oTH b atpBO- 
flo6HBa, npe3 1936-1945 r. 6enie flejiOBO^HTeji b o6iijHHaTa, a npe3 1945- 
1960 r. othobo CTaHa ropcKH pa6oTHHK b EerjinniKOTO ropCKO CTonaHCTBO. 
Eama mh 6enie opraHH3HpaH h HHTennreHTeH HOBeK-TpyaceHHK. MaKap 

12 



h fla pa6oTeme b fltpBOfloGHBa h 3eMe^ejiHeTO, toh ce cxpeMeme kt>m ct>3- 
^aBaHe Ha #o6pa npoH3BOflCTBeHa h flOMauiHo-GHTOBa KyjiTypa. Toh BHHarn 
ce cTpeMeuie fla cna3Ba h noflflT>p^ca o6pa3ijOBa HHCTOTa HaBCflKbfle h bi>b 
bchhko: b flOMa, b fli>CKope3HHuaTa (napKa) h Ha nojieTO. ToBa toh TOBa 
npaBeme HflicaK ecTecTBeHO, 6e3 ycHJine. He nyuieuie h He nneuie, He ch ry- 
6eme BpeMeTo b Ka(J)eHeTa h KptHMH. nocemaBauie HHTajiHmHM 6K)(|)eT, 
KbttQTO Ha nauiKa nan thxo 6eceflBaine c npHATejiH. Ilpe3 CBoGoflmrre na- 
coBe h flHH o6HHauie /ja neTe bccthhuh h KHHrn c HCTOpHHecica h 6norpa- 
4)HHHa TeMaTHKa. HHTepecyBauie ce ot o6mocejiCKHTe BMpocH h B3eMauie 
ynacTHe b taxhoto pa3peuiaBaHe, HJieHyBauie h b o6mecTBeHH opraHH3a- 
UHH. HMame MHoro npHOTejiH. H36flrBame koh^jihkthtc Eeuie MHoro ahc- 
UHnjiHHHpaH, yBaacaBauie 3aKOHHTe h ycTaHOBeHHTe nncaHH h HenncaHH 
npaBHJia Ha MopanHO noBeaeHHe, KaTO H3HCKBauie ci>moTO h ot apyrHTe. 

Maftica mh EjieHa e TpeTOTO aeTe Ha Teoprn II. ilHeB h ,3,a(j)HHa Kepe- 
jioBa-^HeBa, BHynica Ha OrecJjaH Tp. KepejioB h npaBHynica Ha TpeHfla^HJi 
ToineB KepejioB, eflHH ot BOflaHHTe Ha AnpnjicKOTO B^CTamie b BaTaK. Ta e 
3aBT>puiHJia caMO TpeTO OTflejieHHe, 3amoTO b c. KocTaH^OBO, KbfleTO ceMeii- 
ctboto e 2CHB5DIO npe3 BOHHaTa, He e HMano ynnjinme. J\o fli>ji6oKa CTapocT 
o6ane MaMa 3ana3H jno6oBTa ch kt>m KHHraTa. C yaoBOJicTBHe neTeuie h 
npenpoHHTauie pa3Ka3HTe Ha IfeaH Ba30B, HopaaH Hobkob, Ejihh IlejiHH h 
Apyrn 6i>jirapcKH nncaTejiH. H cera b cnoMeHHTe ch a BHagjaM Ha#BecHJia 
rnaBa Haa h^roa KHHra «a neTe h aa ce HacjiaayiaBa ot nponeTeHOTO. 

MaHKa mh ce OTJinnaBauie c 6jiaropo#HHfl ch xapaKTep. Tnxa h CKpoMHa, 
ta H3jn>HBauie oco6eHa ao6poTa kt>m Aeuara h kt>m bchhkh xopa. He ct>m h 
HyBan aa HarpyGn, aa 3JienocTaBH. BHHarn n>pceuie flo6poTO, xy6aBOTO, 
nojio^cHTejiHOTO b xopara, b flencTBJDiTa hm. Ta He oeraBauie 6e3pa3JiHHHa 

KhM JIOHIHTe npOflBH, HO B3eMaiHe OTHOHieHHe KhM TAX C TaKT, C BHHMaHHe, 

KoeTO npoH3THHauie ot cbmHocrra Ha xapaKTepa h. HMauie MHoro ao6pH 
OTHOineHHH c 6jiH3KHTe ? cbceflKHTe h c bchhkh, kohto no3HaBaiHe. 

PoflHTejiHTe mh CT>3fla/i;oxa ceMeficTBO ct>c cpe^HO MaTepnajiHO cbCToa- 
HHe ci>o6pa3HO ToraBauiHHTe npeflCTaBH 3a 2CH3HeH0 paBromje. no xapaK- 
Tep H no HaHHH Ha 2CHB0T 6flXa CKpOMHH, TpyflOJIK)6HBH, OTKpHTH H flo6pO- 
HaMepeHH. HMaxa MHOTO fl06pH B3aHMOOTHOUieHHfl C pOflHHHH H 6.JIH3KH. 

Bcjnea pa6oTa ot tax ce H3BT>puiBauie BHHMaTejiHO, c noxBaT, c yMeHHe. H 
TOBa aaBauie pe3yjiTaT: ceMencTBOTO hh acHBeeuie cpaBHHTejiHO ao6pe, 
npeoflon^Baine ycneuiHO Tpy^HOCTHTe. Oco6eHo roneMH rpH^KH nonaraxa 
3a MeH h 6paT mh Ejiaroa. BHHarn 6axMe ao6pe o6jieneHH 5 o6yTH h Haxpa- 
HeHH. Bi>3nHTaBaxa hh b Tpya h hccthoct, ynexa hh aa H3BT>piHBaMe 
Bc^KaKBa pa6oTa: b 3eMeflejraeT0 5 ckotob^actboto h b ,m>pBOflo6HBa. Hhko- 

13 



ra o6ane He hh npeTOBapBaxa, ma^axa hh b no-rojiflMa CTeneH, otkojikoto 
TOBa npaBexa ebceflHTe hh ct>c cbohtc fleija. Bi>b bchhko TaTe h MaMa 
npo^BHBaxa pa3yM h yMepeHOCT, b cbneTaHHe c B3HCKaTenHOCT h CTporocT. 

BpaT mh BjiaroH IleTpoB Hayines (1924-2003) 6enie jiio6hmoto aeTe 
Ha poflHTenHTe h poflHHHHTe hh. B aeTCKHTe roflHHH, a h no-KT>CHo, 6enie 
MHoro KpoTtK h KOHTaiereH, yMeeme aa o6iuyBa h nrpae etc cbceflCKHTe 
flei^a. Ilo-K'bCHO b yHeHHHecKHTe ro/jHHH 3anoHHa aa npoaBHBa xapaKTep h 
necTO ynacTBaine b jxqtckhtq Jiy/jopHH. npOHBHBanie cmcjioct, ho ch 
ocTaBanie croBopHHB, cojiH^apeH, c Bflpa klm apyrapHTe ch. ronflMaTa My 
CMejiocT 6enie npeaonpeflejieHa ot nyBCTBOTO My 3a cnpaBe/yiHBOCT h yBa- 
acemie kt>m apyrapHTe ch, ot roTOBHOcrra My ^a noMorHe Ha no-cjia6HTe h 
no-6e33amHTHHTe. Te3H nepra Ha xapaicrepa My ce 3ana3Hxa h pa3BHxa no- 
kbcho b HeroBaTa npo(j)ecHOHajiHa h o6mecTBeHa achhoct npe3 ijenHA My 
achbot. ToBa cb3flaBanie Ha Ejiaroa tojjjim aBTOpHTeT cpea xopaTa, c kohto 
pa6oTenie h o6inyBanie. Ton 3anoHHa Tpy^oBaTa ch achhoct, KaKTO h apy- 
rHTe 6aTaniKH MJiafleacn, cnea 3aBtpHiBaHe Ha nporHMHa3HajiHOTO ch 
o6pa30BaHHe. Ejiaro/japeHHe Ha Tpy#ojiio6HeTo, ,no6poTaTa, HecTHOcrra, xy- 
MaHHOcrra h npHpo^HaTa ch HHTejinreHTHOCT, toh H3Bi>pBfl jxhirbr h bmxo- 

fl^m m>T B npO(|)eCHOHaJIHOTO CH pa3BHTHe - OT rOpCKH paGOTHHK, IHO(J)I>Op ? 

TexHHK h CTpOHTeji, ynacTBam b H3rpaacflaHeTO Ha mhoto BOflHoeHeprHHHH 
o6eKTH b Ei>JirapHfl h jxpym CTpaHH (CnpHH, JlnGita, HnrepHH, HpaK) - ao 
pi>KOBOflHTeji Ha Ba^cHH CTpoHTejiHH o6eKTH h opraHH3aijHH. Toh ynacT- 
Banie aKTHBHO h b oGmecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKHfl achbot: KaTO MJiafleac noano- 
Maranie aHTH^aniHCTKOTO flBHacemie, a BnocjieflCTBHe 6eiue H36npaH b 
pi>KOBOflCTBaTa Ha npo(J)ecHOHajiHH h flpyrn oGujecTBeHH opraHH3aijHH. 

HanieTO ceMeficTBO acHBeeuie flpy^KHo noa bjihahhcto Ha ^aMHUH^Ta Ha 
poflHTenHTe Ha MaMa - flflflo TeoprH fines (1868-1959) h 6a6a ^acjuma 
CTe4>aHOBa iTHeea (1877-1960), CT>3#ajiH h Bi>3nHTajiH oceM aeija (nerapH 
CHHa H HeTHpH mepKH), H3ipaflHJIH Ha cboh pea oceM hobh ceMeficTBa. 
TaxHaTa MHoro6pOHHa nejum CTaHa h Haine ceMeficTBO. C e^HaKBa jho6ob h 
yBaacemie ce oraacaxMe kt>m (j)aMHJiHHTe Ha j&ro AHren h flflflo Teoprn.* 

Enorpa(j)HflTa Ha jiflao Feoprn h 6a6a ^acJjHHa e e/jHa Tpy/joBa 6norpa- 
4)Hii Ha npeKpacHO ceMeficTBO, acHBflno b Tpy^HH BpeMeHa cnea Ocbo6o)k- 
aeHHeTO Ha Ei>jirapHfl, 3a aa ce H3Tpi>rHe ot GeflHocrra h ^a flocrarHe e/jHO 
OTHOCHTejiHo bhcoko 6jiaroci>CTOflHHe Hpe3 TpyflOJiioGne h necTejiHBOCT, 

Hpe3 HeCTHOCT B OTHOHieHHHTa C pOflHHHH, CbCeflH H CbCeJIflHH, C TBOpHeCKO 



* 3a jxa 3aBi>puia Btnpoca c mocto poflocjioBue, HCKaM j\2l nocona, ne HMax 35 ni>pBH 6paTOBHe^H h 
6paTOBHezjKH. ^CHBeexMe zipy^cHO. MHoro ot tax Bene He ca Meacny Hac. 

14 



oTHOineHHe kt>m 3eMeflejiHeT0, c yivreHHfl h ctocoGhocth, ceMefiHa npe^a- 
hoct, (JmMHJiHa npHBtp3aHOCT h KOJieKTHBeH ceMeeH Tpyfl. 

Jlwo TeoprH 6eme ao6i>p CTonaHHH. OGnHame OBomapcTBOTo h nne- 
jiapCTBOTO. HMame 3eMeflejiCKH hmoth b BaTaK h KocraHflOBO. Beine Hanpa- 
bhji h no/wbpacame c MHoro erapaHHe e^Ha OBomHa rpa/jHHa b KoeraHflOBO. 
Th 6eme ropaocrra Ha jmno TeoprH h 6a6a ^,a(J)HHa 5 a h Ha ijajioto 
ceMeiicTBO, Ha bchhkh po^hkhh. 3HaHHHTa Ha ah^o 3a OBomapcTBOTo h nne- 
jiapcTBOTO ce ocHOBaBaxa Ha npaKTHKaTa h Ha cnHcaHiurra "nnejiapcTBo" h 
"OBomapCTBo", kohto nojiynaBame h neTeme. nojiynaBame h cbbcth ot 
ArpoHOMHHecKHH ijemrbp no OBomapCTBO h 3eMeaenHe b c. JTtaceHe. CnoM- 
hhm ch, ne arpoHOMtT Ha ijeHTtpa necTo nocemaBame rpaflHHaTa. JlflRO c 
paflocT ro pa3Be5K,uame, noKa3Banie aptBHeTaTa, a nocne b flBOpa npaBexa 
/jerycTaijHH, cpaBiureaxa apOMaTa Ha pa3JiHHHHTe copTOBe aGmkh h cjihbh. 

KaTO flere h lOHonia ct>m npeKapan MHoro neTa b c. KoerapmoBO, b 
OBonjHara rpaflHHa Ha jimo. TTpe3 jiototo KHneme ynopHT Tpyzj, ho oco6eHO 
oHCHBeHO h HanperHaTO 6eme npe3 ecenra, KoraTO ce npn6npaxa flGtJiKHTe, 
cjiHBHTe h apyrHTe 3eMeaejicKH KyjiTypH b rpaflHHara h b hhbh Ha jvmo 
(ijapeBHiia, nnieHHija, ceHO, moijepHa). Beuie KpacHBO h npjDrrao - rpaflHHaTa 
h flBOptT 6naroyxaexa. HyBCTByBaine ce paflociTa ot Tpyzja, kohto noHAKora 
Genie h3o6hjiho BMHarpaaeH (ToraBa Aflflo h 6a6a 6axa hcthhckh maerjiHBH), 
a b hhkoh roflHHH - ockt>#ho, TbH KaTO TOBa 3aBHceme TBtpfle He CaMO OT 
Tpy/ja, a h ot KanpH3HTe Ha npHpoflara h KOHiOHKTypaTa Ha na3apa. 

^eTCKH roAiiHH - Bi>3nn raHiie b Tpyn 

PoflHTejiHTe hh ouje ot paHHH aeTCKH roflHHH hh Bi>3nHTaBaxa B Tpya H 
yMeHHe. C 6paT mh Enaroa B3eMaxMe ynacrae bt>b bchhkh Tpy/joBH fleft- 

HOCTH, KOHTO Ce H3BT>pHIBaxa OT TAX - B flOMaKHHCTBOTO, B fll>pBOflo6HBa, 

3eMe,zjejiHeTO, ckotobt>,zjctboto. ToBa Te npaBexa c BHHMaHHe, KaTO ce cto- 
6pa3ABaxa c HaniHTe bt>3mo)khocth h hh ocnrypaBaxa ycnoBHJi 3a none3HO 
npeKapBaHe Ha yneHHHecKHTe BaKampiH. 

Han-^pKH cnoMeHH ot .zjeTCKHTe roflHHH ct>m 3ana3HJi 3a ynacraeTO ch b 
Ai>pBOAo6HBa npe3 JieTHHTe Meceiyi b m. "HaymeB napK", HaMHpam ce Ha 
noBene ot 20 km Ha ior ot BaTaK. J\%ao AHreji h hhkojiko flpyrn 4>aMHJiHH 
(JIonyroBH, MajieHKHHH h ,np.) HMaxa BOflHa ,m>CKOpe3HHiia (napK), HaMH- 
pama ce b ropHOTO TeneHHe Ha MajncaTa peKHHKa "Obpa-ap", npHTOK Ha 
fl30BHp 'Tojiam EernHK". Ilo TeneHHeTO na peKaTa HMame hhkojiko (JmMHJi- 
hh fli>CKOpe3HHiiH. Ha okojio flBa KHJioMeTpa Ha ior ot napKa ce HaMHpa 
6hjioto, no KoeTO e MHHaBajia 6i>Jirapo-TypcKaTa rpaHHiia ao 1912 r., a ot 
ApyraTa CTpaHa Ha 6hjioto e c. Oi>proma. C HeTbpneHHe h BtjmeHHe, KaKTO 

15 



h MHoro 6aTaniKH fleija h iohohih, onaKBax JiflTHaTa BaKaHijM (Kpaa Ha m. 
Maii), 3a m 3aMHHa c 6ama ch, HHHOBiprre h 6paTOBHeflHTe 3a ai>cko- 
pe3HHi^aTa (napKa). Hy^eH 6eine HaniHAT napK!... HMaine BHCOKa "6yKa" 
(fl'bpBeHa Tpi>6a c ^HaMerbp okojio 1 m., nocraBeHa BepTHKajiHO 3a cnycK Ha 

BOfla, KOflTO flBHSKH KOJieJIO, npHBOKflailJO Ha CBOH pefl B flBH5KeHHe 

MexaHH3MHTe Ha /^CKOpesHHijaTa, b t. h. TpHOHHTe 3a HapH3BaHe Ha Tpy- 
nHTe Ha fltCKHTe). Hne, aeijaTa Ha flpyacHHTe 4>aMHJiHH, kohto non3Baxa 
napKa, ce ropfleexivie c "6yicaTa", 3aujoTO 6eine Hafi-BHCOKaTa Ha napKOBeTe 
b nopenHeTO Ha p. "Gbpa-ap". 

TyK HHe ce ynexivie, a 3ae«HO c TOBa yKpemaxMe h B^MtacaBaxMe, 
H3Bi>pniBaHKH pa3JiHHHH Tpy^OBH fleiiHOCTH: p£3aHe Ha TpynH c aacara 
(tphoh); noHHCTBaHe Ha Tpynme ot kjiohhtc h KopHTe; npeB03 c BJiaHKHTe; 
ynpaBJieHHe Ha HapKOBHTe MexaHH3MH 3a pH3aHeTO (6HneHeTo) Ha TpynHTe; 
rpHECH 3a flo6HTBKa; npeB03BaHe Ha TpynH n ffbCKH c bojickh kojih; 
ono3HaBaHe Ha pa3JiHHHHTe nacra Ha KonaTa h taxhoto npeflHa3HaHeHne, 
TOBapeHe n pa3TOBapBaHe Ha fli>pBeHH)i MaTepnan, BnparaHe Ha BonoBeTe n 
ynpaBJieHneTO hm h ap. J\a hh BMJioacaT H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha Te3H fleHHOcra 
03HaHaBame 3a Hac H3pa3 Ha flOBepne b HaniHTe bi>3MO)khocth, pa/jBaine hh 
h hh H3m>jiBame etc caMonyBCTBHe. 

H flocera c yaoBOJicTBHe ch cnoMH^M 3a m>TyBaHHOTa ot BaTaK 3a 
HapKa, kohto Tpaexa no 5-6 naca. LUoceeH h KOJiapcKH m>T MHHaBauie npe3 

MHOro6pOHHH MeCTHOCTH. KpaCHBH H BCJIHHeCTBeHH BT>pXOBe, pH/JOBe H 
flOJIHHH, nOJIfl H nOJIHHKH, peKH H peKHHKH C HHCTa 6aJIKaHCKa BOfla 

MHHaBaxa npea noraeaa hh no BpeMe Ha fltJiroTO m/ryBaHe c Boncica Kona 
hjih neuiKOM. Oco6eHO BejinnaBa 6eme naHopaiviaTa, kooto ce pa3KpHBame 
ot MecTHOcrra "Eaui-erpeK" (BHCOHHHa Ha« M."EerjiHKa"): EeniHiiiKaTa 
flonHHa, npop)i3aHa ce ot KpHBOJiHHemaTa BernnuiKa pena; b flaneHHHaTa ce 
BH5K«axa pofloncKHTe pHflOBeTe, onepTaHH ot BtpxoBeTe "CiOTKa", 
"Cpe6peH Bpi>x" 5 ",H,OMy3-ajiaH"; BHayjaxa ce h MecTHOCTHTe "CeMH3a" h 
"KpeMeHeTe", noKpHTH c bckobhh htjiojihcthh h 6opoBH ropn. 

Oco6eHO npH)iTHO h BnenaTJi^Bamo 6euie ntTyBaHeTO ot m. "Han>Ma", 
KtfleTO HMauie necHHHeHCTBO, «o HauiHa napK. MeK KonapcKH ni>T ce BHeuie 
Kpan peKHHKaTa "d>pa-flp", 3a« bcckh 3aBOH ce OTKpHBauie nojiflHtca, npe3 
kooto Teneuie HHCTaTa h 6ncTpa pena. Ha mhoto MecTa ce o6pa3yBaxa 
BHpneTa, b kohto nnyBaxa KpacHBH pH6KH-m>CTi>pBH. Ha« Hac npenHTaxa 
nTHMKH, kohto ornacaxa BT>3,nyxa c nypynHKaHe. 

Ejih3o flo #T>CKOpe3HHijaTa HMaxMe KOJin6a, nocTpoeHa Ha hakojiko 
MeTpa ot neBHH 6par Ha THxaTa peKHHKa "Gbpa-ap". HapKtT 6euie Ha 
«ecHH)i 6par Ha peKaTa. Kojin6aTa HMaine caMO e«Ha npocTopHa eraa, kohto 

16 



ce noJi3Baiue ot 6ama mh h 6paraTa My. B CTa^ra HMame ormime, kocto 
cjiy^cenie 3a roTBeHe h OTonjiemie. CraixMe Ha abohhh HapoBe. Kpaft kojih- 
6aTa ctmo HMauie ormime 3a roTBeHe h Maca 3a xpaHeHe, CKOBaHa ot 
XbCKM. Ha6nH30 ot nynyp (zjtpBeH yjieft) Teneuie 6ncTpa h BKycHa Bo^a. 

^yflHa 6euie npHpo^aTa b OKOJiHOCTHTe Ha ,m>CKOpe3HHiiaTa: cpea htjio- 
jiHCTHa ropa pacraxa aroflH, MajiHHH, 6opobhhkh, 6hjikh h upejx, a Hao- 
kojio ce pa3xo>Kaaxa HaH-pa3JiHHHH achbothh, Han-Bene ctpHH h 3aftijH. Ot 
6hjioto Ha CTapaTa rpaHHija ce OTKpHBauie KpacoTaTa Ha Ta3H nacT ot 
Po^onHTe: Ha ior, b HH3HHaTa, jieaceiiie npopH3aHa ot MajiKa jibKaTynma 
pena KpacHBa flOJiHHa, b cpeaaTa Ha kohto 6euie ceno ObpHHija, a b K))KHaTa 
nacT Ha flonHHaTa ce rymexa ManKH ceima - MaxajiH. Cera b Ta3H aojiHHa ce 
HaMHpa H30BHp "^ocnaT". B flanenHHaTa ce H3,HHraxa njiaHHHCKHTe xpe6e- 
THTe Ha ^T>6paui: npeKpaceH neH3atfc ot o6pacnH c ropn miaHHHH, kohto ce 

pa3CTHJiaxa flO Kpafl Ha o603pHMHJI XOpH30HT 

Mhoto cnoMeHH ci>m 3ana3HJi ot neTmrre npecTOH Ha napKa: 3a Te^cKHH 
Tpya Ha ropcKHTe pa6oTHHiiH, 3a apyacHaTa pa6oTa Ha 6ama mh, HeroBHTe 
6paTH h flpyraTe ceMeftcTBa, kohto noroBaxa fli>CKope3HHiiaTa; 3a Kpacn- 
BHTe MecTHOCTH; 3a ynacTHeTO mh b ai>pBoao6HBa b noMom Ha poflHTenHTe; 

3a MHOTOTO TpyaOBH aeHHOCTH, KOHTO H3yHaBax; 3a HaBHIJHTe H 

Bi>3nHTaHHeTO ? kohto nonynaBax; 3a ona3BaHe Ha npnpoaaTa h TaHHHTe Ha 
njiaHHHaTa; 3a npHOTHOTO actctbo, KoeTO e HenoBTOpHMO. 

Oco6eHO flpKH cnoMeHH HMaM 3a Tpy^oBHTe aefiHOCTH okojio npnGn- 
paHeTO Ha ceHOTO. CeHOKOctT KaTO Hemo npHBJieKaTenHO h naTpnapxajiHO 
OCTaBH MHOrO pOMaHTHKa B fleTCKHTe, a H B no-KtcHHTe mh cnoMeHH. ToBa 
6axa ami, H3ni>jiHeHH h 3a BT>3pacTHHTe, h 3a aeijaTa c MHoro Hanpeacemie, 
c mhoto Tpya h rpH^cH, ho h c mhoto xy6aBH npeacHBABaHHa, kohto ocTa- 
Bflxa npHHTHH cjie^H b ayuiHTe Ha 6araHaHH. Kojiko MHoro ycnnHH h Tpyfl! 
IIoflroTOBKaTa 3anoHBauie okojio IleTpoB jneu (12 iojih). Ilpe3 Te3H idikojiko 
"neTpoBH ahh" HMame Hemo TpeneTHO h fltJiroonaKBaHO. Bchhkh 6aTanaHH 
ce ci>6Hpaxa b cenoTO. IIpa3HyBaxa, pa^Baxa ce e^HH Ha flpyr, HMame Be- 
ceji6n, xopa. YnHijHTe h KptHMHTe ce mjiHexa c Hapofl. Ho h bi>b Beceji6a- 
Ta np03Hpauie rpnacaTa 3a yTpeuiHHH aeH: npaBexa ce aenoBH cpenjH, 
ypeacaaxa ce napHHHHTe cmctkh c TbproBiiHTe Ha jxbpBQU MaTepnaji h c 6a- 
KajiHTe, TBpcexa ce 3aeMH 3a nocpemaHe Ha yBejiHHaBaujHTe ce pa3xo^H no 
BpeMe Ha "npnGopa". B BaTaK npHCTHraxa ctothiih Kocann ot KapnoBCKO h 
ot hakoh pofloncKH cejinma. BaTanaHH rn HaeMaxa, 3a aa 3aBi>piHaT 6i>p3o 
K0CHT6aTa 5 3amoTO TpeBaTa 6i>p30 H3CbXBame h Te miMaxa bi>3mo)khoct 
caMH ^a okocht jiHBaflHTe, kohto 6axa mhoto Ha ^eKapn, a flaBaxa MajiKO 
ceHO. ITbk h TpyflHO ce koch acHJiaBaTa TpeBa Ha BaTauiKOTO none... 

17 



Oco6eHO KpacHBa npe3 T03H ce30H 6enie rjie^KaTa klm noneTO cyrpHH, 
KoraTO ome b 3opH ctothijh ivnbflce, TKQmi h acbohkh OTHBaxa kbm JiHBaflHTe. 
Bnacflaxa ce ctothijh Kocann, kohto, noapefleHH b pcunim, pa3MaxBaxa 
koch h ce npoBHKBaxa; flonyBanie ce ctcKaHeTO Ha kochtc h 3bt>hi>t Ha 
ToneHeTO hm c 6pycoBe. Ctothijh, a Moace 6h xujixjxh mi>pKejiii Hacejm- 
Baxa no TOBa BpeMe BaTaniKOTO none h yBejinnaBaxa KpacoTaTa My. Pa3Ha- 
cHxa ce MejioflHHHHTe necHH Ha 6aTaniKHTe momh h aceHH c 6ejiH 3a6pa,HKH, 
kohto cyniaxa OKOceHaTa TpeBa h a CTpynBaxa Ha Konn, npHro^HH 3a 
TOBapeHH Ha bojickhtc kojih. BaTaniKOTO none 3a hakojiko ahh ce ocefiBanie 
c xhjw,hh TaKHBa Konn. YflHBHTejiHa 6enie rjie^KaTa h b KtcHaTa Be^ep, 
KoraTO KocaHHTe h 6epanHTe Ha ceHOTO npeKtcBaxa pa6oTaTa ch. Ctothijh 
TpyaceHHiiH - mtokc, menu, .neija - ce 3aBpi>maxa o6paTHO b cenoTO. HyBaxa 
ce necHH h pa^ocTHH npoBHKBaHH* 3a ycneniHO H3BT>pHieHaTa npe3 .neHfl 
pa6oTa. B nojieTO ce noflBABaxa ctothijh MajiKH orHbOBe Ha Kocann, 
ocTaHajra aa npeHomyBaT no jiHBaflHTe. Te 6jiemyKaxa KaTO 3eMHH 3Be3flH h 
ce cjiHBaxa etc CMHHeTO Ha He6ecHHTe 3Be3flH. 

no HHTepeceH HaHHH 6enie opraHH3HpaHO npeB03BaHeTO Ha ceHOTO. To 
3anoHBame b ,neH, onpeaejieH ot o6mHHaTa cjiea oGcB^caaHe Ha ny6jiHHH0 
ci>6paHHe h 6euie 3a,m>ji>KHTejieH 3a bchhkh CTonaHH-npeB03BanH. CyTpHH, 
ome npe^H H3rpeB Ha cjn>HijeTO, ctothijh bojickh kojih Tptraaxa no asaTa 
CTptMHH KOJiapcKH hkdi, 3a j\2l npeoflOJieaT bhcokoto 6hjio, pa3flejmmo 
BaTaK ot nojieTO. Cjiea ^Ba-TpH naca KOJiHTe, HaTOBapeHH etc ceHO, noe- 
Maxa o6paTHO kt>m cenom 3aeflHO c tax ce ^BHacexa ctothijh aeija, kohto 
noMaraxa Ha 6aiiiHTe ch b TOBapeHeTO h pa3TOBapBaHeTO Ha ceHOTO. 

Btoph ocHOBeH noMHHi>K Ha ceMeficTBOTO 6eme 3eMeflejiHeTO, KoeTO ce 
cbCToenie rnaBHO b npoH3BOflCTBOTO Ha KapTO(|)H, echto (ochobho ptac), JieH, 
4>acyji h #p. C nojiyneHaTa npoflyKipra 3a,noBOJDreaxMe nacTHHHO cbohtc 

nOTpe6HOCTH. CaMO B npOH3BOflCTBOTO Ha KapTO(|)H HMaXMe H3JIHUTBK, KOHTO 

pa3MeHAXMe 3a echto, GpauiHO, ojiho h jjp. Po^HTejiHTe ce oraacaxa c jiio6ob 
ki>m 3eMeaenHeT0 ? MaKap to #a HMame orpaHHneHO 3HaneHHe nopa,nH 
He6jiaronpH)iTHHTe npHpo^HH ycjioBHfl. Eama mh 6eme e^HH ot ni>pBHTe 
6aTanaHH, kohto 3anoHHaxa #a H3noji3BaT acejmHa 6paHa h acejie3eH BtpTam 
ce miyr, 3aKyneHH Ha Kpe/wr ot EtJirapcKa 3eMeaencKa KOonepaTHBHa 6aHKa 
(B3KE). ^BaMaTa c 6paT mh EnaroHHO c npHJieacHOCT H3m>JiHflBaxMe 3eMe- 
flencKHTe pa6oTH. OGnnaxMe 3eMe^encKaTa pa6oTa (opaH, ao>TBa, Bi>p- 
uiHT6a) 5 o6nnaxMe 3eMOTa, HaniHTe hhbh h JiHBa/jH. Ejiaroa HMaine tojdimo 
acenaHHe #a npo/juDKH o6pa30BaHneTO ch b Cpe^HOTO 3eMe^encKO ynnjinme 

B CaflOBO, HO pOflHTeJIHTe HH H^Maxa Heo6xOflHMHTe (J)HHaHCOBH BK3MO)K- 

hocth, tbh KaTO no TOBa BpeMe a3 Bene 6ax rHMHa3HCT b Co^hh. 
18 




CeMeiicTBOTO Ha 

AHreji h Bi>p6a HaynieBH 

(ce^Hajin), okojio 1920. 

Ot jijibo Ha a^cho (npaBH): 
HHKOJia, ToAop, Bopnc, 
Ilen>p ? JlioSa, Tocko, 
Mapim (cHaxa) 



TopCKH pa60THHI|H OT 

BaTaK, okojio 1920. 

Ot jwbo Ha aacho 
Ha ropHEw pe#: 
Hjihh J\. HayineB, 
IleTtp A. HayineB - 
6ama mh, 

IleTtp R. HayineB, 
To^op /J. HayineB, 
HBaH BaHHeB, 
HnKOJia A. HayineB 
h TpHMa Heno3HaTH 





Ha napica b m. Obpa-JIp c po^HiiHii h tocth ot Co(()iih, 1932 r. 

Ot jihbo Ha otcho Ha ropHHJi pe#: To^op HayuieB (2), 6ama mh Ilerbp (4) c ptica 

Ha paMOTO mh, HnKOJia HayuieB (7), Bopnc HayuieB (8). Ha BTOpaTa pe^Hi^a 

ce^HajiH ot otcho Ha jiabo: Maftica mh EjieHa, CTpHHKa Mapna h jspyru 





AHreji Hayniee 



Ejiaroii Hayniee 



Po^HTejiHTe mh Ilerbp h EjieHa HayuieBH 



20 



HanajiHO ynnjinme h npornMHa3HH (1928-1935) 

npe3 1928/1929 r. 6ax 3anHcaH b m>pBH KJiac Ha HanajiHO ynnjinme 
"Cb. cb. KnpHJi h MeTOflHii". KpacHBO h y/joGHO 6eine HameTO ynHJinme. 
Crpaflara 6eine flByeTaacHa, c inecT KJiacHH CTan. Ha m>pBHfl eTa^K HMaine 
canoH etc cijeHa, b kooto necTO ce npe/jcTaBaxa nnecH, npOBOK^axa ce 
poflHTejicKH cpenjH, yneHMHecKH, o6mocejicKH h /jpyra ci>6paHHfl. Ha^ 
noKpHBa Ha ynHJinmeTO ce moraine MajiKa Kyjia c KaM6aHKa, koato #Ba 
ntTH Ha aeH - cyTpHH h cjiefl o6*m - hh 30Beine Ha ynHJiHme. TyK, b TOBa 
yqHJiHme, 3aeflHO etc CTOTHHa moh bpi>cthhijh, MOMHeTa h MOMHHeTa, 
3anoHHax #a cpnnaM "a, 6, b...", /ja neTa, #a nnina, /ja yna ijH(|)pHTe, /ja 
cMHTaM. B HanajiOTO Ha njionn nninexMe nepTHHKH, HaiaiOHeHH HaiwBO h 
HaA^cHO, HeHrejineTa, KOJiemja h /jpyra 3HaijH, kohto hh npnGnH^KaBaxa 
KbM TOBa aa o4>opM^Me 6yKBH h flyMH ("6a-6a", "Ma-Ma"), #a neTeM h 
nnuieM H3peHeHH5i. Pa^BaxMe ce Ha ntpBHTe ntcTpH 6yKBapneTa, Ha 
ni>pBHTe CTHxneTa h pa3Ka3H. IIo nopipeTHTe, kohto yKpaoreaxa KJiacHHTe 
cTan h KopHflopH, 3anoHHaxMe fla 3anoMH^Me h pa3no3HaBaMe: Oreij 
IlaHCHH, KnHMeHT OxpH^CKH, reopra CaBa PaKOBCKH, Bacnji JleBCKH, 
JIio6eH KapaBenoB, XpncTO Eotcb, HBaH Ba30B; bohboahtc Xa,zpKH 
^HMHTtp h GrecJmH Kapa/jaca; xaHOBeTe h ijapeTe Ky6paT, Acnapyx, Eopnc, 
CnMeoH, KanoflH, HBaH HlnniMaH h ap. 

Mhoto pa^ocTHH MHroBe CMpoBoagjaxa yneHHHecKHTe ro^HHH b TOBa 
jik>6hmo yHHJinme. Pa36npa ce, ynexMe ce pa3JiHHHO - HMaine otjihhhhijh, 
HManie flo6pH, a hakoh noBTapaxa roflHHH hjih HanycKaxa ynnjinme, He- 
3aBi>piHHJiH neTBtpTO oxnejieHHe. Ti>>kho hh 6enie, KoraTO b HanajioTO Ha 
yne6HaTa ro^HHa y3HaBaxMe, ne hakoh ot HaniHTe cbyneHHijH, c kohto cMe 
ApyacHJiH, ca HanycHajiH. 

Toji^lm, Bi>jiHyBam h onaKBaH npa3HHK 6enie 24 Mail, Renxr Ha /jBaMaTa 
cjiaBAHCKH m>pBoyHHTejiH cb. KnpHJi h cb. MeTO/jHH, Ha 6i>JirapcKaTa 
npocBeTa h cjiaB^HCKaTa nncMeHOCT, 3amoTO ToraBa 3aBi>piHBauie yne6HaTa 
roflHHa h 3anoHBanie JiflraaTa BaKaHijHfl. B Kpaa Ha Meceija yHHTejiHTe hh 
npoBeac^axa noKa3HH yne6HH nacoBe b npHCBCTBHeTO Ha poflHTejnrre, 
kohto jno6onHTCTBaxa h c Bi>JiHeHHe onaKBaxa #a bh,h#t h ny^T KaKBO ca 
HayHHJiH fleijara hm h KaK ca onpaB^ajin rpnacHTe h /jOBepneTO hm. HaineTo 
BMHemie h TpeBora 6enie ome no-rojiflMO - KaK me ce npe^cTaBHM npe,n 
po^HTejiHTe h ynHTejiHTe, KaK me OTroBapaivie Ha BtnpocHTe, KaK me 
AeKJiaMHpaMe craxoTBOpeHHOTa, peinaBaMe 3a#aHHTe? ToBa 6^xa Bi>nHy- 
Baiu;H h pa^ocTHH MHroBe 3a yneHHi^H, po^HTejiH h ynHTejin. HyBCTBaxMe 
Apy^cecKHTe OTHOineHHfl, kohto ce ct3flaBaxa Me^c^y nac - c^Kain bchhkh 



21 



CTaBaxMe e#HO flpyacHO ceMeHCTBo. 

Ha 24 Man ijapenie npa3HHHHa, TtpacecTBeHa oGcraHOBKa, bchhkh ce 
BtJiHyBaxa h npoKHBABaxa. nojiynaBanie ce caKani e^HO BtJiHyBamo npe- 
HHCTBaHe Ha flyxa, o6jiaropo#5iBaHe h npeMHHaBaHe Ha no-ropHO crbnajio 
Ha HpaBCTBeHOCT h ayxoBHO pa3BHTHe, no-ycTpeMeHH kbm npocBeTa h 
3HaHHe, npH3HaHHe Ha ayxoBHOTO Hanajio b acHBOTa Ha GaTanaHH. OcoGeHO 
BHHMaTejiHH b T03H fleH 6axa MaHKHTe Ha yneHHijHTe - npa3HHKi>T ycna- 
Bauie aa TporHe KopaBHTe GaTauiKH acemi. /Jch hjih #Ba npe^H npa3HHKa 
noHHCTBaxMe KJiacHHTe CTaH h KopHflopHTe. npaBCXMe BeHIJH OT UPQTK, 
6opoBH h ejixoBH kjiohkh. Hafi-rojiaM BeHeij ce nocTaBjmie Ha Bxo/ja Ha 
yHHJiHiijHaTa crpa^a, no-MajiKHTe npe^ KJiacmrre CTan, c ijBeTA h BemjH ce 
yKpac^Baxa nopTpeTHTe Ha Bi>3po)K,neHijHTe-6y,miTejiH. BceKH KJiac ce 
CTpeMeuie aa yKpacn CTama ch kojikoto ce Moace no-KpacHBO. Ttp^cecTBaTa 
3anoHBaxa npe^H o6a,n b ^Bopa Ha yHHJiHmeTO. YHeHHijHTe no KJiacoBe ce 
noflpeacflaxa Ha onpe/tejieHHTe MecTa. TjiaBHH^T yHHTen npoH3Hac^uie cjio- 
bo 3a /jejiOTO Ha CBeTHTe Gpara KHpHJi h MeTOflHH h TexHHTe ynemmH. 
IleexMe necHH h fleKJiaMHpaxMe cthxobc ToBa Tbp^cecTBO ce nocemaBauie 
MacoBO ot HacejiemieTO h ocoGeHO ot aceHHTe. Bcjnca MaiiKa ce CTpeMenie 
,na bhot cboa chh hjih fltujepfl, a 6a6nTe - cbohtc BHyijH. Cjiea rtp^cecT- 
boto 3anoHBaxa xopa, kohto npofltJiacaBaxa ^o Kpaa Ha ,geHfl. 

Bi>o6iii;e TOBa 6euie npeicpaceH aeH, kohto bTKJiHKBauie ai>ji6oko b 
ctpijaTa Ha bchhkh yneHHijH h po^HTejiH etc cboa HapoflHOcreH pyx. Ton 
c^Kaui OTpa3^Bauie h MOTHBHpauie flcaac/taTa Ha Hapo^a kbm 3HaHM h cbct- 
jiHHa, Ttp^cecTBOTO Ha ayxa Ha/t MaTepnajiHOTO h ecHa(])CKOTO. 

TaneH ^eH 6euie 17 Man - roAiiiiiHiiHara ot AnpHJicKOTO BtcTamie b 
BaTaK. ToBa 6euie npa3HHK 3a npocnaBa Ha repoH3Ma Ha GarauiKHTe 
BtcTaHHijH, BflHrHanH ce Ha BtoptaceHa 6op6a 3a CBoGo^aTa Ha EtJirapM, 
3a ocBo6o»cfleHHeTO h ot TypCKO nro. Ha to3h pen HacejieHHeTO caKani ce 
npoGyflCflauie. Bcjnca Ktma ce roTBeuie 3a npa3HHKa, 3a nocpemaHe Ha 
rocTH. HauieTO ceMeiiCTBO BHHarn HMauie mhoto tocth ot okojihhtc cejia 
(Eara, Pa^HJioBO, KanHTaH /Jhmhtphcbo, KypTOBo), Ha kohto mhoix) ce 
pa^BaxMe. Ha o6eflHaTa Tpane3a ce ct6HpaxMe 20-30 ayuiH. 

Ttp^cecTBaTa Ha 17 Man 3anoHBaxa c nojiaraHe Ha ijBeTfl npe^ naMeraH- 
ijHTe Ha 3arHHanHTe anpHJiijH h b CTapaTa ijtpKBa. npea xpaMa ce npOBOK- 
flanie MOJie6eH ? a cjiefl TOBa - MaHH^ecraijHfl h mhthht. Mhoto opaTopn 
roBopexa, fltpacaxa ce njiaMeHHH penn. Be^Hara cjie/t TbpacecTBaTa 3anon- 
Baxa HenpHHy^eHH Hapo^HH Becejina. Cpemaxa ce 6jih3kh, poahhhh h 
npMTejiH, 3aBi>p3Baxa ce hobh npMTejicTBa c npHCTHraajiH 3a TbpacecTBaTa 
xopa h ijejiH ceMeficTBa ot flpyra cejimija. 

22 



Cjiefl 3aBi>pniBaHe Ha hctbt>pto OT^ejieHHe npofltJi^cnx o6yneHHeTO ch b 
nporHMHa3HH "OTeu naHCHfi", Kb,neTO 3aBT>purax ce^MH KJiac, t. e. ochob- 
hoto ch o6pa30BaHHe. Crpa^aTa 6euie HOBa h y,n;o6Ha. ^HpeKTOptT >Ihko 
IlaBJioB 6euie MJiaa, floGtp ne^aror h npeno,naBaTeji. Bonca AHCijHnjiHHa ce 
npeno^aBaine ot oTjxeneu npenoflaBaTen. PfeynaBaxMe HCTOpna, reorpa(J)HH ? 
6T>JirapcKH e3HK 5 MaTeMaraKa, ecTecTBeHa HCTOpM, (])H3HKa, $peHCKH e3HK, 
neeHe, BepoyneHHe h ,np. Ome npe3 ntpBaTa ro^HHa (V kji.) o6HKHax hcto- 
pHHTa, kohto ilHKO IlaBJioB npenoflaBanie c oco6eH eHTycHa3i>M h Bi>JiHe- 
hhc Toh 6eine floG'bp opraHH3arop, o6HHaine yneHHijHTe, yBa^caBauie ynn- 
TejiHTe, nojiaraine rojieMH rpnacH 3a ynHJinmeTO. IIo TOBa BpeMe TyK 6euie 
cMflafleHa 6H6jiHOTeKa c MajiKa HHTajiHfl, c noMomTa Ha ynHTejiHTe h yne- 
HHUHTe nacT ot #B0pa ce npeBtpHa b rpa^HHa, b h36choto noMeujeHHe ce 
HanpaBH 6aHfl, cb3AaAoxa ce h flo6pe ce H3noji3Baxa hhkojiko yneHHHecKH 
pa6oTHJiHHijH 5 b kohto H3pa6oTBaxMe pa3HHHHH npeflMera b nacoBeTe 3a 
pT>qeH Tpya h jxp. Chjiho BnenaTJieHHe mh npaBexa peHHTe Ha .Shko IlaBJioB, 
kohto toh npoH3Hacjmie no BpeMe Ha TbpacecTBaTa Ha 17 Man h Ha 24 Man. 

Ynex ce ,no6pe, ho He 6ax b rpynaTa Ha OTJiHHHHijHTe h HaH-,n;o6pHTe. 
HMax mhoto flo6pH h yMHH cbyneHHijH, hhcto yneHOJiioGHe h npHMepHO 
noBeaeHHe 6axa 3a npHMep. Otjihhhh yneHHHKH h yneHHijH 6axa: HeBeHa 
ITbnaHOBa, IleHKa TaHeBa, Mapna IIonoBa, JIhjihh TouiKOBa, Teopra 
BaToeB, BopHC EajiHHOB, Bopnc EejioKanoB, HHKOJia Ctohmchob, >Ihko 

OraHKOB, ^HMHTbp KbHCB, ^HMHTBp Tep3HHCKH H flp. HMaX H 6yHHH H 

HeMHpHH CbyneHHijH, ho no Aynia ,no6pH h flpyacejiioGHH. 3aBtpiHHX 
nporHMHa3HJiTa (ce^MH KJiac, ToraBa Tpera) npe3 1935 r. c floGtp ycnex. 

# * * 

IIpHKJiiOHH e^HH nepHOfl Ha MoeTO lOHomecTBOTO. TpaGBame m ce 
pa3,n;enfl c mohtc cbyneHHijH, ho HHe 3aBHHarn ocTaHaxMe npHjrrejiH h 
Apyrapn. OHOBa, KoeTO hh CBtp3a, 6euie yHHJinmeTO, to 6euie h ch ocTaHa 
HauiH^T o6m flOM, b kohto c fleTCKa h lOHomecKa OTKpOBeHOCT h flymeBHa 

HHCTOTa CbSflaBaXMe B3aHMOOTHOIIieHHfl H MJiafle^CKH KOJieKTHBH, MaKap /i;a 

6^XMe TBtpfle pa3JiHHHH no xapaKTep, yneHOJiioGHe, TpyaojHoGne h flOMaui- 
hh ycjiOBHJi. Kojiko mhoto yneHHHecKH cnoMeHH MoraT ,na ce pa3Ka:acaT, 

KOJIKO MHJIH H BtJIHyBaUIH MHTOBe H CJtyHKH, KOJIKO MHOTO Jiy/JOpHH, 

naKOCTH h rnynocTH CMe h3bi>puihjih. H 3a Hauia near ocTaHaxMe bchhh 
npHHTenH, BHHara totobh 3a B3aHMonoMom;. 

ynHJinmeTO 6euie e^HH ot Han-Ba^KHHTe (JmKTOpH 3a HauieTO Bt3nHTa- 
hhc To hh j&jip ni>pBHJi TJiactK kbm ci>3HaTejieH skhbot, npeBtpHa Hac ? 

06HKH0BeHHTe CeJICKH MOMHeTa H MOMHHeTa, B TpaMOTHH rpa5K/i;aHH ? 3a- 

23 



noHHa fla (JjopMHpa y Hac jik)6ob kt>m po^HHaTa, kt>m HCTOpH#ra Ha HaniHfl 
Hapofl, OTKpH npo3opeij kt>m cBeTa b Hafi-iuHpoKHH cmhct>ji Ha ayMaTa. H He 
cjiynafiHO c yBaacemie h yMHjieHHe ch cnoMHJiMe 3a #BeTe yrajinma (rapBO- 
HanajiHOTO h nporHMHa3Hjrra), h oco6eHO - 3a yHHTejiirre, 3a OHe3H, kohto 
Bfl'bXBaT skhbot Ha ynHJinmeTo h 6e3 kohto to He e Hemo noBene ot e/jHa 
o6nKHOBeHa crpa^a. ToBa, KoeTo hh #a,ne ynnjinmeTO, e #ejio Ha HaniHTe 
ywrejiH. He Mora ^a He H3pa3a TyK cBOsrra 6jiaro,qapHOCT, yBaaceHHe h 
jho6ob kbm yHHTejiHTe ot m>pBOHaHajiHOTO yHHJiHme (HHKOJia PaxMamiHeB, 
HoBKa PaxMaHJineBa, Teonn KoneBa, Kohho KapareraHeB, cecipHTe £m6o- 
jineBH) h ot nporaMHa3HOTa (>Ihko TlaBJioB, XpHCTHHa CTaHKOBa, Ha^e)Kfla 
KojiapoBa, AHa ApacjiaHOBa, HBaH K03HH, THHKa XpHereBa, KpyM 
Toihkob, ^hko Touikob, HBaH JfyeB h /jp.), kohto ynnxa h Bt3nHTaxa mhoto 
noKOjieHH^ 6aTaniKH aeija h iohoihh ocTaBHxa y Hac mhoto cbctjih cnoMeHH. 

npe3 Te3H ce/jeM yneHHHecKH roflHHH BMMtacaBax, ynex ce h ce Bi>3nH- 
TaBax, o(|)opM5ix ce KaTO xapaKTep, npH,uo6HBax hobh HpaBCTBeHH KanecTBa 
nofl BJiH^HHeTO Ha ceMencTBOTO, ynnjinmeTO h o6mecTBeHaTa cpe/ja, b 
koato acHBeex h 3a koato Bene Ka3ax, MaKap h HaKpaTKO no-rope. 

JSpyr (Jmrcrop, 0Ka3aji BaacHo BJiHHHHe 3a 4>opMHpaHeTO mh KaTO MJia^e^c 

CbC CbOTBeTHH BT>3npHJTODI 3a ECHBOTa, Ca KHHrHTC Te flaBaT 3HaHM, Te 

Bi>3nHTaBaT ? Te o(j)opMflT b 3HaHHTejiHa CTeneH coipiajiHaTa HacoKa h oGmna 
xapaKTep Ha o6mecTBeHO-nonHTHHecKaTa achhoct. yne6HHijHTe ecTecTBeHO 
6axa m>pBHTe khhth, kohto nponerax b ^eTCKHTe toahhh. HbpBara KHHaoca, 
kojito nojiynnx, 6enie en. "CjiaBeftne", 3a KoeTo 6ax a6oHHpaH ome b m>pBH 
KJiac. ,ZJo6pe ch cnoMMM ci>mo, KaK 6ama mh b CBo6oflHHTe ch BenepH npe3 
3HMaTa Ha 1930/1931 r. (6ax yneHHK bt>b BTOpH KJiac) neTenie Ha rciac npea 
MeH h BjiaroHHO KHHraTa "CojiyHCKMT nynoTBopeiT ot OaHH nonoBa- 
MyTa(J)OBa. ToBa e MO)Ke 6h ntpBaTa KHHra Hpe3 kohto o6nicHax HCTopraTa, 
a uap KajioflH CTaHa jiio6hm ijap ot #eTCKHTe mh roflHHH. JJpyr Hani "neTeii" 
6eme jiejw HBaHKa, ManKaTa cecTpa Ha MaMa. Mhoto £hh h Honm 
npeKapBaxMe y ajiaobh. Ta neTenie CTHxoBeTe Ha XpHCTO Eotcb, pa3Ka3H, 
CTHxoBe h noBecTH Ha HBaH Ba30B, Ejihh nejiHH, JleB Tojictoh, a no-KbCHO h 
"KamrraH ,2paH(|)yc" (c nponyTOTO "A3 o6BHH5raaM" Ha Emhji 3o;ia) h 
"MbpTBHTe ch6hpckh nojieTa" Ha Bhktop OajiK. KaTO yneHHK b nporaMHa- 
3H*Ta nponeTox "no# htoto", "HeMHJiH-He/jpara", "Xi>nioBe" h apyra 
npoHSBeaeHH^ Ha HBaH Ba30B. CT>6HTH5rra h repoHTe Ha Te3H KHHra, h oco- 
6eHO CTHxoTBopeHHHTa ot "Enonea Ha 3a6paBeHHTe", Ta3H jinpHHHa npocjia- 
Ba Ha BejiHKHTe CHHOBe Ha 6i>jirapcKHH Hapoa, ctn'BTCTBaxa MoeTO nojiHTHHe- 
cko h narpHOTHHHO pa3BHTHe. TBOpnecTBOTO Ha HBaH Ba30B Bi>3nHTaBanie h 
Bfl'bXHOB^Banie noKOJiemw 6i>jirapcKH MJia^e^cH b 6op6aTa 3a HaiiHOHajmaTa 

24 



He3aBHCHM0CT H fleMOKpaTHHHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha EtnrapHfl. 

nponeTOX "MafiKa" Ha MaKCHM TopKH, poMaHHTe Ha Emhji 3ojia "Ha- 
Ha" h ")KepMHHaji", a no-KbCHO "KjieTmmHTe" h "IlapHacKaTa CBeTa Eoro- 
poflfflia" Ha B. K)ro, poMaHHTe h pa3Ka3HTe Ha H. C. TypreHeB "JJpopnncKO 
rHe3flo", "B HaBenepHeTo" (B,m>xHOBflBax ce ot naTpHOTH3Ma Ha HHcapoB h 
^pyrHTe GtJirapn). Te3H khhfh, kohto He BHHarn pa36npax Ham>JiHO, 
d>6yflHxa y MeH CHMnaran kbm yrHeTeHHTe h OHenpaB^aHHTe, pa3KpHBaxa 
npecTbnjieHH^Ta Ha THpaHMTa h anHHOcrra Ha KanHTajiH3Ma, npH30BaBaxa 
3a fleMOKpaijHfl H xyMaHH3i>M, 3a yTB^pac^aBaHe Ha MopajiHaTa CHJia Ha 
HOBeKa h Ha comnajiHaTa cnpaBe,a;jiHBOCT. Kt>m MHoro ot Te3H KHHra Me 
HacoHH Byfino ^hko. Ton Me 3ano3Ha c xyao^cecTBeHHTe np0H3BeaeHHfl Ha 
BejiHKH eBponeiicKH h pycKH nncaTejin h noera, noflTHKBanie aa neTa 
xyaoacecTBeHa, HaynHa h nojiHranecKa JiHTepaTypa, a b HaniHTe Hecra 
pa3roBopH pa3KpHBame CMHCtJia, mothbhtc h H^eHTe Ha hakoh ot tax. 

MeSejiHOTO ("crojiapcKOTo") ynnjinme 

nporHMHa3H)iTa (ce^MH KJiac) 3aBT>pniHXMe okojio 70-75 MJiaaeacH h 
fleBOHKH. Pa3flejiHXMe ce h bcckh Tptraa no cboh ni>T b acHBOTa, ct>c cboa 
ci>fl6a, TpeBorn h pa^ocTH, ycnexn h Heycnexn. Ho ocTaHaxMe BepHH e^HH 
Ha flpyr etc cbohtc cnoMeHH ot ^eTCKHTe h yneHHHecKHTe roflHHH. Ha- 
kojiko MJia^e^cH npofli>Ji^cHxa o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b raMHa3HHTe (Teoprn 
BaToeB, AHreji IlyHHeB, BopHC BejioKanoB h HHKOJia Ctohmchob), a noBe- 
neTo CTaHaxa ropCKH pa6oTHHijH. Hakoh ot MOMHneTaTa ce 3anncaxa ^a 
ynaT b /JeBHnecKOTO CTonaHCKO yHHJinme 3a no^roTOBKa no niHBanecTBO, 
6po#epHfl n flpyrn CTonaHCKH fleiiHOCTH. 

A3, Bopnc A. BanHHOB h AHreji At. KojiapOB npofltJDKHXMe o6pa30Ba- 
HHeTo ch b npoMHinjieHOTO Me6ejiHO yHHJinme b BaTaK, Kb^eTO ce 3anncaxa 
h hakoh 6aTaniKH MJia^e^cH, 3aBT>pniHJiH nporHMHa3MTa ro^HHa npe^H Hac: 
Bopnc UlyTeB, /Jhmhtt>p H. KojiapOB, ^HMHTbp A. /JacypKOB, Mnnyni 
U,BeTaHOB. B Hanina Kypc, kohto ce cbCToenie ot okojio 20 ayniH, HManie 
MJiaae^cn h ot flpyrn cejinma (HenHHO, KaMeHHija, /JopKOBO, /JeGpanmija, 
PaBHorop). YnHJinmeTO 6enie cbs^afleHO npe3 1925 r. h noflroTBfline 
MaficT0pH-Me6ejiHCTH. Iloji3Banie ce c rojiflM aBTOpHTeT, 6enie noaroTBHJio 
MHoro flo6pH cneijHajiHCTH ot bchhkh Kpanma Ha CTpaHaTa. 3aBtpHiHJiHTe 
y^HJinmeTO Moacexa aa npofli>Ji^caT o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b Cpe^HOTO ynn- 
JiHme 3a B'bTpeniHa apxHTCKTypa b rp. Pyce. 

B yHHJiHHjeTO 6eme ao6pe pa3BHTa yneHHHecKaTa caMo^eHHOCT. ^o6pe 
paGoTeme yneHHHecKaTa KoonepaijHfl, kooto opraHH3Hpame 3aKynyBaHeTO 
h npo^a^c6aTa Ha yneHHHecKH noMarajia (ynedmma, pncyBaTejiHH jihctobc, 

25 



jihhhh, TpHT>rbJiHHUH, neprejiH, TyinoBe h pp.). Ome npe3 ntpBaTa ro^HHa 
6ax H36paH 3a HJieH Ha p^koboactboto h. HecTO ce opraHH3Hpaxa 
ynemiHecKH eKCKyp3HH h no BpeMe Ha yneHHeTO ch HHe noceTHXMe Pyce, 
I1jiob,hhb, Cocf)H5i, Phjickha MaHacrap, KapnoBO, Kajio(|)ep, IlaHariopHme, 
OGopHme h pp. Xo^exMe Ha Teartp h khho, pa3rne3« r i];axMe My3eH. YcTa- 
HOBHXMe h no/wbp}KaxMe BpT>3Ka c yneHHUHTe ot /jpyrHTe cpo^HH yHHJiH- 
ma b I1jiob,hhb, Pyce h Co4>H5i. Te3H flo6pe opraHH3HpaHH eKCKyp3HH pa3- 
uiHpHxa HauiHTe no3HaHH)i h cbsaafloxa y Hac HHTepec kbm o6mecTBeHO- 

HKOHOMHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. 

yne6HH)iT npoijec 6euie aoGpe opraHH3HpaH h pa3,n;ejieH Ha ppe ochob- 
hh nacTH: TeoperanecKa h npaKTHHecica. npeno^aBaxa hh yHHTejiHTe Ahho 
ATaHacoB, reopra KonapoB, IlHJieB, XHHKOBa h pp. PfeynaBaxMe /jhcijh- 
nnHHHTe: nepTaHe, pncyBaHe, apxHTeicrypa, 6i>JirapcKH e3HK, cneTOBOflCTBO, 
MaTepHaji03HaHHe h pp. IIpaKTHHecKOTO oGy^eHHe ce H3BT>pniBanie b TpH 
yneGHH paGorajiHHUH h MauiHHHO oxzjejieHHe, KaTO BceKH yneHHK HMauie 
CBoe pa6oTHO macto (pa6oTeH Te3nix) h HeoGxoflHMHTe HHCipyMeHTH. IlpH 
3aBT>puiBaHe Ha yHHJiHmeTO, HHe Bene MO^KexMe MHoro ao6pe pa, HepTaeM, 
npoeKTHpaMe h H3pa6oTBaMe Haft-pa3JiHHHH Me6enH 3a o63aBeacflaHe Ha Kyx- 
hh, Ka6HHeTH, cnajiHH h flp. B Kpaa Ha Bcaica yne6Ha toahhh (npe3 iojih) ce 
opraHH3Hpauie H3Jio^c6a Ha H3pa6oTeHHTe ot Hac Me6enH, kohto nocne ce 
npo^aBaxa. npaKTHHecKara ch no/jroTOBKa 3aBi>pHiHX c H3pa6oTBaHe Ha TpH- 
KpHJieH rap£epo6, kohto Ha H3Jio^c6aTa 6euie 3aKyneH ot yHHTejra OpaneB. 

IIojiHTHHecKO Bi>3nnTaHiie h 4>opMnpaHe Ha BT>3rJieflHTe MH 

Ilpe3 Te3H roflHHH 3aeflHO etc cbohtc npH^TenH h cbyneHHijH (AHreji 
At. KonapoB, Mnnyui LfceTaHOB, ^hmhtbp A. JljKypKOB, ^hmhtbp H. 
KojiapOB, BopHC BajiHHOB, IIJepK) H. LLJepeB, ATaHac IleHHeB, /Jhmhtbp 
Tep3HHCKH 5 MapKO KapnioKOB, reopra Hji. ,2,flcypKOB, ^HMHT'bp Kbhcb, 
5Ihko II. CraHKOB, HBaH Bt>jihhhob, Tocko BaHneB, Hjihh TaHeB h pp.) 33 
nocTeneHHO Bi>3npHex H#eHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma. 

Toji5imo BJiH5iHHe b TOBa OTHOuieHHe OKa3Baxa TaKHBa 4)aKTopn KaTo: 
noflBHrtT Ha 6aTanaHH npe3 AnpnncKOTO B^craHHe; ceMeftHara h o6mecT- 
BeHa cpe^a; yHHJinmeTo; KHHrHTe; bjioihchoto HKOHOMHHecKO nojioaceHHe 
Ha HaceneHHeTO Ha EaraK; nojiHTHHecKara h KyjiTypHO-npocBeTHaTa fleft- 
hoct Ha o6mecTBeHHTe (HHTajinmeTO, B'b3fl , bp^caTejiHOTO apyacecTBO, 
Mjia^e^cKaTa KOonepaTHBHa rpyna) h napTHHHH opraHH3aijHH (BPI1 h 
PMC); Me^cflyHapo^HHTe ct>6hth^ h oco6eHO rpa^c^aHCKaTa BOHHa b Hcna- 
hha, HHeTO pa3BHTHe cneflflXMe c ron^M HHTepec, BT>3XHmaBaxMe ce Ha 
peny6jiHKaHi^HTe 5 a c npHOTejiHTe ch noHflicora ce no3,n;paB5iBaxMe c ji03yHra 

26 



Ha peny6jiHKaHUHTe "No passaran"; npeBpaTtT Ha 19 Mafi 1934 r. h pa3Typ- 
BaHeTO Ha napTHHTe; JlafinijHrcKHflT npouec cpemy TeoprH ^hmhtpob h 
npoTecTHHTe flBH^eHH^ 3a HeroBOTo ocBo6o^cflaBaHe; o6njHHCKHTe h 
napJiaMeHTapHH H36opH 1937 h 1938 r.; o6mecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKHTe flBHace- 

HHfl C HCKaHHfl 3a BT>3CTaHOBflBaHe Ha TbpHOBCKaTa KOHCTHTyiJHfl H flp. 

06mecTBeHHTe ci>6hth^ HaMHpaxa iirapoic OT3ByK cpe# MJia^oKTa, o(J)opMHxa 
TexHHTe BtsrjieflH h aKTHBH3Hpaxa ynacTHeTO hm b o6mecTBeHO-nojiH- 
THHecKHTe flBH^ceHH^ npOTHB KanHTajracTHHecicaTa eKcmioaTaijHfl, nojiH- 
THHecKHH Tepop h BOHHaTa, 3a MHp 5 aeMOKpaijHJi h ccmnajiHa cnpaBefljiHBOCT. 

BjIHHHHe BtpXy MOeTO CT>3HaHHe H nOJIHTHHeCKO Bl>3nHTaHHe OKa3a 

KyjnypHO-npocBeTHaTa h o6mecTBeHaTa aeflHOCT Ha HHTanmijeTO "4 Mafi". 
IIpe3 1937 r. 6eme OTKpHTa HOBaTa crpa^a Ha HHTanHHjeTO c touhm canoH 
(okojio 400 MecTa), 6H6jiHOTeKa h HHTanHfl. TaKa npe3 T03H nepnofl HHTa- 
jiHmeTO ce npeBi>pHa b hcthhckh KyjiTypeH ijeHrbp, koSto BT>3nHTaBaine 
HaceneHHeTO h oco6eHO MJiafle^Ta b #eMOKpaTHHeH ^yx, b ebxpaHjreaHe Ha 
peBomoijHOHHHTe TpaflHijHH Ha AnpHJicKOTO BtCTaHHe, noBflHrame Hero- 
boto caMOCi>3HaHHe h KyjiTHBHpanie HaijHOHajiHHTe Tpa^HijHH h o6hj;oho- 

BeiHKHTe IjeHHOCTH. H3HaCHXa Ce MHOrO CKa3KH, JieKIJHH H flOKJiaflH OT 

o6mecTBeHH flefiijH, nncaTejiH h yHHTejiH. IIpe3 1938-1940 r. 6axa npoaceic- 
THpaHH MHoro 4>hjimh ? naer ot kohto ctBeTCKH ("TpHHa,u;eceT", "I^HTaHCKH 
Ta6op", "TpaKTOpHCTH") - Te 6nxa MacoBO noceTeHH h OKa3axa tojmmo 
BHHHHHe Bi>pxy HacejieHHeTO. 

Cpenja ci>c 3aBtpHajiH5iT ce ot CCCP To,u;op KojiapoB. IIpe3 AHyapcicaTa 
BaKaHUHH Ha 1937 r. 6ax Ha tocth y ceMeficTBOTO Ha hhho To,nop b Co(])H5i. 
EflHH aeH TpHMaTa 6paTOBHeflH - a3, AHreji T. HaymeB h AHreji Ctohjiob 
CaMyHeB, 6axMe noKaHeHH ot hhho Ctohji CaMyHeB Ha 06^ b fli>p^caHH5i 
ot Hero pecTOpaHT Ha rapa Co(j)Hfl. ilBHXMe ce b onpe,u;ejieHOTO BpeMe b 
pecTOpaHTa h HeTbpnejiHBO 3anaicaxMe. IIpHCTHrHa h hhho To^op. Hhho 
Ctohji ce noflBH, npHflpyaceH ot Heno3HaT m>jiHOJiHK mt>)k c npHflraa 
niHpOKa ycMHBKa, o6jieneH b xy6aB 6ajiTOH h etc 3HMHa inanKa. Hhho 
Toflop CTaHa, B3pa ce b HOBeica h Bi>3KJiHKHa: 

- To,nope, floGpe aomtji! 

PtKyBaxa ce cbpaenHO, noonieflaxa ce, h ce npertpHaxa. 

- ToBa e Toflop KojiapoB, kohto ce e 3aBi>pHaji npe^H hakojiko ahh ot 
CtBeTCKa PycM h npe^H e^HH nac 6eine ocBoGo^eH ot ^HpeKiiH^Ta Ha 
nojiHijHflTa - npe^CTaBH ro hhho Ctohji Ha Hac TpHMaTa. 

Hne ro rjie^axMe c tojiamo yBasfceHHe h npeKJioHeHHe. 3a Hero 3Haex ot 
pa3Ka3HTe Ha Byfino Ore^aH. 3ae,u;HO c Hero h c Apyra 6aTanaHH KojiapoB 
ynacTBa b ocHOBaBaHeTO Ha opraHH3aijHfl Ha Bi>jirapcKaTa KOMyHHCTHnecKa 

27 



napTHfl b BaTaK. IIpe3 1923 r. ce BKnioHBa b CenTeMBpHHCKOTO BtcTaHHe, a 
cjiea TOBa eMHrpHpa b CCCP, KbfleTO 3aBi>pniBa BHcnie o6pa30BaHHe h 
pa6oTH KaTO ptKOBOflHTeji b hakoh saBOflH. IIo BpeMe Ha o6^fla To^op 
KojiapOB o6i>pHa tojdimo BHHMaHHe Ha Hac, TpHMaTa ynemmH. Oco6eHO 
BHHMaHHe OT^ejiH Ha MeH, cjiea KaTO y3Ha, ne ct>m nneMeHHHK Ha CTe(J)aH 
ftneB. Pa3nHTBa Me 3a pa6oTaTa My h 3a ceMeficTBOTO. HHTepecyBaiue ce 
KaKBO npeflCTaBJWBa CTOJiapCKOTO ynHJinme, 3a npoaBHTe Ha yneHHijHTe h 
pp. IIpojiHHa toidimoto My yBaaceHHe kbm MJiaaeacra. A3 ce nyBCTBax oco- 
6eHO nojiacKaH ot HeroBOTO BHHMaHHe. rio-KtcHO b BaTaK npe3 BpeMeTO Ha 
BaicaHijHHTe npofltn^caBax ^a ce cpemaM c To,n;op KonapoB. Toil 6eine 
MHoro floGtp ctGeceflHHK h oGctayjanie c MJia^eacH h Bi>3pacTHH BCflKaKBH 
TeMH h BtnpocH. Toflop KonapoB 6eine e^HH ot aKTHBHHTe HJieHOBe Ha 
BPII, npe3 cenTeMBpH 1941 r. CTaHa napTH3aHHH h 3araHa reponcKH b 
6op6aTa cpeiuy MOHapxo(f)aiHH3Ma. 

PeniaBama pojia 3a TOBa aa Bt3npHeMa coijnajiHCTHHecKHTe HfleajiH H3H- 
rpaxa ^BaMaTa mh ByHHOBijH Cretan h Hhko ^hcbii, kohto mh noany- 
acnxa KaTO npHMep etc CBOOTa aKTHBHa h nocjieflOBarejiHa o6mecTBeHa h 

aHTH(|)aiHHCTKa fleHHOCT, C naTpHOTH3Ma H pOflOJIK)6HeTO CH, C MtflpOCTTa, 

HOBeKonio6HeTO h B^paTa b npaBOTaTa Ha coiinajiHCTHHecKHTe H^eH. 

EcTecTBeHO, Hapea c TOBa H3Hrpa CBOOTa pojm h bjihahhcto Ha khh- 
rirre, cmicaHHHTa h BecTHHitfrre, kohto npofltn^caBax r& neTa. Pe^OBHO 
cneflHx b. "3apa" (c juraa opHeHTaijHfl), a nomncora h b. "PJIO", kohto 
KynyBax ot BecTHHKapa To^op IIonoB. nponeTox pe/jHija KHHrn Ha Emhji 
3ona ("5KepMHHaji", "^OBeKtT 3Bflp"), ^aceK JIohaoh (")Kejifl3HaTa neTa", 
"MapTHH Hai>h", "JlyHHaTa aojiHHa"), MafiH Pha ("Kohhhklt 6e3 rnaBa", 

"EeJIHOT BO^Cfl"), MaKCHM TopKH, HBaH Ba30B 5 AneKO KOHCTaHTHHOB, 

3axapH Ctoahob h hakoh nHcarejiH, ome He oco6eHO h3bccthh, ho c neBH 
yGe^cfleHHa - Teoprn KapacnaBOB, Tbohho EeneB, KptcTto EeneB h ap. C 
ronflMO BtoaynieBJieHHe a3 h npHflTenHTe mh neraxMe, aeKJiaMHpaxMe h 
neexMe CTHXOBeTe Ha HBaH Ba30B ot "Enonea Ha 3a6paBeHHTe", Ha XpncTO 
BoTeB ("Mona MOJiHTBa", "Eop6a", "Xa/jacH ^HMHTbp", "Ha npomaBaHe" h 

flp.) ? XpHCTO CMHpHeHCKH, HeHO ^BOpOB H ^HMHO ^eGeJMHOB, KOHTO HH 

BfltxHOBABaxa. ^acT ot hocto^hhhh hh neceHeH penepToap 6axa "5Khb e 
toh, echb e" h "Thx 6aji JlynaB", a ctmo h "Mapin" Ha Ore(|)aH CraM6ojiOB: 
"He meMe hhh 6oraTCTBa, He meMe hhh napH, a HCKaMe CBo6oaa c hobchikh 
npaBflHHH"... 



28 



B CocJmiicKaTa TbproBCKa riiMHa3HH (1938-1942) 

3aBT>pniHX CTOJiapCKOTO yHHJinme npe3 1938 r. h KaHaH^aTCTBax aa 
npofl'BJi^a o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b Cpe#HOTO ynnjinme 3a BtTpenma apxn- 
TeKTypa b Pyce. #bhx ce Ha npneMeH H3nHT 3ae,n;HO c AHreji KojiapoB, 
MHJiyin U,BeTaHOB, Bopnc BajiHHOB h Eopnc UlyTeB. EaxMe npnera h 
onaKBaxMe 3anncBaHeTO, KoraTO nojiynnx TejierpaMa ot 6ama mh aa ce aba 
b Coc|)Hfl, 3a fla npoffbiiyKa o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. 
C6oryBax ce c npHjrrejiHTe h 3aMHHax 3a Coc|)Hfl, 3a aa H3m>jiHfl 6amHHOTO 
nopi>HeHHe. Ci>)KajiflBax flOHflKtfle, ho h 6ax aobojich, ne me )KHBea y ce- 
MeficTBOTO ho hhho, KoeTO MHoro o6nnax. 

IlpHCTHrHax b Co4>hh h 6ax npneT MHoro paayniHO ot ceMeiicTBOTO Ha 
hhho Toflop, naHa MHKa, JIioGica h AHreji. ^Be yne6HH roflHHH (1939-1940, 
1940-1941) )khbax y tax KaTO HJieH Ha ceMeficTBOTO hm, a h cjiea TOBa, npe3 
uejiHfl mh )khbot, ct>m HMaji TflXHaTa 6paTCKa no^Kpena. Te mh noMoraaxa 
ja ce a^anTHpaM kt>m hobhtc ycjiOBM h aa npeoaojiea HOCTajirHOTa no 
ceMeficTBOTO mh, no BaTaK h npHATejiHTe. KBapTHpaTa 6enie b ijeHTbpa Ha 
CocJjha, Ha yji. "BeHejiHH", a Ha trbJia Ha ctmaTa yjinija c yji. "U,ap 
IllHHiMaH", cpemy EhbpBa /jeBHHecKa raMHa3Hfl (ah. VII COY), ce HaMH- 
pauie h KHH5KapHHi^aTa Ha hhho Toflop. TyK necTO HflBaxa hakoh CTy^eHTH 
h yneHHi^H ot BaTaK: TpeHaa(J)HJi KepejiOB, ilmco #HeB, AjieKcaH,m>p 
TeHneB, Ebthm EfyHHeB, AHreji Ctohmchob, HHKOJia JlaBJiOB, ,ZJhmhti>p 
Be3eB h ap. Bt>b BenepHHTe nacoBe, KoraTO noHTH HflMame kjihchth, TyK ce 
cnoflejiaxa hobhhh ot BaTaK, BO^exa ce 05khbchh pa3roBOpn no nojiH- 
THHecKH, JiHTepaTypHH, KyjiTypHH h flpyrn Bwipocn. KHH^capHHi^aTa ce 
6eine npeBi>pHajia b hcthhckh KJiy6 3a cpemn Ha nporpecHBHH 6aTaniKH 
MJiaflOKH, kohto ynexa h ^cHBeexa b Coc|)Hfl. 

YhcShh 3aHHTHH, npnHre.nn, ymiTejiH 

3anncax ce h 3anoHHax yHe6rorre 3aHflTHfl b TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. Ta 
e ocHOBaHa npe3 1913 r. no HHHijHaTHBaTa h c (J)HHaHCOBaTa no^Kpena Ha 
Co(|)HHCKaTa TtproBCKO-HHAycTpnajiHa KaMapa c ijeji aa no/uwBfl KBajiH- 

(^HI^HpaHH CHeTOBOflHTeJIH H ptKOBOflHH KaflpH 3a TtpTOBHOTa, 6aHKOBOTO 

fleno h npoMHimieHOCTTa. B rHMHa3HHTa HManie CTa^caHTCKH HHCTHTyT 3a 
ynHTenn no CTonaHCKHTe HayKH. Crpa^aTa 6enie BnenaTJiflBama - nerapH- 
eTa5«Ha 5 MacHBHa, nepBeHa Ha ijbat, c BHCOKa nacoBHHKOBa Kyua. HcTHHCKa 
apxHTeKTypHa 3a6ejie)KHTejiHOCT. OyHKijHOHajiHOTO pa3npe,nejieHHe bt>b 
Bi>TpeHiHOCTTa CT>3flaBanie mhoto flo6pH ycjioBHH 3a yne6Ha no^roTOBKa - 

29 



flo6pe o63aBe^eHH h cbctjih KJiacHH CTan, yne6HH Ka6nHeTH, 6H6jiHOTeKa h 
HHTajiHfl, aKTOBa 3ajia ? (J)H3KyjiTypeH canoH, kohto ce H3noji3Banie h 3a 
c&6paHHfl h 3a6aBH, ao6pe no;w>p)KaHa ynemiHecKa CTOJiOBa. 

B ni>pBHTe flHH Ha yne6HHTe 3aHOTH5i 6ax MHoro no^THCHaT - He 6ax 
noflroTBeH ncnxojiorHHecKH. ITtpBHTe mh BnenaTJieHHfl 6flxa, ne ct>m no- 
naflHan b Hyaena cpe/i;a, ne yneHHijHTe ca npe^HMHO rpa/i;cKH MOMHeTa h 
MOMHneTa, aeija Ha 6oraTH TbproBijH, c oco6eH MaHTajiHTeT. Eax h no-Bt3- 
pacTeH, c H3BecxeH acHTeficKH onm, c onpefleneHH nojiHTHHecKH BHac^aHHJi, 
c no-rojiHMO nyBCTBO Ha OTroBOpHOCT kt>m yne6HHTe 3aHflTH5i. Bnocjie/i;- 
CTBHe o6ane ce oica3a, ne coijHajiHHflT ctcTaB Ha yneromHTe e MHoro pa3H0- 
o6pa3eH h ne HMa HeMantK 6pofi yneHHijH c Tpy/i;oBO npoH3xo^c/i;eHHe - 
aeija Ha paGoraniiH, ceji^HH, hhhobhhiih, 6eflHH h cpe/pm no MaTepnajiHo 
nojioacemie TtproBipi. IloBefleHHeTO mh h nojiHTHHecKaTa opneHTaiiHfl, 
kooto He CKpHBax, 6i>p30 Me HanpaBH iieHTtp Ha nporpecHBHHTe yneHHiiH 
ot Moa h ot cbce^HHTe KJiacoBe. Taxa 6tp30 ce cnpMTejiHX c AceH MaHOB, 
Teoprn KyHHeB, He,u#jiKO KnpoB h OrecJmH XpHCTOB, kohto KaTO MeH 
npo^i>Ji^aBaxa o6pa30BaHHeTO ch 1-2 roflHHH cnefl 3aBi>piHBaHe Ha npo- 
rHMHa3HOTa h He Kpnexa aHTH(])aniHCTKHTe ch Bt3rjieflH. npMTejiH 6axMe h 
c apyrn yqeHHiiH ot HaniHfl KJiac KaTO Teoprn MnjiyuieB, ^HMHTtp 
/jHMHTpoB, CTpaniHMHp HjineB, reoprn 3jiaTaHOB, AceH IleTpOB, Bacnji 
Bo^eHHHapOB, TeTO TeTOB, 3/jpaBKO HeflflmcoB h jjp. OraaHano ce c6jih)khx 
c AceH MaHOB, kohto 6euie Ha MOOTa Bi>3pacT, ot 6e^eH npoH3xo/j (6e3 
6ama), KpafiHo cKpoMeH, mhoto 6yaeH, nporpecHBHO HacTpoeH, mo6o3Ha- 
TeneH, CTecHHTeneH, mhoto eraHeH h xyMaHeH. CTaHaxMe Hepa3#ejiHH 
npH^TenH 3a i^ji achbot. Obihoto Mora ^a Kaaca h 3a Teoprn KyHneB h 
CretJmH XpHCTOB. Cnefl hakojiko Meceija ce 3ano3Hax h etc ceMencTBOTO Ha 
Teopra KyHneB. Eama My, hhho HBaH, npoH3xo^c/i;auie ot c. CBeTJieH, Kap- 
jiobcko, 6enie B3en ynacrae b CemreMBpHHCKOTO BtCTaHHe, a no TOBa BpeMe 
pa6oTenie b e/jHa co(J)HHCKa (|)a6pHKa. MafiKa My, CTpHHKa AHKa, ctmo 
6eme pa6oraHHKa. HecTO ra nocemaBax, o6nKHax rn h yBaacaBax ro Kpaa 
Ha ^cHBOTa hm. CTe(J)aH ci>mo 6enie npeKpaceH MJia^eac, aKTHBHO ynacTBa- 
nie b /jeHHoerra Ha peMCOBaTa hh opraHH3aijHfl, a Bnocjie^cTBHe CTaHa nap- 
TH3aHHH h KaTO flo6pOBOJieij b OTenecTBeHaTa BOHHa 3arHHa npe3 eceHTa Ha 
1944 r. b 6oeBeTe cpemy XHTJiepo(|)auiHCTKaTa apMHa Kpan CTpauHH. 

B rHMHa3HATa pa6oTexa tojuim 6pofl otjihhho no^roTBeHH yHHTejin. H 
flo flHec noMHH npeno^aBaTejiHTe no pa3JiHHHHTe flHCLtnnjiHHH (6i>jirapCKH 
e3HK h JiHTepaTypa, HCTOpH^, reorpacjmfl, CTonaHCKH h npaBHH HayKH, 

(J)peHCKH H HeMCKH e3HK ? CTeHOTpa^H^, CTOK03HaHHe, CHeTOBO^CTBO, TBp- 

roBCKa KopecnoHfleHijHa h ap.) ? TexHHTe xapaKTepn, MeTO^H Ha npeno^a- 
30 



BaHe, B3aHM00TH0UieHHHTa HM C yHeHHUHTe, 06meCTBeH0-n0JIHTHHeCKHTe 

hm npo^BH. Te npaBexa MHoro 3a HainaTa noaroTOBica, ynexa hh m ce 
xpynHM, fla o6HnaMe Hapo^a h po^HHaTa ch, aa 6i>fleM BepHH Ha 3aBeTHTe 

Ha HaiHHTe BT>3pO)K#eHIIH, Ha 3aBeTHTe Ha JleBCKH h BoTeB. 

^HpeKTOp hh 6enie a-p HeiiHO HBaiioe (IlaiiiaTa), e^HH ot cb3£aTejiHTe 
He caMO Ha rHMHa3HflTa, ho h Ha BncineTO CTonaHCKO ynnjinme (Cbo6oa- 

HHJI yHHBepCHTCT). TOH OJIHIjeTBOpflBaiHe yHHTeJICKHfl KOJieKTHB h THMHa- 

3HHTa ? hchhhji aBTOpHTeT h BJiHHHHe cpefl oGmecTBeHociTa. H cera BH5KflaM 
HeroBaTa KpacHBa (Jmrypa, uinpoKO ycMHXHaTO jiime, yKpaceHO c #o6pe 
o^opMeHa KJiacHnecKa Gpa^HHica h MyeraijH: BHyuiHTejieH, ho h #o6po- 
HaMepeH, toh Bfl^xBame pecneKT h yBaflcemie. OTJinnaBame ce c BHcoicaTa 
ch Kymypa, Genie ^eMOKpaT no aynia, c nporpecHBHO OTHomeHHe kt>m 06- 
mecTBeHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. npHTOKaBame rojiflM opraHH3aTopCKH 
TajiaHT h ne^arorHHecKH TaKT cnpflMO yHHTejiH h ynemmH. 

KnacHH^T hh HacTaBHHK Kpi>CTi>o PaaoMHpoB 6euie npeno^aBaTeji no 
$peHCKH e3HK. 3anoMHHJi cbm ro 3aBHHarn - h cera c^icam e npe« MeH. Toh 
Me npHBJiHHanie c GoraTaTa ch aymeBHOCT, c Gjiarcifl ch xapaicrep, c bhh- 
MaTenHOTO ch OTHomeHHe klm bchhkh, ho ocoGeHO kt>m AceH h MeH. Beuie 
Bene npeMHHan cpe^HaTa Bi>3pacT h c nponiapeHHTe ch koch h MycTaHKH, c 
MypraBOTO ch mme, yKpaceHO c OHHJia c TLHKa no3JiaTeHa paMKa, HMame 
BHfl Ha fltJiroroflHHieH yHHTeji, OT#aji bchhkh ch chjih h cnocoGHOCTH, 
ijejiHOT ch CB3HaTejieH echbot 3a noflroTOBKaTa h Bt3nHTaHHeTO Ha cbohtc 
yneHHi|H. Ton oGnnauie yneHHiiHTe, Maicap ne hakoh ot tax noHHKora npe- 
nexa Ha yneGHaTa paGoTa h ro H3HepBaxa. B TaKHBa cjiynan MoeTO ctpije ce 
CBHBauie, CTaBauie mh mt>hho 3a Hero, tbh KaTO toh npoKHBABame h Btpxy 
HeroBOTO GnaropoflHO jnme ce H3nHCBauie rojWMa Mtica, koato ce npe^a- 
Bame n Ha yneHHijHTe. 

KaTO KJiaceH HacTaBHHK toh nonaraine roneMH rpnacH 3a Hac h ocoGeHO 
3a OHe3H moh cbyneHHijH, kohto nonynaBaxa cnaGn oijeHKH. C rax toh 
Bo^euie 6eceflH ? MtMpeuie ra no ",zwjobckh" (He Ka3BaM no GamHHCKH, 
3amoTO 6amHTe ca no-CTpora, no-KaTeropHHHH, no-noBejiHTejiHH), t. e. 

KaKTO flflflOTO CtBeTBa HJIH MfcMpH CBOfl BHyKI MCKO, OT flyHia, BHflHMO JIK)- 

6emo. BamHTe noHAKora cbc CTporocrra ch npHKpHBaT CBOjrra poflHTejiCKa 
jik)6ob. BceKH Meceij KptcTbo Pa^oMHpOB npOBOK^auie cpemn c po#H- 
TejiHTe h HacTOHHHitHTe. HHTepecyBauie ce ot coiyiajiHOTO nojioaceHHe Ha 
yneHHijHTe ot KJiaca, ot flOMauiHHTe ycjioBM, a 3a no-6eflHHTe nojiarauie 
ycHJiHfl m nojiynaT pa3pemeHHe ^a ce xpaHAT 6e3nnaTHO b CTOJia h aa 
nojiynaBaT 6e3nnaTHH yneGmmn. no bchhko H3rjie5Kflauie ? ne MaKap h 
CKpoMeH h Ha npi>B norne# He3a6ejieacHM cpea apyrHTe MacTHTH ynHTenH 

31 



(TaKHBa 6axa mhoto), toh HMaine aBTopHTeT npea flHpeKTOpa h npe^ 
pT>KOBO,n;cTBOTO Ha TbproBCKaTa KaMapa, koato H3,m>p)Kanie rHMHa3MTa. 

KaTO npeno^aBaTeji no (|)peHCKH e3HK toh ce npoflBABame Kara floGtp 
ne^aror. Bncnie o6pa30BaHHe 6euie nojiynnji bt>b OpamiHfl. 3apaflH Hero- 
BHTe rpH>KH kt>m yHemmHTe, 3a npeno^aBaHeTO Ha (|)peHCKHfl e3HK, 3apa,zm 
JIK)60BTa My KbM (|)peHCKH5I HapOfl, kohto toh He cKpHBanie, 3apaflH CHMna- 
THHTe My kt>m BejiHKaTa (J)peHCKa peBonioiiHH h riapH)KKaTa KOMyHa, kohto 
toh npoflBABanie no BpeMe Ha neTeHeTo Ha mhoto npraraH h xy6aBO Hann- 
caHH neTHBa Ha (J)peHCKH e3HK no Te3H HCTopHnecKH cbGhtha, a3 ro o6hk- 
Hax mhoto, oraacax ce c tojiamo yBaaceHHe kt>m Hero h KaTO yHHTen, h KaTO 

HOBeK. 

Tpyfli>T Ha ynHTejiHTe o6ane 6enie mhoto H3Toui;HTeneH h flopn h 6nar 
HOBeK KaTO KptcTto Pa/i;oMHpOB 5 MaKap h pflflKO, "ronycKanie" HepBHTe ch. 
HMauie cjiy^an, KoraTO yneHHiiH d>3aaBaxa HanperaaTH CHTyaijHH, 
flOKOJiKOTO hm 6axa npncbiipi bchhkh MOMHeniKH yBJieneHHfl h nocn>nKH, 
noH^Kora 6yHHH, noHHKora - no actckh rnynaBH. E,hhh aeH nocjieflHHAT hh 
yne6eH nac 6eme no (j)peHCKH. Bi>pxy jnmeTO Ha HaniM yHHTen ce 
OTpa3flBame rojWMa yMopa. MaKap aa 6euie npe6jie,HHflJi, toh c yBJieneHHe 
npenoflaBauie cboa ypOK. Tpyna yneHHipi inyMaxa h naKaxa c HertpneHHe 
3BT>Heija. Toh nonyKBanie c Te6eninpa no nepHaTa fltcKa h th npHKaHBauie 
3a BHHMaHHe h THUiHHa. Oco6eHO niyMHa 6euie e^tHa yneHHHKa. Ton He ce 
Bt3flT>p>Ka, 3aMaxHa c JWBaTa ch ptKa, b koato fltpacenie rc>6ara h % 3anpara 
kt>m Hea. Mi>HHTejiHa rpHMaca ce H3nnca Ha jraiieTO My h toh ouje noBene 
npe6jieflH5i. HMax nyBCTBOTO, He me 3annaHe. Bt3iiapH ce m>JiHa THUiHHa. 
Bchhkh ce pa3*ryBCTBaxMe, MtKa h tojiamo hcaobojictbo kbm „naKOCT- 
mmaTa", koato 6enie mhoto flo6po 3 )khbo, ho h 6yHHO momhhc 

C KnacHHH ch HacTaBHHK h yHHTen no (J)peHCKH e3HK ce pa3flejiHXMe 
cjiea 3aBT>pniBaHe Ha X KJiac. 06pa3yBa ce hob c6opeH XI "ac" KJiac c 
KJiaceH ptKOBOflHTeji Teoprn ^eneB. 

^pyr Hani oco6eHO oGajrrejieH yHHTen no (|)peHCKH e3HK b XI h XII KJiac 
6enie CaBa ATaHacoB (Tap3aH), kohto HMauie cna6a, ho cnopraa (Jmrypa, 
npofltJiroBaTO CKyjiecTO Jinije, KoeTO BHyniaBanie CHMnarafl h flOBepne. Toh 
h ctnpyraTa My MnjiKa ATaHacoBa, kohto npenoaaBanie MaTeMaTHKa h 
4>H3HKa, 6axa cpea nioGHMijHTe Ha yneHHiiHTe. C tax HMax ,n;o6pH npna- 

TenCKH Bpt3KH flO Kpafl Ha ECHBOTa HM. 

OSnnax JiHTepaTypaTa. HeTflx mhoto npoH3Be/i;eHHflTa Ha KJiacHitfrre. 
rio 6tJirapCKH e3HK h JiHTepaTypa ot ocmh ao ^eceTH KJiac hh npenoaaBanie 
BejineBa. CTpora ynHTenKa, MajiKO rpy6nnKa. Ka3Baxa, ne e cecTpa Ha Mapa 
BejineBa, cbnpyra Ha IleHHO CjiaBeHKOB. HManie bhcokh H3HCKBafflM kt>m 

32 



yneHHUHTe. HecTO hh H3nHTBaine h flaBaine MHoro /joManiHH h KJiacHH 
ynpaacHeHM no BtnpocHTe, kohto H3ynaBaxMe. Ta HManie cboh mqtojui - 
no-MaJiKO npenoaaBauie, a noBene H3nHTBame. ToBa hh npHHy^cflaBame #a 
neTeM HHTeH3HBHO, m>K h npeno,a;aBaTejiKaTa noBene o6iuyBauie c yneHH- 
UHTe 5 AaBauie hm bt>3mo>khoct «a ce H3flBABaT, ^a noKaacaT ce6e ch h cboh- 
xe 3HaHH^. OcBeH TOBa, EejineBa H3nHTBauie "aKTHBHo", t. e. c KOMemrap h 
c oueHKH. Tfl BH)KAauie bchhkh KaTO Ha rush h ce CTpeMeuie aa jieicyBa 
u M'Bp3ejia" y hakoh HauiH CByneHHijH. HMaxMe TaKbB cjiynafi: e^HO MHoro 
cnoco6HO h #o6po MOMne, KoeTO He BCflKora ch noflroTBfliue ypoiprre, 6euie 
BflHraaro fla neTe flOMauiHOTO ch cbHHHemie. Ton 3acTaHa npe# nepHaTa 
^cKa c JiHije kbm KJiaca bh^hmo CMyTeH. Otboph TeTpa^KaTa h cjiea Kone- 
6aHHe 3anoHHa fla neTe. Mhcjihtc My ce pe,u#xa flo6pe 5 noHflKora 3a,m>p- 
acame neTeHeTO. Bchhkh ce pa^BaxMe Ha ycnexa My. OnaKBaxMe yHHTen- 
KaTa fla ro noxBann. Th o6ane, ycMHXBaHKH ce, ro noMOJin fla nponeTe ome 
BeflHbac ntpBHTe H3peneHHfl. Ton rn "nponeTe". 

- He e ei>moTO - Ka3a BejineBa h noHctca TeTpaflKara. OKa3a ce, ne toh 
qeTe ot 6ejiH jiHCTa h hhiijo, ^aace 3arjiaBHeTO Ha TeMaTa He e Hanncaji. 
Bi»3uapH ce rcbjma THuiHHa. OnaKBaxMe Haft-jiouioTO - 3a6ejieacKH, o6bh- 
HeHHfl, 3aKaHH h np. 

- ToBa, KoeTO H3Bi>pHiH, e H3MaMa - Ka3a yHHTejiKaTa. - Ho a3 ct>m 
y6e,zi;eHa 5 ne th ch yMeH, tbh KaTO Moaca #a "HanpaBHin" MHoro #o6po 
ycTHO CBHHHeHHe. OcTaBa caMO %& ro HanHinem, ho th ch npoflBHJi MT>p3eji. 
npomaBaM th, 6e3 #a Te onpaB,a;aBaM. 

Bchhkh Bi>3^i>XHaxMe 5 ocTaHaxMe aobojihh ot penieHHeTO Ha yHHTejiKara. 

Hemo 3a MeH caMM. HbpBOTO hh flOManmo CBHHHeHHe 6euie Ha cbo- 
6oflHa TeMa h BceKH Tp^6Banie m ch H36epe TeMa. YHHTejiKaTa BejineBa 
aa^e hakoh yica3aHHfl. /J^jiro mhcjihx Bi>pxy KaKBO m nnuia. Benie KpaaT Ha 
cemreMBpH hjih HananoTO Ha oktombph. B ci>6oTa Benep c 6paTOBHe^ mh 
AHreji ce pa3xoac,a;axMe b rpa#HHKaTa npH nepKBaTa "Cb. CeflMOHHCJieHH- 
ijh". 06xBaHajia Me 6enie HOCTajirM - MHCJiex 3a po^HTejiHTe ch h 3a 
poflHHHHre, 3a BaTaK h npHOTejiHTe. H ToraBa H36pax TeMaTa Ha MOATa 
flOManiHa pa6oTa: "HbpBHTe BnenaTJieHHH ot H^BaHeTO mh b Cofyna". B 
Heaejui flo o6jm ce Tpyunx h Hanncax, ne cbm npHCTHraaji b Co$h% c pa- 
flocT h TpeneT, ne cbm Tptraaji ot KpaftHHTe KBapTajiH Kpafl rapaTa, 3a 
MajiKHTe cxjiyneHH KtmypKH, b kohto ^chboit 6e#HH ceMencTBa Ha pa6oT- 
HHitH h 3aHa5TTHHH, KaK ci>M CTHrHaji flo naMeTHHKa Ha "I^ap 0CB060flHTeJl" 5 
kohto H3o6pa3HBa OcBo6o)KaeHHeTO Ha Bi>jirapH)i h npH3HaTejiH0CTTa Ha 
6tjirapcKH^ Hapofl ki>m 6paTCKa Pycn^ 5 He yjiHijHTe b iteHTtpa Ha rpa^a ca 
naBHpaHH h HMa roneMH ^KHJinmHH crpa#H, b kohto 5khbc^t 6oraTH xopa h 

33 



t. h. Eflx 0Tpa3HJi flBa MOMeHTa: coijnajieH h nojiHTHHecKH - OTHomeime 
kbm pycKHH Hapofl. Cjiea hakojiko ^hh EenneBa BJie3e b nac no 6i>JirapcKH c 
TeTpaflKHTe. HanpaBH o6ma oijeHKa Ha flOManiHHTe ctHHHeHHfl h ci>o6mH 

OTJIHHHHTe OIjeHKH. 

- HaymeB, H3Jie3, B3eMH TeTpa^Kara ch h nponera ctHHHeHHeTO. 

A3 CMyTeHO ro nponeTox h to HanpaBH ,uo6po BnenaraeHHe Ha MHoro 
moh cbyneHHijH. AceH MaHOB, Teoprn KyHHeB h Cre(j)aH XpHCTOB mh Ka- 
3axa nocjie, ne ot TOBa CbHHHeHHe ca pa36panH, ne HMaM JieBH y6e)KflemDi. 

IlpaBex o6mo B3eTO MHoro ,no6pH KJiacHH h flOMauiHH ynpa^cHeHHH no 
6i>JirapcKH e3HK h JiHTepaTypa. rioji3Bax CTpaHHHHa JiHTepaTypa, Jimepa- 
TypHH c6opmmn, onepijH h CTaTHH Ha pa3HH nncarejiH H JIHTepaTypHH KpH- 
thijh, b t. h. h Ha reoprn BaKajiOB (nncareji h KpHTHK c JieBH y6e)K,ueHHfl), 
kohto Me HarbflcaBame, KoraTO nnmeuie, ne HBaH Ba30B b npOH3Be,neHHflTa 

CH, H 0C06eH0 B CTHXOTBOpeHHHTa, Ce npOHB^Ba KaTO HaiJHOHaJIHCT-HIOBH- 

hhct. Cjie^ ntpBHTe hakojiko KJiacHH ynpa^cHeHH^ EejineBa, flaBafiKH o6iu;h 
h HHflHBHflyajiHH oijeHKH, Ka3a: 

- Hpes KJiacHHTe ebHHHeHHfl, a3 npOBepnx Bi>3MO)KHOCTHTe Ha AHreji. B 
HanajiOTO ce cbMHjreax aajin caM npaBH ^OManiHHTe ch CbHHHeHHe hjih th 
npenncBa. Y6cj\ux ce, ne rn pa3BHBa caM, KaTO noji3Ba flom>JiHHTejiHH 
nocoGna, HMa ao6pn 3HaHHa h HHTepec ki>m jiHTepaTypaTa. 

A3 ce noji3Bax c HeHHHTe CHMnaraH, KoeTO JiHHenie no TOBa, ne Me 
"BenHHaeuie" He c (JmMHJiHOTo, a ct>c co6cTBeHOTO mh HMe. Bi>3JiaraHie mh 
ci>iu;o ^a OKa3BaM noMom Ha hakoh yneromH. 

IlpenoaaBaTeji no 6i>jirapcKH e3HK h JiHTepaTypa b XI KJiac 6enie 
KnnpHJiOB. Ton 6enie hob yHHTeji b rHMHa3Hjrra. Ka3Baxa, ne e 6hji ^HpeK- 
Top Ha TbproBCKaTa rHMHa3HJi b rp. Byprac. Beuie MHoro epyunpaH, c rojie- 
mh 3HaHHH h HHe cnyuiaxMe c y^OBOJiCTBHe npeKpacHHTe jickijhh, kohto hh 
H3HacHine. ,ZJo6pe ch cnoMHAM ypoijHTe My no flpeBHorp'biuca h 3ana^HO- 
eBponeficKa JiHTepaTypa. Beuie mhoto eTHHeH, BHHMarejieH, Maicap h erpor, 
npeijH3eH ki>m 3HaHHjrra, kbm e3HKa h npaBonnca. Bi>o6me, toh 6enie ynn- 
Teji, KaKbBTO pwko ce cpemanie ToraBa. npH TOBa 6euie h ^eMOKpaTHHeH, 
nporpecHBeH, KoeTO JiHHenie no OTHOineHHeTO My ki>m TeKymHTe nojiH- 
THHecKH ct>6htha h ki>m npo^BHTe Ha ynemmHTe-GpaHHHijH h jierHOHepn. 

A3 ao6pe ce noaroTB^x 3a ypoijHTe no JiHTepaTypa. CraHax nocTOHHeH 
HHTaTeji Ha rpaflCKara 6n6jiHOTeKa h H3noji3Bax yHHBepcHTeTCKH yneGmmH, 
KaKTO h onepijHTe no flpeBHorpMjKa, 3anaaHoeBponencKa h pycKa JiHTepa- 
Typa Ha pycKHfl nncaTeji h jiHTeparypOBea II. KoxaH. IIomidi, ne KoraTO 
KirapHJiOB hh 6eme «aji KJiacHO CbHHHeHHe 3a hakoh repon Ha "HjiHa,ua", a3 
ce onHTax #a ,uaM coijnajiHa xapaKTepHCTHKa Ha repOHTe h ijHTHpax cthx, 

34 



B3 eT ot KHura Ha KoxaH: "HflMa noMeH ot nepHKJia, >khb e ^cajiKH^T TepcHT". 
ToBa HanpaBH chjiho BnenaTJieHHe Ha KmipHJiOB. HcKaM #a OTGeneaca oqe, ne 
xoh 6eine BHHMaTejieH h nyHKTyajieH KaTO ne^aror. BHHarn ^aBaine oijeHKH, 
0T6eJiH3Bauie th b GejieacHHKa ch, c kohto He ce pa3flejDime HHKora. 

ypoi^HTe no jiHTepaTypa 6axa CBoeo6pa3Ha TpnGyHa 3a npo^raa Ha ^eMo- 
KpaTH3Ma, Ha nporpecHBHHTe Tpa/pmHH Ha Hapo^HTe, OTpa3eHH b npoH3Be- 
^eHH^Ta Ha bcjimkhtc micaTejiH, Ha xyMaHH3Ma h GpaTCTBOTO, nponoBH/j- 
BaHH b Te3H npoH3Be,zjeHHfl, no6eaaTa Ha ao6poTO Ha# 3jioto, Ha nporpe- 
chbhoto Ha# peaKijHOHHOTO. Kocbcho, a noHHKora h np^KO, TaM ce pa3o- 

6jIHHaBaiHe IHOBHHH3MT>T H (f)aniH3MT>T. 

Ctc cHMnaTHH ctM ce OTHacjui kt>m bchhkh yHHTejiH, kohto ca MH 
npenoflaBajiH h 3a bchhkh ct>m 3ana3HJi KOHKpeTHH cnoMeHH. OcoGeHo 
yBa)KeHHe H3nHTBax kt>m KoHCTaHTHH Ctohjihcb, npeno^aBaTeji no n>p- 
roBCKH HayKH h ptKOBOflHTeji Ha Bi>3fli>p>KaTejiHOTO apy^KecTBo; TeoprH 
/JeneB, kohto no-KtcHO CTaHa floijeHT h npeno^aBaine bt>b Bhcuihh hkoho- 

MHHeCKH HHCTHTyT; BjiaflHMHp IlonOB, e^HH BHCOKO 06pa30BaH HCTOpHK, 

kohto CTaHa CTapniH HayneH CLTpyaHHK b Bi>jirapcKaTa aKa#eMHfl Ha 
HayKHTe (BAH); Hjim HBaHOB, npeno^aBaTeji no reorpa(J)HH 5 kohto ctmo 
CTaHa CTapniH HayneH ctTpyflHHK b BAH; HBaH Momhhjiob, npeno^aBaTeji 
no cTOK03HaHHe; HnKOJia KojieB, npeno^aBaTeji no hcmckh e3HK; Ha^ea^a 
Bo6eBa (CnaBHeBa), npeno^aBaTeji no 6i>jirapcKH e3HK; neHKa CnaBOBa h 
AHToaHeTa EoeBa, npeno^aBaTejiKH no npaBHH HayKH (TbproBCKo h 
rpaayjaHCKO npaBo). 

no3BOJiHBaM ch ot hmcto Ha CBOHTe ctyHeHHijH h apyrapn aa Kaaca: 
Bjiaro^apHM bh, CKi>nn yHHTejim 3a yneHHeTO, 3a BKmHTaHHeTO, 3a 
BpeMeTO, KoeTO BHe nocBeTHXTe Ha Hac. Hne, BauiHTe yneHHiiH, CMe H3xa- 
6hjih mhoto BaniH HepBH, cnoMorHajin CMe 3a no6enHBaHeTO Ha BauiHTe 
koch... Ho HHe CMe bh 6jiaroflapHH ? ne hh HaynnxTe aa ce TpyzjHM h #a 
o6HHaMe Hapo^a h Po^HHaTa, aa acHBeeM, aa ce 6opHM h paGoTHM 3a 
6jiaroTO h macraeTO Ha Hapo^a. 

/JeHHOCT B PaGOTHHHeCKHfl MJia^eHCKH CT>K)3 

/Jo Kpafl Ha 1938 r., a3 h ome nerapHMa moh ctyneHHiiH - AceH MaHOB, 
Teoprn KyHHeB, Ore(])aH XpHCTOB h He^ajiKO KnpoB - o6pa3yBaxMe 
peMcoBa rpyna. TaKa 3anoHHa MOOTa HeTHpHroanuiHa nojiHTHnecKa aeS- 
hoct b peMCOBaTa opraHH3auHH Ha TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3ra. Hne neTHMaTa 
He KpnexMe Bt3rjieflHTe ch, He 6flXMe KOHcnnpaTOpH, TbpcexMe flpyacGa c 
nporpecHBHH MJiaaeacH h ctMHnuieHHiiH Ha PMC. H ta He 3aKtcHH. npe3 m. 

OKTOMBpH B e#HO OT MOKflyHaCHeTO B KJiaCHaTa CTaH Ce 5IBH HBaH rpnropOB 

35 



(hjih 3aropOB?), po/joM b Epe3HHK, yneHHK ot XII KJiac, c KoroTO ce 
no3HaBax h 6ax pa3roBapjui b KopH,a;opHTe h b crojiOBaTa. Toft hh noKaHH 
Aa noceTHM ci>6paHHeTO Ha BT>3flT>p^caTejiHOTO flpyncecTBO "Pa3yM h bojdi", 
oraica hh uiejiHTe h 3aflaHHTe Ha flpy^cecTBOTO. Ob6paHHeTO ce cbctoh b 
e^Ha KJiacHa craa. HeTe ce pe^epaT, HManie H3Ka3BaHHH. Cjiea ci>6paHHeTO 
ce 3ano3Hax c npeflce^aTeiDi Ha flpyncecTBOTO BopHC BoeB (yneHHK b XII 
KJiac) h HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo), ynemiK b XI KJiac. C B. BoeB Bene ce 
no3HaBaxMe 5 ho caMO 3aflOHHO, Hpe3 HeroBaTa 6paTOBHeflKa Mapna EoeBa, 
kohto 6enie CLyneHHHKa Ha 6paTOBHeflKaTa mh Jlio6Ka. Ta 6enie HH(j)op- 
MHpajia BopHC 3a MOHTe jieBH y6encfleHHH. CpemHaxMe ce KaTO no3Hara, c 
ntJiHo flOBepne e/jHH kt>m flpyr. Hpe3 Hero KaTO HJieH Ha rHMHa3HajiHOTO 
ptKOBOflCTBO Ha PMC, HamaTa rpyna ce bkjiiohh b peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl. 
BopHC 6eme mhoto CKpoMeH, BceoT^aeH, He3a6eneHCHMO npOBOKflame 
CBO^Ta KOHcnnpaTHBHa pa6oTa b rHMHa3HATa. HManie aBTOpHTeT KaTO 
npeflceflaTeji Ha flpyncecTBOTO h oco6eHO npe# yHHTejia KoHCTaHTHH 
Ctohjihcb, ptKOBOflHTeji Ha flpyncecTBOTO ot CTpaHa Ha aflMHHHCTpaijHflTa. 

HBaH Hhkojiob, KoroTO Hapnnaxa "OrapoTo" 3apa^H 3anoHHajiHTe aa 
no6ejiHBaT koch, ctmo ce OKa3a aKTHBeH HJieH Ha rHMHa3HajiH0T0 ptKO- 
BOflCTBO, a npe3 yne6HaTa 1940/1941 6enie h OTroBOpHHK (ceKpeTap) Ha 
PMC b rHMHa3HHTa. Ton 6eme MHoro fleeH, ho h TeoperaHHO no^roTBeH h 
ro 6HBaine 3a opaTop. npOH3xo)K,zjame t pa6oTHHHecKO ceMeficTBO, a caM 
toh e 6hji pa6oTHHK h o6HHaine aa no^nepTaBa, ne ce ropflee c TOBa. C 
HBaH pa6oTHXMe flpyncHO b peMCOBaTa oprammijHfl b npofltJDKeHHe Ha TpH 
yne6HH roflHHH (1939-1942). H flBaMaTa (Bopnc h HBaH) 6axa npHMep 3a 
MeH - ot tax ce ynex KaK aa ce cpemaM c apyrapHTe no jihhha Ha PMC, m 
npoBencflaM pa3roBopH, fla H3BT>pniBaM KOHcnnpaTHBHa aenHOCT, ^a ce 
npeflna3BaM ? ^a pa6ora bt>b BT^fltpacaTejiHOTO apyacecTBO h flpyraTe 
yneHHHecKH opramoaipiH, fla opraHH3HpaM peMCHCTH h CHMnara3aHTH 3a 
ynacTHe b MacoBHTe aKijnn Ha PMC. 

Bi>p30 ce bkjiiohhx fleHHOCTTa Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl b rHMHa3HOTa 
h h3bt>h Hea. nocjie^OBaTejiHO 6ax OTroBOpHHK Ha rpyna, Ha rpynn, HJieH 

Ha p-bKOBOflCTBOTO (1940-1941) H OTrOBOpHHK Ha THMHa3HaJIHOTO p-bKOBOfl- 

ctbo (1941-1942). Be^Hara HCKaM j\?l OTGejieaca aKTHBHaTa flenHoer Ha 
AceH MaHOB, kohto 3aeflHO c MeH pa6oTeme caMOOTBepnceHO b flenHocrra 
Ha peMCOBaTa h apyrnTe yneHHHecKH opraHH3aiinn. BnHarn 6axMe 3ae^HO 
KaTO "cnaMCKH 6jiH3HaijH". KBapTHpaTa Ha AceH Ha yji. "Cbcth HayM" N° 
62 6enie BC^Kora Ha pa3nojio)KeHHe, b Hen ce npOBeayjaxa 3aceaaHH)i h 
cpemn c OTroBopHHiprre (HHCTpyKTOpHTe) Ha yneHHHecKOTO 6iopo npn OK 
Ha PMC b rHMHa3HOTa. 

36 



IIpe3 ceirreMBpH 1940 r. c moh npH5rreji h ctrpaayjaHHH To^op BaHneB, 
yneHHK b TexHHHecKOTO yHHHHme "XpHCTO Eotcb", HaexMe KBapTHpa b kb. 
JIo3eHeii Ha yji. "Ctoah 3aHMOB" N2 10, 6jih30 no Mojrra rHMHa3Hfl. 
)KHBflXMe 3aeflHO /jBe yne6HH roflHHH (1940-1941 h 1941-1942). Toh 
ynacTBaine b fleHHOcrra Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl b yHHJinmeTO, a npe^H 
TOBa h b IlemepcKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. /jBaMaTa neraxMe MapKCHCTKa JiHTepaTypa 
(jierajiHa h HenerajiHa). Toh 6enie Haynnji HaH3ycT nacT ot "KoMyHH- 
cTHHecKHfl MaHH(|)ecT" h npH yao6HH cjiynan aeKJiaMHpauie OTflejiHH otkb- 
ch Ha rpynoBH cpemn c yneHHijH h MJia/joKH b Coc^h^ h EaTaK. B 
^eHHOCTTa Ha peMCOBaTa opramoaijHfl B3eMaxa ynacrae h Bopnc MapHH h 
TeoprH IleHHHHOB, yneHHijH b cbiijoto ynHJinme. Meacay Hac nerapHMaTa 
ce ci>3flaflOxa npeKpacHH apyacecKH OTHonieroDi. 

IIpe3 nepHOfla 1939-1942 r. no CBeTa h b Ei>jirapHfl CTaBaxa rojieMH, 
HCTOpHHecKH ct>6hthjl Te onpe/jejiHxa h xapaKTepa Ha HaniaTa CKpoMHa 
aeHHOCT KaTO peMCHCTH b raMHa3HOTa h h3bi>h Hea. Ha 12 MapT 1938 r. 
XHTJiep npHCT>eflHHH ABCTpHfl kt>m TepMaHM, a npe3 MapT 1939 r. Haxny b 
HexocjiOBatcHfl. Ei>jirapcKaTa /jeMOKparaHHa o6mecTBeHOCT ocTpo pearapa 
npoTHB TepMaHH^ b 3aiu,HTa Ha 6paTCKa h /jeMOKpaTHHHa HexoanoBaKM. 
Ilpea repMaHCKOTO nocojicTBO ce npoBe^oxa ,neMOHCTpaijHH, b kohto 
ynacTBaxMe h rpyna aHTHcJmuiHCTH ot rHMHa3MTa. Pa3BO£T Ha Me»my- 
HapoflHHTe cbGhtha, arpecHBHHTe fleficTBHA Ha TepMaHM h HTajiM h 
6e3fleficTBHeTO Ha 06mecTBOTO Ha HapoflHTe noKa3Baxa, ne HaGjinacaBa HOBa 
CBeTOBHa BOHHa. l],ap Bopnc h npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha a-p Teopra KtoceHBaHOB 
npoBeacaaxa nojiHTHKa Ha o6Bi>p3BaHe Ha EtJirapHfl ct>c CTpaHHTe ot 
AHTHKOMHHTepHOBCKH^ naKT (TpaHC(|)opMHpaH npe3 cenTeMBpH 1940 r. b t. 
Hap. TpHCTpaHeH naKT hjih ocTa "PHM-EepJiHH-TotcHo") h orpaHHHaBaxa ra- 

paHTHpaHHTe OT TbpHOBCKaTa KOHCTHTyiJHfl fleMOKpaTHHHH CBo6oflH. 

Ha 1. IX. 1939 r repMaHCKHTe bohckh pa36oftHHHecKH Haxnyxa b nonnia. 
AHrjiH^ h Opamjiui o6flBHxa BOHHa Ha TepMaHHfl. 3anoHHa BTopaTa 
CBeTOBHa BOHHa, Haft KBpBaBaTa h acecTOKa BOHHa b HCTopnaTa Ha 
HOBenecTBOTO. TepMaHHfl 3aB3e Eejirafl, XojiaHflM, /JaHM, HopBeraa h 
ycTaHOBH ni>JiHO rocno/jcTBO Haa EBpona. npe3 k>hh 1940 r. KanHTyjiHpa 
OpaHijHH. npe3 ^HyapH 1940 r. npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha Teoprn KboceHBaHOB 
6euie 3aMeHeH c npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha npocj). BoraaH Ohjiob, kohto noa 
ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha ijap Bopnc no-peniHTejiHO aeMOHCTpnpa c6jiHaceHHe c 

XHTJiepHCTKa TepMaHH^ H yTBtp/JH aHTH^eMOKpaTHHeH H MOHapXO(J)a- 

uihctkh pe5KHM b Ei>jirapHfl. Ha 1. III. 1941 r. Bor^aH Ohjiob noannca 
npoTOKOJi 3a npHCT>eflHH^BaHe Ha Bi>JirapHH kt>m TpHCTpaHHHfl naKT 
(repMaHM-HTanHfl-.SnoHHfl). npe3 MapT HeMCKHTe bohckh HaBjmoxa b 

37 



EtJirapHfl, a npe3 anpHJi Haxjiyxa b lOrocjiaBHfl h PbpiiHfl. OaKTHHecKH 
EtJirapHfl 6eine OKynnpaHa ot HeMCKHTe bohckh. Ha 12.XII.1941 r. 
6tJirapcKOTO npaBHTejicTBO CKtca ^HnjioMaTHHecKHTe OTHOiueHHfl etc 

CAIU, H AHrJIHfl H HM o6flBH BOHHa. 

npH Te3H ycjiOBH5i peMCOBaTa opraHH3ai(Hfl b rHMHa3H5iTa, ptKOBO^eHa 
ot HHCTpyKTOpH (oTroBOpHHim) Ha yneHHnecKOTO 6iopo npH LJK Ha PMC, 
npOBe^cflame ninpoKa /jeftHOCT 3a npHBJiHnaHe Ha yneHHiiHTe b aHTH(j)a- 
ihhctkoto flBHflceHHe h 3a Bi>3nHTaHHeTO hm b aHTH(J)auiHCTKH #yx, b ayx Ha 
jiio6ob h npe^aHOCT ki>m po/jHHaTa h Hapo^a, 3a pa3o6jiHHaBaHe Ha iiiobh- 
HH3Ma h 4>aiHH3Ma ? 3a npoTHBOfleiicTBHe Ha npaBHTejicTBaTa Ha KtoceHBa- 
hob h BorflaH (Dhjiob fla ycraHOBOT MOHapxo(j)aiiiHCTKa ^HKTaTypa h Bi>BJie- 
KaT EtJirapna bi>b BTopaTa CBeTOBHa BOHHa. npe3 yne6HaTa 1940/1941 r. 
6ax HJieH Ha ptKOBOflCTBOTO h pa6oTex c PiBaH Hhkojiob (CrapOTo), kohto 
6enie OTroBOpHHK Ha rHMHa3H>rra. OTroBopHHK (HHCTpyKTOp) ot yneHHHe- 
ckoto 6iopo 3a rHMHa3H5iTa 6eme Tepo rpo3eB , kohto cbc cboa TaKT h ^e- 
MOKpaTHHHOCT, BHCOKa KyjiTypa h nojiHTHHecKa noflroTOBKa OKa3a rojiflMa 
noMom 3a aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha HauiaTa opraHH3ai(Hfl h HefiHOTO BKJiiOHBaHe b 
nojiHTHHecKHTe aiciiHH Ha PMC b Co<])H5i. C Hero CMe npOBeacflajiH 
3aceaaHH5i Ha p^kobo^ctboto b KBapTHpaTa Ha HBaH Hhkojiob (CrapOTo), b 
MO^Ta KBapTHpa Ha yji. "Ctoah 3aHMOB" N° 10 h b KBapTHpaTa Ha AceH 
MaHOB Ha yji. "CBera HayM" N« 62. Tepo Me CBtp3a c Mnxanji BejibOB (b 
KBapTHpaTa Ha yji. "K)HflOJia"), kohto 6eme OTroBOpHHK Ha TtproBCKOTO 
yHHJinma "BacHJi AnpHJiOB" h opraHH3HpaxMe CbBMecTHH fleftcTBHfl. 

Bnocjie^cTBHe Tepo 6eme 3aMeHeH ot flpyr apyrap, KoroTO 3ae^HO c 
AceH HapeKOXMe ,3,paraH. Ton 6eine npeKpaceH momi>k, flo6i>p MacoBHK: 
H3Hac5fflie xy6aBH 6ece#H no Me^cayHapoflHOTO nojioaceHHe, aaBame oijeHKH 
3a nojiHTHHecKHTe cbGhtha y Hac (3a ^HCKycHH b Hapo^HOTO ci>6paHHe, 
nojiHTHKaTa Ha (JmiiiHCTKOTO npaBHTejicTBO h flp.), nocTaB^mie h «o6pe 
H3^CH5iBauie 3aaaHHTe npe/j HauiaTa opraromiiHfl, cpeinaiue ce c 
OTroBOpHHijH Ha peMCOBH rpynn. CTaHaxMe ao6pn npMTejiH h necTO ce 
cpemaxMe Meayjy eceHTa Ha 1941 r. h npojierra Ha 1942 r 

npe3 eceHTa Ha 1940 r. B3exMe ynacrae b t. Hap. CoSojieBa aKuiiH. B 
Co(])Hfl npHCTHrHa niaBHHflT ceKpeTap Ha HapoflHHfl KOMHcapnaT Ha 
Bi>HiHHHTe pa6oTH Ha CCCP ApKaflHH Co6ojieB 5 kohto npe/yioflCH Ha 



* Tepo Tpo3eB no TOBa BpeMe e ciyfleHT no Me/wim Ha h p^kobo^h yneHHHecKOTo 6iopo npn OK Ha 
PMC - rp. Co(J)hh (cjieA ATaHac Ctohkob h Mhtko PycHHOB). HapeA c TOBa, npe3 1941-1942 r. 
toh opraHH3npa 6ohhh rpynn 3a AHBepcnoHHH achctbhh b CTOJiHuaTa, b kohto npHBJiHMa h hakoh 

CpeflHOHIKOJIUH OT CO(J)HHCKHTe rHMHa3HH. B>K. II. IlBaHOB. CTy^eHTCKaTa MJiaAOK B 

aHTH(J)aiiiHCTKaTa 6op6a 1941-1944. C, 1985, 93-94, 149. 
38 



6wirapcK0T0 npaBHTejiCTBO Aa ce ckjiiohh ^oroBOp 3a ApyacGa h B3anMono- 
moiu Meayjy flBeTe CTpaHH n /ja ce pa3iunpflT HKOHOMHHecKHTe n h Kyjnyp- 
hh B3aHMOOTHonieHH^ Meagjy ABeTe CTpaHH. nporpecHBHaTa 6i>jirapcKa 
o6mecTBeHOCT npoBe^e aiajna 3a Bt3AeHCTBHe Bi>pxy npaBHTencTBOTO h 
IJap BopHC aa npneMar Te3H npe/jJioaceHHH. OpraHH3Hpaxa ce ctGpaHHfl h 
ce ci>6Hpaxa noflnncn Ha fleceTKH xhjia/jh rpasK/jaHH. 

Hne ? peMCHCTHTe ot TbproBCKara rHMHa3Hfl, cbiijo B3exMe ynacTne: 
nHiuexMe nHCMa flo npaBHTencTBOTO, #o Hapo^HH npe/jcTaBHTejiH h 
o6mecTBeHHijH, pa3npocTpaHABaxMe no3HBH c HCKaHna EtJirapCKOTO 
npaBHTencTBOTO ,ua npneMe npeflJioaceHHHTa Ha CtBeTCKOTO npaBHTencTBO. 

C nncMa, no3HBH h jihhhh 6eceflH H3Ka3axMe Hectrjiacne h c npnerafl 
npe3 HHyapn 1941 r. ot npaBHTencTBOTO Ha Eor^aH Ohjiob 3aKOH 3a 3amn- 
Ta Ha HauHHTa, kohto Ha npaKTHKa jihihh GtnrapcKHTe eBpen ot TexHHTe 
ochobhh rpa>KflaHCKH h hobchikh npaBa. Pa3flCHHBaxMe HeroBaTa peaKijnoH- 
hoct h HeaeMOKpaTHHHOCT, npoTecTHpaxMe h cpemy bchhkh H3aeBaTencTBa 
Ha MOHapxo(|)aHiHCTKOTO npaBHTencTBO npoTHB 6i>nrapcKHTe eBpen b 
cjie^BamHTe hhkojiko ro^KHH. 

B Kpaa Ha 1940 r. npaBHTencTBOTO h Hapo/jHOTO ctGpaHHe npnexa 
3aKOH 3a opraHH3HpaHe Ha GtJirapcKara MJia/jeac h CT>3flafloxa (JminncTKa 
Mna^e>KKa opraHH3aijHfl "BpaHHHK", kohto HMaine 3a 3aflana aa BT>3nnTa h 
o6yHH 6tnrapCKaTa MJiafleac bt>b BapHa cjiy>K6a Ha ijapa. 3a HJieHOBeTe Ha 
"BpaHHHK" ce npe/jBnayjaxa npHBHJieran npn 3aeMaHe Ha cjiy)K6a, npn 
nocn>nBaHe b yne6HH 3aBe,n;eHHfl h ap. Bchhkh etmecTByBamn MJia,zje)KKH 
opraHH3aijHH ce nocTaBHxa noa KOHTpona Ha ynpaBaTa Ha "BpaHHHK". 
/J,eMOKpaTHHHaTa o6mecTBeHoer h oco6eHO HHTejinreHijHflTa (nncaTejin, 
apTHcra, npocBeTHH ^enijH h pp.) ce npoTHBonocTaBHxa Ha Ta3H opraHH3a- 
ijHfl, nocTaBHJia ch 3a 3aaana aa BT>3nnTaBa MJia/joTO noKoneHHe bt>b 
(J)auiHCTKH jsyx, bi>b BT>3npneMaHe Ha MpaKo6ecHnnecKHTe H^en Ha XnTJiep 
h MycojiHHH, b no^Kpena Ha MOHapxo^aniHCTKH^ cipon b EtJirapna. B 
HamaTa rnMHa3Hfl ci>mo ce d>3aafle opraHH3aijHfl Ha "BpaHHHK", koato ce 
ptKOBO^enie ot a/jMHHHCTpaijHflTa h hakoh ynnTejiH. C JiHHHa arnTaijnfl, c 
no3HBH-o6pi>meHH^ h nncMa pa3o6jiHHaBaxMe Ta3H opraHH3aun^ KaTO 
moBHHHCTHHHa, aHTHHapoflHa h aHTHfleMOKpaTHHHa. ^eMOKpaTHHHHTe ynn- 
Tejin He npneMaxa Ta3H opraHH3ai(Hfl h necTO OTKpHTO no^nrpaBaxa 
yneHHijHTe c GpaHHnnecKH yHH(|>opMH h 3Haijn, KoraTO Te He ce cnpaBflxa 
ao6pe npn H3nnT no ctOTBeTHa /jHcijHnjiHHa. CnoMHiiM ch TaKtB cjiyqan: b 
nac no HeMCKH e3HK e/jHH yneHHK npeaaae Ha yHHTeim KojieB no3HB, kohto 
6hji HaMepnji Ha HHHa en. KojieB nperjie^a CBAtpacaHHeTO My, ycMHXHa ce 
flOBOjmo h noMOJiH ynemiKa m nponeTe no3HBa, b kohto ce pa3o6jiHHaBame 

39 



"EpaHHHK" h ce oTnpaB^me npH3HB kt>m yneHHiwre aa He HJieHyBaT b Ta3H 
opraHH3auHH h m ce 6opflT cpemy Hen. 

flefiHOCTTa Ha PMC h Ha aHTH(|)aiHHCTHTe b rHMHa3HATa 3HaHHTenHO ce 
aKTHBH3Hpa cjiefl Hana,zi;eHHeTO Ha XHTJiepOBa repMaHHfl cpemy CCCP Ha 
22.VI.1941 r. h cnefl o6flBjraaHeTO Ha BOHHa ot CTpaHa Ha 6i>JirapcKOTo 
npaBHTejicTBO Ha BejiHKo6pHTaHHfl h CAIU, (neKeMBpH 1941). 06pa3yBa ce 
MomHa CBeTOBHa aHTH(J)aiHHCTKa ? aHTHXHTnepHCTKa KoajiHijHH Me5Kfly CCCP, 
AHniiDi, OpaHipra, CAIU, h Apyra CTpaHH 3a ocBo6o)*meHHeTO Ha EBpona h 
ApyrHTe nopo6eHH CTpaHH ot XHTJiepOBa repMamra, HTajiHfl h Jlnomui. 

B BaTaK. Ha 20.VI.1941 r. 3aBT>puiH yne6HaTa ro^HHa. Ha 21. VI., 
cb6oTa, rpyna yneHHiiH ot BaTaK (To,nop BaHHeB, Bopnc MapHH, Teoprn 
nefiHHHOB h a3), oratTyBaxMe 3a poflHHfl BaTaK, KVjeTO npHCTHrHaxMe 
paHO cyTpHHTa Ha 22.VI. (Heflejra). Ot pa^HOTO y3HaxMe, ne bohckhtc Ha 
4>auiHCTKa TepMaHH^ ca HaxjiyjiH BepojiOMHO b CCCP. no rjiaBHaTa yjiHija 
HMame Heo6HHafiHO MHoro xopa, nyBCTBame ce TpeB05KHO Hanpe5KeHHe. 
npe,zi; HHTajiHin;eTO ce ci>6paxMe rpyna yneHHiiH h flpyra MJiafle5KH. Be3 

KaKBHTO H JX& 6HJIO yrOBOpKH, BCHHKH Ce OTnpaBHXMe H3BT>H CeJIOTO Ha 
BHCOHHHaTa flO M. "#HKOB MOCT", KaTO pa3rOBapflXMe 0)KHBeHO. Bchhkh 

ci>3HaBaxMe 9 ne 3anoHBa CBeTOBHa 6HTKa 3a .zjeMOKpaijHfl, CBo6o^a h 
HaiiHOHajiHa He3aBHCHMOCT Ha Hapo^HTe npoTHB Me^c^yHapoflHaTa 
peaKijHfl, 4>auiH3Ma h MpaKo6ecHeTO, h ne b Ta3H BOHHa me ce pemaBa h 
ci>fl6aTa Ha 6tJirapCKH^ Hapoa, kohto Tpa6Ba aa ce npOTHBonocTaBH Ha 
CBoeTO (J)auiHCTKO npaBHTencTBO b HeroBM CTpeMOK aa no^noMaraHe 
TepMaHHu. 3aTOBa 6eme Heo6xo^HMO ^a ce 3acHJiH aHTH<|)aiiiHCTKOTO 
ABHtfceHHe, 6aTauiKaTa MJia,ue)K ^a ocTaHe BapHa Ha 3aBeTHTe Ha 6aTauiKHTe 
BtCTaHHijH ot AnpHJiCKOTO BtCTamie, aa noKaace CBOOTa npe^aHOCT kbm 
CBo6oflaTa ? aeMOKpaijHflTa h coijHanHaTa cnpaBefljiHBOCT. Te3H flyMH He 
6axa npa3HH npHKa3KH. Te 3Bynaxa KaTO KJieTBa. Bchhkh ynacTHHijH b Ta3H 
HMnpOBH3HpaHa cpema npe3 cjie^BamHTe toothh B3exa aKTHBHO ynacrae b 
6op6aTa npoTHB (J)aniH3Ma ? a hakoh 3arHHaxa etc CMtprra Ha xpa6pHTe. 

npe3 JieTHHTe MeceijH pa6oTex b BaTaK - ynacTBax b npH6npaHeTO Ha 
peKOJiTaTa, a c 6paT mh Ejiaroa c Konara npeB03BaxMe TyxjiH, nactK h 
KaMtHH 3a CTpoe5Ka Ha HOBa crpa.ua Ha CTOJiapcKOTO ynHJiHiqe. Hohth 
BCAKa Benep ce cpemax c MJia,ne5KH aHTHcJmiHHcra. 

HyBCTBauie ce peBOJiioijHOHHO pa3,HBH)KBaHe Ha ayxoBeTe. Ochobch 
ijeHTtp Ha cpemHTe hh 6eine HHTajiHiijeTO. B Te3H pa3roBopH, 6ece,zjH h 
eKCKyp3HH 6axa hakoh ciyaeHTH (Ebthm nyHHeB, #hko ilHeB, AHren 
Ctohmchob, TpeHfla(|)HJi KepejioB h pp.) h yneHHiiH (CrecJmH BacHJieB, 
Tocko BaHneB, Bopnc EanHHOB, To,nop BaHHeB, Bopnc MapHH, AHreji 

40 



HayineB, Teopra nefiHHHOB, Cnac HeAeB, Eopnc n. HaynieB, To^op 
tjojxaKOB, Ctoah IlayHOB, OrecjmH nayHOB, ,H,hmhtt>p Be3eB h ap.). 

AKTHBH3Hpaxa Ce H GaTaiUKHTe KOMyHHCTH, peMCHCTH H aHTH(|)aniHCTH - 

HHKOJia h Teopra HojiaKOBH, AHreji h Hjiha HayineBH, Tcwop KojiapOB, 
JlHMHTBp H. IJypeB, TpeH,na(j)HJi EajnmoB, HHKOJia BejiKOB, AjieKca 
KoJiyiweB, Ilerbp T. BpanqeB, Ilerbp fl^cypKOB, BacHJi ,ZJhmob, ,H,hmhtt>p 
BpaH^eB, Teopra BaHneB h ap. 

B afljiara CTpaHa npaBHTejicTBOTO npeanpne nojiHiteficKH penpecHH, 
orpaHHHH CBoGoAaTa Ha cb6paHH)rra h Ha cjioboto, KaKTO h aefiHocrra Ha 
KyjiTypHO-npocBeTHHTe opraHH3aiiHH (wrajinma, cnopTHH opraHraaijHH, 
Bi>3fli>p^aTejiHH apy^cecTBa h ap.). Gbc 3anoBea Ha miOBflHBCKHfl o6jiacTeH 
HanajiHHK ot BaTaK 6axa HHTepHHpaHH HHKOJia Bt>jikob, Ebthm IlyHHeB, 
AjieiccaHa'bp KojiyHneB (ceKpeTap Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aiiM) h HHKOJia 
BejiKOB (ceKpeTap Ha PMC). IIocjieflHHTe flBaMa npeMHHaxa b HejierajiHOCT. 
Ebthm IlyHHeB ce yicpHBa h3bcctho BpeMe, ho 6eme 3ajiOBeH h H3npaTeH b 
KOHu;eHTpai^HOHHHa jiarep b c. Ehhkboh, KcaHTHHCKO. 3a #hko ^hcb ei>mo 
6e H3aaaeHa 3anoBea 3a HHTepHHpaHe, ho toh ce HaMHpame b 
na3apfl^cHniKaTa 6ojiHHija h 6enie nocTaBeH noa nojiHitencKa oxpaHa. Te3H 
h apyra penpecHH Ha BJiacTTa Cb3flaaoxa hcaobojictbo h cpemHaxa 
cbnpoTHBa. A nojiHiiHOTa npojrbjraaBauie ^a apecTyBa h HHTepHHpa 
6aTaniKH aHTHCJmniHCTH. 

Ha 2.IX.1941 r. TpHMa nojiHijan OTHBaT aa apecTyBaT 3aBi>pHajiH^ ce ot 
CCCP npeflH 4 roaHHH Toflop A. KojiapOB, kohto no TOBa BpeMe 6enie 
AHpeKTOp Ha ai>CKOpe3HaTa (])a6pHKa "Op^efi". Toh oica3Ba CbnpoTHBa. 
Tpyna aHTHtJmiHHCTH HCKaT ocBo6oacaaBaHe Ha KojiapOB. 3aBi>p3Ba ce 
B'bop'MKeHa cxBaraa, nyBaT ce H3CTpejiH, aBaMa nojiHija ca yGnra, a Toflop 
KonapoB e ocBo6oaeH. UlecTHMa ot ynacTBajiHTe b CTbJiKHOBeHHeTO 
MHHaBaT b HejierajiHOCT: HHKOJia h Teopra HojiaKOB, AHreji h Hjiha 
HaymeBH, TteTbp HafineB h caMHOT To^op KojiapOB). Te, 3aeflHO c no-paHO 
npeMHHajiHTe b HejierajiHOCT Ajickch KojiyHneB h HHKOJia BejiKOB, 
o6pa3yBaT m>peaTa napTinaHCka neTa b Ei>JirapHK. 

B BaTaK nojioHcemieTO 6eme TpeBO^CHO. 3anoHHaxa hobh penpecHH, 
o6hckh b aoMOBeTe Ha aHTH^aniHCTH h npeflHMHO Ha h3bccthh Hpe3 
JierajiHH npo^BH KOMyHHcra h peMCHCTH. 06)iBeH 6enie nojnmeftcKH nac. 
TpeBora o6xBaHa i^jioto Hacejiemie. Pa3Ka3BaM 3a nojiHTHHecKaTa 
o6cTaHOBKa b BaTaK, 3amoTO ta ce oraaomie h 3a i^JiaTa CTpaHa. He 
HJieHyBax HenocpeacTBeHO b peMCOBaTa opraHH3aitfDi b BaTaK, KaKTO h 
flpyrHTe yneHHijH, kohto HJieHyBaxa b opraHH3aijHHTe Ha ebOTBeraHTe 
yHHJinma. Hne B3eMaxMe yHacrae b pa3)iCHHTejiHaTa aHTH^aniHCTKa 

41 



aeftHOCT cpefl HacejieHHeTO, h oco6eHO cpefl ynamara ce MJia,ne)K. HMax 
cjieflHHfl cjiynafi: 6euie cpe^aTa Ha ceirreMBpH, pa3xo)K,naxMe ce no 
rjiaBHaTa yjraija c Tocko BaHneB, a Bene Ha6jiH)KaBanie nojraiieHCKHjrr nac. 
KtM Hac ce npHCbeflHHH AjieKca BaHneB, kohto no-KtcHO CTaHa 
napTH3aHHH h 3arHHa (3aeflHo c 6paT ch TeoprH BaHneB - HafifleH), b 
cpa^ceHHe c nojiHiiHjrra npe3 1944 r. Toh hh npeflJio^cH aa ro npHflpy^cHM 
flo KtmaTa Ha TpeH,a;a(|)HJi nonoB, 3a aa My noMoraeM aa B3eMe h npeHece 
eflHa nyuiKa (Kapa6HHa). B flBOpa Ha TpeH,nac[)HJi AjieKca B3e Kapa6HHaTa h 
h ntxHa b innpoKHH ch tojkJ). TpHMaTa othobo npeMHHaxMe no rjiaBHaTa 
yjiHi^a h npeHecoxMe Kapa6nHaTa ao flOMa Ha AjieKca. 

B niMHa3HHTa. Yne6HaTa 1941/1942 r. b rHMHa3Hjrra 3anoHHa b Kpaa 
Ha cenTeMBpn, tbh KaTO npe3 jiototo crpaaaTa 6eme H3noji3BaHa KaTO 
6ojiHHija 3a jieneHHe Ha hcmckh bohhhijh, ynacTBajiH BtB BOHHara cpemy 
PbpijHJL KaKTO BHHarn npn 3anoHBaHe Ha HOBaTa yne6Ha roflHHa HMax 
paflocTHH cpeujH etc ctyneHHiiHTe, cnofleimxMe cnoMeHH 3a cjiyHKH h 
npeMe^cflHH npe3 jiflraaTa BaKamiHa. 3a KJiaceH HacTaBHHK Ha HauiM XI 
"»c" KJiac 6euie onpeaejieH Teopra ^eneB, kohto ot TpH roflHHH hh 
npenoflaBauie chctoboactbo h HMaine MHoro ao6po OTHonieHHe ki>m 
yneHHiiHTe. Rbm MeH h AceH ce OTHacauie c noflnepTaHO yBaacemie. 
3anoHHaxMe aa H3ynaBaMe hakoh hobh flnciiHnjiHHH (rpaacaaHCKO npaBO, 
TbproBCKO npaBO, nojiHTHnecKa apHTMeTHKa) h Tpfl6Bame aa CBHKBaMe c 
HOBHTe hh yHHTenn: AHTOHOBa, Eo6eBa, Knpno Cokojiob h ap. 

A3 noflHOBHX aeHHOCTTa ch b peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl. IIojiHTHHecKaTa 
o6cTaHOBKa b CTpaHaTa h 3acnjieHHTe nonnijeHCKH penpecHH H3HCKBaxa 
aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha aHTH(J)aniHCTKHTe h aeMOKpaTHHHH opraHH3aijHH 3a 6op6a 
cpemy (j)auiH3Ma h uiOBHHH3Ma. C HBaH Hhkojiob (OrapoTo) h OTroBopHHKa 
Ha yneHHHecKOTO 6iopo npn OK Ha PMC 3a rHMHa3Hjrra ,3,paraH 
opraHH3HpaxMe cpeuja Ha aKTHBa Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl b KBapTHpaTa 
Ha AceH MaHOB. ,3,paraH HanpaBH o6cToeH flOKJiaa 3a nojiHTHHecicaTa 
o6cTaHOBKa b CTpaHaTa, 3a pemeHHOTa Ha IJK Ha BPn h PMC m ce 
aKTHBH3Hpa 6op6aTa Ha 6i>jirapcKHfl Hapoa cpemy MOHapxo(|)aniHCTKOTO 
npaBHTencTBO h HeroBaTa aHTH6i>jirapcKa, aHTHHapoflHa nojiHTHKa, noconn 
Heo6xoflHMOCTTa ot no-flo6pa nponaraHflHa achhoct, KaKTO h KOHKperaHTe 
3aaaHH ? nocTaBeHH npe# peMCOBHTe opraHH3aijHH b yne6HHTe 3aBe,neHHJL 
Eax onpeaeneH 3a OTroBopHHK (ceKpeTap) Ha PMC b TtproBCKaTa 
raMHa3HHTa. 

HauieTo rHMHa3HajiH0 pt>kobo,o;ctbo, b KoeTO BHH3axa ouje AceH 
MaHOB, HBaH Hhkojiob - OrapOTO h HBaH neTKOB, 3anoHHa aa pa6oTH 
npeflH bchhko 3a yicpenBaHe Ha peMCOBHTe rpynn no KJiacoBe, 3a 

42 



npHBJiHHaHe Ha hobh HJieHOBe h CHMnaTH3aHTH, 3a npOTHBonocTaBHHe Ha 
iauiHCTKHTe oprami3aijHH ("JleraoH", "EpaHHHK", "Oreij IlaHCHH"). B VIII 
KJiac Ha rHMHa3H5iTa 6axa nocn>nHJiH hobh yneHHijH, kohto onje HflMaxa 
nonHTHHecKa opHeHTaijHfl h e/jHa ot 3a,naHHTe 6enie /ja ce pa6oTH cpe/j tax, 
3a fla 6i>flaT npHBneneHH b aHTH^aniHCTKOTO flBH^ceHHe h b peMCOBaTa 
opraHH3aijHfl. A 3a TOBa 6euie Hy)KHO BpeMe, pa3yMHa h npaB/jHBa 
arHTauH*. 

IIo TOBa BpeMe nonra bt>b BceKH KJiac Ha rHMHa3HOTa HManie peMCOBa 
rpyna h aKTHB ot aHTH<|)aiHHCTKH HacTpoeHH yneHHijH. Hne, rHMHa3HCTHTe- 
peMCHcra, ce CTpeMaxMe aa pa3o6nHHaBaMe aHTHHapo^HaTa nojiHTHKa Ha 
npaBHTencTBOTO, KoeTo npeBtpHa HaniaTa CTpaHa b 6a3a Ha XnTJiepoBa 
TepMaHHH bi>b BOHHaTa npoTHB CtBeTCKH^ cbK)3. 3a Ta3H ijen nnmexMe h 
pa3npocTpaH5iBaxMe ctothijh no3HBH h nncMa. B tax ce pa3flCH>reame 
cnpaBeflJiHBaTa BOHHa Ha CCCP, MomTa h no6eflHTe Ha cnaBHaTa h 
repoHHHa HepBeHa apMM h Ha CT>K>3HHTe apMHH Ha BejiHKoGpHTaHH* h 
CALLI,. rioflntp^caxMe ayxa h BapaTa Ha ynamaTa ce MJiaflOK b HeH36e)KHaTa 
no6eaa Haa ^auiHCTKa TepMaHH^. CnpaBeflJiHBOTo h 3aBJia,a#Bamo cjiobo Ha 
PMC h Ha aHTH(J)aniHCTKOTO flBH^ceHHe CTaBame aocTOSHHe Ha 
raMHa3HCTHTe h Ha rpaacaaHHTe. 

PeMCOBOTO HH ptKOBOflCTBO OpraHH3Hpa peMCHCTHTe H aHTH(|)aiIIHCTHTe 

ot rHMHa3H5iTa aa ynacTBaT b pe,mma aHTHnpaBHTencTBeHH nojiHTHHecKH 
AeMOHCTpauiiii Ha EtJirapcicaTa pa6oTHHHecica napTM (EPII), PMC h 
aHTH^aniHCTKHTe chjih b rp. Co(J)H5i. Hne MacoBO ce BKJiioHHXMe b MJia- 
ae^KKHTe aeMOHCTpaiiHHTe bt>b Bpt3Ka c 67-Ta roflHHiHHHa ot AnpHJiCKOTO 
Bi>CTaHHe Ha 3. V. 1942 r., npa3HHKa Ha KnpHJi h MeTO/pra Ha 24.V.1942 r. 
(qneTO OT6ejM3BaHe H3pHHHO 6eme 3a6paHeHO ot BJiacTHTe) h .nemi Ha 
BoTeB h Ha 3arHHajiHTe 3a CBo6oaaTa Ha BtJirapHH Ha 1 h 2.VI.1942 r. 

Ha Te3H aeMOHCTpapHH ce H3#Hraxa Ji03yHraTe "Bt>h xHTJiepHCTKHTe 
OKynaTopH ot EtJirapHfl!", "J\oiiy (JmniHCTKOTO npaBHTencTBo!", "J\?l )KHBee 
e^HHCTBOTO Me^ay cjiaBHHCKHTe Hapofln!" Ileexa ce Bt3po^cfleHCKH necmi. 
Te3H atcijHH HeH3MeHHO 3aBi>pHiBaxa c HanaaeHH^ ot CTpaHa Ha nojiHijHflTa., 
c no6onma h MacoBH apecTH. Cnea KaTO ynacTBaxa b TaKHBa .neMOHCTpaijHH, 
HJieHOBeTe Ha PMC ot HaiuaTa rHMHa3H* yicpenBaxa, cTaBaxa ome no-TBtpflH 
h totobh 3a 6op6a, a bjihahhcto hm cpea ocTaHajiHTe yneHHijH paereme. 

IIpe3 paHHaTa npojieT Ha 1942 r. b KBapTHpaTa mh flofifle ,ZJparaH h mh 
npefljio^cH aa ce pa3xoflHM b napKa. OloGiijh mh, ne OTHBa b npoBHHijHflTa h 



3a Te3H ^eMOHCTpauHH b>k. iioapo6hocth y n. HBaHOB. OryfleHTCKaTa Mjia^e^c b 
aHTH(J)aiiiHCTKaTa 6op6a 1941-1944. C, 1985, 30-32. 

43 



ne 3aHanpe^; me pa6ora c Apyr OTroBOpHHK, kohto me Me noceTH b Mo#ra 
KBapTHpaTa. OnpeaejiHXMe naponaTa: "Moaceni jih m mh ycjiyacniii c 
yne6HHK no CTOK03HaHHe?" Pa3#enHx ce apyacecKH c HOBeKa, KoroTo 
o6HKHax npe3 e/jHoroflnniHaTa hh cbBMecraa pa6oTa. Cne^ hakojiko #hh b 
KBapTHpaTa mh #OH#e 3aMecTHHKbT My - e#HH KpacHB, ycMHXHaT h flo6pe 
oGneneH MJiafleae. Ilofl HeroBO ptKOBOflCTBO h c HeroBO CLfleficTBHe HauiaTa 
peMCOBa opraHH3aijHii ynacraa b hhkojiko aKijHH Ha PMC npe3 m. Man h 
iohh. C Hero ce pa3#enHXMe b Kpaa Ha iohh 1942 r. c noaeenaHHe m ce 
BHflHM cues jwTHaTa BaKaHijHH. CpemHaxMe ce othobo o6ane b CocJjhhckhh 
ijeHTpajieH 3aTBOp npe3 aeKeMBpn 1942 r. h ToraBa y3Hax, ne ce Ka3Ba 
^HMHTbp PycHHOB, ciyfleHT no Me/jHiiHHa. Benie octfleH 3a ynacrae bt>b 
BoeHHa KOHcnnpaijHfl. CTaHaxMe MHoro ao6pn npiDrrejiH h noAntpHeaxMe 
KOHTaKTH flo Kpaa Ha HCHBOTa My. Cnefl 1944 r. ^hmhtbp 3aBtpuiH 
cneiinajiHOCT "MeayiyHapoflHH OTHomeHiDi" b MocKBa h HanpaBH ycneniHa 
Kapnepa KaTO flnnnoMaT h o6mecTBeHHK. Benie xapH3MaraHHa jihhhoct h 
HManie MHoro npiwnrejiH. 

JlerajiHa 6a3a 3a pa6oTaTa Ha PMC b TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl 6enie 
BT>3#T>p2KaTejmo ^py^cecTBO "Pa3yM h bojih". Okojio /jeHHOcrra Ha 
Apy^cecTBOTO, HeroBHTe ijenn h Hflen ce 6axa o6eflHHHHH MH03HHa yneHHiin 
c nporpecHBHH pa36npaHHfl, kohto BOflexa 6op6a npoTHB ajiKoxojiH3Ma, 
TioTioHonynieHeTO h coiyiajiHHTe Hefli>3H. Hapea c TOBa, Btsfltp^caTejiHOTO 
ABH)KeHHe ce npOTHBonocTaBfline Ha (JmuiHCTKHTe opraHH3aiiHH, Ha hiobh- 
HH3Ma h MpaKoSecneTO. rnMHa3HajiHOTO ptKOBOflCTBO Ha PMC yMeno H 
HenocpeflCTBeHO HanpaBJi5reanie fleHHOcrra Ha apy^cecTBOTO h HeroBHTe 
HJieHOBe He ce no/maBaxa Ha npOBOKaijHHTe Ha (^aniHCTKHTe opraHH3aijHH, 
kohto rbpcexa noBOfl 3a HeroBaTa 3a6paHa. PtKOBOflHTen Ha apy^cecTBOTO 
no aflMHHHCTpaTHBHa jihhha 6eme yHHTenflT KoHCTaHTHH CroHJineB. 
npeflceaaTeji ao 1941 r. 6eme Bopnc EoeB, a npe3 1942 r. - HBaH Bcjihhob 
h HBaH IleTKOB. MHoro #o6i>p ycnex HMaxa arHTaijHOHHHTe ceflMHijH h 
AeceTflHeBKH Ha apyaeecTBOTO (npoBeagjaHH TpaflHijHOHHO npe3 nponerra), 
b paMKHTe Ha kohto yHHTejiH, BHflHH o6m;ecTBeHHiiH h aeftijH Ha Bi>3fl'bp- 
HcaTejiHOTO flBH^ceHHe 6axa KaHeHH aa H3HacOT 6eceflH. Te3H MeponpHflraa 
HMaxa romiMO bjihahhc Btpxy yneHHiiHTe. Hne, peMCHCTHTe, HJieHyBamn b 
Apy^cecTBOTo, npoaBABaxMe ocoSeHO rojiflMa aKTHBHOCT b opraHH3aijHHTa 
Ha arHTaiiHOHHHTe ceflMHipi. BeceflHTe h etSpaHHOTa hh ce npOBe^caaxa b 
roneMHH cajiOH Ha rHMHa3HHTa h ce nocemaBaxa MacoBO ot yneHHijHTe. 

TaKa, npe3 Man 1941 r. ce npoBeae anrraiiHOHHa ceflMHija Ha 
BtsfltpHcaHneTO. Ha ctGpaHHeTO 6ece/jH H3Hecoxa a-p MnHa HoTOBa- 
Y3yHOBa ? KoHCTaHTHH CTOHnneB h a-p E(|)peMOB, kohto 6axa h3bccthh 

44 



neHUH Ha BMAtpacaTejiHOTO ABroKeHHe, £o6pe no3HaTH h yBa^KaBaHH ot 
vqeHHUHTe h y^HTejiHTe. Pe(J)epaT nponeTe h HBaH Hhkojiob (OrapoTo), 
KOHTO TOBOpH 3a COIJHaJIHHTe KOpeHH h Bpe^HHTe nocjie^HUH Ha 
anKOXOJiH3Ma. Tofi pa3BHBauie MHCbjrra 3a HeoGxoflHMOcrra ot coijnajiHH 
npoMeHH, Hpe3 kohto rzl ce cb3,na,naT ycjiOBHfl 3a npeMaxBaHe Ha 
ajiKOXOJiH3Ma. HBaH roBopeuie c MomeH h rtpneH mac. YHemwwre- 
peMCHCTH My ce BT>3xnmaBaxa, a TexHMT Bt3TOpr oqe noBene ro 
Bfl'bXHOB^Baiue. Tofi neTeme, ho h roBOpeuie, OTKJioHflBafiKH ce ot 
npe^BapHTejiHO oflo6peHHH ot r-H Ctohjihcb tckct. 

npe3 Mafi 1942 r. othobo npoBe^oxMe arnTaunoHHa ceflMima 3a 
Bi>3 / ai>P^ aTejIH0T0 flBH3Kemie. IlonHTHHecKaTa o6cTaHOBKa b CTpaHaTa 
6eme ome no-H30CTpeHa. nonnijeficKHTe BJiacTH 3acHJinxa penpecHHTe. He 
ce no3BOJMBaxa npoaBH Ha /jeMOKpaTHHHH h aHTH(])amHCTKH opraHH3aijHH. 

rHMHa3HaJIHOTO pl>KOBOflCTBO Ha PMC H Ha BtSfltp^CaTeJIHOTO apy^cecTBO 

(c npeflceflaTen HBaH Bcjihhob) peniHXMe fla npeBtpHeM anrraijHOHHaTa 
BT>3,zi;i>p^caTejiHa ceflMHija b nojiHTHHecica aHTH(|)aiHHCTKa aKitna, KaTO cna3- 
BaMe ycTaHOBeHHTe npaBHJia 3a ny6nHHHaTa H3flBa h He /jonycicaMe npoBO- 
KauHH. noKaHHXMe flo6pH neKTOpH, a Hpe3 r-H KoHcraHTHH CroHJineB, T03H 
HeyMopeH TpyaceHHK Ha BT^fltpacaTejiHOTO flBHacemie, coijHajmeMOKpaT no 
y6e)K#eHHe, nerajiH3HpaxMe Bene H3roTBeHaTa nporpaMa. Tofi oao6pu 
TeMHTe, B3e ctrnacHeTO Ha flHpeKTOpa, ocnrypH noji3BaHeTO h no^pe^Aa- 
HeTO Ha (^H3KynTypHH^ canoH. ToBa 6eme /jocTaTbHHO 3a Hac. ^OKJiaflBax 
njiaHHpaHHTe MeponpnjrnDi Ha ^paraH - HaniHfl OTroBOpHHK no jihhha Ha 
PMC. Tofi ctmo oflo6pn nporpaMaTa n fla^e yKa3aHne aa Gt^eM BHHMa- 
TejiHH n fla ce CBi>p)KeM c Bi>3fli>p}KaTejiHHTe ApyacecTBa b flpyrnTe rnMHa- 
3HH ? KoeTO n HanpaBHXMe. 

npoBefloxMe aKTHBHa anrraipra Ha Bt3fl'i>p^caTejiHaTa aefiHOCT. H3pa6o- 
THXMe ac|)Hni-o6^Ba c nporpaMaTa Ha cica3KHTe n ro pa3npocTpaHHXMe b 
Apyrn ynnjinma. CanoHa n KopH/jopa Ha rHMHa3MTa yKpacnxMe c rnpJiHH- 
AH. nocTaBHXMe nopTpeTHTe Ha ABrycT Oopeji, Bacnn JIcbckh, MaKCHM 
TopKH, AceH 3naTapOB n jsp. C AceH MaHOB noceTHXMe ci>K)3a Ha BT>3,m>p- 
)KaTejiHHTe flpyacecTBa (Ha yji. "CojiyHCKa", ro nji. "CjiaBefiKOB") n B3exMe 
MHoro njiaKara, Ji03yHra n KapmcaTypH c BT^'BpflcaTejiHa TeMaraica, kohto 
pa3npocTpaHHXMe b crpa^aTa Ha HaniaTa rHMHa3HATa n b hakoh flpyrn 
yHHJinma. B H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha nporpaMaTa ce BKJiiOHHxa c eHTycHa3tM 
tojmm 6pOH peMCHCTH n CHMnaTH3aHTH-Bi>3fl'bp^caTejiH. npeBtpHaxMe ara- 
TaunoHHaTa ceflMHija b npa3HHK n b JierajiHa npoflBa Ha aHTHcJmnracTKHTe h 
AeMOKpaTHHHH chjih b TtproBcicaTa rHMHa3H5rra. nocemeHHeTO 6euie 
MacoBO. Cica3KHTe 6axa mhoto flo6pH, no Bfl'BXHOBflBam HannH Te H3Jiaraxa 

45 



xyMaHHHTe Hflen Ha Bt3fli>p^caTejiH0T0 ^BHaceHHe. OcoSeHO BnenaTJi^Bama 
6enie Sece^aTa Ha BH^HaTa o6mecTBeHHHKa a-p Bapa 3jiaTapeBa~reH0BCKa 
Ha TeMa "Hfleajnrre Ha MJia/jeacra". Ta roBopH MHoro xy6aBO h H3pa3HTejiH0, 
c BnenaTJiHBamo Bi>OAynieBJieHHe. H#eHTe tx cpaBHH c ropema nnaMrama 
nenica, kooto npHBJiHHa, "ho kt>m Hea Tpa6Ba /ja ce noflxoacfla MHoro BHHMa- 
TenHO, 3a aa He ce raropHTe. TaKa e h c H/jeme h H^eajiHTe. Te Tpa6Ba aa ce 
H36npaT h Bi>3npHeMaT c MHoro BHHMaHHe. npH H36opa hm HAMaTe npaBO Ha 
rpeniKa. A HOBeKbT, MJiafleactT, H36paji cboot n/jeaji, Tpa6Ba /ja My cjiyacn 
BceoTflaiiHO h flOKpafi. ^,o6pH ca Te3H H^eajiH, kohto cjiyacaT Ha Hapo^a, 
kohto Bt3pa»yi;aT HOBeica h ro no/jTHKBaT klm CBoGo^a, macrae, xyMaHH3T>M, 
cnpaBeflnHBOCT, B3aHMonoMom h jik)6ob KbM xopaTa." Tx flaae npHMepH c 
XpHCTO EcyreB, BacHJi JIcbckh h apyrHTe 6i>JirapcKH Bi>3pO)KfleHijH h 
flontJiHH, ne BT^'BpacaHHeTO 3acHHBa HpaBCTBeHHTe ycTOH Ha HOBeica, npaBH 
ro no-flo6T>p, no-6jiaropoaeH, HecreH, cnpaBe^JiHB h cboGo^ojiioGhb. 

YHeHHitHTe neraoHepH ce apa3Hexa ot ycnexHTe Ha HaniHTe npo^BH h 
rbpcexa noBOfl 3a cicaHflaji, 3a npOBOKaipw. Cnea ni>pBaTa CKa3Ka Te yHH- 
mo^KHxa yKpacaTa h pa3Ktcaxa nopTpeTHTe Ha JleBCKH, EoTeB, AceH 
3naTapOB ? ABiycT Oopen h pp. rHMHa3HajiHOTO ptKOBOflCTBO Ha PMC ome 
ci>maTa Benep no^roTBH HOBa, ome no-#o6pa yicpaca, nocTaBHXMe hobh 
ji03yHra, a b cajiOHa - hobh nopTpera. OpraHH3HpaxMe oxpaHa Ha arma- 
itHOHHHTe MaTepnajiH. Akthbhoct b H3m>jiHeHHe Ha nporpaMaTa npoaBHxa 
AceH MaHOB, HBaH BenHHOB, HBaH IleTKOB, HBamca MajiHHOBa, Tpa^HKa 
3axapHeBa ? Hjiha HnneB, Ebthm Ebthmob, CaBa TeBpeHOB, Ctoah 
KoniapeBCKH, /JoHKa HbpBaHOBa h jsp. 

EflHa ot HaniHTe yneHHHecKH KyjnypHO-npocBeTHH opraHH3aijHH 6eme 
jiHTepaTypHHHT Kpi>/KOK "HBaH rpo3eB", pi>KOBOfleH ot Haaeayja 
Eo6eBa, bhcoko KBajiH(|)HipipaHa h aBTOpHTeTHa npeno/jaBaTejuca no 
6tnrapcKH e3HK. Ha c6HpKHTe Ha Kptacoica ce H3Hacaxa pe(j)epaTH Ha 
HHTepaTypHH h (J)hjioco4)ckh TeMH, ^eKnaMHpaxa ce cthxobc B fleHHOcrra 
Ha flpy^cecTBOTO rocnoflCTBame o6mo B3eTO ^eMOKpaTHHeH ayx. B 
ptKOBOflCTBOTO npeoGnaaaBaxa yneHHitH, CBi>p3aHH c nojiHTHHecicaTa 

OpraHH3aitHfl "OTeiJ naHCHH" - /jHMHTbp AHTOHOB, ^HMHTBp Khhob h 

flpyra yMHH h aeMOKparaHHO HacTpoeHH MJia^eacH, He3aBHCHM0 ot 
4>aiHHCTKaTa H^eojiorHfl Ha opraHH3aijHOTa hm. P^kobo^ctboto Ha PMC 
noflTHKBauie kt>m ynacrae b KptacoKa peMCHCTH h flpyra nporpecHBHH 
yneHHitH, a b xo^a Ha flHCKycHHTe Bi>pxy np0H3BeaeHH^Ta Ha H3BecTHH 
6i>nrapcKH h HyacaecTpaHHH nncaTejm h noeTH ce CTpeMAXMe m 
pa3o6nHnaBaMe Mpaico6ecHeTO, aa yTBi>p^cflaBaMe HOBeKOJHoGneTO h 
CTpeMe^ca kbm CBo6oaa h pa36HpaTejicTBO Meac/iy xopaTa h HapoflHTe. H 

46 



ycnflBaxMe. Ham Heo(J)Hu;HajieH npe^cTaBHTeji Seme HBaH Hhkojiob 
TeoprHeB, kohto aKTHBHO ynacTBame b paSoTaTa Ha peMCOBaTa 
opraHH3aijHfl b rHMHa3HOTa. Yhquuixhtq ot pt>kobo,hctboto Ha Kpi>)KOKa 
no3HaBaxa MHoro «o6pe HeroBHTe jieBH ySeayteHHa. HBaH Seine noaroTBeH 
MHoro floSpe no jiHTepaiypa h 4>hjioco(|)hji. Toh HMnoHHpame Ha 
jno6o3HaTeJiHHTe yneHHiiH KaKTO cbc CBOflTa epy^Hipifl, TaKa h etc 
counanHO oSarpeHHTe ch TpaKTOBKH Ha oScb^cflaHHTe npoH3BeaeHHfl. AceH 
MaHOB ci>mo B3eMame ynacrae b flHCKycnnTe no hakoh tcmh. 



* * * 



KaKTO ce nocTapax #a noKaaca, fleHHOcrra Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl h 
Ha peMCHCTHTe b Ti>proBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl Seme CKpOMHa h HMame 
npeflHMHO arHTaiiHOHHO-nponaraHflHCTKH xapaKTep. Ta Seme HaconeHa 
kbm npOTHBOfleficTBHe Ha (J>amH3Ma b CTpaHaTa n no CBeTa, npoTHB 
aHTHHapoflHaTa h aHTHfleMOKpaTHHHa nonnTHKa Ha MOHapxoc|)amHCTKOTO 
npaBHTejicTBO, npoTHB BOHHaTa. 

HamaTa fleiiHOCT 6h H3rjie^cflajia HantJiHO HopMajraa b e^Ha 
,zi;eMOKpaTHHHa /j^p^aBa. B E^JirapH* no TOBa BpeMe oSane nofloSmi 
npo^BH ce HaKa3Baxa no Haii-CTpor HannH b cbOTBeTCTBHe c pa3nopefl6HTe 
Ha 3aKOHa 3a 3amnTa Ha A^p^aeaTa (33,3,). 3a pa3npocTpaHeHne Ha 
no3HBH 5 nHCMa, cjiyxoBe, 3a cb3,naBaHe Ha flOBepne b non3a Ha Hyaena 
fltpacaBa, 3a ci>3flaBaHe Ha HeflOBepne kt>m ,m>p)KaBHaTa BJiaer, 3a KOMyHH- 
CTHHecKH y6e>KfleHHH ce nojiarame 3aTBOp (brjuohhtcjiho - floacHBOTeH), a 
3a fleftcTBHfl, BJiomHJiH OTHomeHH^Ta cbc cbK)3Ha ,m>p)KaBa, KaKTO h 3a yna- 
erae b paflHonpeflaBaHHfl npoTHB ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha ,m>p>KaBaTa, ce nojia- 
rame cmt>pt. To3H 3aKOH Seme npnjiaraH Hafi-OKecTOKO. Xhjwah MnaaeacH b 
HamaTa CTpaHa MHHaxa npe3 3aTBOpHTe h JiarepHTe, a MH03HHa Saxa ySnTH. 

3a 3HaneHHeTO Ha HamaTa CKpOMHa rqPlhoct, 3a SopSnTe Ha MnaflHTe 
aHTH(J)amHCTH npe3 T03H nepnoa npaBflHBO CBH^eTencTBa /Jhmo Ka3acoB, 
kohto nnme: "Te KptcTOCBaxa Ty rnyxnTe yjnnjH, Ty myMHHTe 6yneBap,ziH, 
Te CHOBHxa ot flOM b flOM h THHaxa ot HOBeK Ha HOBeK 5 3a «a menHaT ot yxo 
Ha yxo SoflpH h cmcjih cnoBa h «a pa3Hac*T no3HBH c najiemn peflOBe... Te 
ce flBHacexa cpe« HenpHjrrejiH h OTBcaKbfle rn aeSHeme onacHOCT". 1 

B BaTaK. YneSHaTa 1941/1942 r. npHKJiioHH ycnemHO n a3 3aBi>pinHX 
eflHHaaeceTH KJiac. CSoryBax ce c AceH h oeraHajiHTe apyrapH ot 
peMCOBaTa opraHH3aiiHa, a CT>mo h c npMTejiHTe ot moa KJiac. Xa3*HTe mh 



Ka3acoB, J\. Bhzjhho h npe>KHBflHO. C, 1969, c. 668. 

47 



Me npeflynpe^Hxa, ne noBene HHMa #a aaBaT KBapTHpaTa no,zj HaeM, 3amoTO 
HMaT fleija Ha Bi>3pacT, kohto H3HCKBa aa HMaT caMOCTOHTejiHa craa. 
C6oryBaxMe ce ebpfleHHO, 6jiaro^apHX hm 3a rocTonpHeMCTBOTO h #o6pOTO 

OTHOUieHHe KT>M MeH H KT>M To^Op BaHHCB, H3BHHHX Ce 3a HenpHflTHOCTHTe, 

kohto Moace 6h CMe hm ci>3flaBajiH. 3aBi>pHax ce b BaTaK ci>c CMeceHH 
nyBCTBa. Beme noHHHan hhho HHKOJia, KoroTO MHoro oSnnax, ho He 6hx Ha 
norpe6eHHeTO My. Ba6a Bi>p6a Me nocpemHa c pH^aHHe. He Mo^cenie #a 
npe^cHBee CMi>pTTa Ha e^HO ot oceMTe ch fleija. Ha flpyrn^ rqh paHo 
cyTpHHTa oth^ox c Hea ,zja ce noKJiOHfl npefl rpo6a Ha hhho. 

npe3 neTHHTe BaKaHipioHHH MeceijH Ha 1942 r. noMarax Ha ceMencTBO- 
to ch b cencKocTonaHCKHTe pa6oTH. 3a okojio Meceij (npe3 iojiH-aBrycT) pa- 
6othx KaTO 06m pa6oTHHK b ropCKO CTonaHCTBO "EeniHKa". TyK ce c6jih- 
)khx c HaB^ap MnxannoB - yneHHK ot e^Ha coc|)HHCKa rHMHa3HH, kohto 
cjiea 1944 r. 3amHTH KammzjaTCKa ^HcepTaiiHa h KaTO aoijeHT npenoaaBa- 

Hie B CO(|)HHCKHH £T>p)KaBeH yHHBepCHTeT; C HjIHfl MHTKOB OT C. Pa^HJIOBO, 

kohto yneuie b nemepcKaTa rHMHa3HH, a npe3 1943 r. CTaHa napTH3aHHH (c 
nceBflOHHM "Ko6a") h 3arHHa npe3 npojierra Ha 1944 r. b cpa^ceHHe c 
nojiHijHHTa; c /Jhmhtbp ^hmhtpob ot c. P030BO, CT>mo yneHHK. H nerapH- 
MaTa 6axMe peMCHcra, cnoaejwxMe ch hobhhh 3a aeftcTBHHTa Ha HepBeHaTa 
apMH^ h H3Bi>piHBaxMe arHTaijHOHHa pa6oTa cpea ropCKHTe pa6oTHHiiH. 
CpemaxMe ce h c pe,mma 6aTaimcH Mna,zje)KH, kohto pa6oTexa Ha pa3JiHHHH 
o6eKTH Ha JiecHHHeHCTBOTO (Hanp. ^hmhtt>p BnaroeB h HBaH ^OMycnneB 
ot ManiHHHOTO OT^ejieHHe Ha ai>CKOpe3HaTa 4>a6pHKa). 

nojiHiieHCKH^T Tepop b BaTaK ce 3acHJiBame. HecTO ce ycTpofiBaxa 
6noKa^H h npeTbpCBaHHH Ha ^CHJinma h mccthocth b BaTaK h HeroBHTe 
okojihocth, KaKTO h b ropCKHTe CTonaHCTBa, H3Bi>piHBaxa ce apecTH Ha 
npo^iBeHH b MHHanoTo aHTH(|)auiHCTH h nneHOBe Ha BPn h PMC. npe3 m. 
aBiycT 1942 r. ce cbCToa nojiHTHHecKH npoijec cpemy rpyna ot 19 flyuiH, b 
t. h. 17 6aTanaHH ? o6bhhchh no 33^. Cpe# ocb^eHHTe no TOBa aeno 6axa 
.HBaMaTa 6hbihh ceKpeTapn Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha BKn b BaTaK 
neTbp T. BpaHneB h AneKca KojiyH^eB. E#hh ot CBH^eTejiHTe b non3a Ha 
no,zjcT>,zjHMHTe 6euie h 6ama mh neTbp A. HayuieB. 

Bi>npeKH Tepopa h npecjie^BaHHOTa, 6aTaniKaTa MJia^oK, h oco6eHO 
HHe, yneHHiiHTe h CTy^eHTHTe, H3non3BaxMe BaKamiHflTa 3a nojiHTHnecKH 
cpeujH, npOBe)K,zjaHH no# (|)0pMaTa Ha eKCKyp3HH, BenepHHKH, ^cypOBe h np., 
b xo^a Ha kohto Bo^exMe o^chbchh pa3roBopn npoTHB npaBHTencTBeHaTa 
nonHTHKa, npoTHB (|)aiHH3Ma, H3pa3^BaxMe y6eaeHOCT b HeH36eacHaTa 
no6e#a Ha HepBeHaTa apMHfl h CT>K)3eHHTe apMHH Ha BenHKo6pHTaHHfl h 
CAIU,. B BaTaK HflMame (JmniHCTKH npoflBH Ha ynaujH ce Mnaae^cH. 

48 



Othobo b rHMHa3HHTa. YneGHaTa 1942/1943 ro#HHa 3anoHHa Ha 15 
cenTeMBpH. CpenjHTe Meacay cbyneHHUHTe, h oco6eHO Meamy Hac, peMCH- 
cTHTe h aHTH(J)ainHCTHTe ? 6axa MHoro cbpaenHH h HacHTeHH c pa3Ka3H 3a 
npe^cHB^HOTO npe3 jieTHHTe BaicaHijHOHHH ahh. B HaiiiM XII ">k" KJiac 
H^Mauie npoMeHH. Hne c AceH MaHOB 3aexivie cbohtc MecTa Ha nocjieflHHTe 
HHHOBe b peflHi^aTa ao np030pijHTe. YneGHHTe 3aH>iTHfl 3anoHHaxa c Hanpe- 
aceHHe: 6axMe b nocjieflHaTa roflHHa Ha HameTO yneHHe h hh npeflCToeuie 
#a ce flnnjioMHpaMe. HyBCTBaxa ce Kaicro 3acHJieHOTO CTapaHHe Ha yneHHijH- 
Te fla ycBO^T yHeGrow MaTepnaji, Taica h 3aBHiueHHTe H3HCKBaHHH Ha yHHTe- 
jiHTe. C #ko Mojixob, yneHHK b X KJiac, poflOM ot KaMeHHija, c KoroTO 6ax- 
Me ci>HfleHHHL(H h MHoro flo6pH npHOTejiH, HaexMe KBapTHpa Ha yji. "TyH- 
,0)Ka" N° 44. KbmaTa 6euie e,zjHoeTa)KHa, naaHTOBa, c flBe CTan h KyxHfl. B 
6htobo OTHomeHHe He 6euie yao6Ha, ho xa3*HTe hh 6axa mhoto flo6pH xopa. 

EaHH aeH okojio 20-25. IX. 1942 r. npea crpaaaTa Ha rHMHa3HATa Me 
nocpemHa Tepo Tp03eB h cjiea cbpaeneH apyrapCKH pa3roBopH mh ei>o6mH, 
ne othobo me oiroBapfl 3a peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl b rHMHa3HATa. ,3,oro- 
BOpHXMe ce h cjiea hakojiko ahh HanpaBHXMe 3aceaaHHe Ha rHMHa3HajiHOTO 
ptKOBOflCTBO b KBapTHpaTa Ha AceH. Tepo HaicpaTKO hh HH^opMHpa 3a 
3acHJiBaHeTO Ha aHTHC^auiHCTKaTa 6op6a b CTpaHaTa h ci>3flaBaHeTO Ha 
6ohhh rpynn h napTH3aHCKH Hera, 3a flBaTa ci>fle6HH npoijeca cpemy bh^hh 

pI>KOBOflHTeJIH Ha BPII H aHTH(j)aHIHCTKOTO £BH}KeHHe npe3 K)JIH, 3aBl>pHIH- 

jih c H3flaBaHeTO h H3ni>jiHeHHeTO Ha hakojiko CMtpTHH npHCbflH. 3Haex Be- 
ne, ne e pa3CTpejrai noeTLT HHKOJia BamjapoB, 6nx neji HeroBaTa craxo- 
c6npKa "Motophh necHH", noaapeHa mh npeflH hakojiko Meceija ot HBaH 
Hhkojiob TeoprneB. Pa3npocTpaHjraaxMe, neraxMe h fleioiaMHpaxMe npea- 
CMi>pTHHTe necHH h nncMa Ha noeTa peBomoijHOHep, kohto B'boaymeB^Baxa 
MJiaae^cHTe. 

Eopdama e 6e3MUJiocmuo otcecmoKa. 
Eopdama, Kaxmo Ka3eam y e enuuna. 
A3 naduax. JJpye tye Me CMeuu u... 

mOJlK03. 

KdKeo myK 3HQHU HHKama cu jiuHuocm?! 



Ho e dypnma tye dbdeju naK chc me6e, 
napode mou, 3aw f omo me odunaxMe! 



Tepo hh HH(j)opMHpa, ne no HHHijHaraBa Ha Teoprn ^hmhtpob ce 
cb3£aBa aHTH(J)aiHHCTKaTa opraHH3aima OrenecTBeH (|)poHT, kohto Tpa6Ba 



49 



#a o6e#HHH fleMOKpaTHHHHTe napTHH b Ei>JirapHfl h bchhkh aHTH^ainncTKH 
chjih. OcHOBHaTa 3a,niaHa Ha OTenecTBemifl (J)poHT 6euie ^a opraHH3Hpa 
6op6aTa 3a ci>6apflHe npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha iiap Eopnc, #a He ^onycHe bt>bjih- 
naHeTO Ha Ei>jirapHfl b pa3najieHaTa ot XnTJiep npecrtmia BoftHa, ^a 6i>flaT 
Bi>3CTaHOBeHH nojiHTHHecKHTe CBoGoflH Ha 6i>JirapcKHTe rpa>K#aHH h 
HKOHOMHHecKHTe npaBa Ha Tpy^emHTe ce. EflHa ot 3aaaHHTe Ha PMC 6enie 
aa ci>3flafle rpynn Ha OTenecTBeHM (|)poHT b rHMHa3Hjrra. Criea hakojiko 
flHH Tepo mh npeaafle immiocTHJieH eK3eMmrap Ha nporpaMaTa Ha OTene- 
CTBeHHii (|)pOHT h HflKOJiKO no3HBa. 3ano3Hax ce MHoro flo6pe cbc cbffbpyKar 
HHeTO Ha nporpaMaTa h oco6eHO c 12-Te 3aaaHH Ha OTenecTBeHHfl 4>poHT, 
H3Jio)KeHH MHoro KpaTKO h acho. 3Haex ra HaH3ycT 5 3amoTO Tp^6Bauie #a 
npenHCBaM MHoro m>TH nporpaMaTa, rzl n pa3npocTpaHABaM h pa3flCHABaM 
Ha peMCOBH h flpyrn c6npKH. Ci>fl6aTa mh OTpe^H b npofltJDKeHHe Ha mhoto 
roflHHH aa pa6oT5i b h c OTeHecTBeHO(J)poHTOBCKH opramoaiiHH. H BHHara 
HMax npeflBHfl Te3H 12 3aaaHH 5 Mvjpo (J)opMyjiHpaHH ot Teoprn /Jhmhtpob, 
ho 3a ct^cajieHHe He BHHara H3m>jiHflBaHH. 

EflHa Benep b Kpaa Ha m. cemeMBpH, Koraro ce npnGnpaxMe c 5Iko 
Mojixob kt>m HainaTa KBaprapa, 6axMe npecpemHara "cjiynaftHo" Ha yji. 
"TyHfl^ca" ot Tepo h «Be aeBoftKH. Ton Me npe^cTaBH Ha eflHara ot tax, 
o6achh ne Tii me 6tfle peMCOB OTroBOpHHK 3a HainaTa raMHa3Hfl n hh 
noacejia ycnex. OKa3a ce, ne TOBa e Po3a KopirrapoBa, c koato pa6oraxMe 
ycneniHO b npofli>Ji»ceHHe Ha okojio flBa Meceija. ^oroBOpnxMe BpeMe 3a 
cpeimrre, kohto hh npeflCToaxa. C Po3a ce BH^flXMe cjiefl hakojiko ahh b 
HaniaTa KBapTHpa. HH^opMHpax a 3a cbcraBa Ha opraHH3aiiHflTa, 3a 3aaa- 
HHTe ? kohto H3m>jiHflBaMe, 3a Tpy^HOCTHTe, kohto cpemaMe npn ctHeTaHHe 
Ha yne6HaTa c o6mecTBeHara h nojiHranecKa aeftHOCT. PeniHXMe aa aKTH- 
BH3HpaMe peMCOBHTe rpynn, m npHBJieneM hobh HJieHOBe h CHMnairaaHTH 
h aa ra 3ano3HaeM c nporpaMaTa Ha OreHecTBeHM 4>poHT, koato Tpfl6Baine 
fla npenncBaMe h pa3npocTpaHABaMe cpefl yneHHiiHTe h rpa^caaHHTe. 

Po3a npenopi>Ha Ha MeH h 5Iko Mojixob aa He H3non3BaMe KBaprapara 
3a peMCOBa aeftHOCT h aa He npneMaMe bmiuhh jnma, 3a «a He npHBJiHHaMe 
BHHMaHne. OrpeMeaebT hh aa cjie^BaMe T03H ci>BeT CKOpo flOBe^e «o MajitK 
"HHijHfleHT". Cjiea hakojiko flHH ce noflBH Tepo Tp03eB h Ka3a ? ne me 
npeHomyBa npn Hac. Bi>3pa3HX h My Ka3ax 3a yKa3aHHjrra Ha Po3a. Ton 
o6ane ce 3aHHara: 

- A, aKO e a6cojnoTHO Heo6xoAHMO, He Tpa6Ba jih aa ce HanpaBH 

H3KJIIOHeHHe? 

npe^cTaBHXMe Tepo Ha xa3flHTe, n>fi KaTO 3a HainaTa CTaa ce MHHaBaine 
npe3 TaxHara. Toft ra no3flpaBH h ce pi>KyBa flpy^KecKH c tax. 

50 



- HflBaM no noptneHHe Ha pcwrrejiHTe Ha AHren ^a npoBepa KaK e. 
Cjiyina jih bh? 

H 3anoHHa Tepo pa3roBOpH c xa3>iHTe, HanpaBH hm MHoro ao6po 
BnenaTJieHHe h Bnocjie^cTBHe Te necTO Me nmaxa KaK e moat "6paTOBHe/i;". 
EflHa ro^HHa cnea 9.IX.1944 r. cjiynaHHO ce cpemHaxMe c Hero. 3Haex, ne e 
6hji b 3aTBOpa, a cera e ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha PMC b rp. CTapa 3aropa. Cnea 

ni>KOCTHCKaHHfl H nperptflKH a3 Bl>3KJIHKHax: 

- Tepo, noHantJiH^n ch! 

- 3amoTO ch HMaM co6cTBeHa KBapTHpa - oiroBOpH toh. 

H ^BaMaTa ce 3acMflXMe, KaTO ch cnoMHHXMe 3a yneHHHecKOTO mh 
aouinme... 

PeMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha TbproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl bi>3o6hobh #en- 
Hocrra ch npe3 eceHTa Ha 1942 r. c HaMajieHa hhcjichoct, 3amoTO yneHHijH- 
Te-peMCHCTH ot BHnycK 1941/1942 r. Bene 6axa 3aBi>pHiHJiH o6pa30BaHHeTO 
ch. HMaxMe o6ane h hobo nom>JiHeHHe - npnexMe TpHMa hobh apyrapH, 
npexBi>pJiHJiH ce ot apyrn yne6HH 3aBeaeHH^: Mnxanu BejibOB (c KoroTO 
Bene ce no3HaBaxMe KaTO HJieHOBe Ha ceKTOpHOTO pt>kobo#ctbo Ha PMC), 
KnpHJi MnneB h IJohbo IJoHeB, kohto ce OKa3a MHoro aeeH h 6enie y6HT 
npe3 m. Man 1943 r. b /JnpeKijHfl Ha nojiHijHflTa 3a HenerajiHa aeiiHOCT b 
e^HH ot KBapTajiHTe Ha Co(^hh. 

^BaMaTa c AceH npOBe^oxMe cpemn c rpynoBHTe OTroBOpHHijH, a Te 
3ano3Haxa HJieHOBeTe Ha rpynHTe c nporpaMaTa, cbmHocrra h 3HaneHHeTO 
Ha OTenecTBeHH^ $pOHT. ITpaBenie mh BnenaTJieHHe GoapocTTa, eHTycna3- 
Ma, naTpHOTHHHOTO caMonyBCTBHe Ha peMCHCTHTe, CHMnaTH3aHTHTe h 
aHTH^aniHCTKH HacTpoeHHTe yneHHijH. npOBe^oxMe aiaina 3a ctGnpaHe Ha 
napHHHH cpe^cTBa h HeH3noji3BaHH KynoHH 3a xpaHHTenHH ctokh. Ha 1 
HoeMBpH 1942, neuz Ha Hapo/jHHTe Gy^HTejiH, HaniaTa peMCOBa opraHH3a- 
ijHfl ynacTBa b .zjeMOHCTpaijHfl, opraHH3HpaHa ot rpa^CKHfl komhtct Ha PMC 
b BopHCOBaTa rpa^HHa h 6yu. "IJap OcBoGo^HTeji" npOTHB aHTHHapo^HaTa 
nonHTHKa Ha npaBHTencTBOTO, npOTHB BOHHaTa, npOTHB CTonaHCKaTa 
pa3pyxa. H3flHraxa ce Ji03yHrH, neexa ce naTpHOTHHHH necHH. nojiHijHjrra 
o6ane B3e ctoTBeTHHTe MepKH 3a pa3roHBaHe Ha aeMOHCTpaijHOTa h 
H3Bi>pHiH apecTH. Ha 3-th HoeMBpH nonyHHXMe CBe#eHHfl, ne Hop^aH 
Bohhob, OTroBOpHHK Ha peMCOBa rpyna b HaniaTa rHMHa3H5i, e apecTyBaH, a 
b flCHjinmeTO My e HanpaBeH o6hck. 3a ^a ce y6eflHM, ne toh e b apecTa, 
noMOJiHXMe HeroBaTa xa35iHKa ^a My 3aHece xpaHa b /jHpeKiiH* Ha 
nojiHijHOTa. KaTO oGmhcjihxmc HemaTa, CTHrHaxMe ,ao H3BO#a, ne HaBapHO e 
6hji 3a6ejmaH no BpeMe Ha .neMOHCTpaijHOTa h e 6hji apecTyBaH paHO 
cyTpHHTa Ha cjieflBamnfl ^eH. nonynnxMe h CBeaeHHa, ne 10-15 ahh npe#H 

51 



TOBa e 6hji apecTyBaH KHpHJi Mhjicb, ctyneHMK Ha HopaaH ot HeroBHH 
KJiac. ToBa hh pa3TpeBoacH ome noBene. Ci>o6mHXMe bchhko TOBa Ha Po3a 
h npo£i>JDKHXMe npe^na3JiHBO HainaTa peMCOBa /jeHHOCT. 



* * * 



B npoAtjraeHHe Ha nerapH ro^HHH a3 ynnx h ce Bt3nHTaBax b 
TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. IIpeacHBflx MHoro paflocra h ycnexn, npeoaojwx 
MHoro TpyflHocTH. 06ffiCHax HameTO yHHJiHme, yHHTejiHTe, MOHTe ebyne- 
hhijh h npHjrrejiH, MOHTe ctpaTHHijHTe aHTH^auiHCTH. H cera oGnnaM ,qa 
nocemaBaM crpa/jaTa Ha rHMHa3Hjrra. Thxo ce npoMtKBaM Kpaii nopraepa, 
orneacflaM (JjoafieTO h KOpHflopHTe, Ha/jHHHaM b KJiacHaTa eraa, cxrsm Ha 
HHHa, Ha kohto c AceH MaHOB 6paTCKH ce^xMe 4 ixwihh, MHHaBaM npe3 
6H6nHOTeKaTa 5 yHe6rorre Ka6HHeTH no c[)H3HKa h cTOK03HaHHe, o6pa3ijOBaTa 
KaHTOpa no cneTOBO/jcTBO, canoHa 3a ci>6paHHflTa, ynemiHecKaTa erojiOBa, b 
kooto He caMO ce xpaHexMe, ho h npOBeayjaxMe MHoro 3aaynieBHH pa3- 
roBOpn c npn^TejiHTe. 

BtJiHyBamn ca cnoMerorre 3a npeKpacHHTe mh apyrapn peMCHCTH, c 
kohto ynacTBaxMe, MaKap h MHoro ckpomho, b 6nTKaTa Ha HaniM Hapo# h 
Ha CBeTOBHaTa aeMOKparanHa o6iii;hoct, Hanejio ci>c CCCP, CA1U, h BejiH- 
Ko6pHTaHH^[ npOTHB XHTJiepo(J)aniH3Ma. C jik)6ob h rop^ocT ch cnoMHAM 3a 
HfleajiH3Ma 5 3a caMoacepTBaTa, 3a 6e3K0pHCTH0CTra, 3a roTOBHOcrra Ha 
MOHTe apyrapn aa ce 6opflT 3a CBo6oaaTa h He3aBHCHMOCTra Ha Ei>JirapHfl, 
3a cortnajiHaTa cnpaBe,zyiHBOCT, 3a BflpaTa hm b npaBOTaTa Ha coijHajiHCTH- 
necKHTe naeajiH. ToBa 6axa yMHH, MtapH h BHCOKOHHTejinreHTHH MJia^eacH 
h fleBOHKH, nocBeTHJin CBOjrra MJia^ocT Ha 6op6aTa 3a H3rpaac,naHe Ha hobo 
cnpaBeflJiHBO o6mecTBO, ocHiypjraamo CBo6o#a, macrae h 6jiaro#eHCTBHe 
Ha Hapofla. H He cjiynaflHO cjie# no6e^aTa Ha ^eBeTocenTeMBpHHCKaTa 
Bi>CTaHHe npe3 1944 r. h ycTaHOBABaHeTO Ha ^eMOKparaHHaTa BJiacT Ha 
OTenecTBeHH^ (J)poHT ? Te c yM h TanaHT, c hccthoct h Tpynojno6He pa6o- 
THxa ycneniHO b HaH-pa3JiHHHH c(|)epH KaTO hkohomhcth, JieicapH, yHHTenn, 
npo(|)ecopH 5 apTHCTH... Te 6axa HaBC^Kt^e. H Kt^eTO h #a ce HaMHpaxa, 
KaKBaTO h #a 6eine TaxHaTa aeiiHOCT, tq Hocexa bhcokoto 3BaHHe peMCHCT- 
H^eajiHCT, poMaHTHK, noMHexa h cna3Baxa 3aBeTHTe Ha JleBCKH h Eotcb, Ha 
^HMHTtp BnaroeB h Teoprn ,H,hmhtpob. 3a ctacajieHHe HflMaM bt>3mo5khoct 
#a pa3Kaaca 3a KOHKpeTHaTa hm aHTHcJjaniHCTKa aeiraocT. LU,e ce onHTaM /ja 
HanpaBfl TOBa no-KbCHO. MajiKO BHHMaHHe oT^ennx Ha KyjnypHO-npocBeT- 
HaTa aefraocT, koato HMaxMe KaTO yneromH, 3a flncicycHHTe h pa3roBOpHTe 
3a nponeTeHHTe KHHra, 3a nocemeHHjrra Ha Teaipme, 3a rjie/jaHHTe 4>hjimh, 
3a H3JieTHTe Kpaii Co(|)Hfl, Ha JIiojihh h BHToma. Bchhko TOBa pa3niHp^Bame 

52 



HauiHTe 3HaHHfl, o6orax^Banie HaineTo #yxoBHo pa3BHTHe... 

C yBa^ceHHe h o6hh ch cnoMHAM 3a oiroBOpHHijHTe Ha yneHHHecKOTO 
6iopo Ha PMC, kohto yMeno h c phck 3a acHBOTa h CBo6oaaTa ch pa6oTexa 
KaTO anocTOJiH 3a aeJioTO Ha PMC: Tepo rp03eB, 'yjparaH", ^hmhtbp 
Pvchhob, Po3a KopHTapoBa. C pa^oer, BtJiHemie h npeKJioHeHHe ch 

CnOMHHM 3a flpyrapHTe peMCHCTH H aHTH(])aiIIHCTH, C KOHTO CT>M pa6oTHJi: 

Ebthm Ebthmob, CTecJ)aH fl. XpncTOB h LJohi>o LJoHee, repoficKH 
3arHHajiH etc CMtpiTa Ha xpa6pHTe b 6op6aTa npoTHB 4>auiH3Ma; Bopnc 
EoeB, HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo), AceH MaHOB, Hjiha Hjihcb, HBaH 
Hhkojiob TeoprHeB, HaB^ap JIhkob, XpncTO Hb. Xphctob, TpH(])OH 
TpH(J)OHOB, CaBa TeBpeHOB, Hop^aH Bohhob, Hefljunco KnpoB... KaKTO h 3a 
no-MJiaflHTe: To,zjop UlapoB, Teoprn KyHneB, Ctoah KouiapeBCKH, ilico 
Mojixob, AHflpefi Ctoahob, KnpHJi flparoMHpoB, KnpHJi Mhjicb, Mhjiho 
Cre(i>aHOB, Hjiha MenicapOB, Bopnc BoeB (MJiaauin)... H 3a aeBOHKHTe- 
peMCHCTKH: HBaHKa MajiHHOBa, BapBapa IIIonoBa, Hafleayja LfceTaHOBa, 
MHHKa MapKOBa, TpaaHKa 3axapneBa, Mar^ajieHa HtpBaHOBa, MaprapHTa 
TeoprHeBa, Toflopica ifaeBa, Bara OnjimiOBa, ^OHKa HbpBaHOBa... 

Hafi-HCKpeHO ra yBaacaBaM h o6HHaM. CnoMem>T 3a tax e BHHara c MeH, 
b MoeTO ctpije h aynia! 

3arMHa/iM f Te BeHHO Lue H-iHBeFinr 

B CopOaTa 3a iMaoTMOTO na napOAa, aa npasAa m cao$OA$» 
sa Ti»p^MecTBOTO na Be/iMKOTO ab/io — couHa/iM3Ma, aarHMaxa 
xh/wam H/ieHoae Ha PaOoTHMHecKH M/iaA0H-tKH ci»k>3. 

B Ta3H repoHHHa GopOa naAHaxa h HaixiMTe npoKpacHH Apy- 
rapn UohidO Uohob, Ebthm Ebthmob h Crecfcan Xpmotob, 

llOK/iOH npeA CBOT/iaTa naM6T Ha M/iaAMTe naTpnoTHf 






Ektmh M, Ebthmob 



UOMbO X. lIo»ee 



Cretan JL Xpncto* 



53 



YHeHHHecKH rozuiHii 




IIpeA cTOjiapcKOTO yHHjimije b EaTaK, okojio 1936 r. 

Ot a^cho Ha jihbo npaBH: 
/J. EejieB, AHren KonapoB, Mnjiym IjBeTaHOB, AHren HaymeB, /Jhmhtlp /^^cypKOB. 

Ce^Hajm ot jmbo Ha ^icho: 
Eopnc UlyTeB (1), /Jhmhtt>p KojiapoB (4) 



54 




IIpeA naMeTHHKa Ha 3aniHajiiiTe 

b AnpHJiCKOTO BtcraHiie b 

Ba raK, okojio 1936 r. 

(Ha naMeTHHKa bjmbo TeHHO Pa^eB, 
b,hhcho AHren HaymeB) 



B ABopa Ha TbproBCKaTa 

THMHa3Hfl B Co(J)IlH, 1942 T. 

(AHren HaymeB BTopH otjmbo 

Ha#flCHO) 




55 




CtyHeHHUHTe mh ot TbproBCKaTa niMHa3iiH b VI KJiac. Collin, 1940 r. 

B I^eHTBpa - KJiaCHHHT HaCTaBHHK KptCTBO Pa^oMnpoB 

h ynHTejiHTe MnpneBa h I\ JJeneB 




Tpyna peMCHcra ot TbproBCKaTa riiMHa3iiH Ha Birroma, 25 Maii 1942 r. 

Ot jihbo Ha^CHo: XpHCTO Xphctob (1), Hop^aH Bohhob (2), AHreji HaynieB (3), 
AceH MaHOB (4), Ebthm Hhkojiob (5), Hjihji Hjihcb (6), ilico Mojixob (7), Ctoah 

KoinapeBCKH (8), HBaH IleTKOB (9) 



56 




Cjie/j noBene ot 50 ro/iiiHH 

Ot jmbo Ha julcuo: npo(J). AHreji HaynieB, nojiK. ,nou. Hjiha Hjihcb, npo(J>. HBa 
Hhkojiob, reH.-jiettT. #oij. #ko Mojixob, npo(J). CaBa TeBpeHOB (ce^Haji) 



TJIABA II 

CTPAHHIJH OT MOHTE 666 #HH BI>B OAUIHCTKHTE 

3ATBOPH (10.XI.1942 - 8.IX.1944) 

")Kady6ax ceemjiuua - 
nocmaeen cbM e mtMHUifa 
)Kejiaex ceododa, 
a CbM nnenena nmuifa " 

)Ku6ko HuKOJioe 

Apecn>T: b ^upeKuiiH Ha nojinuiiHTa 

Beine 10.XL1942 r. CyTpHHTa okojio 10 h. othaox b KBapTHpaTa Ha HBaH 
Hhkojiob Ha yji. 'TJeGtp". HMax cpema c hakojiko ayniH peMCHCTH ot ocmh- 
Te KJiacoBe Ha raMHa3HOTa (HBaH Hhkojiob, Hjiha Hjihcb, HaB^ap JIhkob h 
Ebthm Ebthmob). 06ci>,zi;HXMe BtnpocH 3a 3acnjiBaHe flefiHocrra Ha peMco- 
BaTa opraHH3aiiHH h aKTHBH3HpaHe ynacraeTO Ha peMCHCTHTe ot ocMHTe 
KJiacoBe b jierajiHHTe yneHHHecKH opraHH3aijHH (B^fltpacaTejiHO apyaee- 
ctbo "Pa3yM h bojia", HHTepaTypeH KptacoK "HBaH rp03eB f? h pp.), 3a 
pa3o6jiHHaBaHe fleftHocrra Ha neraoHepHTe h 6paHHHijHTe 5 3a npHBJiHHaHe 
Ha nporpecHBHH yneHHiui b peflOBeTe Ha PMC, 3a CKmaBaHe Ha rpynn Ha 
OO h pa3flCHABaHe Ha HeroBaTa njiaT(|)opMa Hpe3 jihhhh GeceflH, pa3npo- 
CTpaHeHHe Ha no3HBH, nHCMa h ap. no^oGHH. KaKTO h apyr m>T, ce cw/iafle 
MHoro floGpo, onTHMHCTHHHO HacipoeHHe, BtnpeKH ne KnpHJi Hhkojiob, 
6para>T Ha HBaH, 6enie b U,eHTpajiHHH 3aTBOp, ocb^eH Ha 15 r. 3aTB0p no 
npoiieca cpemy HHKOJia BaraiapOB. MaftKaTa Ha HBaH (MaftKa Opoca, KaKTO 
n HapHHaxMe, MaftKa Ha TpHMa peBOJiKmnoHepn), hh nonepnH etc cjia^KO h 
CTy^eHa BO^a h hh no^cena ycneuiHO yneHe. H3JiH30x ot flOMa Ha HBaH ki>m 
11.30 h. h 6i>p30 ce OTnpaBHx kt>m CBOOTa KBaprapa, kohto 6euie Ha6nH30, 
Ha yn. "TyHflaea" N° 44. 

B 12 h. HMax cpema c Po3a KopHTapOBa, kooto ot HMeTO Ha LJempaji- 
hoto yneHHHecKO 6iopo kbm LJK Ha PMC OTroBapauie 3a HauiaTa rHMHa3Hfl. 
Othctox npe,zi; Po3a H3Bi>piiieHaTa aeftHOCT Ha rHMHa3HajiHaTa peMCOBa 
opraHH3aiiH5i bi>b Bpi>3Ka c roflHiiiHHHaTa Ha OKTOMBpnftcKaTa peBOJiioijHfl h 
ynacTHeTO hh b ,zi;eMOHCTpaijHOTa Ha 1 HoeMBpH (J\en% Ha Hapo^HHTe 
6yjWTQim). npeaaflox ft ctGpaHH KynoHH 3a xjiaG h Ma3HHHH, a ei>mo h 
okojio 2000 JieBa, npeflHa3HaHeHH 3a HejieranHH b Cocj)Hfl. 

HH(J)opMHpax 5i 3a apecTyBaHeTO Ha Hop^aH BoShob (yneHHK ot XI 
KJiac), KoeTO CTaHa Ha 2.XI. cyrpHHTa b KBapTHpaTa My. Hop,o;aH 6eme ot 
c. Cto6, ^ynHHUiKO. H^Mauie 6ama, ho HMauie po,h;hhhh b Coc^h^. Te 6axa 

58 



vcneJiH #a noceTAT npoicypopa, aa ycTaHOBAT, ne Hop^aH ce HaMHpa b 
IlHpeKiiH^ Ha nojinijHOTa - ^p^aBHa cnrypHOCT, m My npeaaflaT xpatia h 
TaKa ^a ce yGe.zjflT, ne toh aeiicTBHTejiHO e TaM. npe/tnojiaraxMe, ne Hop^aH 
e 3a6ejiH3aH Ha fleMOHCTpaipMTa Ha 1 HoeMBpH b BopHCOBaTa rpa^HHa h Ha 
6yji. M U,ap OcBo6oflHTeji n ("LJapa"), b kocto B3e yHacrae. 

3HaexMe Bene h 3a apecTyBaHeTO Ha KnpHJi Mhjicb npe3 oktombph, 
o6ane He ro CBi>p3axMe c TOBa Ha Hop^aH. Te 6axa ot e^HH KJiac, ho MHoro 
ManKO ce no3HaBaxa. Khphji Mhjicb ce 3annca b HainaTa rHMHa3Hfl npe3 
BTOpaTa nonoBHHa Ha cemreMBpH 1942 r. 3aBi>piiiHJi 6eme X KJiac Ha 
AnpHJioBCKOTO TtproBCKO yHHJiHme - Cocjnra, KoeTO HMauie caMO TpHrOflH- 
ineH Kypc Ha oGyneHHe. C Hero Me 3ano3Ha b Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpH MnxaHJi 
BenbOB, kohto 6euie 3aBi>piiiHJi TOBa ynnjinme h ce 6euie 3anncaji b HauiaTa 
rHMHa3Hfl. Mnxanji no3HaBax ot ^Be roflHHH. 3ano3Ha hh Tepo Tp03eB. 
Beine ottobophmk Ha PMC 3a AnpHJioBCKOTO rtproBCKO yHHJinme h 
pa6oTexMe 3ae^HO b ceKTopHOTO ptKOBO^CTBO Ha PMC ot rtproBCKHTe 

yHHHHma B CO(|)Hfl (Tl>prOBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl, AnpHJIOBCKOTO TbprOBCKO ynn- 

jmme h ,H,eBHHecKOTO TtproBCKO yHHJiHuje "MHHepBa"). 3ano3Hax Khphji 
Mhjicb c HBaH IleTKOB, CaBa TeBpeHOB, Hop^aH Bohhob h pp. yneHHijH ot 
ce^MHTe KJiacoBe. Bkjhohhxmc ro b peMcoBaTa rpyna Ha KJiaca My. 

B HanajiOTO Ha oktombph b KBapTHpara Ha CaBa TeBpeHOB npoBe^oxMe 
ci>6paHHe Ha peMCOBaTa rpyna Ha KJiaca hm. 3ano3Hax rn c njiaT(j)opMaTa 
(nporpaMaTa) Ha OO, nocraBHX 3a^anaTa 3a pa3npocTpaHeHHeTO h pa3ACHfl- 
BaHeTO % 3a ci>6HpaHe Ha KynoHH h napn 3a HejierajiHH jiqPluu Ha PMC. 
Hhkojiko #hh cjiea TOBa HBaH IleTKOB Me HH^opMHpa, ne Khphji Mhjicb He 
HflBa Ha yHHJinme. IIomojihx ro #a npOBepH npHHHHaTa. ,H,onycHaxMe, ne e 
6ojieH h Tp^6Ba #a My ce noMorHe. Hhkoh o6ane ot cbyneHHiiHTe My He 
3Haeuie a^peca Ha HeroBaTa KBapTHpa. 

IToMOJiHXMe e^HH ot pa6oTHHitHTe b KyxHOTa Ha yneHKHecKHH ctoji, 
Khphji BjiaflHMHpOB, ot cejiOTO Ha Khphji Mhjicb, j\& y3Hae a^peca h fla 
HanpaBH npOBepKa. Toh ce CBi>p3aji no Tejie(J)OHa c po#HHHHTe Ha Knpo b 
cejiOTO h pa36npa, ne He e TaM. Y3HaBa cbiijo, ne Knpo HMa Jiejia b Co(J)hh, 
nocemaBa a, h ta My ci>o6maBa, ne mieMeHHHKbT h e apecTyBaH h ce 
HaMHpa b apecTa Ha BoeHHa nojnmnfl. IToMOJiHXMe KnpHJi BjiaflHMHpoB fla 
no > n; > zi;i>p^ca Bpi>3Ka c jiejiflTa. 06ci>flHXMe b rHMHa3HajiHOTO p^koboactbo 
apecTyBaHeTO Ha Knpo, pa3TpeBO>KHXMe ce, ho ,n;onycHaxMe, ne He e 
apecTyBaH 3apa^H AefiHOCT b rHMHa3H5rra, tbh KaTO ome He e no3HaT h He 
ce e npo^BHJi, npncbCTBaji e caMO Ha e^HO ci>6paHHe. 

TpeBoraTa o6ane He hh HanycKame. 3a6ejifl3axMe, ne TOBa 6e3noKOH- 
ctbo e o6xBaHajio oco6eHO chjiho HBaH ITctkob. Ctoah hh HH^opMHpa, ne 

59 



HBaH IleTKOB e 3anoHHaji aa H36arBa cpenm etc cbyneHHijHTe ch peMCHCTH 
h etc 3eMiDmHTe ch ot KocTeHeij. Toh B3e ynacTHe b H3flHpBaHeTO Ha 
aapeca Ha KnpHJi Mhjicb, ho 6i>p30 h HeonaicBaHO ce OTflptnHa ot 
peMCOBaTa pa6oTa cjiea KaTO y3HaxMe 3a apecTyBaHeTO Ha Knpo h oco6eHo 
cjiefl apecTyBaHeTO Ha Hop^aH, c KoroTO 6axa aocTa 6jih3kh. /JoToraBa 
HBaH IleTKOB Genie MHoro aKTHBeH, pa6oTeme aoGpe b PMC h bt>b 
Bt3 r u;'bp5KaTejiHOTO apysKecTBO, noaroTB^xMe ro 3a moh 3aMecTHHK- 
OTroBOpHHK Ha PMC b rHMHa3H5iTa. Toh o6ane BHe3anHO 3anoHHa #a 
H36^rBa nocTaBeHH My 3a^aHH ? KaTO ce onpaBflaBame c ynnjinmHa 3aeTOCT. 
Cno,u;ejiHX TpeBoraTa ch ot noBe^eHHeTO Ha HBaH c Po3a KopHTapoBa. Ta 
HaMHpanie, ne TpaGBa rzl 6 r bj\QM BHHMaTejiHH c Hero, m ro Ha6jiioflaBaMe, 
aa He ro H30CTaBAMe, rzl My noMoraeM aa H32KHBee CTpaxa, aa 3ana3HM 
ApyrapcKHTe ch OTHonieHHA h rzl He My Bi>3JiaraMe nojiHTHHecKH 3aaaHH. 

Pa3,u;ejiHXMe ce c Po3a. A3 B3ex naHTaTa c yne6HHijHTe h TeTpaflKHTe h 
TptrHax KbM THMHa3H5iTa okojio 13 h. MnHax no yji. "TynzpKa" h npe3 
"BHToniKa", npecMKOx BT>rjinmHHTe CKJia^oBe Ha rapa "nepjioBeij", 3a aa 
cbKpara m>Tfl, a nocjie no KaHana Ha nepJioBCKara pena h npe3 rpaflHHKara 
npefl JIo3eHCKaTa KBapTajiHa 6aHfl ce 030Bax b rHMHa3HOTa. TpeBoacHHTe 
mhcjih He Me HanycKaxa. BpeMeTO 6enie npeKpacHO. HoeMBpHHCKOTO 
cjn>Hi^e rpeenie. Benie Tonjio h npHHTHO 3a ce30Ha. Cjia6 BeTpeij 6pyjieme 
no^cbJiTejiHTe Jinera Ha jinnHTe okojio rHMHa3HOTa; 

Bjubox 6i>p3o b yneHHHecKaTa CTOJiOBa. B3ex xpaHaTa (606 h oniaB). Ha 
Macara Me Hao6HKOJinxa Ctoah KomapeBCKH, CaBa TeBpeHOB, HBaH 
BejiHHOB, /Jomca KocTOBa, AceH MaHOB. Ctoah hh ei>o6mH, ne po^HTejiHTe 
Ha Hop/jaH Bohhob 3aHecjiH 3a Hero xpaHa b /JnpeKijHfl Ha nojiHijHOTa h ta 
6njia npneTa. HBaH neTKOB npofltJDKaBaji aa OTGaraa cbyneHHijHTe ch 
peMCHCTH. 3BT>Heifi>T y^apH h BceKH noe kbm KJiacHaTa ch eraa. HbpBHfl nac 
HMax ypoK no (J)HHaHCOBa MareMaraKa, a btophht - KJiacHa pa6oTa no 
^peHCKH e3HK. yHHTejwT Cokojiob, flocTa CTpor npenoflaBareji, H3nHTa 
^BaMa-TpHMa yneHHKa h 3anoHHa aa npeno^aBa hob ypoK. A3 H3Ba,u;HX 
TeTpa^KaTa h Ha m>pBaTa CTpaHHija Hanncax "Devoir en classe, 
10.XI.1942". BpaTaTa ce OTBOpH, BJie3e npHCJiyacHHKbT, kohto o6cjiy^cBanie 
AHpeKTOpa h KamjejiapHHTe, h no/wte jihct xapraa Ha Cokojiob. YnHTejiflT 
ro H3rjieaa BpaayjeGHO, 3aaeTO npeKbCBa ypona My. Hemo Me flceraa. 
norjie^Hax AceH MaHOB, c kototo 6axMe Ha e/piH hhh. Toh ctmo Me 
norjie^Ha TpeB05KHO. Cokojiob otboph Jincra h nponeTe: "AHreji HaymeB «a 
ce #bh npn 3aM. AHpeKTOpa r-H rpnrop Mhjikob 3a cnpaBKa". Bchhkh yne- 
hhijh o6i>pHaxa norjiea kbm MeHe, c^Kani 3Haexa, ne HMa Hemo TpeBoaoio. 
npn6pax TeTpa/jKHTe b namaTa h n ocTaBHX Bi>pxy HHHa. KnMHax Ha AceH 

60 



if Ha cbyHeHHijHTe ot ctce^HHfl hhh ^hmhtbp ^hmhtpob h TeoprH 
MHJiynieB. AceH Me no6yTHa no paMOTO. A3 Tptraax. 

H3JW30X b KopHflopa h ce OTnpaBHx kbm BpaTaTa Ha 3anacHaTa 
(Bi>TpeniHa) CTbJi6a, kooto BOfleuie kt>m flBOpa h npe3 ecema, npH xy6aBO 
BpeMe, CToeuie OTBOpeHa. HaracHax flpi>5KKaTa ? ho BpaTaTa ce OKa3a 
3 aKJiK)HeHa. Tptraax no KopH,u;opa. CTnrHax (JjoaneTO, KoeTO BO^enie kbm 
^HpeicqHHTa n ynnTejiCKaTa CTaa. B TOBa (j)oane HManie neTHpn kojiohh. 
H33afl KOJioHHTe H3JW30xa flBaMa flo6pe o6jieneHH MJia^n rocno^a. 

- Tn jih ch AHreji HaymeB? - Me 3annTa eflHHHAT ot tax - pyc, bhcok 
mt>)k, n 6e3 «a H3naKa OTroBOp, Me xBaHa 3^paBO noa MHUiHHijHTe n Me 
noBe^e kbm KaHijejiapHHTe Ha rHMHa3H#ra. MnHaxMe Kpan flHpeKTOpcKHfl 
Ka6nHeT ? CTaaTa Ha 3aM. anpeKTOpa, n Me Bi>Befloxa b HHTajiHjrra Ha 
6H6jiHOTeKaTa. TyK 6euie Tpnrop Mhjikob, a BCTpaHH ot Hero, Kpan 
npo30peija HBaH IleTKOB pa3roBapjmie c e^HH MJiaa mt>)k, kohto ce OKa3a 
nojnmeftcKH areHT. ^BaMaTa mh "npHflpyacHTejiH" Me o6ncKHpaxa n 

H3BaflHXa JIHHHHTe MH BeHtf!! KBpnHHKa, MOHeTa OT 5 JieBa H aBTOMaTHHHa 

nncajiKa, cjiea KoeTO mh th BtpHaxa. Cjiea MajiKO npncrarHa, npH^pyaceH 
ot areHT, h CaBa TeBpeHOB. rioBe^oxa hh h TpHMaTa, e^HH no e^HH, kt>m 
H3xo,aa. IltpBH 6euie CaBaTa, nocjie HBaH IleTKOB, a a3 6ax nocjieaeH. Ilpea 
H3xofla Ha raMHa3HHTa Me 3a,m>p)Kaxa 3a 5-6 MHHyTH. Oica3a ce, ne areHTBT 
nana ome e^HH yHH(J)opMeH nojiniiafi 3a npHflpyaarreji. Ha H3JiH3aHe ot 
crpaaaTa, areHTBT Me 3anHTa: 

- CaBa TeBpeHOB ^ajiene jih acHBee? B Ta3H jih nocona? - h mh noconn c 
npi>CT o6paTHaTa Ha BapHaTa nocona. A3 BflHraax paMeHe h Ka3ax: "He 
3HaM. M - "Axa", OTroBOpH areHTtT. 

noBe^oxa Me kbm HauiaTa KBapTHpa. A3 onpe^eji^x MapmpyTa. AreHTbT 
He 3Haeuie a^peca. /jBaMaTa Bi>pB^XMe MbJinanHBO e^HH ro jxpyr. nojiHijaaT 
hh cjieflBame. IVfbHex ce aa ch npe^cTaB^ nojioaceHHeTO. Benie acho, ne HMa 
npoBan, apecTyBaxa yneHHijH ot ce^MHTe KJiacoBe h MeH. Bchhkh 
apecTyBaHH 6axMe npncbCTBajin Ha ci>6paHHeTO b KBaprapaTa Ha CaBa 
TeBpeHOB b HanajioTO Ha Meceij oktombph (KnpHJi MnjieB, Hop^aH Bohhob, 
HBaH neTKOB, CaBa TeBpeHOB h a3). Tana a3 CBi>p3ax CTaBamoTO c 
apecTyBaHeTO Ha Knpo. "Han-MajiKOTO, pa3Cb)K,aaBax, npOBajieHH ca 
ynacTHHijHTe b TOBa cb6paHHe". npHCTHraaxMe b KBapTHpaTa. Xa3AHKaTa 
ce ynjiauiH. AreHTbT maTejiHO o6ncKHpa CTaaTa, B3e hakoh jiHTepaTypHH 
BecraHijH h BecTHHKapcKH H3pe3KH h HanpaBH npOTOKOJi. Ton ci>o6mH Ha 
xa3^HKaTa ? ne ct>m apecTyBaH. Tx 3amiaKa, ho 6i>p30 ce ci>B3e, no^a^e mh 
yneHHHecKHfl uiHHeji, CHe oaeajiOTO ot KpeBaTa h ebmo mh ro fla,zje, Ha6yTa 
h napne xjih6 b ^)Ko6a Ha uiHHejia. A3 a noMOJinx ^a OTH^e Ha yji. 

61 



"BeHejiHH" JV2 14 h aa ct>o6iu;h Ha hhho mh To^op 3a CTaHajioTO. H Tana, 
cbnpOBO^cflaH ot areHTa h nojnmaa, c uihhcji b ptica h c o^efljio Ha paMo 

(aX 5 TOBa CHHbO, TbHKO OfleflJIO MH CJtyflCH 6JIH30 flBe TOflHHH, 3a m ro 

3ary6a Ha 8.IX.1944, ho He h #a ro 3a6paBfl), ce Kannx Ha TpaMBaa, 6jih3o 
flo Ka3apMHTe Ha VI nojiK. AreHTbT noncKa m njiara ^Ba 6njieTa - 3a MeH h 
3a Hero. H3BaflHX neTOJieBKaTa h Ka3ax, ne HMaM napn caMO 3a czjhh 6HJieT. 

- A HMam napn 3a HejierajiHH, cbGnpam napn ot cbyneHHijHTe ch - Ka3a 
toh. ToBa 6euie BTopH "cHraaji" 3a npoBajia h 3a TOBa KaKBO 3Hae nojinijHflTa. 

IlpHCTHrHaxMe b /jHpeKipifl Ha nojnmnflTa npn JTbbob moct. IlojiHu;aOT 
ocTaHa Ha Bxo^a, a areHTbT Me noBe^e Harope no thcho CTbJiGnme. 
H3KanHXMe ce /i;o hakoh ot bhcokhtc eTaacn h cnpaxMe npe^ e/ma BpaTa. 
AreHTbT OTBOpH, HaflHHKHa BbTpe, ho othobo 3aTBOpH h Ka3a aa ce o6tpHa 
kt>m CTeHaTa. Cjie^ ^eceTHHa MHHyra BpaTaTa ce OTBOpH h toh Me BKapa 
BtTpe. Beuie ce ctbmhhjio, ejieKTpHHecKHTe JiaMnn CBeTexa. B CTaaTa 
HMauie e^HO 6iopo, 3a# KoeTO ce^eme cojiH^eH mmc, 45-50 ro^HuieH, a 
okojio Hero - hhkojiko MJia/m areHTH. 3anoHHa pa3nHT: "B koh Kuac ch?, 
"KaK ce ynHin?", "HMam jih po/jHTejiH?", "Kb^e acHBee CaBa TeBpeHOB?" h 
flpyrn Ha bh^ 6e3o6naHH BMipocn... 

HaTan>K nocjie^Baxa BtnpocH ot flpyr xapaKTep: "KaKBO e TOBa PMC?", 
"^neH jih ch Ha PMC?", "KaKBO e TOBa OrenecTBeH (j)poHT?", "ITocemaBam 
jih HejierajiHH cb6paHH>i?", "Karaa ^jhokhoct HMam b PMC? m Ha Te3H 
BtnpocH OTroBapHX OTpHijaTejiHO. ToraBa 3anoHHaxa cjie/i; bcako "He" no 
HAKOJiKO njiecHHKa h K)MpyKa. 

- TyK H^Ma "He", MJia^o momhc - Ka3a HanajiHHKbT. - Bn)K,aaiii jih Te3H 
Mt^ce, Te HflMa #a Te ocTaBAT, ^OKaTO He nporoBOpnui. CbBeTBaM Te bchhko 
#a npH3HaBam. Hne 3HaeM mhoto h H^Ma 3amo aa ce npaBHin Ha repofi. 
H^Ma TaKHBa, Hne 3HaeM, ne Bac, MJia/jHTe, h oco6eHO yneHHijHTe, bh 
3a6jiy»cflaBaT c xy6aBH H^en, hhato 3a6jiy^a me ocb3HaeTe, ho kojikoto no- 
paHO, TOJiKOBa no-flo6pe. Ot Hac mhjioct He HaKairre. H 6oh me HMa, h 
HHKBH3HIIHH me HMa. HflMa fla yflbpacHin h me roBopHin, h me nranein. Ako 
npH3Haem, me Te ocbo6oahm. Bchhkh me bh ocbo6oahm. 3HaeM, ne CTe 
3a6jiyaeHH. 

Toh roBOpn b to3h j\yx fleceraHa MHHyTH. BpaTaTa ce OTBOpH h "moat" 
areHT Me H3Befle. B KOpH/i;opa, c jume kbm CTeHaTa, CToeuie CaBa TeBpeHOB. 
IloBefloxa ro b CTaaTa, a areHTbT, kohto ro "npHflpyacaBame", ro 3anHTa: 
"To3H jih 6eme Ha CT>6paHHeT0?" CaBaTa OTroBOpn: "KaKBO ci>6paHHe, 
HHmo He 3HaM." TnKHaxa ro b CTaaTa, a a3 3aex HeroBOTO macto Kpafi 
CTeHaTa, oxpamreaH ot areHTa. Cjiefl 15-20 MHHyTH CaBaTa H3Jie3e. 

- E, CaBa, KaKBO me Kaacein 3a T03H? 

62 



CaBaTa Mtjraeme. noBe/joxa ro. 

Cjie,a hhkojiko MHHyTH areHrbT noBe^e h mch no KopHAOpa, cnycHaxMe 
ce no THCHaTa crbji6a c acejie3HH nperpa^KH, MHHaxMe hakojiko eTa^ca h ce 
030BaxMe b H36eHO noMemeHne. AreHTbT Me npeaaae Ha e^HH CTpa^cap n 
ce BtpHa rope. Hob o6hck. B3exa mh KOJiaHa h Bpi>3KHTe Ha o6yBKHTe. 
CtcTaBnxa npoTOKOJi h Haaony no cn>ji6HTe c aeceraHa cxbnajia Me noBe- 
floxa b apecTaHTCKOTO OTfleneHHe. Ot mraaTa CTpaHa Ha Kopn^opa 6axa kh- 
jiHHTe. CTpa^caTa OTBOpn c TpacbK eflHa ot tax h Me 6yraa Bi>Tpe. "Eto bh 
ome eflHH ctKBapTHpaHT 1 ' - Ka3a toh Ha apecTaHTHTe. BpaTaTa ce 3aTBOpH. 

C niHHen h oaodio b ptKa 3acTaHax Ha npara Ha KHJiHATa h ce orjie^ax. 
Cjia6a eneKTpHHecKa KpyniKa ocBeTABanie noMememieTO. Bhcoko kbm 
TaBaHa - MajiKO np030pne c acejuoHa penieTKa. 3a# BpaTaTa HManie KO(J>a. 
J\bc $nrypH ce HaanrHaxa ot iiHMeHTOBHH noa h Me 3arjieaaxa. Mi>JiHaxMe 
hhkojiko MHHyTH - H3ynaBaxMe ce e^HH flpyr. A3 6%x inoKHpaH, o6i>pKaH. 
Kvje ce HaMHpaM? Cpemy MeH HManie #BaMa Mi>^ce. Eahhhat 6enie no- 
hhcbk, o6pacbn c rojwMa, TC>era h nepHa 6pa#a. ^pyrn^T 6enie cpe^eH Ha 
ptCT, BT>3m>JieH h Ao6pe oGneneH. ITbpBOTo mh BnenaTJieHHe 6eine, ne TOBa 
HaBHpHO ca npecTBnHHiiH, a 6pa,n;aTHflT uotkc 6h e y6neit. Toh o6ane Me 
norneflHa h ce ycMHXHa, npnGraDKH ce, noaaae pi>Ka h ce npe^cTaBH: 

- MaHyK. 

BeflHara pa36pax, ne e apMeHeij. 

- A TOBa e OrecJmH... IlocTaBH oaejuioTO h niHHejia h ce^HH Bi>pxy tax. 
Mhcto HMa 5 eTO TyK th onpeaejwMe macto 3a cnaHe. Bnxa jih Te? Th ch 
yneHHK. ^ocemaM ce 3amo ch TyK. 06BHHflBaT Te, HecnpaBefljiHBO HaBapHO, 

B KOHCnHpaTHBHa aeHHOCT... 

Pa3nHTa Me KaK ce Ka3BaM, Ktfle yna, OTKb^e ct>m. 

Cnefl okojio e^HH nac Ha CTeHaTa ce nonyica: "rape, flBe tohkh, 3aneTafi- 
Ka, rape". 3Haex MajiKO M0p30BaTa a36yica h pa36pax, ne TOBa e CHraajibT 
"ajio". MaHyK ctmo 3anyKa. Ka3a, ne ot cbceflHaTa khjiha nHTaT 3a MoeTO 
HMe ? ot koh KOHcnHpaipm ct>m, HMa jih Henjo aa npeaaM Ha HAKoro, kohto 
cbiijo e b apecTa. Cbo6mHx hmcto ch h ne HAMa KaKBO aa npe^aM. 

ObmaTa Benep MaHyK mh pa3Ka3a, qe ro o6BHHABaT HecnpaBe^JiKBO, ne 
e pa6oTHJi c peMCHCTH. no npocj)ecHfl 6hji o6ymap h HMan paGoranHHija Ha 
yji. "Ko3JioflyH n . B paGorajiHHijaTa My oGane HomyBaji, 6e3 ,na 3Hae MaHyK, 
HenerajieH MJiaaeac ot njiOB^HB. riocjieflHH^T ch HanpaBHJi kjiioh h npe3 
HoniTa, KoraTO MaHyK HanycKaji paGoranHHiiaTa, HflBaji h HoinyBan TaM, a 
cyTpHHTa paHO ch TptrBaji He3a6ejDi3aHO. ToBa e 6hji KteaH XpHCTOB 
(3T>6neTo), kohto ce OKa3an ceKpeTap Ha noayaHCKHfl panoHeH komhtct Ha 
PMC. MaHyK ro no3HaBaji ot ILiobahb, BH^caaji ro h b Co^h^i, ho He 3Haen, 

63 



ne e HenerajieH h ne cnn b HeroBaTa pa6oTHJiHHija. 

- H eTO cera - Ka3a MaHyK - Me H3Mi>HBaT aa npH3Haa, ne ct>m ro 
yKpHBaji, KoeTO He e BapHO. 

Toh 3aBi>piiiH pa3Ka3a ch, KaTO Me norneflHa c XHTpa ycMHBKa. ToBa Ge- 
nie HeroBOTO "ajinGn" npea nojiHijHOTa, KoeTO toh 6euie otctoaji, BtnpeKH 

HHKBH3HIJHHTe. 

CrecjiaH, KoroTO no-KBCHO 3anoHHax aa HapnnaM 6afi Cretan, Ka3a, ne e 
ot TtproBHmKH^ Kpaft, acHBee h pa6oTH b Co^H5i. ITpe^H hakojiko Meceija 
ce oxeemui. TbpryBaji c 6eH3HH h Macna, HMaji rapaac b e^HH ^Bop Ha 6yn. 
"floHflyKOB 11 . Ha6e^eH 6hji ot 3aBHCTJiHBH xopa, ne cneieyjiHpa h npo^aBa 
6eH3HH Ha no-BHcoKH ijeHH. Cera cpemy Hero ce BO^eno cjieflCTBHe. Ka3a, 
ne no3HaBa ^BaMa 6aTanaHH - To^op HayuieB h HHKOJia CaMyHeB. A3 
noacHHX, ne Toflop mh e hhho, a apyrHAT - po/tHHHa. 

Ban Ore(])aH npe3 i^jioto BpeMe Ha HauieTO cbbmcctho "cmkhtciictbo" 
ce OTHacauie MHoro ao6pe c MeH h c MaHyK. BceKH ^eH toh nojiynaBame 
xpaHa, BKJiioHHTejiHO h nnjieuiKO Meco, BHHarn 3aBHTO b ijejio^aH. HMaji 
BHCOKonocTaBeHH no3HaTH ? kohto menH aa My noMorHaT j\?i ce ocbo6o^h. 
Cnoaejiaiue xpaHaTa ch c Hac. ITo-ki>cho cno,u;ejiH, ne Ha BpeMeTO e 6hji 
KOMCOMOJieij, ctGnpaji e napn h Tyxnn 3a napTHHHHfl ,h;om, kohto cnea 
1923 r. e npeBtpHaT b ,3,HpeKijHfl Ha nojiHijHOTa, b hhkbh3htopckh #om. 

- Ho me MHHe BpeMe - Ka3Bame toh - h naK me ce npeBtpHe b napTHeH 
flOM. A Moace aa nocTpOHM h hob, ome no-rojiHM. 

TaKa roBOpeine 6an OrecJjaH, MaKap OT#aBHa aa He ce 6euie 3aHHMaBaji c 
nonHTHKa, fla He HJieHyBaine b BKII h aa 6euie H3acHBflji MJia/teacKHfl ch 
HfleajiH3i>M. Oco6eHO BHHMaTeneH 6eine toh c MeH cjie/j 3aBptmaHeTO mh 
ot nope^HHTe pa3nHTH h hhkbh3hijhh. 3aeflHO c MaHyK nocTHJiaxa o^oijio 
to, nocraBflxa Me aa nerHa hjih #a ce,a;Ha, 3aBHBaxa c uiHHejia noayTHTe mh 
ot 6oa KpaKa, noBflnraxa rn etc cboh 3aBHBKH, 3a #a ce HopMajiH3Hpa 
Kpi>BOo6pameHHeTO hm. Cjiqjx aeceTHHa ahh 6an CTe(J)aH 6eine H3BHKaH aa 
H3Jie3e c 6araaca ch. C6oryBa ce c Hac, noacena hh 3/jpaBe h 6i>p30 
ocBo6o^cflaBaHe. Toh ce Ha/viBaiHe, ne H3JiH3a Ha CBo6oaa h ne aenoTO My e 
npeKpaTeHO. 3a cbacaneHHe, cue/* okojio Meceij bh^x 6an CrecJmH fla ce 
pa3xo^cfla b flBopa Ha LJeHTpajiHH>i 3aTBop, b KapeTO, onpe/tejieHo 3a 
cneKynaHTHTe. Ilo3flpaBHXMe ce OTflajiene c MaxaHe Ha pti^e. Ct^nxa ro, ho 
ro onpaB,u;axa. Cnea 9.IX.1944r. ro norbpcnx Ha 6yn. "^OHflyKOB". 
CpemHaxMe ce hhkojiko m>TH, 6eceflBaxMe npHjrrejicKH, ho no-KtcHO 
3ary6nx #HpHTe My. 

HHTepecHa jihhhoct 6eine MaHyK. Ot Hero Jibxauie HHTejinreHTHOCT, 
apMeHCKa XHTpocT, ho h 6naropoflCTBO. Ilocne pa36pax, ne toh e 6hji 

64 



pefl aKT0 P Ha apMeHCKH bccthhk, HS^aBaH b Hjiobrub, peBoniomioHep h 
KOMyHHCTHHecKH flejrreji. OcBoGo^Hxa ro ot apecTa b Kpaa Ha HoeMBpH 
1942 r., ho h c Hero ce bhjulxmq othobo b Kpaa Ha aeKeMBpH c. r. b 
CoAhhckha ijeHTpajieH 3aTBOp. IlpH H3roTBAHe Ha oGbhhhtcjihh^ aier no t. 
Hap. "IIojjyflHCKH npoijec" MaHyK 6euie npHBJieneH uojx ottobophoct ot 
npoKypopa no hji. 17 Ha 33/J. BoeHHHOT ci>a o6ane ro onpaB^a h b 
HanaJioTO Ha 4>eBpyapH 1943 r. othobo ce pa3,zjejiHXMe c Hero. Cnea TOBa He 
ct>m ro cpeman. Ka3axa mh, ne 3aMHHaji 3a GbBeTCKa ApMeHHfl cnea 1944 r. 
MaHyK MHoro mh noMoraa. HMauie tojiam onHT b KOHcnnpaTHBHaTa 
^efiHOCT h MHoro m>TH 6eme nona^aji b nojiHijHflTa. Ome m>pBaTa Horn ce 
3axBaHa aa mh flaBa cbBera - KaK ;ja ce fltpaca npn pa3nHTa, KaKBH 
hhkbh3hu;hh Me onaKBaT. IIo,zjroTBH Me ncnxonoranecKH. Cuejx bcckh 
pa3nHT Me nHTanie KaKBH BMpocH ca mh 3a,n;ajiH, KaKBH areHTH ca 
npHCBCTBajiH, KaKBO cbm OTroBapjui, KaKBO cbm Hanncan, KaKBO 3HaM 3a 
^pyrHTe apecTyBaHH. ITpaBeine pa36op Ha Bi>npocHTe h OTroBOpHTe, 
npaBeuie npeflnojioaceHHA, aaBauie cbbcth. IIphbhaho npneMauie, ne 
o6BHHeHH^Ta He ca BepHH, ne ct>m HeBHHeH h TOBa Tpa6Ba ;ja ce flOKaace, ho 
He caMO Hpe3 rono OTpnnaHe, ho h Hpe3 jiothhho o6acHeHHe. "HMafi 
npeflBHfl", Ka3Bauie toh, "ne areHTHTe h rpynoBHOT HanajiHHK, kohto bo^ht 
cne^cTBHeTO, He ca caMO aceeroKH 6hahh, ho ca h xhtph hhkbh3htoph. IHe 
TbpcflT npOTHBOpeHH^i h HHHiKa no HHUiKa me CKpo^T cvje6eH npoijec". 

Enaroflapax na cb,zj6aTa, ne 6nx b ejma khjiha c MaHyK. Kojiko CTpauieH 
mh ce bhjul b m>pBHTe MHHyTH Ha m>pBaTa hh cpema, h kojiko 6naropoaeH 
h HHTejinreHTeH ro Bi>3npHeMax c BceKH H3MHHaji jxenl 

ITbpBaTa Hom b KHJiHflTa npeKapax Gy^eH. 06mhcjihx bchhko, h Hafi- 
bqhq KaKBO 3Hae nojiHimaTa, koh e HanpaBHJi npH3HaHHfl, onHTBax ce j\& 
CBtpaca apecTa Ha KHpHJi MnneB c T03H Ha Hop^aH Bohhob, a cjie,n TOBa c 
moa apeer, Ha CaBa TeBpeHOB h Ha PfeaH IleTKOB. ITbpBOTO mh pa3d>)K,n;e- 
HHe 6eme, ne cbc cnrypHOCT 3HaaT 3a cGnpKaTa y CaBaTa h pa3flCHeHH5rra, 
kohto HanpaBHx TaM Ha nporpaMaTa Ha OO. ToBa 6euie acho ot BMpocHTe, 
kohto mh ce 3a^aBaxa no BpeMe Ha ntpBHfl BenepeH pa3nHT. 

Mncjiex h 3a cbfl6aTa ch. Kora h KaK me H3Jifl3a ot TyK. KaKBO Me 
onaKBa. TpeBoaeex ce h 3a po^HTejiHTe ch. KaK jih me nocpemnaT Te 
ei>o6meHHeTO 3a apecTyBaHeTO mh. IIpeflCTaBflx ch KaK tokko me ro 
npeacHBeOT, kojiko mhoto me ce npHTecmiBaT. TaTe h MaMa mhoto me ce 
TpeBoacaT, ne chkbt hm e b 3aTBOpa, ne hakoh ot no3HaraTe h ctcejiflHHTe 
hm qe th norjieayjaT c noao3pHTejiHOCT h He^OBepHe. Ejiaroa, 6paT mh, 
ci>mo mc ce TpeBoaeH, ho c m>JiHOTO pa36npaHe h c no^KpenaTa 3a acjiaTa 
mh b 6op6aTa npoTHB (j)auiH3Ma. PascB^caaBax 3amo h Ha koto ca Heo6xo- 

65 



flHMH HcecTOKHTe npecjie/i;BaHHfl cpemy Te3H, kohto ce npoTHBonocraBflT Ha 
MpaKoGecneTO, Ha <f>aiiiH3Ma, Ha BOHHaTa h H3flB5iBaT CBOjrra bojia 3a 
CBoGofla h .neMOKpaijHfl, 3a coijHajma cnpaBeanHBOCT. 

Pa3CbMBauie ce. EjieKTpHHecKara KpyuiKa bhcoko Haa BpaTaTa npofli>ji- 
5KaBauie aa cbcth. npe3 MajiKOTO npo3opne c Hcejia3Ha peuieTKa npOHHKBa 
cna6a CBeTJiHHa. Brne#ax ce b npo30pneTO, KoeTO Me #ejieine ot CBo6oaaTa. 
CTaHax h ce npnGnroKHX kbm Hero. 3a6ejra3ax, ne npe3 HomTa BpeMeTO ce e 
npOMeHHJio. Bajian 6eme chat. HbpBHAT chat... 11 HoeMBpH 1942 roflHHa. 
Orjie^ax CTeHHTe. IIo tax HMauie MHoro Ha^nHCH - HMeHa h nojiHTHnecKH 
ji03yHrH Ha npeMHHajiHTe npe3 KHJiHOTa apecTaHTH: "A 0Ji y 4>aiiiH3Ma!", "/Ja 
HCHBee CBoGo/jara!", "/JpioKTe ce, /jpyrapn!", "Ei>,zjeTe tbt>p,zjh!" Chjiho Bne- 
naTJieHHe mh HanpaBH HeflonncaHHOT cthx Ha XpHCTO Cmhphchckh: "Ax, Jie- 
TeTe ecKaapoHH...", kohto a3 no-KBCHO, cjiea aeceTHHa ahh, aonncax c Kon- 
neTO Ha uiHHejia ch ... "b ycTpeMa bh mhjihohh norjie^H ca npHKOBaHH ...". 

MaHyK h 6an CTe<f>aH cbmo ce pa3,nBH5KHxa h 3anoHHaxa KOMeHTapH 3a 
na#HajiHfl chat. Hyxa ce cn>nKH h TponaHe Ha nojiHijencKH 6oTyiiiH. 
OTBapaxa ce h ce 3aTBapaxa Bpara. MaHyK o6hchh, ne apecTaHTHTe no 
oxnejiHO (no khjihh) ce nycKar #o ToaneTHara, ho TaKa, ne m He ce BHayiaT 
c apecTaHTH ot flpyrn khjihh. Ha khjihh ce onpcuejDiT no 10-15 MHHyra 
ToaneT. CKOpo c TpactK ce OTBOpH h HauiaTa BpaTa. H3MHXMe ce, ocbokhx- 
Me ce. Othobo ce BtpHaxMe b KHJiHOTa h 3anaKaxMe MT>HHTejiHTe ch. Ot 
BpeMe Ha BpeMe BpaTHTe Ha apyrHTe khjihh ce OTBapaxa h ce H3Beacflaxa 
apecTaHTH 3a pa3nHT. A ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe ce nyKauie no CTeHaTa h MaHyK 
OTroBapHine h npenpeaaBanie cboGmeroDrra Ha apyraTa cbce^Ha khjihh, 
H3noji3BaHKH t. Hap. M 3aTBOpHHHecKa a36yKa". Ta 6enie npocTa, ho 
H3HCKBauie MHoro BpeMe. Ho-kbcho h a3 ce Haynnx aa a H3noji3BaM. 

MaHyK npnroTBH 3aKycKa. A3 OTKa3ax aa B3eMa xpaHa, He Moacex aa 
nperjn>maM. JJoHecoxa hh no napne apecTaHTCKH xjia6 3a uaji aeH. 

MnHaxa nacoBe. A3 naKax "moa" areHT. MaHyK Me CbBeTBanie KaK #a ce 
Alpaca: aa He 6i>p3aM aa OTroBapaM Ha Bi>npocHTe, BHHMaTejiHO #a ce 
opneHTHpaM b rax, ,na ce npaBA Ha HaHBeH, npn HHKBH3HijHHTe aa ce 
craraM, #a He ce njiama, hobck Moace bchhko aa H3fli>p5KH. noflroTBfliiie Me 

ncnxo JIOTHHeCKH . 

npeBarumie o6ea, ho BpaTaTa Ha HauiaTa khjihh TaKa h He ce OTBOpH. 

- HaBflpHO - Ka3Banie MaHyK - apeenrre npofli>JDKaBaT, a Moace h aa ca 
3anoHHajin pa3nHTHTe h Ha flpyrcrre th apyrapn. Te6 ca Te ocTaBHJin 3a 
flOBenepa hjih 3a yTpe. 

Bchhko npeflyra^cflame MaHyK. A3 ro cjiymax h MT>jraax. He ro no3Ha- 
Bax, He My ce aoBepiiBax Ham>JiHO, ho nyBCTBax, ne HMa onHT h cbbcthtc 

66 



M y ca MHoro nojie3HH. 

Okojio 17 h., Bene ce crtMBauie, BpaTaTa ce OTBOpH, nojiHijaOT ce non- 
bh, a 3afl Hero h pycHOT arem, kohto Me apeciyBa h kohto b npofltJDKeHHe 
Ha 6jih30 3 ceaMHUH 6eine MOOTa caHKa. 

- TptrBafi, xafifle! - iiocohh Me toh. 

H Tpi>rHaxMe no CTbJi6HTe h KopH/topHTe, no kohto BHepa 6ax flOBeaeH 
b KHJiHflTa ("Kayina"). 3acTaHaxMe npe,n ctmaTa BpaTa. Bjuboxmc b CTajrra. 
CbmHflT HaHajiHHK 3aa 6iopoTO, h CBiijHTe areHTH okojio Hero. 3acTaHax b 
cpe,aaTa Ha CTajrra. Bchhkh exn^HO Me norne/maxa. 

- Th ch ptKOBOflHTen, 6e! OpraHH3aijHfl ch CT>3,naji. Ha yneHHijHTe 
ruaBHTe o6i>pKBaui. 

HanajiHHKbT Ka3a h flpyrn Heiija b to3h pyx. C TOBa toh mh 
noacKa3Bame, ne Bene 3Ha#r mhoto h HCKauie ,na Me cjiomh ayxoBHo npe/m 
#a e 3anoHHaji pa3nHTa. H 3anoHHaxa Bwipocn. A3 OTroBapax noBene c 
AyMHTe l? He 3HaM M hjih Mi>JiHax. HcKax aa ce opneHTHpaM. Ot BpeMe Ha 
BpeMe hakoh ot areHTHTe 3aMaxBauie h Me yupjmie. ^pyrHTe ce CMeexa. 

- ToBopH, roBopn, MOMHe ? He ch repoH ? bchhko 3HaeM, ho th Tpa6Ba #a 
ch npH3Haeui. KaKBH rojieMH KOHcnnpaTopn nporoBapOT, npH3HaBaT h 
nnuiaT noKa3aHHfl, Ta th jih HHMa... Bne, yneHHijHTe, CTe ape6HH pn6n h 
HHMaMe BpeMe pa ce 3aHHMaBaMe c Bac. IU,e y3HaeM bchhko h me bh 
nycHeM, ho hakoh Mo^ce h aa ocvjhm - 3aBHCH ot Bac, ot BauieTO 
pa3Ka^HHe. 

3anoHHaxa HHKBH3HmDrra. Bi>p3axa mh ptu;eTe, cno^cnxa Me aa ce/ma, 
CBajinx ch o6yBKHTe h HopanHTe. Ham>xaxa KoneHeTe MOK/ty Bi>p3aHHTe mh 
pi>ue h npoKapaxa acejie3eH npi>T MOK,ny ptijeTe h KOJieHeTe. 

06i>pHaxa Me no KopeM h KpaKaTa mh mp^KHaxa c neraTe Harope. 
OnaKBax c nonyna h y^cac KaKBO me npaBAT c MeH. npHJinnax Ha Btp3aHO h 
npnroTBeHO 3a KJiaHe aoGhhc E^hh ot areHTHTe 3anoHHa pa. Me yupa c 
ryMeHa najiKa no neTHTe. YapHuie 3flpaBO. Bojikhtc 6axa yacacmi h ce 
ycHJiBaxa, 3amoTO KO^caTa CTaBauie Bee no-nyBCTBHTejiHa. B HanajioTO 
pi>M)Kax ? a nocjie 3anoHHax pa Kpenjfl. Y^apHTe ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe 
npecTaBaxa, areHTHTe ce CMeH^xa. 

- CTHra CTe ro 6hjih - Ka3a HanajiHHKbT. - Toh Bene pa36npa h me 
OTroBapa Ha BtnpocHTe, me npH3HaBa 3a CBOHTa achhoct. 

06i>pHaxa Me, cjioacnxa Me p& ce^Ha, H3Ba,nHxa nptTa h pa3Bi>p3axa 
ptueTe mh. OnHTax ce pa, CTaHa, ho na^Hax. He Moacex pa ce alpaca Ha 
KpaKaTa ch. OrtnajiaTa yacacHO Me 6ojiaxa. Eaxa ce no/tyjiH. 

nocTaBHxa Me Ha ctoji. ^OHecoxa KO(|)a c BO.ua. Mncnex, ne me Me o6jienT. 

- Cjiaraii KpaKaTa b Ko^aTa! - H3K0MaHABa e^HH ot areHTHTe. 

67 



ribXHax KpaKara bi>b BOflara h nonyBCTBax HenoHOCHMH 6ojikh. "3amo 
jih?" - 3anHTax ce a3. BnocjieflCTBHe pa36pax, ne CTyfleHara BO.ua He aonycKa 
cbCHpBaHe Ha Kpi>B no 6hthtc c ryMa CTLnana. IIo-ki>cho 3a6ejifl3ax, ne 
areHTHTe 6hht c pa3JiHHHH ryMH - tbhkh, ,ne6ejiH, niHpoKH h tcchh, h b 3aBH- 
chmoct ot ebCTOflHHero Ha 6hthtc cranana ce H3noji3Ba e^HH hjih jjpyr bh#. 

^OKaTO KpaxaTa KHCHexa b KO(J)aTa c BO.ua, 3anoHHaxa aa Me 6hat no 
pT>ijeTe. 

- noflaii JiflBara ptKa! - Ka3Banie cuhhhat ot areHTHTe. 
rioflaBax n h CBeTKaBHHHO cjie^Banie yaap c ryMeHa najiKa. 

- IToflan /jpyrara! - h cjie/manie hob yaap... 

npe3 TOBa BpeMe npo,m>ji)KaBaxa aa mh 3a^aBaT Bi>npocH. A3 OTroBapax 
OTpHijaTejiHO. /JaBax h hakoh o6flCHeHHfl. HanpHMep, OTKora no3HaBaM 
AceH MaHOB, CaBa TeBpeHOB, KnpHJi Mhjicb h pp. 06achhx, ne CMe cbyne- 
hhij;h, ne c hakoh ot tax ce no3HaBaM ot yneHHHecKara CTOJiOBa, c jspyru 
ci>m ce 3ano3Haji b MeayiyHacHOTa... Hpe3 Te3H BtnpocH h Ha30BaHH HMeHa 
a3 4>aKTHHecKH nojiy^aBax HH^opMamra ot koh jnma ce HHTepecyBa 
nojiHijHATa, ho 3ani;o h KaKBO KOHKpeTHo e H3BecTH0 3a rax, He Moacex aa 
pa36epa. 3aaaBaxa ce h BMpocn 3a nporpaMaTa Ha OreHecTBeHM (J)poHT - 
ot Kbjie ci>m h nojiynHJi, koh e pi>KOBOflHTeji^T hh, koh ca HJieHOBCTe Ha 
pi>KOBOflCTBOTo Ha PMC b rHMHa3HATa h flp. noflo6HH. Pi>ijeTe ctmo HaTO- 
nnx bi>b BOflara h /yiaHHTe mh ce no^yxa. HanajiHHKbT H3rjie^cflame cno- 
KoeH HOBeK. Ilpe3 i^jioto BpeMe ceaenie 3&r 6iopOTO ch. Beme okojio 45-50 
roflHUieH. H a3, He 3HaM 3ain;o, yMOJiHTejiHO ro norjieayjax. Mncjiex ch, ne h 
toh HMa fleija KaTO MeH h me pa36epe mohtc CTpaaaHHH. Ho Hanpa3HO, nojin- 
ijaHTe ot HeroBH^ paHr HflMar ebpu;e, HflMaT mhjioct, a acecTOKOCT, cbneTaHa 
c XHTpocT h HarjiocT. Mncjiex ch: ff Ta Hann h toh me ch OTH^e b Kbiim, me 
Benepa, me 3aKycBa yTpe etc ceMeftcTBOTO ch, h Mo^ce jih aa 6i>fle 6e3pa3- 
jiHHeH klm MtneHHATa, kohto ce npHJiaraT Haa TaKHBa MJiaaeacH KaTO MeH ff . 

- ToBOpH 6e, MOMHe. H 6oh me ^meni, h Bee e^HO me Kaacem. ,3pyrHTe 
Bene nnmaT noKa3aHM - npo,m>jraaBanie fla roBOpn h fla XHTpyBa 

HaHaJIHHKtT. 

Pa3nHTbT CBtpniH kt>cho BenepTa, HHKBH3HijH5rra - ctmo. C rojiflMa 
Mi>Ka h npeoflOJMBaHKH 6ojikhtc Ha KpaKaTa h ptijeTe ycmix fla o6ya 
HOpanHTe, ho rzl o6ya o6yBKHTe 6eme HeBi>3M0^cH0 - Te ce OKa3axa MajiKH 
3a noayTHTe mh KpaKa. OnHTax ce m CTaHa. Crbnnx Ha KpaKa h naflHax, He 
H3,m>p)Kax Ha 6ojikhtc Cjiea Majnco, rpy6o noflKpemiH h 6jrt>CKaH ot cboh 
areHT, noex ni>Tfl ki>m KHJiHjrra. Onnpax ce no CTeHaTa h nepHJiaTa Ha 
CTbJi6HTe. HHKBH3H^H>^Ta c^Kam npofltJDKaBame. CTpa^capHT b Kopn^opa 
npefl KHJiHOTa ctnyBCTBeHO Me norjie^Ha, otboph BpaTaTa h Me BKapa 

68 



Bi>Tpe. Be^Hara ce^Hax. CTpaacapflT H3Hece KO(J)aTa c BO^a h 3aicjiK)HH. 
MaHyK nocTJia o^eano to Ha 3eMOTa h Me TypH m Jieraa. HbpBo nperneaa 
pT>ueTe ? a nocne CBajiH nopanHTe h orjie^a KpaxaTa mh. Baft CTe(J)aH ce 
pa3Bi>JiHyBa. MaHyK npo,zi;i>ji}KH orjie^a - toh Bene 6euie H3nHTaji ctmHTe 
6oJiKa. Ci>6pa CBOHTe 3aBHBKH h ra nocTaBH no,zi; KpatcaTa mh, 3a j\di GvjaT 

Ha nO-BHCOKO. 

HomTa npeMHHa TpeBoacHO. BojiKHTe o6ane nocTeneHHO 3aTHXBaxa. 
CyTpHHTa oiroijHTe HaMajwxa 3HaHHTejrao. C MtKa Moacex m o6ya 
HOpanHTe. npofltn^caBax m Jieaca. OnaKBax hobo noBHKBaHe 3a pa3nHT. 
06mhcjwx eBeHTyajiHHTe BtnpocH h OTroBOpH. Bene mh 6euie acho, ne 
nojiHipurra 3Hae MHoro, ne hakoh ot apecTyBaHHTe flpyrapH Bene ca flajiH 
noKa3aHH^. Ho KaKBo tohho 3Hae nojiHimaTa h KaK aa OTroBap^M Ha 
Bi>npocHTe ? KaKBo aa Gt^e noBe,zi;eHHeTO mh, me Mora jih j\& OTpnnaM TOBa, 
KoeTO Bene hm e H3BecTHO? 

BenepTa othobo Me B3exa ot "Kayina". AreHTbT Me noBe^e no 
crbJi6HTe. E/jBa ce /jBH^cex ot 6ojikh b cn>najiaTa. Ha m>T kt>m CTaaTa Ha 
rpynoBHH HanajiHHK, areHTbT Me 6jn>CKauie h 3a/i;aBaHie no/jBeayjamH 
BMpocH. Bene MHoro 3HaejiH, "nopana" ce pa3njiHTan, KoeTO mh fleficTBauie 
ncHxojiorHHecKH. TyK, b ,ZjHpeKijHflTa Ha nojraiiHOTa, hobck ce nyBCTBa 
6e3noMonj;eH ? b ptijeTe Ha Te3H 3BepOBe toh e e^HO hhhio, Te npaBAT c Hero 
KaKBOTO ch noflcenaflT. 

H eTO Me 3a Tpera m>T b CTama 3a pa3nHTH. 

- E, npeMHCJiH jih, me roBopnui jih? H Bene He caMO 3a ci>6paHHeTO b 
KBapTHpaTa Ha TeBpeHOB, a 3a MHoro apyra Hema. Tbohtc flpyrapH Bene 
bchhko pa3Ka3axa h ot cyTpHHTa Bene nnuiaT noKa3amifl. 

- me roBopH - Ka3a moot aremr h mh yaapH hakojiko nnecHHKa. 
Oco6eHO chjiho nonyBCTBax cera h nocjie, npH apyrn y/japH, TBtpflocrra Ha 
nptcTeHa, kohto toh Hocenie Ha AflCHaTa ch ptKa. H othobo 3anoHHa 
ctmaTa npoije/jypa Ha Bpi>3BaHe h y/japH no 6ocHTe CTMiana. 

- PtijeTe j\di ce na35iT, - exn^HO Ka3Bauie HaHajiHHKT>T, - Te me Tpa6Bar 
3a nncaHe Ha noKa3aHH5i. 

H toh nponeTe nacT ot HflicaKBH noica3aHHfl, 6e3 aa Ka3Ba Ha koto ca. He 
HSfltp^cax 6ojiKHTe h BHKax, a e/jHH ot areHTHTe HaTHCKauie jraijeTO mh c 
MOATa (|)ypa^cKa. 

- IU,e icaaca HCTHHaTa! 

B/jHraaxa Me h Me nocTaBHxa Ha CTOJia, a KpaxaTa b KO(J)aTa c BO,zi;a. 
ripH3Hax ? ne ct>m 6hji Ha ci>6paHHeTO y CaBa TeBpeHOB h ne ct>m nponeji 
njiaT(|)opMaTa Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (|)poHT, koato mh e npeaaaeHa ot 
Hen3BecTHO jraije, 3aroBOpHJio Me Ha yjnmaTa. TaKa ce 6axMe yroBopHJin Ha 

69 



c6npKaTa fla Ka3BaMe b cjiynaH Ha npOBaji. 

- ToBa 3HaeM ? ho Koe e unijeTO, TOBa th me hh Kaacein. H oiije MHoro 
Tp^6Ba aa pa3Ka3Bain. Th ch ottobophhk Ha PMC b rHMHa3Hjrra. H3bcctho 
e h p'bKOBOflCTBOTO, c6npKHTe h cpenwre, kohto CTe npaBHHH. YTpe 3a 
bchhkh Tp^6Ba fla pa3Ka^ceni h nHinein! 

Cnea KaTO Ka3a TOBa, HaHajiHHKbT aa^e 3HaK aa Me H3BeaaT. Pa3nHTbT 
CBtpniH. Eoc, c o6yBKH h nopann b ptKa 6ax OTBeaeH b KHJiHjrra. npeacHBax 

OTHOBO TpeBCttKHa H MfcHHTeJIHa HOm. Tpfl6Ba HH fla MI>nHa 3a H3BeCTHH Ha 

nonHipiflTa Bene (|)aKTH? UJe H3ai>p5Ka hh? MaHyK, hhcto cjie^cTBHe Bene 
6eme npHB'bpniHJio, o;jo6pH aoceraniHOTO mh noBeflemie. 

KaKBO ce 6enie cjiynnjio npe3 TOBa BpeMe bt>h ot ^HpeKitfurra Ha nojiH- 

IJHflTa CT>C CeMeHCTBOTO MH. Cl>KBapTHpaHTbT MH #KO MOJIXOB H Xa3flHKaTa 

Be^Hara cne# apecTyBaHeTO mh othhijih y hhhobh Ha yji. "BeHenHH" N« 14 h 
hm CT>o6mHJiH 3a cjiynnjioTO ce. JTio6Ka (6paTOBHeflKa mh) cbmaTa Benep 
H3npaTHJia TejierpaMa ao 6ama mh: M Be#Hara Tp^raH, BHKaT Te b yHHJinme- 
to. JIio6Ka" (noflaaeHa b Cckjmdi Ha 10.XI.1942 r., 18 h.; npneTa Ha 11. XL 
12 naca). 

TaTe pa36paji KaKBa e pa6oTara. npHJiomajio My, pa36ojiaji ce. Bi>npeKH 
TOBa toh peniHJi aa Tpwue 3a Co(j)Hfl. MaMa He ro nycHana caM h Tp^raajiH 
flBaMara. Ejiaroa BnperHaji BOJiOBeTe b meHHara h ome cbmara Benep Te ce 
030BajiH Ha )K. n. rapaTa b Lfemepa, a cyrpHHTa 6hjih Bene b Co(J)hh y hhhobh. 

TaTe h hhho Toflop 3anoHHajiH aa o6xo)KflaT poahhhh h no3HaTH. 
CpenjHajiH ce cbc cboa 6paTOBHea a^BoicaT AHreji IlonoB h c Teoprn 
^H^KypKOB QKopac), kohto 6eme JiHflep Ha ^eMOKpaTHHecKaTa napraa b 
BaTaK. AHreji IlonoB Be^Hara 3anoHHan npoBepica, othhtbji npn npOKypopa 
h ycTaHOBHJi, ne cbm b ^HpeKijHJiTa Ha nojiHijHflTa - ^pacaBHa cnrypHOCT 
h ne ce boot cjie^cTBHe. MaMa h TaTe, npH^pyaceHH ot Hero, othhijih b J\k- 
peiopDrra b nacoBeTe, onpe^ejieHH 3a noceraTejiH - 6jih3kh Ha apeeryBaHH- 
Te ? h mh H3npaTHJiH xpaHa h aojiho 6ein>o, 3a ^a npoBepjrr aanH aencTBH- 
TeJIHO cbm TaM. 

EflHH CTpaacap mh aoHece naKeTa c xpaHaTa h 6ejn>OTO. 

- A6e, aacKajie, 3amo ce 3aHHMaBam c TaKHBa pa6oTH?! HMani mhoto 
flo6pH MaiiKa h 6ama. He mhcjihhi 3a tax, 3a TexHHTe CTpaaaHHfl? H KaKBO 
aa hm npe^aM? !U,e hm Kaaca, ne ch ao6pe. 



AHreji IlonoB 6eme MHoro mhjt h cbp^eneH hobck, Manica My, 6a6a Ohkjm, npoH3xo>K£aiiie ot 
HaymeBHH pox*. 

** )Kop>K 6euie exuiH MHoro jxo6i>p hobck, totob #a noMorHe Ha BceKH, a ome noBene Ha HauieTO 
ceMeHCTBO. Ton ce npecejiH b Co(|)hh h CTaHa HacreH ceKpeTap Ha cboh cbnap-raeu R-p rierbp 
Ki>oceHBaHOB, noflnpe/jccziaTeji Ha HapoflHOTO CT>6paHHe. 

70 



C noMOiuja Ha MaHyic n 6aft Ore(|)aH ce npeo6ji«Kox h BtpHax MoeTO 
6eJii>o. ToBa 6hjio 3HaK, Ka3a mh no-KtcHO MaMa, ne cbm )khb h HflMa KtpBH 
no pH3aTa mh. Taica pa36pax, ne MaMa h TaTe ca b Co(j)Hfl. npe,n;cTaBflx ch 

KaK Ce Tep3a^T 5 KaK Ce H3MT>HBaT OT HeH3BeCTHOCTTa. 

Ha neTBtpTHM #eH, mhcjia, ne 6euie neTbK, a3 6ax f? B3eT ,? ot areHTa. C 
Mi>Ka cn>nBax 5 y)KacHO Me 6ojiaxa crbnanaTa. OTBe^oxa Me Ha ci>mHfl eTa)K ? 
ho 6hx BKapaH b flpyra CTaa, aocTa no-rojiflMa h c npo3opipi kt>m ABOpa. 
BHHC^axa ce noKpHBHTe Ha Cbce^HHTe ^hjihhjhh crpa^H. B CTama HMauie 
hhkojiko MacH. Ha BC^Ka Maca apecraHTH, npe^HMHO MJia^H xopa. Haa tax 
crbpnaxa areHTH. Ako He 6euie TpeBO)KHa aTM0C(])epa, H3Mi>HeHHTe h 
6paflflcajiH Jinija Ha apecTaHTHTe, raaflKO H36ptcHaTHTe h 3jio6hh jraija Ha 
areHTHTe, hobck 6h noMHCJiH, ne TOBa e HHTajiHa 3ana. 

Ce^HaxMe c areHTa Ha e^Ha ot MacHTe. Toh nocTaBH hakojiko jiHCTa 
xapTHfl, nepoflpt^CKa h MacTHjnmiia. HyBaxa ce npHrjiyuieHH niacoBe, a ot 
BpeMe Ha BpeMe h uiyM ot h^roa njiecHHija hjih lOMpyneH y#ap. Oraeaax 
ce. Hhkojiko MJiaae^CH nnuiexa noKa3aHHfl, "noanoMorHaTH" ot areHTHTe. 
HojiyHHX y^ap b THJia. "IIhiiih!". B3ex nepoflptacicaTa h norjie^Hax areHTa 
ch. Toh 3anoHHa m juncryBa: "HMeHyBaM ce AHren neTpoB HaymeB, po^eH 
b c. EaraK, BepoH3noBe,a;aHHe - H3TOHHonpaBocjiaBeH 6tnrapHH. Ha 3a,a;aae- 
HHTe mh Bi>npocH OTroBapflM KaKTO cneflBa ... ?? . ToBa Hanncax h 3anaicax ? 
norjiOKflaiiKH ro. ??I ljieH ct>m Ha HejierajiHH* PMC... n npo,m>jraH toh. Be3 %a 
nHina ro norjie^Hax othobo. nocneflBa thx yaap no THJia. 

- MoMHe, momhc.., naK me Te Bpt3BaMe h Bee e^HO me nHineni. Xan^e 
nnniH KaKBOTO pa3Ka3a chohjh h KaKBaTO ch h3mhcjihji HomecKa. 

A3 3anoHHax #a onncBaM jiereH^aTa, ne Ha yji. M Po30Ba aojiHHa" npe3 
Meceij cenTeMBpH Me 3aroBOpHJi Heno3HaT MJia,zi;e5K 5 kototo ct>m BH5Kflaji fla 
MHHaBa no Ta3H yjinija h flpyr ntT. To3H m>T toh Me 3aroBopHJi h Tptraaji c 
MeH. nonHTan Me Tpy^HO jih e yHemieTO, KaKtB mh e ycnexi/r, KaKBH khhth 
neTa 5 koh ca jhoGhmhtc mh aBTOpn h flpyrn noflo6HH. Cne^ hakojiko ahh 
othobo CMe ce cpenjHajiH Ha cbmara yjinija. Ka3aji, ne acHBee Ha6jiH30. 
Ce/manH CMe Ha e^Ha neHKa b flBOpa Ha cbce^HOTO ynHJiHiije, kl^qto ce 
ci>6Hpaxa yneHHiiHTe ot rHMHa3H5rra npe^H 3anoHBaHe Ha yne6HHTe 

3aHflTHfl. TOBOpHJIH CMe no JIHTepaTypHH BMpOCH, 3a poMaHHTe Ha 

Tojictoh, /JocToeBCKH, Bhktop lOro, Emhji 3ojia, HBaH Ba30B, 3a CTHXOBeTe 
Ha neHHo CnaBeHKOB... 

HMax npeflBHfl ctBeTHTe Ha MaHyK npn pa3nHTHTe fla pa3Ka3BaM h 
onncBaM no,zi;po6HO He3HaHHTejiHH ariyHKH, KoeTO npn^aBa no-rojiaMa 
flocTOBepHOCT Ha noKa3aHHHTa. Mhoto npHKa3KH - 6e3 hjih c ManKO aaHHH 
3a KOHcnHparHBHara ^eHHOCT... HaTaTtK b noKa3aHHATa ch TBtp^HX, ne npn 

71 



Ta3H cpema MJia^eacbT mh pa3Ka3aji, ne HaMepHJi eflHH no3HB, nponeji ro, 
6hji MHoro HHTepeceH, npefljioaoui mh h a3 ^a ro nponeTa h fla ro npeaaM 
3a npOHHT Ha no3HaTH cbyneHHitH. ToBa h cbm HanpaBHJi. Bhji cbm noKaHeH 
y CaBa TeBpeHOB aa oGacha hakoh BMpocn no chctoboactbo Ha Hero h 
HeroBH cbyneHHitH - HBaH IIctkob, Hop^aH Bohhob, KnpHJi Mhjicb. Bt>3- 
noji3Baji ct>m ce ot cjiynaa h ct>m hm nponeji nporpaMaTa Ha OTenecTBeHHa 
4>poHT ? kooto mh 6hji npe,zjaji MJiaaeacbT. Cjiea o6acHeHHeTO Ha BtnpocHTe 
ct>m ch othutbji, a Te ocTaHajiH aa npofl^jraaT c yneHeTO. no nponeTeHHa 
no3HB Te He ca B3ejiH OTHomeHHe. IloBene ot Meceij cjiea TOBa ct>m 6hji 
apecTyBaH etc CaBa TeBpeHOB h HBaH neTKOB. 

AreHTBT nponeTe HanncaHOTO h 3JiOBem;o ce H3CMfl. 

- Th ch HflHOT, 6e momhc Hne He CMe HaHBHHijH. ToBa e cbo6oaho 
cbHHHeHHe. LU,e a,nem 6oh h Bee eflHO me pa3Ka3Baiu h me nHiueui. Th 
MHoro 3Haeni. Th ch e#HH ot pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha PMC b rHMHa3HHTa. 3a 
Hac ca BaacHH Bpi>3KHTe bh c pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe bh. Kojiko MHoro KOHcnnpa- 
TopH CMe cjiomhjih, a BHe cera npoxoayjaTe b Ta3H aeiiHOCT. Kbfle ca no- 
3HBHTe ? kohto nHHieui h nocjie pa3npocTpaH)iBaiii ? Ki>fle e CKpHBannmeTO? 
CtBeTBaM Te bchhko HannuiH! 

- Hanncax TOBa, KoeTO 3HaM. 

IIocjieflBa njiecHHija. Tjieaax npea ce6e ch h He CMeex aa o6i>pHa 
norjiea kt>m apyrHTe apecTaHTH b CTajrra. AreHTBT B3e JiHCTa h H3Jie3e. 
Cjiea MajiKO ce Bi>pHa h Me noBeae kt>m era^Ta Ha rpynoBHH HanajiHHK. 

- Th KaKBO, me hh pa3HrpaBaui jih? Bchhko hh e h3bcctho. Eto th 
noKa3aHH)iTa Ha apyrHTe apecTyBaHH ot BamaTa oprammmDi. IU,e 
OTroBapmi BflpHO h noapo6HO Ha 3aaa#eHHTe th BMpocH. 

Ton MaxHa c ptica. AreHTBT c ryMeHa najiKa 3anoHHa j\a mh HaHaca 
yaapH. noBajiH Me h Me 3apHTa. 

- Crara, - nyx rjiaca Ha HanajiHHKa. - J\?l BtpBH aa mhcjih no 
3aaafleHHTe My BMipocn. HHane me 3anoHHaT Hafi-CTpaiHHHTe hhkbh3hijhh. 
3am;o fla Te cbcnnBaMe, 6e, momhc? 

AreHTBT Me noBeae kbm n Kayma". 

B KHJiHHTa aHajiH3Hpax bcckh 3aaaaeH mh BMpoc h bi>3mo^chhh 
OTroBOp. KaKBO 3Hae nojiHUHjrra. HMa jih apecTyBaHH cjiea Hac h koh ca Te. 
HHKaKBH CBeaeHH^ He npoHHKBaxa kbm mch. ToBOpHXMe MHoro c MaHyK. 
IIo-tohho toh roBOpeme, a a3 h 6an Cretan cjiyuiaxMe. Pa3Ka3a 3a MHoro 
apecTH b noflyHHCKH)! panoH - okojio CTOTHHa, no HeroBa npei^eHKa. 



Ha 10.X. 1942 r. HBaH CepnieB h Cre^aH Hotob, no pememie Ha PK Ha PMC - Ylojsyxue, 
noflnajiBaT etc 3anajiHTejiHH 6om6h ceHO, cKJiaflHpaHO b zjBopa na Bochhoto ynHJinme. H flBaMaTa 
ca 3a,ai>p)KaHH h cbjiemi Ha t. Hap. YlojxynHCKU npouec ()K. KojieB. no/jyflHCKa MJiaziocT. CnoMeHH. 

72 



Pa3KpHTH H Safltp^KaHH Ca HJieHOBe Ha PaHOHHHfl KOMHTeT Ha PMC, H5IKOH 

ot apecTyBaHHTe ca o6bhhchh b H3BtpniBaHe Ha ca6oTaacH. 

- A a3 - Ka3Banie toh - HAMaM HHKaKBO OTHonieHHe kbm bchhko TOBa. 
Ho 3amo He Me ocBo6oac#aBaT? HaBflpHO onaKBaT, ne hakoh me Kaace Heujo 
h 3a MeH. A Moace 6h ce CTpaxyBaT m He pa3rjiaca hakoh cBeaeHH^ 3a 

CJieflCTBHeTO. 

Baft CrecjmH m>K, pa3Ka3Banie cjiyHKH ot MJiaaeaciarre ch ro#HHH, 

Bt3Mym aBame ce 0T (J)aHIHCTKHTe nOpfl^KH, OT IiapflUJOTO 6e33aKOHHe. H 

qaKauie fla ro ocboGoaat. 

OnaKBax #a Me B3eMaT othobo. Cjiyniax OTBapjraeTO Ha khjihhtc, 
^BH^ceHHeTO Ha apecTaHTHTe, exoTO Ha CTpaacapcKHTe 6oTyniH. fl,Ba ni>TH Ha 
#eH hh H3Be^c,zi;axa ,zjo ToajieraaTa - cyTpHH h Benep. MaHyK npo^Ji^caBanie 
#a nyKa no CTeHaTa 3aTBopHHHecKaTa a36yxa hjih #a npneMa npe^aBaHHfl ot 
^pyraTa CTpaHa Ha CTeHHTe. KayniHTe (KHJiHHTe) acHBeexa cboh, oco6eH, 

CneUH^HHeH 2CHB0T, 2KHBOT Ha H3Ml>HeHHTe, H30JIHpaHHTe 5 HantJIHO 

6e3npaBHHTe, Ha acepTBHTe. MaKap h H30JiHpaHH o6ane, HHe HayqaBaxMe h 
hakoh hobhhh. Bo^eine ce 6HTKaTa 3a CranHHipaa. MaHyK npH nocememie 
Ha ToaneTHHTe ce H3XHTp^mie m neTe bccthhiih, H3XBT>pjieHH ot crpa- 
>KapHTe, kohto H3noji3Baxa ci>maTa Toajieraa h yMHBanHfl. Hoceine KbcoBe 
ot BecTHHijH h th "crjio6flBaine M . 

MnHaxa flBa ^hh b onaKBaHe. EflHa cyTpHH kbm 9 naca (mhcjia, 6enie 
noHe^ejiHHK) BpaTaTa ce otboph. Ha npara 3acTaHa e^HH ot TpHMara areHTH, 
yqacTBan npH apecTyBaHeTO hh. fla#e mh 3HaK ^a Tpi>rHa cjiea Hero. CTaHax h 
6aBHO noBiwKox KpaKa cjie# Hero. Toh Me H3HaKBaine rzl ro HacrarHa. 

- 3^paBaTa ch 3aKbcan. npaBHXMe flBa oGncKa b KBapTHpaTa th, 
BTopn^T e ycnemeH. 

Ka3a mh, qe e ot ITjiobahb h ne e xo^hji b BaTaK. fltp^cenie ce 
CHH3xo#HTejiHO. HcKame ^a MHHaBa 3a mhjiocthb - e^Ha ot XHTpHTe 
yjiOBKH Ha onHTHHTe nojiHiieficKH areHTH. 

BiurcoxMe b CTa^Ta Ha rpynoBM HanajiHHK. "E, BHaytam jih KaKBO 
OTKpnxMe b flBopa Ha KBapTHpaTa th?", Ka3a HanajiHHK'bT h mh noconn Kyn- 
HHHKaTa no3HBH, b t. h. h nporpaMaTa Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT. Be^Hara 
pa36pax, ne ca otkphjih CKpHBajnnijeTO, KoeTO ce HaMHpame Me»my ffbCKn- 
Te, CKJia^HpaHH b ^Bopa Ha KBapTHpaTa. ITonepKbT 6enie moh h rzl OTpnnaM 
6enie 6e3CMHCJieHO. 3anoqHax #a o6flCH#BaM, ne cbiijHOT Heno3HaT MJiaaeac, 
3a kototo cnoMeHax no-rope Me e noMOJiHJi ^a My HanpaBfl ycnyra h j\& th 



C., 1969, 285; n. HBaHOB. CiyfleHTCKaTa MJia^e^c b aHTH<j>aiiiHCTKaTa 6op6a 1941-1944. C, 1985, 
98, 152). 

73 



npennnia, ho He e aoiht>ji #a rn nojiynn h a3 ct>m th ckphji b AtcKHTe. 

- HMeTO Ha T03H MJiaae^c, HMeHara Ha xopaTa, kohto bh ptKOBO^HT. H 
noapo6HOCTH 3a peMCOBaTa aefiHOCT b rHMHa3Hjrra. 

H aafle 3HaK. Othobo, 3a TpeTH tot, ci>6yx Hopanme ch, c Btp3aHH 
pwje h npoMyineHH MOK/jy tax KOJieHe, c jioct MOK^y KOJieHeTe h ptijeTe, 
Me o6tpHaxa c nnije kbm no^a, a JiocTa OKannxa MOK/jy flBa CTOJia. Cn>na- 
nara mh crbpnaxa Harope. IIpHJiHHax Ha boji, no^roTBeH 3a noflKOBaBaHe. 
3anoHHaxa yaapn c ryMH no cn>najiaTa Ha KpaKaTa. Beme MHoro 6ojie3He- 
ho. y^apHTe 6axa mhoto - HaHacaxa ra MeTOflHHHO, c pa3pe5K«aHe h CMHHa 
Ha ryMHTe. 3aaaBaxa ce BMipocn, Ha kohto oiroBapax hjih M^jinax. HaKpaa 
Me pa3Btp3axa. 

- OTHBaui aa o6mhcjihih oiroBopHTe Ha 3aaafleHHTe th Bene BtnpocH. 
IltJiHO npH3HaHHe! 

C Te3H ayMH HaHajTHHRtT flaae 3HaK Ha Hcmckh, kohto Me noBe^e, 
MaKap h Heo6yT, HaBtH klm KHJiHjrra. 

To3H areHT, kohto, KaKTO y3Hax no-KtcHO, ce Ka3Bauie Hcmckh, He mh e 
HaHacflJi no6on, MaKap #a npnctCTBanie Ha pa3nHTHTe h HHKBH3HijHHTe. 
BeflHi>^c aa^ce Me „OT6paHflBaine M flOKaTO cjiH3ax no cn>ji6HTe kbm khjihh- 
Ta. Ha njioma^KaTa MOK/jy flBa eTa)Ka cpemHaxMe areHT, kohto H3Be,mn>)K 
ce HaxBi>pjiH Btpxy MeH h 3anoHHa aa Me 6ne c bhkobc: „Th jih 3JienocTa- 
Bflin HaniaTa rHMHa3Hfl? ,f . HaBapHO no yHH(j)opMaTa 6e pa36paji, ne clm 
yneHHK ot Ti>proBCKaTa rnMHa3nn. Hcmckh 3acTaHa MOK^y ^BaMa hh h ce 
onHTBaine aa Me cnacn ot no6oa... 

HHKBH3HIJHflTa e CTpaHIHO HeillO. TpyflHO MO^Ke fla Ce H3fll>p>KH - H 

4>H3HHecKH h MopajiHO. MajiKO ca xopaTa, kohto MoraT aa H3fltp5KaT h aa 
He noTBi>p,zjOT OHOBa, KoeTO HCKaT Mi>HHTejiHTe. HHKBH3HpaHH)iT ? noflno)KeH 
Ha (|)H3HHecKH mt>kh, He BHHarH M05Ke aa ce npoTHBonocTaBH, #a MtJIHH 
hjih aa nojuxbpyKa onpeaejieHO CTaHOBnme, aa cjie^Ba npeflBapnTejiHO 
H36paHOTO noBeaeHHe, aa MaHeBpnpa h j\& 3a6jiy)KflaBa Bpara. B mhoto 
cjiynan toh ce CTpeMH aa noeMe e^HHCTBeHO Btpxy ce6e ch npefljraeHHTe 
o6BHHeHH)i ? 3a aa cnacn apyrapHTe ch, aa 3ana3H Mopajra h aoctohhctboto 
ch, h b ctmoTO BpeMe aa ce oir>pBe ot y5KacHTe Ha Mi>HeHHflTa. 3a #a ce 
cnacn ot yacaca Ha Te3H mt>kh, toh e totob flopn aa ce jihuih ot )KHBOTa ch. 
Eto b TaKOBa cbCTOAHne ce HaMHpax n a3, 6e3 «a HMaM KaKBaTO Hjae 
npeflBapHTejiHa Harjiaca n no^roTOBKa. IIpeflnojiaraM, a aa>Ke clm y6eaeH 
ot pa3roBopHTe ? kohto ctM HMaji no-KtCHO b 3aTBopHTe c fleceTKH apyrapn, 
npeMHHajrn npe3 npen3noflH5iTa Ha nojiHTHHecKara nojinijHfl, ne TaKOBa e 
6hjio 4> H3HIiecKOTO H ncHXHHecKOTO ctcToaHne Ha 6ojihihhctboto ot 
HHKBH3HpaHHTe h oco6eHO Ha MJiafle5KHTe ? nona^HajiH 3a npi>B b jianHTe Ha 

74 



noJiHUHHTa. Cpeman cbm nojiHTHnecKH flefiijH, kohto ca HSfl^pacajiH hhkbh- 
3HUMTa, Mi>JiHajiH ca, fltpacajiH ca ce ^octohho, no6e)K,zjaBajiH ca 

HHKBH3HTOpHTe B HepaBHaTa 6op6a H Ca OTpHHaJIH flO Kpafi H3BeCTHH Ha 

noJiHUHHTa (JmKTH h fleflcTBHH. Ilo-necHo e, pa36npa ce aa ce OTpnnaT 
HeH3BecTHH Ha nojiHi^H^Ta 4>aKTH ? KoraTO riflMa oGbhhchh^, ocHOBaBaujH ce 
Ha onpefleneHH aaHHH, rcPlcteim, noKa3aHHa, AOKyMeHTH. Bi>3XHmaBaM ce 
HanpHMep Ha noKa3aHHOTa Ha )Khbko Hhkojiob, ot HeroBaTa cmcjioct h 
totobhoct 3a caMoacepTBa, ot HeroBOTO otkphto 3a^BJieHHe ? ne ce 6opH c 
opi>^He npOTHB (JmuiHCTKOTO 3apo6BaHe Ha EtJirapHfl, HanpaBeHO b 
ycjioBH^Ta Ha rojieMH MtneHHfl. 

IlHcaHe Ha noKa3amiH. BenepTa Ha cjieflBamna fleH npofltJiacHxa 
pa3nHTHTe h nHcaHeTO Ha noKa3aHHfl. OraaHajio 6ax ocTaBeH aa nnuia caM, 
6e3 HaMecaTa Ha areHTa. TpaGBauie fla OTTOBOpa Ha BMpocHTe, kohto mh 
6axa 3aaaBajiH npe^HHTe ahh: 3a HJieHOBeTe Ha pi>koboactboto Ha PMC b 
raMHa3HHTa ? 3a nncaHHTe ot MeH no3HBH, kohto jieacaxa Ha MacaTa Ha 
HanajiHHKa, 3a noTBi>p^cflaBaHe Ha 4>aKTH, pa3KpHTH b noKa3aHHOTa Ha 
flpyrarre apecryBaHH, 3a bchhko, kocto clm BtpuiHJi h 3HaM. 

Tpa6Ba aa OT6ejieaca, ne b ,3,HpeKipiOTa Ha nojiHijHflTa no TOBa BpeMe 
HMauie mhoto apecr/Bami, 6axa pa3KpHTH mhoto KOHcnnpaiyiH, kohto 
HMaxa 3a nojiHitHOTa mhoto no-rojwMO 3HaneHHe ot HauiaTa rpyna, tbh ne 
HanajiHHKbT Ha nojiHiteficKaTa nojiHTHnecKa rpyna h areHTHTe ce 
3aHHMaBaxa rjiaBHO c pa3nHTH Ha /tpyra apecTyBaHH. 

IlHiHex 6aBHO ? MHcnex, pa3ci>)K,AaBax, CTpeMax ce #a ;i;aBaM CBeaeHH>i 
caMO 3a TOBa, KoeTO mh 6euie noflCKa3aHO npflKO h kocbcho, ne e H3Becrao 
Ha nojiHi^H^Ta. 

IIpe3 Te3H ahh mh 6euie HanpaBeHa h OHHa CTaBKa c AceH MaHOB. C 
Hero ot VIII ;i;o XII KJiac ceaaxMe Ha eflHH hhh, 6axMe Hepa3flejiHH ? 
pa36npaxMe ce KaTO 6paT>i, BHHarn HCKpeHH e^HH kt>m flpyr. AceH 6eiue 

HJieH Ha THMHa3HaJIHOTO pfcKOBOflCTBO. 

- no3HaBaui jih ro? ^LrceH jih e Ha PMC h Ha pt>kobo,hctboto? IIpaBexTe 
jih b HeroBaTa KBapTHpa ci>6paHHfl? 

TpynoBH^T HaHanHHK mh 3aflaae h flpyrn Btnpocn, 6e3 aa onaKBa 
OTroBOp Ha BceKH nooT#ejiHO. BtnpocHTe 6axa OTnpaBeHH h kbm ^BaMaTa. 
A3 Ka3ax, ne AceH He e HJieH Ha PMC, ne CMe nprorrejiH, yHHM b e^HH KJiac, 
ce^HM Ha e/uiH hhh. Toh mhoto mh flOBep^Ba, a3 ct>m ce Bi>3noji3Baji ot TOBa 
h ci>m H3noji3Ban HeroBaTa KBapTHpa. npnctcTBaji e Ha c6npKH, Ha kohto 
CMe pa3HCKBanH jnrrepaTypHH BtnpocH, xy^oacecTBeHO JiHTepaTypHH npo- 



)K. Hhkojiob, npe,zicMi>pTHH TeTpa^KH. C, 1972, 152-155. 

75 



H3BeAeHHfl h Ap. 5 xoahjih cMe Ha H3JieTH, ho He e 6hji HJieH Ha peMCOBaia 
opraHH3aiiH)i. 

- Toh e 6ojieayBaji ot Ty6epKyji03a. MHoro Bh mojia, He ro 6HHTe! A3 
clm BHHOBeH 3a cerauiHOTO HeroBO nojioaceHHe - bkhobch e 6e3 BHHa. 

Ot oHHTe mh noTetcoxa ct>ji3h. HaHajiHHKbT Me nonie/jHa c yny/jBaHe, ho 
ecTecTBeHO He mh noBflpBa. "H3BefleTe ro!", Ka3a toh. rioBene He bh/j#x AceH 
b ^HpeKiiHHTa. Cpen^HaxMe ce no BpeMe Ha npoijeca. Toh e 6hji ocBo6o/jeH ot 
apeera, ho 6euie npHBJieneH b flenoTO ot npoKypopa KaTO noflCb/jHM. 

^obi>puihx nncMeHHTe ch noKa3aHH^ 3 ho Te He ce xapecaxa Ha HeMCKH. 

- II|,e 3anoHHeM othobo h bchhko, bchhko Tpa6Ba #a Hannuieui. HHane 
Te onaKBa hob pa3nHT npn HanajiHHKa. 

ToBa ,f OTHOBO ,f 3anoHHa o6ane cjie^ flBa ^hh. 

Ha cjie^HHfl aeH -21 HoeMBpH, ApxaHrejiOB ,neH, 6euie npa3HHKT>T Ha 
nojiHijH^Ta h HauiHTe Mi>HHTejiH npa3HyBaxa. ApecTaHTCKOTO noMemeHHe 
6enie cpaBHHTejiHO thxo. Kbcho cjiea o6*m o6ane 3anoHHa ^a ce nyBa myM 
otkbm nojiHiteficKaTa njiomaflica. ^onyBaxMe pa3roBopn Ha bhcok niac, 
noflBHKBaHH^. #bho ^e^cypHHTe CTpaacapH 6axa Ha "rpaflyc". Ot BpeMe Ha 
BpeMe, KaKTO h b flpyrHTe /jhh, ce OTBapauie uinnoHKaTa Ha BpaTaTa h ce 
npOBep^Bauie Hauiera noBe^eHHe. AreHTHTe o6ane 6axa H3ne3HajiH. Bpa- 
THTe Ha KayniHTe He ce OTBapaxa, He ce H3Be^c^axa apecTaHTH 3a pa3nHTH... 
^jiro o6mhcjiax KaKBH noica3aHHfl ^a aaBaM. OcBo6o,neH jih e AceH? HMa 
jih flpyrn apecTyBaHH h koh ca Te? 

Cjie/j M npa3HHKa" Hanncax hakojiko noica3aHH5i, ho Hcmckh He rn npne 
h 3anoHHa #a mh "noMara", KaTO mh /jHKTyBauie KaKBO ^a nnnia. Toh #o6pe 
no3HaBauie noKa3aHHATa Ha flpyrHTe apecTyBaHH cbyneHHijH, HCKame #a 
noTBtp^KflaBaM h ^ontJiBaM h3bccthh Bene (|)aKTH, CTpeMenie ce, KaKTO 
pa36pax no-Ki>CHo 5 #a He flonyctca npoTHBOpenHfl b noKa3aHHATa. TojiaM 
6euie HHTepecBT My kt>m no-ropecToamHTe opraHH Ha PMC, t. e. yne- 

HHHeCKOTO 6lOpO, nO-KOHKpeTHO KbM TepO Tp03eB ("MOM1>Ka"), ^HMHTbp 

PycHHOB, Po3a KopHTapoBa ("pycaTa MOMa ,f , KaKTO a HapnnaxMe) h ap., 
hhhto HMeHa nojiHijHflTa He ycmi ^a y3Hae. OrpeMax ce ^a aaBaM HeBepHH 
onncaHHa Ha (j)H3HHecKHTe hm 6ene3H. TaKa HanpHMep, 3a ^hmhtlp 
PycHHOB, kohto 6enie MHoro KpacHB, CTpoeH MOMl>K H npHBJiHHauie 
noraeflHTe Ha bchhkh MOMHHeTa, Kpafi kohto MHHaBauie, nncax, ne HaKyi^Ba 

H KpHBH B XOfleHeTO. 

OaKTHnecKH cnncbKbT Ha o6BHH^eMHTe ce 6euie pa3iHHpHJi, noconeHH 
6axa HMeHa h Ha flpyra peMCHCTH ot rHMHa3H5rra. He 3Haex, ne ca 6hjih 
apecTyBaHH moat ebKBaprapaHT 5Iko Mojixob h AHflpea Ctoahob, ho ca 
6hjih ocBo6ofleHH nopa^H Jinnca Ha flOKa3aTejicTBa 3a H3Bi>puiBaHe Ha 

76 



HeJieraJiHa aeftHOCT. B nncaHeTO Ha noKa3aHMTa B3e yqacrae h ntpBH^T 
"moh" areHT - pycHOT, kohto ce npOflBH c HOBH tfCeCTOKOCTH. 

B Kpaa Ha m. HoeMBpH cjieflCTBHeTO npHKJiioHH. Eax 3aBeaeH b 6ptcHap- 
HHiiaTa, KtfleTO Me noflCTpnraxa h o6pT>CHaxa. TyK ce bhaax c HBaH 
IleTKOB. Toh mh ce ycMHXHa flpyrapCKH h CT>nyBCTBeHO. OrBtpHax My etc 
ci>moTo: onaKBanie hh eflHaKBa ci>fl6a. He nofl03Hpax, ne toh ce e nocTaBHJi 
b ycjiyra Ha nojinipiflTa. Cjiea TOBa Me CHHMaxa b pa3JiHHHH no3H h othobo 
Me oTBefloxa npn HanajiHHKa. B CTaaTa ocbch hakojikoto areHTH HMauie h 
e^HH HOBeK, KoroTO npeflCTaBHxa KaTO "noeMHo" jnme, H3BHKaH cjiynaftHO 
ot yjiHuaTa, Ha30Baxa hmcto h (JmMHJiHjrra My. Toh Tpfl6Banie aa ycTaHOBH 

CaMOHHHHOCTTa MH H flo6pOBOJIHOCTTa Ha flaHHHTe OT MOHTe nOKa3aHHH. 

rio-KtcHO b ctfla toh CBHfleTencTBa, ne noKa3aHH5rra ca moh h ne a3 ct>m 
y^ocTOBepHJi npefl Hero, ne Te ca aaaeHH ,zi;o6pOBOJiHO, 6e3 HacHJiM. 

H Kpaii ... a3 h mohtc apyrapn 6axMe npeaafleHH Ha npoKypop ot 
BoeHHaTa npoicypaTypa, kohto menie fla peniaBa HaniaTa ci>fl6a orryK 
HaTaTbK. 

OcBoSo^c^aBaHeTO Ha 6aii Cretan h MaHyK. Cpema c MapKO ^oGpee 

BeflHara cjiea npa3HHKa Ha nojiHijHHTa 6afi CTe^aH 6enie H3BeaeH c 
6ara^ca ch h ch 3aMHHa. C6oryBaxMe ce ctpfleHHO c T03H mhji hobck h ch 
no^cenaxMe aa ce bh^hm Ha CBo6oaa. noptnaxMe My aa ce o6aflH Ha 
6jiH3KHTe hh, aKO 6i>fle ocBo6o#eH, Ha KoeTO toh mhoto ce Ha^Banie. 

CtmHH aeH b KHJiH5iTa BtBefloxa jspyr apecTaHT. Ha BpaTaTa 3acTaHa 
MJiaa MbyK Ha okojio 30 roflHHH, nepHooK, c HHTejinreHTHO, ho H3MT>neHO 
jimje, cpeaeH Ha ptcT h c o^eano b pi>Ka. ",3,o6t>p fleH M , npoMtJiBH toh h Ha 
jnmeTO My ce no^BH npHATHa ycMHBKa. "Kb^e aa ceflHa?" MaHyK My noco- 
hh ocBo6ofleHOTO ot 6afi Ore^aH macto. Mt>)kt>t ce^Ha h 3anoHHaxMe pa3- 
roBop. Ka3Ban ce MapKO ,3,o6peB, cjie^cTBHeTO My Bene 6hjio npHKJHOHHJio 
h onaKBan no-HaTaTBHiHaTa ch CBfl6a - HaBflpHO eta h 3aTBOp. M B KaKBO Te 
o6BHH5iBaT? n 3anHTa MaHyK. M 06BHH)iBaT Me, ne cbm ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha 
PMC b Co(j)Hfl h HJieH Ha U,K, ho TOBa He e BflpHo". H MJiBKHa tt>2cho. 

Hne 6axMe pecneKTHpaHH. MaHyK CTaHa ome no-cepH03eH. MapKO My 
3aaaae pe;uma BtnpocH no o6BHHeHHjrra ki>m Hero, 3aHHTepecyBa ce ot 
npoBana b noflyjmcKHfl paftoH h ce onHTBaiue aa y3Hae Hemo noBene. 
MaHyK My Ka3a, ne ca apecTyBaHH mhoto MJiafleacn, ne tokkh o6bhhchh5i 
HMa kt>m HBaH XpHCTOB (3i>6HeTo), HBaH CeprneB h flpyra. HoBa TpeBora 
ce H3nnca no JiHijeTO Ha MapKO. HaBflpHO rn no3HaBauie, h TOBa e 
ecTecTBeHO - bct>iu;hoct toh 6enie ptKOBOflHTen Ha Coc|)HHCKaTa o6nacTHa 
peMcoBa opraHH3aijHH. Ho-ki>cho b 3aTBOpa y3Hax, ne ce e cpemaji c tax, 
AaBan hm e yKa3aHH5i. MaHyK My npeaaae h hobhhh 3a 6nTKaTa 3a 

77 



OrajiHHrpafl h nojioaceHHeTO Ha apyrHTe 4>poHTOBe, aokojikoto 6eme 
HH(J)opMHpaH ot ToajieTHaTa BecTHHKapCKa flOKyMeHTaijHfl. 

MapKO pa3roBap^ine h c mch Ta3H Benep h npe3 cjie^BamHTe ahh, 
KoraTO ce 3aBpT>max b KHJiHHTa cjiea pa3iiHTHTe h nncaHeTO Ha noK&3ami%- 
Ta. Pa3Ka3ax My ot KaKBO ce mrrepecyBa nojiHiiHATa, KaKBO h e H3BecTHo, 
KaKBH noKa3aHHH ci>M flan. HanpaBH mh BnenarjieHHe, ne toh 3Hae mhoto 3a 
fleHHOcrra Ha BT>3,n'bp)KaTejiHOTo apyacecTBO h 3a H3rpaaeHHfl b TbproBCKa- 
Ta rHMHa3HH 6opnecKH KoneKTHB. ToBa Me 03a,a;aHH h 3apaflBa. BtnpocHTe h 
pa3Ka3HTe My o6ane HMaxa ycnoBeH xapaKTep "nyx r& ce roBopn", 
M Ka3Baxa", "pa3Ka3Baxa3a". 

MHoro 6i>p30 ce npHBi>p3ax kbm MapKO, 6tp30 ro o6HKHax h to 3aBH- 
HarH. Pa3Ka3Bame hh 3a MeTpoTO b MocKBa AOCTa AeTafijiHO, ho ce no3o- 
BaBauie Ha pa3Ka3H Ha HeroB no3Har, HHaceHep, kohto noceTHJi MocKBa. 
no-KT>CHO b 3aTBOpa mh Ka3a, ne 3ae,nHO c rpyna MJiaaeacH - ptKOBO^HTejiH 
Ha PMC, e 6hji HejierajiHO e^Ha nwraa b MocKBa h e 3aBtpiHHJi 
JleHHHCKaTa imcojia... 

,ZJeH cjiea npncTHraHeTO Ha MapKO ,ZJo6peB ce pa3,a;ejiHXMe h c MaHyic, 
kohto 6euie ocBo6o,a;eH. 3apa,HBaH, toh Me npen>pHa h noacejia Aa ce bh^hm 
Ha CBoGoAa h ao6aBH: M rio6eflaTa e 6jiH3Ka' f . Toh o6ema fla ce o6a,nH Ha 
6jiH3KHTe mh. IIojiyHH h cneipiajiHO nopi>HeHHe ot MapKO %a nocera 
cbnpyraTa My h Aa ijenyHe MajiKHfl My chh. 

npe3 hakojikoto ahh AOKaTO 6axMe b e,HHa khjiha MapKO mh pa3Ka3a 
,o;ocTa 3a ce6e ch, kocto npe^aBaM TaKa, KaKTO ct>m ro 3anoMHHJi, tbh KaTO 
HMa tojmmo 3HaneHHe 3a T03H BH^eH peBOjnouHOHep, kt>m KoroTO cjiea 
pa3CTpejia ce OTnpaB^xa hhkoh Heo6ocHOBaHH o6BHHeHH^. 

Po^eH e b c. TopHija, LLIyMeHCKO. B3eMa achho ynacrae b 6op6nTe Ha 
PMC. riona,naji e necTO b nojiHijH^Ta. Jleacaji e h b 3aTBOpa. CbparaHK e Ha 
ManHHKa, Hop^aHKa HaHKOBa, Jlnn^Ha /jHMHTpOBa, Teoprn HaHKOB, Hhhko 
CTe^aHOB h flpyrn H3BecraH HejieranHH $yHKijHOHepH Ha PMC h napTMTa. 
H3npaTeH e HejierajiHO aa ynn b MocKBa. Cjiea 3anoHBaHeTO Ha BOHHaTa Ha 
4>amHCTKa TepMaHH^ npoTHB Ci>BeTCKHH ct>k)3 nojnmHOTa 3anoHBa aa 
HHTepHHpa npoHBeHH b 6jih3koto MHHano fleiiijH Ha BKn h PMC. 3a #a He 
6T>,a;e HHTepHHpaH, toh MHHaBa b HejierajiHOCT h ce yKpHBa b Co^h^i. 
npo,nT>.JDKaBa ^a H3BT>puiBa KOHcnnpaTHBHa aeflHOCT KaTO ceKpeTap Ha OK 
Ha PMC. Ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe nocemaBan ceMencTBOTO ch. HMaji ci>npyra h 
TOKy-mo po^HJi ce chh. B Kpaa Ha jditoto e^Ha Hom othhtbji b KBapTHpaTa 
ch, ho 6hji npeaaaeH ot cbce^H h apecTyBaH. 

B npOAtjraeHHe Ha noBene ot 50 ahh 6hji no^JiaraH Ha hhkbh3hijhh, ho 
no^wtpacaji noKa3aHHHTa ch, ne ce e yKpHBaji, 3a Aa ne 6i>fle HHTepHHpaH, 

78 



qe He ce 3aHHMaBa Bene c nojiHTHnecKa achhoct. Pa3nHTBaH e jihhho ot 
TeiueB. nopa/iH Jinnca Ha KomcpeTHH flOKa3aTejicTBa nojiHimaTa peuiHJia #a 
g^e H3npaTeH b Jiarep h TaM ,n;a 6i>fle Ha "pasnojioacetme", aoKaTO ce 
pa3KpHHT ,a;oKa3aTejicTBa 3a fleHHOcrra My. HanpaBHJiH My chhmkh h My 
cT>o6mHJiH ? ne ro H3npamaT b narep. B ILipoT o6ane Snjia pa3KpHTa rojwMa 
KOHcnHpaijHfl. E/ihhhht ot o6BHH^eMHTe 6hji JIio6eH KapTaneB (Ci>p6HHa), 
kohto 6hji acHBHJi b Co(J)H^ h HMaji o6ymapcKa pa6oTHJiHHiia. IIofljio^KeH Ha 
^cecTOKH HHKBH3HIIHH (3a yacacHTe Ha MtneHMHTa b IlHpoT mh pa3Ka3Baxa B 
3aTBOpa hhkoh ot ocb^eHHTe b t. h. IlHpoTCKHfl npoijec), toh npH3Haji, ne e 
noflfltp^aji Bpt3KaTa Meayjy iieHTpanHHTe ptKOBO^CTBa Ha BKn h lOKII, 
qe e npeflaBan 3a iiejiTa MaTepnajiH Ha jinije HapnnaHO MapKO (HaBHpHO 

nceBflOHHM). 

KoraTO nojiynnjiH MaTepnajiHTe ot pa3nHTHTe b rinpoT, nojiHijaHTe, 

KOHTO BOflHJIH CJieflCTBHeTO Ha MapKO ,D,06peB, a BepOflTHO H CaMHOT 

TeineB, peuiHJiH 3a BceKH cjiynaH ,ga HanpaBHT OHHa CTaBKa MOKfly MapKO 
/J,o6peB h JIio6eH KapTaneB. Ha OHHaTa CTaBKa Ha KapTaneB 3a,n;ajiH 
Btnpoca: "ToBa jih e jiHiieTO npe3 KoeTO no/mtpacam Bpi>3Ka Me»my BKH h 
lOKQ?" KapTaneB OTroBOpHJi nojioacHTejiHO, BtnpeKH, ne TOBa He 6hji 
cbmHflT HOBeK. KaTO ce onaoiBaji ot hobh hhkbh3hiihh, toh nocoHHJi 
MapKO ,D,o6peB, KaTO pa3HHTaji, ne b ct^a me Moace na, pa3Kaace HCTHHaTa. 

Tpn6Ba ,n;a OTGejieaca, ne MapKO ,H,o6peB h JIio6eH KapTaneB ca ce 
no3HaBajiH h ca HMajiH b MHHajioTO cbBMecTHa KOHcnnpaTHBHa aefiHOCT. 
MapKO OTpeKT>Ji noKa3aHHOTa Ha KapTaneB, onHTaji ce %a, flOKaace, ne He ca 
BepHH. 3anoHHajiH hobh hhkbh3hiihh. MapKO ^o6peB ynopHTO OTpHHan, ho 
He H3,zi;T>p)Kaji Ha 6ojikhtc h b CTpeMeaca ch na, o6opn noKa3aHH)rra Ha 
KapTaneB HanpaBHJi npH3HaHHe 3a ^eHHOcrra ch KaTO ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha 
PMC. "He mffbpyKax" , Bt3flHHiaHKH Teaoco, Ka3Bauie MapKO. "Eax ce 
OTnycHaji ncnxHHecKH cnefl ci>o6meHHeTO, ne me Me H3npaT)iT b narepa. 

IltpBHTe HHKBH3HIIHH H3flT>p^CaX ? HO BTOpHTe He MOECaX." TOH MHOTO TeflCKO 

noHaomie (|)aKTa, ne e HanpaBHJi npH3HaHH)i, ho pa3Cb^c^aBauie Tpe3BO h 
OTroBopHO. Cjie^cTBHeTO 6euie npHRJnoneHO. OnaKBauie ce aa 6T>,fl;e H3npa- 
TeH b 3aTBopa h .zja 6T>,fl;e cb^eH ot BoeHHonojieBHH clr 3ae,n;HO c flpyra 
HJieHOBe h flefiiiH Ha OK Ha PMC. "ToBa me 6i>fle KpaaT 1 ', Ka3Bauie toh... 

Beme cjieflo6e r m>T Ha BTopna hjih Ha Tperaa nen cne/i npHKJHOHBaHeTO 
Ha cne#CTBHeTO cpemy MeH. C MapKO npHKa3BaxMe thxo h ra^aexMe Kora 
me hh OTKapaT b 3aTBopa, Kora me ce OTtpBeM ot acecTOKHTe Jiann Ha 
nonniiHHTa. BpaTaTa ce otboph. noKa3a ce crpaacap. "OraBaHTe, B3eMafiTe 
Garaaca h cjiea MeH M , 3anoBH.ua toh. Tpa6Hax oflejuio to h niHHejia, a MapKO 
- CBoeTO o^e^jio h 6ajiTOHa. Ha nnomaflKaTa npefl nojiHijeHCKOTO noMeme- 

79 



HHe hh BtpHaxa B3eTHTe npH BJiH3aHeT0 BemH. Cnefl TOBa ce 030BaxMe b 
MajitK BtTpeineH flBop. B cpe^aTa Ha flBopa naKanie apecTaHTCKa KOJia. 
Cnefl MHHyTa-flBe crpaacapHTe #OBe#oxa KnpHJi MnneB, CaBa TeBpeHOB, 
Hop^aH Bohhob - ot HaiiiM npoijec, a ci>mo h flBaMa apecTaHTH - cbkoh- 
cnnpaTopH Ha MapKO ,3,o6peB. BjwreoxMe b KaMHOHeTKaTa. IlpHTHCHaTH 
e^HH flo Apyr, HHe nerapHMaTa ebyneHHijH - a3, Knpo, CaBaTa, Hop^aH - 
ce nperbpHaxMe. KaMHOHeTKaTa, oxparaBaHa ot hskojiko crpaacapH, 
noTerjiH. MapKO npe^CTaBH cbohtc apyrapH - /Jhmhtbp PbjtbGob h HBaH 
Hoch(|)ob. A3 npe^cTaBHx mohtc 

B Co(J)hiickhh i^eHTpajieH 3aTBop 

IlT>TyBaxMe kt>m Coc^hhckhm ijeHTpajieH 3aTB0p. Kbm hobh Mi>HeHHfl h 
Terna, kbm HeH3BecTHOcrra... 

Bene ce CBenepaBanie, KoraTO KaMHOHeTKaTa cnpa b flBOpa Ha 3aTBOpa. 
3a«HaTa BpaTa Ha KaMHOHeTKaTa ce otboph h CTpaacapHTe 3acTaHaxa ot 
ABeTe h cTpaHH. Bi>Tpe HaflHHKHa e^HH TbMHHHap, o6jieneH b nepHa 
yHH(|)opMa 5 h hh HapeflH #a cjiH3aMe. OrpaacapHTe hh 3ao6HKOJinxa h toh 
hh BtBe^e b crpa^aTa Ha 3aTB0pa npe3 rojmia acejia3Ha BpaTa. MnHaxMe no 
KOpH^opa h ce 030BaxMe b e^Ha cpaBHHTenHO rojiaMa 3ajia. "Baraga Ha 
nofla M 5 H3KOMaHflBa HauiHAT Bo^an. Ilpe3 TOBa BpeMe b noMenjeHHeTO 
BHH30xa h flpyrn Hafl3HpaTejiH. XBi>pJiHXMe 6araaca ch. CTpa^KapHTe 
npeaafloxa ctOTBeTHHTe ^OKyMeHTH h ch 3aMHHaxa. 06ncKHpaxa hh h hh 
H3BHKaxa no HMeHa h ^aMHJiHH. TnaBHHHT Hafl3HpaTeji Ka3a hskojiko ayMH 
3a pe#a b 3aTBOpa, 3a TeacKHTe HaKa3aHH*, kohto hh onaKBaT, aKO 
HapyniaBaMe ycTaHOBeHHTe npaBHJia. IIoBe,noxa hh othobo no KOpH^op. 

^OKaTO MHHaBaXMe npe3 OXpaHflBaHHTe OT TBMHHHapH MOKflHHHH ^cejie3HH 

BpaTH, a3 ce orneacflax c Jiio6onHTCTBO h CTpax. CaKani 6ax nona^Haji b 
flpyr cbst. HManie Hemo TaftHCTBeHO, MHCTepH03HO. B naMeTTa mh 
Bi>3Kpi>CHa nponeTeHOTO b KHHraTa "KanHTaH ,3,paHc|)yc n ot Emhji 3ona. 
ToBa TaftHCTBeHO nyBCTBO 3aBJiafl^ bchhkh b rpynaTa. /Jhmhtbp Pbjn>6oB, 
npeKapaji Bene 3aa penieTKHTe hakojiko roflHHH KaTO nojiHTHHecKH 
3aTBOpHHK 5 hh nornoKflanie oGo/jpHTejiHO h c ycMHBKaTa ch hh 
ycnoKO^Banie. 

HoBa penierBHHa BpaTa. IToctobhht TbMHHHap niyMHO otkjiiohh h 
otboph 3a #a MHHeM. ITpea Hac ce OTKpnxa orpOMHH MHoroeTaacHH 
KopH^opn, c "6ajiKOHH" c nepnna. Ha ntpBHfl eTa)K ot Kb^eTO BJi*30XMe 
6axa om>HaTH Mpeacn, kohto cbeflHHHBaxa ^BaTa KopH^opa. Ilocjie 
pa36paxMe npe#Ha3HaHeHHeTO hm - aKO hskoh ce xBtpjin ot ropHHTe 
eTa^cn, aa na^He Bbpxy MpeacaTa, a He Ha i^hmchtobhh nofl. B cpe^aTa ce 

80 



BHeine cn>Ji6Hme kbm ropHHTe eTaacn. To pa3#ejDinie crpa^aTa Ha tfBe 
nacTH - J^Ba h flacHa. 

Ilo nepHJiaTa Ha eTaacHHTe KopH^opn HaflHHHaxa 3aTBOpmnjH, kohto 
noHTH He hh o6i>pHaxa BHHMaHHe. H cera ch cnoMHAM b no,n;po6HOCTH 
rjieflKaTa, ho mh e TpyflHO /ja onHina 3aineMeTflBamoTO BnenaTJieHHe. 
Te^cKaTa peuieTBHHa BpaTa ce 3aTBOpH 3a/j Hac. "Kora jih Ta3H BpaTa me ce 
otboph, 3a aa H3Ji^3a Ha CBo6o/ja?", noMHcnnx ch a3. HflKaKbB oco6eH HiyM 
b THinHHaTa. Oco6eH Bi>3,zjyx. Jlpyr cbot. KaKBO jih hh onaKBa? 

TaKaBa KapTHHa He 6ax ch npe/jcTaBflji, BMipeKH ne b JjHpeioiHfl Ha 
noJiHUHHTa, flOKaTO onaKBax oTBe^cflaHeTo hh b 3aTBOpa, ce no^roTBax 
ncHXOJiorHHecKH 3a onaicBaHHTe tokkh ycjiOBHfl. Bo/jeHH ot TbMHHHapH, 
npeKOCHXMe KOpH^opa h ce 3aH3KaHBaxMe no cn>ji6aTa. HaniHTe CTtnicH, h 
oco6eHO no^KOBaHHTe 6oTyuiH Ha TbMHHHapHTe, chjiho KbHTaxa no 
^cejie3HHTe njionn Ha noaa. CTHrHaxMe Ha nocjie/jHHfl TpeTH eTaac. Jlp 
cn>Ji6HmeTO HMauie MajiKa ocrbKJieHa CTaa - Ha6jno,zjaTejiHHija 3a 
TbMHHHapHTe. Ot Ta3H CTaa, HapeneHa "aeacypHa", H3Jie3e Ha^3HpaTen c 
orpoMeH )Kene3eH kjiioh b pT>Ka h hh noBe/je Ha #acho no KopH/jopa, noKpaft 
3aTBOpeHHTe Hcejie3HH BpaTH Ha khjihhtc Ha T03H eTa^c 6axa 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe - b VII h VIII oxzjejieHHe. Ha,zj3HpaTejiflT cnpa h 
otkjiiohh e^Ha ot BpaTHTe. 3acTaHaxMe npea BpaTaTa. 3a6enfl3ax, ne hoch 
HOMep 251 - KHJiHjrra, b kooto npeKapax 3 ot o6m;o 22 Meceija 

3aTBOpHHHeCKH 2KHBOT... 

BjiH30XMe eflHH no e/jHH. IIpoBepHxa hh no cnncbK. "CeaeM", Ka3a 
eflHHH>iT ot Hafl3HpaTenHTe. ff ^a, cefleM M 5 noTBi>pflH HaniMT BO/jan. 
KHJiHjrra ce 3aTBOpH h HHe ocTaHaxMe caMH 3aa 3flpaBO 3ajiocTeHaTa 
)Kejifl3Ha BpaTa. C Jiio6onHTCTBO h Tbra orne5KflaxMe KHJiHATa ch, hoboto hh 
KOJieKTHBHO acnjiHiije, npeflocTaBeHO hh 6e3nnaTHO ot (|)auiHCTKaTa BJiacT. 
U,HMeHTOB nofl. Ha Hero 3axBi>pjieHH flBa cnaMeHHica. Bhcoko Ha CTeHaTa 
cpemy BpaTaTa - Majn>K npo30peu; c >Kejifl3Ha penieTKa. 3a/j BpaTaTa HMauie 
MajiKa MacHHKa h Ta6ypeTKa. ,3,0 Hea CToenie HcejDBHa KO(j)a, ci>mo KaKTO b 

KHJIHflTa HH B ,H,HpeKIJHfl Ha nOJIHIJHflTa. 

MnHaBauie 21 naca. BenepHaTa npoBepKa Bene 6euie npOBe/jeHa h 
3acera HHe HAMaxMe bi>3mo)khoct ^a BJie3eM b KOHTaKT c hhkoh ot 
3aTB0pHHijHTe. Orneaax MacHBHaTa >KejDi3Ha BpaTa. B cpe/jaTa h HMauie 
iunnoHKa c flnaMeTbp okojio flBa-Tpn caHTHMeTpa. Ha/j3HpaTejiOT MOHceine 
m hh Ha6nK)flaBa npe3 Hea, ho, KaKTO ycTaHOBHXMe no-KtcHO, ta Moace 
,a;o6pe ^a nocnyflCH h Ha Hac 3a pa3roBOpH h Ha6jno,zjeHHfl. Ta 6enie 
"npo3opeij M 3a o6myBaHe c apyrHTe 3aTB0pHHijH, 3a npe^aBaHe Ha 6ejie>KKH. 

CTO^XMe h ce orneacflaxMe. ToBa 6enie HauieTo hobo HCHJinme. Ce^eM 

81 



jsyum - ce^eM hobh iiJieHHHijH Ha (J)auiH3Ma. Cjiefl hakojiko mhhyth 
3anoHHaxMe ^a CBHKBaMe c HOBaTa o6cTaHOBKa h ce noycnoKOHXMe. 

KoMaHflBaHeTO Ha HaniaTa ce/jeMHJieHHa rpyna 6e noeTO ot /Jhmhtbp 
rT>jn>6oB 5 HaH-onHTHH^ Meayjy Hac. KaTO 6hbui 3arBOpHHK, toh no3HaBauie 
KaKTO nopHflKHTe, ycTaHOBeHH ot ynpaBaTa Ha 3aTBOpa, TaKa h HeiracamiTe 
npaeiuia Ha kojtckthbhhh 3aTBopmmecKH xchbot, ycTaHOBeHH ot 
caMHTe nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH. ToBa 6axa CTpora npaBHJia, a^eKBaTHH Ha 
3aTBOpHHHecKH^ peacHM, kohto uejwxa aa ci>3flaflaT no-flo6pH ycjioBiw b 
jsyx Ha apyrapCKH B3aHM00TH0ineHHfl, bhcok hobcuikh h napTHeH MOpaji, 
#o6poHaMepeHOCT h B3aHMonoMom. Ilocjie ce y6e^Hx b TOBa - 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHi|HTe no khjihh, no OTflejieHHH, no 3arBOpn )KHBeexa cboh 
5khbot 5 Te o6pa3yBaxa kojickthbh - yHHBepcHTeTH, kojickthbh - ceMencTBa. 
TaKa no-jiecHO ce npeoflOJMBame tokkha 3arB0pHHHecKH )khbot, OTKtCHa- 
Tocrra ot BtHinHHa cbat, ot 6jih3khtc BpeMeTO ce OnOJI30TBOp>IBaine B 
yneHHe h no^roTOBKa 3a hob )khbot, bhcoko HpaBCTBeHO h nojiHTHHecKo 
BT>3nnTaHHe. HMame pa36npa ce h oxzjejiHH jihhhocth, kohto npo^BHBaxa 

erOH3I>M, HepBHOCT, HeTbpnHMOCT H neCHMH3T>M. TyK B KOJieKTHBa, B 

ycjioBH^Ta Ha 3arB0pHHHecKH)i pe)KHM, HOBeK pa3KpHBame ce6e ch h cbohtc 
flo6pn hjih jiohih KanecTBa, cboa xapaKTep h Bi>3nHTaHHe, CBOATa Ayma, 
CBoeTO a3. H ao flHec, KoraTO cpeuiHa nojnrreaTBOpHHK, a3 ce OTHac^M ki>m 
Hero c tojmmo yBa)KeHHe, c 6paTCKH nyBCTBa, a kbm hakoh c rojravia 
ApyrapcKa o6hh h noHHTaHHe. A3 ce yBJiflKox, H3npeBapnx eb6HTH5rra h 
BpeMeTO. Ka3BaM 3a Henja, b kohto B^pBax ome npe/jH BJiH3aHeTo mh b 
3aTBOpa ? ho b kohto ce y6e^HX hcthhckh b TeneHHe Ha 3aTBopHHHecKHTe 22 
Meceija ot MJiaflocira mh, H3m>jiHeHa c peMCOB peBOJiioijHOHeH p0MaHTH3i>M. 
H TaKa... ^,HMHTbp ri>jn>6oB noe pi>kobo,hctboto. IloflpeflHXMe ^Bara 
cjiaMeHHKa. Gi>6paxMe HajiHHHHTe ofleajia, uiHHejiH h 6anTOHH. Ilo ninpn- 
HaTa Ha cnaMeHHijHTe Moacexa aa JierHaT caMO nerapH ayniH. noflpe^Hxa ce 
neTHpHMa, a HHe ri>jn>6oB, MapKO h a3 ocTaHaxMe npaBH ^o BpaTaTa. Hera- 
pHMaTa CKOpo 3acnaxa, yMopeHH, 6jie,zjH, H3MtHeHH. Hne ot BpeMe Ha Bpe- 
Me npnomaxMe Ha Ta6ypeTKaTa h MacaTa. Benie mhoto CTyzjeHO h BJiaacHO. 

EltpBaTa Hom b 3aTBOpa. CnoMHHX ch neceHTa, kohto moat flpyrap ot 
^eTCKHTe roflHHH /jHMHTtp Kbhcb neeine: ff B Coc|)Hfl, ^epHara flflcaMHfl ..." 
TnxHTe pa3roBOpH Ta3H Hom, HayneHOTO ot ri>jn>6oB h MapKo, mh 
BfltxHaxa mhoto Kypa)K, onTHMH3tM h BHpa. Haynnx mhoto Hema 3a 
3aTBopHHMecKH)i achbot, kohto maxa fla MH 6l>flaT B TpHTe 3aTBOpa, B 
MHOTOTO KHJIHH, B pa3JIHHHHTe KOJICKTHBH H BT>B B3aHMOOTHOIHeHHHTa C 

pa3HOo6pa3HH no xapaKTep h jsyx nojiHT3aTBOpHHu;H. Eto hhkoh no-CHJiHH 
BnenaTJieHH^ npe3 Ta3H ntpBa 3aTBOpHHnecKa hoiij. 

82 



3afl BpaTaTa MHHaBaine Ha#3HpaTeji. "TaK-TaK ....", KtHT^xa ertnicHTe 
My ot eflHHM flo flpyrnfl Kpafi Ha KopH/jopa. B TOBa TpaKaHe Ha 6oTyniH 
HMame Hemo MHoro 3JiOBem;o, ho no-KtcHO nocTeneHHO CBHKHax aa He My 
6pi,maM BHHMaHHe. B Kpaa Ha KOpH^opa toh 3aBtpTBauie myMHO KJiiona 

Ha HXKQKbB yCTpOHCTBO. "TOBa e HaCOBHHKOB MexaHH31>M lf 5 o6flCHflBame 

Purina (TaKa rantoBHO HapnnaxMe J\. T'bji'bGob). "Hpe3 Hero ce Kompo- 
jiHpa Haa3HpaTeji5i. Ha BceKH 15-20 MHHyTH toh Tpa6Ba aa 3aBtpTH icmona, 
c KoeTO noKa3Ba 5 ne e npeMHHaji no KopH^opa h e HanpaBHJi npoBepKa". 

rT>Jii>6oB nymeHie. ToBa o6ane 6eme 3a6paHeHO. A h aa ce nymn b Ta3H 
THCHa khjiha 6eme Bpe/mo h HenpHflrao, 3amoTO HflMame nonra HHKaKBO 
npocTpaHCTBO, 6yKBanHO He hh aocTHraine Bi>3flyx. Toh o6ane ch cbh 
(JjyHHHKa ot xapTM h KoraTO Hafl3HpaTeiw OTMHHaBame HamaTa khjiha, 
cMyneuie ijnrapaTa, 3a,m>p)Kanie nymeica b ycTaTa ch h npe3 c^yHHHKaTa, 
BKapaHa b innnoHKaTa, ro H3flyxBame HaBtH b KopH^opa. 

PbJrbGoB o6flCHABanie - HHe CMe ome cjie^cTBeHH, t. e. He CMe ome 

OCfcfleHH H me HH flT>p)KaT OTfleJIHO OT flpyrHTe 3aTBOpHHUH flO BptHBaHeTO 

Ha o6BHHHTejiHHTe aKTOBe, me hh nycKaT no OT^ejiHO jjp yMHBajiHATa h 
ToajieraaTa, me hh onpe/jejiflT OT^ejiHO BpeMe 3a pa3xo,mca Ha #Bopa 
(KapeTo). BpeMeTO 3a ToaneT HaBapHO me 6i>fle MajiKO h 3aTOBa HHe Tpa6Ba 
ao6pe aa ce opraHH3HpaMe, bchhko rzl npaBHM 6i>p30, aa HMaMe BpeMe 3a 
bchhko. Hpe3 mnnoHKHTe me ycTaHOBHM Bpi>3Ka c apyrHTe nojiHT3aTBOp- 
hhijh. Pa36paxMe ce h koh 3a KaKBO me OTroBapa - 3a nojiynaBaHe Ha 
xpaHa, MneHe Ha KaHHeTaTa, XBtpji^He h nonncTBaHe Ha KO(J)aTa ? onpaBAHe 
h no/jpe)K,zi;aHe Ha cjiaMeHHmrre h o^efljiaTa, flHeBHHTe 3aHHMaHHfl, 
jocTaBKa Ha ToaneraH npHHafljie)KHOCTH ? 3aBHBKH h ap. 

^HMHTtp T-bJYbdoB h MapKO ^o6peB o6ci>^cflaxa noMeacay ch c rojiflMa 
3arpn)KeHOCT apecTyBaHeTO Ha HJieHOBe Ha OK Ha PMC, KaKBH noica3aHHfl 
ca flaaeHH, KaKBO e nojio^KeHHeTO Ha HejierajiHHTe HJieHOBe h fleiimi Ha 

OKpT>)KHHfl KOMHTeT. Pa3Ka3Baxa CH H CnOMeHH OT 3aTBOpHTe, 3a 

opraHH3auHATa Ha nojiHT3aTBOpHHnecKHTe kojickthbh h OTHomeHHeTO Ha 
napTH5iTa no TexHHTe ochobhh npoGjieMH. rioBene roBopeme Pbjn>6oB. Toh 
onnca rojieMHTe cnopoBe no npeoflOJuraaHe Ha jieBoceKraHTCKHfl Kypc b 
3aTB0pHTe. JleBHTe ceKTaHTH CHHTajiH, ne KJiacoBaTa 6op6a TpaGBa aa 
npofltji^cn h b 3aTBOpa etc cpe^cTBaTa h (])opMHTe, H3noji3BaHH Ha CBo6ofla. 
Te ce onHTBajiH aa HecraaT roflnniHHHH ot hakoh nojiHTHnecKH cbGhtha 
npe3 aeMOHCTpauHH, OKaHBajra nepBeHH 3HaMeHa h nepBeHH jichth, 
H3flnrajiH Tpn6yHH 5 oGflBjrcajiH rjia^HH CTaHKH. C TOBa Te CMOTajiH, ne 
npofltjDKaBaT peBomomioHHaTa 6op6a npoTHB MOHapxo(])aniH3Ma, ne 
no^noMaraT peBOJiiouHOHHOTO flBHaceHHe H3bt>h 3aTBOpHTe, ne no/mtp^aT 

83 



peBOJiioijHOHHHfl jsyx Ha MacHTe. Ot CBOfl CTpaHa 3aTBOpHHHecKHTe ynpaBH 
npoBe^cflajiH Haica3aTejiHH aKijHH - 3arBapflJiH th b KapijepHTe, HaHacajiH hm 
no6oHiu;a, JiHiuaBajiH ra ot xpaHa, CBH)K,zjaHHfl, KOpecnoH/jeHijHfl, pa3xo^;- 
Ka... B pe3yjiTaT Ha TOBa MHoro ot 3aTB0pHHijHTe 3a6ojiflBajiH, KOJieieniBHTe 

Ce JIHUiaBaJIH OT Bpt3KH C 6jIH3KHTe CH H C napTHHHHTe ptKOBOflCTBa, 
OCTaBaJIH H30JIHpaHH OT BtHUIHHfl CBOT H He MO^CeJIH J\2i HOJiyHaBaT 

HH(j)opMaijHfl h aa npOBeac/jaT nojiHTHnecKa npocBeraa aeflHOCT. 

Me^cay nojiHTHHecKHTe 3aTBOpHHijH 6hjih mhoto cnopOBe 3a 
npeoaojwBaHe Ha TOBa HeyMecTHO noBe/jeHHe. B KpaiiHa CMeTKa c noMomTa 
Ha E[K Ha napraaTa T03H Kypc 6hji npeoflOJiHH, ho npH rojiflMa ctnpoTHBa 
ot CTpaHa Ha hhkoh KpafiHO jicbh /jefiijH, kohto orjiaBHBajiH napTHHHHTe 
opraHH3aijHH b 3aTBOpHTe. Cera TOBa 6enie MHHajio. SareopHKHecKHTe 

KOJieKTHBH 6flXa Bt3npHeJIH HOBH (j)OpMH H MeTOflH Ha OpraHH3aiJHfl, 

HaconeHH kbm npocBeraa h nojiHTHHecKa pa6oTa cpe/j nojiHT3arBopHHijHTe. 
3aaana cera 6eme npe^H bchhko aa ce 3ana3flT Ka^pHTe, #a ce yKpenBa 
3flpaBeTO hm, #a ce no^roTBHT HfleHHO-nojiHTHHecKH, ^a ce no&m>p)Ka bhcok 
peBOJiioijHOHeH ayx... 

MapKO ctmo ce HaMecBaiue b pa3roBopa, flontJiBanie Ka3aHOTO ot 
rT>jii>6oB: "Hne CMe Hacraija ot oGnjHfl (J)poHT Ha aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a 
Ha Hapofla. Hne c flpyrn cpeflCTBa h (Jdopmh, TyK, KaTO mieHHHijH Ha 
(f>aiHH3Ma, Tpa6fia ^a ynacTBaMe b Ta3H 6op6a. Ot Hac, oco6eHO ot HaineTO 
noBe^eHHe no BpeMe Ha npeflCToamHTe ci>fle6HH npoijecn, 3aBHCH mhoto. 
Hne ot TyK ci>mo me OKa3BaMe bjihahhc Ha apyrapHTe, kohto ca bt>h h ce 
6opOT cpeiny (JmniHCTKaTa flHKraTypa." 

Tana 3aBT>pniH ntpBaTa hoiii; b 3aTBOpa. Oiije noMHH bchhko: cnaiijHTe 
mh .npyrapH-CbKHJiHHHHijH, HauieTO 6fleHHe h thxhtc pa3roBOpn npea 
BpaTaTa Ha KHJiH5rra. 

n^pBine ahh b Co^hhckhh uempajieH 3aTBop 

B 6 naca cyTpHHTa 3anoHHa OTKJiioHBaHeTO Ha khjihhtc CjiyniaxMe 
niyMHOTO 3aBtpTaHe Ha rojieMHTe kjiiohobc h OTBap^HeTO Ha pe3eTaTa, 
nocjieflBaHH ot 6i>p30TO H3JiH3aHe Ha nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe, kohto c TpaKaHe 
Ha HajrbMH ce HacoHBaxa kbm fltHOTO Ha Kopnaopa, KtfleTO ce HaMHpaxa 
ToajieTHHTe h mhbkhtc Oco6eHO BnenarjieHHe mh HanpaBH myMtT Ha 
HajitMHTe, hhhto 3ByK ce pa3Haomie b OTflejieHHeTO h aocTHranie ao Hac 
KaTO CBoeo6pa3eH npoTecT cpeiny (])aniHCTKHfl Tepop. Hajn>MHTe CTaHaxa 

MOH nOCTOflHCH Cm>THHK npe3 BpeMeTO Ha 3aTBOpHHHeCTBOTO mh. Cjiea 

roflHHH nncaTejDiT KptCTto EejieB, ebiijo nojiHT3aTBOpHHK, Hapene Te3H 
3ByijH "neceHTa Ha Hajn>MHTe M ... 

84 



MapKO ,3p6peB, PbjtbGob h HBaH Hoch(|)ob, kohto HMaxa b 3aTBopa 
no3HaTH apyrapn, 3acTaHaxa npea uinHOHKaTa h 3anaKaxa yao6eH momcht 
#a #aflaT cnraaji, ne TyK HMa hobo nontJiHeroie. He MHHaxa h neT MHHyra h 
mnHOHKaTa ce otboph, BHflaxMe e^HO oko, nocjie ome e/jHO, a cjiea TOBa ce 
tjy h mac: "MapKO, 6afi HBaHe, PbJTbGe, 3/jpaBeHTe. OnaKBaxMe bh, 3Haex- 
Me, ne CTe b ^pflcaBHa cnrypHOCT". 3anoHHa thx pa3roBOp c MapKO 3a 
apecTHTe Ha HJieHOBeTe Ha OK Ha PMC. Cnefl MajiKO ce HaMecn jjpyr flpy- 
rap, kohto cbiu;o noncKa CBe/jeHHe 3a hhkoh apecTyBaHH hjih 3acTpauieHH 
ot apecT, fla^e h hakoh yni>TBaHHfl h CBe/jeHHfl 3a 3aTBOpHHiiHTe b HauieTO 
h flpyroTO OT^ejieHHe. 

Cnefl Te3H KpaTKH KOHcnnpaTHBHH 6eceflH npH Hac 3anoHHaxa #a H/jBaT 
h flpyrn no3HaTH Ha MapKO, rbjn>6oB h HBaH Hoch(])ob. HHTepecbT kbm 
thx 6eiue mhoto rojiflM, tbh KaTO nojioaceHHeTO hm b napTHHHHTe 
cTpyKTypH 6euie bhcoko. HHTepec ce npoflBH h kbm Hac. nmaxa hh ot koa 
rHMHa3H^ CMe, ot koa KOHcnnpaijHfl, tojihm jih e npoBajn>T, kojiko ca 3a,m>p- 
^caHHTe. CKOpo bchhkh y3Haxa ? ne b 3aTBOpa ca /jOKapaHH 4-Ma ynemmn ot 
TbproBCKara rHMHa3Hfl, ne HMa /jpyrn apecTyBaHH, kohto hjih ca ocbo6o- 
;jeHH, hjih ca ome b nojiHijHflTa. TaKa rHMHa3H#ra hh ce npony cpea 

3aTB0pHHHeCKHH KOJieKTHB. Ha UinHOHKaTa 3aCTaBaxa H nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJH c 

yqeHHHecKH yHH(f)opMH, kohto HCKaxa #a hh bh^ht, aa hh o6oflp^T c no 

H5IKOJIKO flyMH. 

Hne ocTaHaxMe 3aKJiiOHeHH ome okoho nac, myMtT b KOpH/jopa 3anoHHa 
fla 3araxBa. CboGoahhat cyTpeuieH nac 3aBi>puiBaine. 3aTpaKaxa KJiionoBe h 
pe3eTa h 3aTBOpHHijHTe 6axa npn6paHH. Gnea ManKO OTKJiioHHxa HauiaTa h 
cbce^HaTa khjiha, b kohto ei>mo HManie cjie^cTBeHH, flOKapaHH npe/jn flBa 
Ahh. OTHfloxMe b yMHBanHOTa h ToaneraaTa, Kb^eTO MoacaxMe cbo6oaho aa 
ce H3MHeM ? BMpeKH rojieMHH CTy/j, cnefl noBene ot 20 flHeBHHTe apecTH. 

CpemHTe Hpe3 uinHOHKaTa npofltJiacHxa h b cjie/jBanjHTe nacoBe Ha 
T03H aeH h npe3 cjie/jBamHTe jjjm. Ha Bparara Ha HauiaTa khjihh ome 
irbpBHH aeH nocTaBHxa, KaKTO h Ha bchhkh flpyrn khjihh, KapTOH cbc 
cnncbK Ha 3aTBOpHHi^HTe c HMe, (|)aMHnH)i h poflHO m5icto. TaKa, npe3 
uinHOHKaTa ce 3ano3Hax c /jBaMa apyrapn h HHTepecHH jihhhocth, kohto 
o6nKHax 3a ijaji achbot: 5KejiH3KO KojieB h ^eno CrecJmHOB. npe3 m>pBHfl 
3aTBopHHnecKH fleH CToaxMe flo BpaTaTa h OTroBapiixMe Ha BtnpocHTe Ha 
ApyrapHTe, kohto othobo 6axa c otrjhohchh khjihh h ce no/jroTBaxa 3a 
cyTpeuiHaTa pa3xo^Ka b ^Bopa Ha 3aTBOpa. Hyx pa3roBop: "il, HMa h flpyrap 
ot HauiH^ Kpaii, ot EaTaK, AHren HayuieB". A3 Be^Hara norae/jHax npe3 
uinHOHKaTa h bha^x #BaMa MJiaae^cH. E^ho oko ce npHJienn Ha uinHOHKaTa 
h Me orjie/ja. 

85 



- Koh e ot BaTaK? 
npeflCTaBHX My ce. 

- 3flpacTH 3eMJUiK. A3 ct>m ot BopHCOBrpa^. >Kejifl3KO KojieB. 

ToBa 6eine m>pBara mh cpenja c 5Kejifl3KO. nocjie BceKH ^eH ce BHac^axMe 
b KopH#opa, Ha KOJiejiOTO, b KHJiHHTe, Koraro rn OTBapaxa cyTpHH h Benep. 

,3,eHO CTe(|)aHOB Hecro n^Baine b HamaTa khjiha cjie^ Bpi>HBaHeTO Ha 
o6BHHHTenHHTe aKTOBe Ha MapKO ,3,o6peB h HeroBHTe apyrapH. Ton ce 
OKa3a 3eMJWK Ha MapKO, 6enie pa6oTHJi c Hero h c ri>jn>6oB. Te TpHMaTa 
6eceflBaxa thxo, a no-ia>CHO kt>m tax ce npncbeflHHH h Hoch(|) AcTpyroB 
(Xepu). ,H,eHO Hoceine yneHnnecKa KypTKa, 6eine cjia6, crpoeH, c KpacHBo 
jnme, HMaine 6i>p3a noxo^Ka h 6jiar ? noflicynBam nonie^. 5Kejm3KO 6eme 
no-m>neH, Ha6HT h m>praB, HMaine rr>CTa nepBeHO-pyca Koca h o6jio Jinije c 
uiHpoKa ycMHBKa. Ha rjiasaTa My CTLpneine e^Ha njieTeHa Hiamca, koato My 
npHflaBanie xaHflynnen bh#. 06nKHax ra h ^BaMaTa h He Mora aa He hm 
OTflejM MajiKO no-rojMMO BHHMaHHe. Te 6axa BHHarn 3ae^HO ? KaTO flBaMa 
6para, flBaMa anocTona Ha 6op6aTa; BH5Kaax th 3ae^HO ot #eiceMBpH 1942 r. 
flo Man 1943 r. b CLJ3 h b HapH30BO. TaKa Te ocTaHaxa b MOOTa naMeT 
BHHarn Hepa3flejiHH czjhh ot flpyr. Cjiea mhoto toothh, KoraTO BroK^ax 
)Kejra3KO aa ce ^bh)kh cpea xopara, ^a 6ece#Ba c tax, ^a roBopw ot 
Tpn6yHaTa Ha Hapo^HOTO ci>6paHHe h Ha mhthhth, a3 BH^yjax pe/joM c Hero 
h ^eno, MJiaa, Bi>3pyc, b HeroBaTa BT>3Ki>ca yneHHnecKa KypTKa, KaK 
ptKOMaxa h ce BtJiHyBa, KaKTO npaBH caMHAT 5Kejia3KO... 

Hafl-CHJiHO BnenaTJieHHe mh npaBenie tcxhhht ohthmh3t>m ? TaxHaTa 
eHeprHHHOCT, yMeHHeTO hm aa o6myBar c MJia^eflcnTe h ^a hm Bfli>XBaT 
BHpa h Kypaac, aa rn no^noMarar b Tpy^Hna 3aTBOpHHHecKH hchbot. no 
BpeMe Ha pa3xoflKara b ^Bopa Ha 3araopa ce ^BHHcexMe no #BaMa, CTporo 
cjie^eHH ot Hafl3HpaTejiHTe ? kohto 3a bcako HapynieHHe H3npanjaxa b 
Kapijep, jiHinaBaxa ot nncMa, CBH5K#aHM h pa3xo^Ka. )Keji5i3KO h /Jeno 
o6ane BHHarn ycn^Baxa aa ce cpenjaT c apyrapHTe h #a npOBeacaaT 6ecean, 
fla npe^aBaT HH(])opMaimfl. H ^BaMara 6axa onnTHH KOHcnnpaTopn, 
no3HaBaxa mhoto ao6pe HCTOpnaTa Ha peBOjnoijHOHHOTO hh flBHaceHHe, 
ncTopHHTa Ha BKTI n HeiraaTa TaKTHKa npe3 pa3JiHHHH eTann Ha 6op6nTe h. 
Te 6axa H3nnTajin Ha cboh rpi>6 Bpe^HTe ot ceKTaHTCTBOTO h 6axa 
ynacTBajin b ycTaHOBABaHeTO Ha t. Hap. "^hmhtpobckh Kypc" Ha napTHOTa. 
Eaxa HcejiaHH ci>6eceflHHim, MJia,n;e)KHTe TLpcexa TflXHara noMom n 
cbflencTBne. Taxa 6eme n b Ckohckhji 3aTBOp-HflpH30BO, Kb^eTO Te 
npoflT>Ji^cnxa aa noantp^caT ayxa Ha aHTH(|)aniHCTHTe. 

npe3 jwtoto Ha 1943 r. b IIa3apflHCHniKHH 3aTBOp c roji^Ma pa^ocT 
nocpemHax HOBHHaTa 3a 6htctboto Ha /Jeno h !3Cejw3K0 ot XacKOBCKHfl 

86 



3aTB0p, Kbflero Te 6axa npeMecTeHH ot CKonne. ^BaMaTa anocTOJiH noexa 
irbTfl Ha Btop'b^ceHaTa 6op6a h craHaxa napTH3aHH b OTpa/ja "HaB^ap". 
TIqho 3arHHa b cpaaceHHe npn c. Pa#ocnaBOBO (hh. HaB^ap). CKpoMeH 
6iocT-naMeTHHK b rpa^HHRaTa Ha cenoTO h MairbK My3efi HanoMmrr 3a 
neroBHfl repOHneH achbot h no^BHr. )Keji5i3KO npofli>n^cH BtoptaceHaTa 
6op6a. Cnefl no6eaaTa saB^puiH K)pHflHHecKHH (JmKyjiTeT npn Cocjmhckha 
^T>p)KaBeH yHHBepCHTeT, aKTHBHO ynacTBa b oGmecTBemifl echbot, nonyHH 
hhh reHepan, 3amHTH flHcepTaijHfl no npaBO h CTaHa npo(J)ecop. Abtop e Ha 
MHoro HaynHH ny6nHKai(HH h Ha hakojiko MHoro 3HaHHMH MeMoapHH khhth 
3a HejieranHaTa 6op6a cpemy (JmunoMa... 

B npofli>n^ceHHe Ha aeceTHHa ^hh mie ocTaHaxMe H30JiHpaHH ot 

3aTBOpHHHeCKHfl KOJieKTHB B OHaKBaHe 06BHHHTeJIHHTe CH aKTOBC 

Pa3peuiHxa hh aa ce pa3xoac,naMe eaceflHeBHO no nonoBHH nac b ^Bopa Ha 
3aTBOpa. Mactoto 3a pa3xo^KH npeacTaBJMBauie B^TpemeH #BOp, oGrpa^eH 
ot 3JioBemaTa crpa^a Ha 3aTBOpa, a ot apyrnTe CTpaHH - c bhcokh ctchh c 
6o,HJiHBa Ten, c flBe Kynn Ha T>rjiHTe, ot Kb^eTO bohhhijh HaGnioflaBaxa n 
oxpaH^Baxa 3aTBOpa h HeroBM flBop. Mhctoto 3a pa3xoflKH npe^CTaBJUi- 
Bame Koneno, HacTJiaHO c naBaac, KbRero HHe ce pa3xo^c^axMe no flBaMa. 
no cpe^aTa CToeuie Hafl3HpaTeji, kohto hh HaSmoflaBame #a He cnnpaivie h 
#a He HapyuiaBaMe ycTaHOBeHHTe pejumH. HacT ot flBOpa 6euie onpe^eneHa 
3a 3aTBOpHHijHTe ot HanieTO OT^ejieHHe, a flpyraTa 6eme OTfleneHa c TeneHa 
Mpe)Ka. TyK ce pa3xo^c^axa nojiHTHHecKHTe 3aTBOpHHijH cbc cmt>pthh 
npHCbflH. Bi>npeKH CTy^a pa3xoflKHTe mhoto hh o6o,npflBaxa, 3amoTO hh 
no3Bon^Baxa rzl no^HniaMe hhct Bi>3,nyx, «a ce ^bh^chm h 3aKajiflBaMe. 

Hjikojiko flHH cnefl HflBaHeTO hh b 3aTBOpa 3anoHHaxMe fla nonynaBaMe 
xpaHa ot 6jiH3KHTe hh, kohto Bene 3Haexa, ne CMe TyK. ToBa 6enie ao6pe 
flomjio, 3amoTO 3aTBOpHHnecKaTa xpaHa 6enie mhoto cna6a: nan cbc 
3axapHH ? 3a o6^fl h Benepa - nop6a, pa/jKa KaTO naa, h xnfl6 no 250 rpaMa 
Ha #eH. Pa3peuraxa hh h KopecnoH/jeHijHfl. Be^Hara H3npaTHx nHCMa Ha 
poflHTejiHTe ch b BaTaK h ro hhho To^op b CocJ)H5i. OboSmaBax hm, ne clm 
3ApaB ? ne HaKaMe o6BHHHTejiHH^ aKT, ne CMe o6bhhchh HecnpaBe/jnHBO h 
cbfl'bT me hh onpaB^ae h ocbo6o^h. He ch npaBexMe HHKaKBH hjik>3hh, ho 
ce onHTBaxMe aa y6e^HM po^HTejiHTe ch. 

IIpoijecfeT bt>b BoeHHonojieBHH «>a 

IIoflroTOBKa 3a npoueca. PtKOBOflHTenHTe Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKHfl 

KOJieKTHB, H3nOJI3BaHKH "imiHOHKHTe", nOJiyHHXa OT HaC (H TJiaBHO OT MeH) 

CBe^eHHH 3a o6BHHeHH5iTa ? kohto maxa fla 6i>flaT npe^cTaBeHH ot 
nojiHijHOTa Ha bochhhh npOKypop, h m nocny^caT KaTO ocHOBa Ha 

87 



o6BHHHTenHHfl aKT. Obo6pa3HO 3aK0Ha 3a 3anjHTa Ha ,m>p)KaBaTa (33/1,), 
BoeHHaTa cbfle6Ha BJiacT /jeScTBaiiie MHoro 6tp3o. BceKH momcht M05KexMe 

fla 6tfleM H3BHKaHH H fla HH BpT>HaT 06BHHHTeJIHHTe aKTOBC CpOKtT 3a 

OTroBop Ha o6BHHHTenHHfl aKT h 3a nocoHBaHe Ha CBH/jeTenH 6euie caMO 24 
naca, 4>aKTHHecKH - czjhh pa6oTeH /jeH. 3a TOBa KpaTKO BpeMe hhc 
Tpfl6Bame #a ce 3ano3HaeM etc cb/jfcp^aHHeTO Ha oGbhhhtcjihh^ aKT, #a 
onpe^enHM a/jBOKaTHTe, ^a nocoHHM CBH/jeTejnrre h /ja yKaaceM aoKa- 
3aTencTBa cpemy noB/jHraaTHTe oGbkhchha. 

Cpe/j 3aTBopHHijHTe HMauie k>phcth, a h bchhkh, kohto 6axa ct/jeHH 
HMaxa onHT. IIojiyHHXMe cbBera, kohto Be/jHara 3anoHHaxMe /ja o6mhcjw- 
Me h H3m>nH5iBaMe. KtenpaTHX nncMO ro 6ama mh c Mon6a #a HaeMe 
a^BOKaT, kohto #a H3roTBH OTroBop; aa noMHCJiH 3a CBH/jeTejiH, kohto #a 
nocoHHM b OTroBopa (3a bcako o6cT05rrejiCTBO ctfltT flonycKaine ^o flBaMa 
CBH^eTenH): 3a djiasoHade^tcduocmma ua ceMeucmeomo (no bt>3mo)khoct Te 
Tpfl6Bame ^a 6i>,zjaT aBTopHTeTHH Jinija ot THna Ha KMeTOBe, CBemeHHim, 
nonHTHijH, kohto fla ce non3BaT c flOBepneTO Ha cvja); 3a Men h mocto 
noBe/jemie b yHHJinme h b EaTaK. A3 6ax H36paji Teoprn ^eneB, moa 
KJiaceH HacTaBHHK, h yHHTejra mh no 6i>JirapcKH e3HK h JiHTepaTypa 
KnnpHJiOB, yHHTeji. 

EaxMe ce no/jroTBHJiH h caMH #a ctcTaBHM OTroBop Ha o6BHHHTenHHH 
aKT. EnH3KHTe hh ctmo /jeftcTBaxa aKTHBHO - 6axa HaeJIH a^BOKaTH, KOHTO 
cneflHxa b npoKypaTypaTa 3a BptHBaHeTO Ha o6bhhhtcjihh5i aKT, 3a #a 
noflroTBHT ctoTBeTHO OTroBOpHTe 3ae^HO c Hac. J\o BptHBaHeTO Ha o6bhhh- 
TejiHHTe aKTOBe He hh ce pa3peuiaBauie HHKaKBO CBHayjaHe, BKJiioHHTejiHO h 
c a^BOKaTH. TaTe, Byfino Cre(j)aH h hhho To/jop 6axa noaroTBHJiH bchhko 
Heo6xo^HMO. Oco6eHa noMom hm OKa3a AHren ITonoB, a/jBOKaT h 6paTOB- 
ne/j Ha 6ama mh. Toh nptB ce abh Ha CBHayjaHe. HH^opMHpa Me 3a CBH/je- 
TenHTe, ycnoKOH Me, ct>o6hj;h mh, ne TaTe e b Co(j)Hfl h mhoto tokko npeacH- 
BHBa nono)KeHHeTO mh.. 

ITo TOBa BpeMe b 3aTBopa flOKapaxa ome TpHMa HauiH /jpyrapH ot 
rHMHa3HOTa: ilKO Mojixob, moa ctKBapTHpaHT, AceH MaHOB h AH/jpefi 
Ctoahob. HacTaHeHH 6axa b pa3JiHHHH khjihh, nopa/jH KoeTO Tpy/jHO 
KOHTaKTyBaxMe. Te hh pa3Ka3axa 3a cbohtc narana, 3a HHKBH3HitHHTe b 
^HpeKitnaTa Ha nojiHipurra, 3a ocBoGoayjaBaHeTo, 3a HacTpoeHHeTO Ha 
yneHHijHTe peMCHCTH h 3a HajioaceHaTa hm H30JiaijHfl. TpHMaTa 6tp30 
CBHKHaxa ci>c 3aTBopHHHecKHTe nop>mKH. 

ibco Mojixob pa3Ka3a, ne HayHHJi 3a apeeryBaHeTO mh cjie/j KaTO ce Btp- 
Haji ot rHMHa3H5iTa b HamaTa o6ma KBapTHpa. C xa3flHKaTa ct>o6h];hjih Ha 
ceMeftcTBOTO Ha hhho To/jop, ne ct>m apecTyBaH h OTBe/jeH b /JnpeKijHfl Ha 



noJiHUHHTa... 

B ITbpBHTe flHH Ha flCKCMBpH npOKypOpl>T BHece 06BHHeHHeT0 B1>B 

BoeHHonojieBHfl ei>fl. Eama mh 2khbjdi y hhhobh #eceTHHa ahh, onaicBaHKH 
HacpoHBaHeTO Ha flenoTO. Mhho To^op, naHa MHKa h 6paTOBHeflica mh 
JlK)6Ka e^ceflHeBHO cno#ejiflT TpeBorHTe My. Ot nncMaTa, kohto 6ama mh e 
H3npaTHJi Ha 6paT mh Ejiaroa, ce BH5K^aT rpnacHTe, kohto poflHTejiHTe h 
6jiH3KHTe mh ca nojio)KHJiH 3a MeH, thxhoto 6e3noKOHCTBO h caMoacepTBa. 

Co(pM, 1. XH. 1942 ^. 

JJp. Enaaon, 

UucMomo mu nonynux enepa, pa36pax gcuhko, no ceea e epeMe 3a ypeotcdaue 
nonooiceuuemo na 6pam mu. ffnec umox hucmo u mu nuute da CMe cnoKOunu, 
hhmojio cmpaumo, ocodeno o6phU{a enuManue da 6tde cnoKOuna MatiKa mu, mu u 
dpyeume okojio nac. TIpenucKama e npu Boennun npoKypop u axm-bm ou^e ue My e 
u3pa6omen u ep-bneu. BceKU den My hocm xpana. Ceuotcdaue u\e uMOMe cned Kamo 
My ce ep'bHU odeunumennun axm. Amen Tlonoe xoduji npu neeo, ho no epeuiKa eo 
nycnanu e 3ameopa. 

A3 mucjih da nocmoM, doKamo My ce ephnu aKmhm u da uanpaeuM omeoeopa, 
3aufomo cpoKtm 3a omeoeopa e 24 naca. 

Same mu 6uji dodpe. BnpeaM da cme nonynunu nucMomo om Amen Ilonoe u 
om huho mu Todop. Kaotcu na MauKa mu, a maxa ctujo u mu da ce ehophjfcume c 
noeene Kypaotc. 

Cmauanomo e cmanano, Bpyufane HHMa. Amen e nanpaeun epeuma, yenxKtn ce 
e. Ceea u\e enedaMe da My ce noMoene. Tu cu znedau padomama u ue ce omnaueau. 

Uo3dpaeu MauKa cu, nenn cu MapuR u BanKa. 

Mun no3dpae, meoii davya Tlemhp. 

3a6paeux da mu Kaotca. Tlemtp JJ. ranee (Jlydux) 6e mu odeujan 2 m. nou 3a 
canyu -eednaea so naMepu u h 63eMU. 

Ako ne cme mnpamunu nyean c Kapmocpu na huho mu, eeduaea mnpamu, 
Kamo 63eMeiu u ydocmoeepenue om odujunama. 

* * * 
TlemhK eenepma 

ffp. Enaeon, 

ffuec npoKypoptm enece denomo e cbda. Vmpe uaenpno u\e epwam axmym 
na Amen, ho as cbM nodeomeun gcuhku Kuuotca npedeapumenno. ffnec 
adeoKamume 63exa dunemu npedeapumenno 3a ceujfcdane ympe. life Mtna u a3 da 
63eMa ceuoicdaue. JJuec umox nucMO om Amen, u mu nuuie, ne 6un do6pe. Ako ce 

89 



3a6aeu Hacpoueauemo tye cu douda. B cpnda e pa3peiueH0 ceuotcdaue, ho w^e ce 
noMhua 3a ympe. A3 xodn eceKU den da My hoch xpaua. EupnuKbm e myxa u mu 
odenfa da mu bade 3aruiamama 3a moea udu u h 63eMu. Uje ejiedaiu da 63eMeiu u 
mpume xunndu om Bacun Oukuuh tuiu PycnaKa, 3aufomo life mu mpndeam napu. 
life eu cho6ufM, oko ce nacponu denomo npe3 udyu^ama cedMuija. 

A3 chM dodpe. 

Mnozo no3dpaeu na MauKa mu, ua me6e, Jiejiume mu u dp. 

Eaiya mu Ilernhp 

* * * 

Ha 7 hjih 8 #eKeMBpH bchhkh ce^eMTe o6BHH>ieMH no HaniHfl npoijec - 
a3, CaBa TeBpeHOB, Hop#aH Bohhob, KnpHJi MnneB, >Iko Mojixob, AceH 

MaHOB, AHflpOI C/TOflHOB, 6flXMe H3BHKaHH H OTKapaHH C KaMHOHeTKa B 

crpa^aTa Ha Co^hhckha BoeHHonojieBH ci>fl Ha yji. "AKcaKOB". Ha BceKH ot 
Hac 6euie BpT>neH o6BHHHTejieH aKT. KoraTO ce BtpHaxMe b 3aTBopa 
noflpo6HO ce 3ano3HaxMe c o6BHHeHH5rra. Y3HaxMe, ne me 6T>#e cb^eH h 
HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo), kohto 6euie bohhhk. Bene 3HaexMe ao6pe hakoh 
ot HJieHOBeTe Ha 33^. A3 6ax no#Be#eH no« OTroBopHOCT no hji. 2, an. 1, 
hji. 16 h hji. 17, t. e. ne ct>m HJieHyBaji b 3a6paHeHaTa opraHH3aijHfl PMC, 
no^eneHHe Ha BKn, ne ct>m 6hji p'bKOBOflHTeji Ha TaicaBa opraHH3au;HH, ne 
ct>m pa3BHBaji fleiiHOCT npOTHB fltp^caBaTa h 3a CBajijme Ha cbmecTByBamna 
KbpyKZBen CTpofi. CtrjiacHO TeKCTOBeTe Ha 3aKOHa 3a TOBa ce npeflBH^caanie 
cmi>ptho HaKa3aHHe. Bhx cnoKoeH, 3aiu;oTO 3Haex, ne b MHoro ^ejia ot 
noflo6eH xapaicrep ci>flT>T e npHCBflHJi no 5-15 roflHHH 3aTBOp. A3 Bee onje 
6ax HentJiHOJieTeH h 3aKOHi>T npe#BH)K#anie 3a TaKHBa Jinija He noBene ot 

15 rOflHHH 3aTBOp. 

CtmHAT fleH ce cpemHaxMe c a^BOKaTHTe. C TflXHa noMom CBCTaBHXMe 

OTTOBOpHTe Ha 06BHHHTeJIHHTe aKTOBe h rn H3npaTHXMe B Cbfla. AHreji 

nonoB 6euie Hanncaji npe^BapHTejiHO Bi>3pa^ceHHeTO, KoeTO ce ctcToeme 
ot hhkojiko H3peHemDi, c kohto He ce npH3HaBax 3a BHHOBeH h nocoHBax 
CBH^eTejiH. Eax mhoto H3HeHaaaH, ne Te3H CBH^eTejin 6axa xopa, kohto He 
no3HaBax jihhho, c H3KJiK)HeHHe Ha TeoprH ^eneB (mo^ KJiaceH HacraBHHK) 
h TeoprH ^HHeB, KMeTa Ha BaTaK (no3HaBax ro KaTO CTyneHT c JieBH 
y6e^cfleHH« h ro 6ax cpemaji no BpeMe Ha BaKamjHHTe b cenoTo; no-KtcHO 
pa36pax, ne e no^noMaraji napTH3aHHTe). 

J\& CBH^eTencTBaT 3a naTpHOTH3Ma Ha ceMeiicTBOTO mh 6axa noconeHH: 
fl-p IleTbp Hb. KbOceHBaHOB, noflnpeaceflaTeji Ha Hapo^HOTO ci>6paHHe, 
a^BOKaT no npo(^ecH«, Hapo^eH npe/jcTaBHTeji ot nenjepcKa okojiha. Toh 
no3HaBame 6anja mh. HeroBHflT 6ama npoH3xo^caaji ot BaTaK h 6hji 
ynacTBaji bi>b BtcTaHHeTO npe3 1876 r. BctmHOCT Teoprn ^^cypKOB 



90 



(3Kop»0, Ham ctcea ot BaTaK h jiHHeH ceKpeTap Ha n. KtoceHBaHOB My 
npeflJioKHJi fla CBH/jeTejiCTBa h toh ce cbniacHJi; Kan. Teoprn EajiaGaHOB 
ot IfeapflacHK, npH^Ten Ha Byftno CTe(|)aH. 3a MO#ra 6naroHafle)K,aHOCT 
xpfl6Bame aa CBH/jeTencTBa nopyHHK HiiKOJia UIoiiob, Ham po/jHHHa, 
KoroTO 6hx BH^cflaji b BaTaK, ho He ro no3HaBax jihhho. 

3a Hauia pa/jocT, tbh KaTO cjie/jcTBHeTO npHKJiioHH, 6axMe nocTaBeHH 
npH 06m 3aTBOpHHnecKH pe^cHM h MoacexMe Bene cbo6o/i;ho #a ce 
pa3XO^cflaMe h aa oGmysaMe c apyrHTe 3aTBOpHHii;H ot OT^ejieHHeTO. 

CeH^caaHHH. J\eu hjih flBa cjiea BptHBaHe Ha o6BHHHTejiHHfl aKT ce 
BHfl^x c 6ama mh. Mhcjih, ne 6euie cpflfla, 9 /jeiceMBpH - aeH 3a CBH)K,n;aHHfl. 
OnaKBax cpemaTa c HertpneHHe, c pa/jocT h TpeBora. IU,e flOH/je jih h 
MaMa? KaK me ce fltpacH TaTe? B onpeaejieHOTO BpeMe rojiflMa rpyna 
3aTBOpHHij;H 6axMe B'bBefleHH b rojiHMa nonyrbMHa 3ajia, pa3/i;ejieHa Ha rbq 
qaCTH no fltJDKHHa C KOpHflOp IHHpOK okojio 1 m. ? a ot flBeTe CTpaHH Ha 
KopHflopa HManie penieTKH ot noaa ao TaBaHa, kohto npaBexa HeBt3M05KHO 
cbnpHKOCHOBeHHeTO Me^cay 3aTBopHHmrre h noceTHTejiHTe. B KopHflopa ce 
pa3X0^cflaxa Hafl3HpaTejiH ? cjieflaxa pa3roBOpHTe. HbpBOTO mh BnenaTJieHHe 
6eine mhoto HenpMTHO. 3acTaHax npe# peuieTKaTa 3aeflHO c apyrHTe 
3aTBOpHHUH. HapeaeHH 6axMe nonra e/mn /jo flpyr - Ha bcckh Merbp 
HManie HOBeK. 3anaKaxMe. npeaynpeflnxa hh aa He roBOpHM bhcoko h #a 
He noflaBaMe KaKBHTO H^ae 6hjio npe/jMeTH. 

Cjiea 5-10 MHHyTH Bpararre cpemy Hac ce OTBOpnxa h noceTHTenHTe 
BJi>i30xa. Hakoh ot tax 6axa TyK 3a npi>B m>T. Bhahx TaTe, kohto 6aBHO, c 
nnaxH erbnKH npeMHHa npe3 Bparara. Benie 6nefl ? H3MT>HeH. Orjieayjanie ce. 
Mwca noKpn jnmero My. E/jhh ot o6hhhhtc My chhobc 3a HeroB yacac ce 
HaMHpanie b Ta3H nojiyxtMHa MpaHHa 3ajia. MaxHax My c ptKa. Toh 3aeraHa 
cpemy MeH. TjieaaxMe ce ttokho h MMHaxMe. Cjiea MHHyTa toh ce ci>B3e. 

- KaK ch? 

-,3,o6pe ct>m, He ce TpeBoaceTe, HflMa hhiijo CTpauiHO. He ct>m 
H3Bi>pHiHn hhhio npecTMrao. HanpoTHB. YnacTBaM b aHTH^auiHCTKaTa 
6op6a, 3a CBo6oflaTa Ha Hapoaa. 

Toh He Me cnymanie, ho h He BflpBame #a ct>m H3BT>pniHJi npecxbnjie- 
hhc ToBa jiHHenie no H3pa3a Ha jiHijeTO My. ElHTax ro 3a MaMa h 3a Ejiaroa. 
3anjiaKa ? 3anoHHa aa Hapeacfla: 

- KaK Moaca aa nona/mem b 3aTBOpa. A3 aa HMaM chh 3aTBOpHHK. 
XopaTa me mh ce Ha/jcMHBaT, me rne^aT Ha ceMencTBOTO hh c HeflOBepne. 

- He ct>m 3aTBopHHK 5 a nojiHT3aTBopHHK. HMa rojiflMa pa3JiHKa. ,3,0- 
6pHTe h aeMOKpaTHHHHTe xopa me Te yBaacaBaT, me th cbnyBCTBaT, me Te 
noflKpemrr MOpanHO. lU,e ce y6eflHHi b TOBa. 

91 



Toh o6ane ce Hari>)KH ome iio-chjiho. 

- KaK Moaca, me yMopHin MafiKa ch, ta e 6ojma, bchhkh CMe 6ojihh... 
063e Me ronflMa MtKa. KaK ^a ycnoKoa 6ama ch?... IlIyMi>T b 3ajiaTa 

nocTeneHHO ce ycnjiH. 3a j\& ce nyBar, 3aTBOpHHimTe h nocerarejiHTe 
nocTeneHHO 3anoHHaxa ^a ce Ha^BHRBaT. no6i>p3ax ^a /jaM hakoh nopi>HKH 
no opraHH3HpaHeTO Ha npoueca. Cicopo ce ny 3Bi>Heij, kohto npeKBCHa 

CBH^CflaHeTO. TtMHHHapHTe 3anOHHaxa m H3TJiaCKBaT 3aTBOpHHIJHTe OT 

3ajiaTa, 3a aa a noflroTB^T 3a cne/mamoTO CBH^cflaHe. 

FojwMa Mi>Ka cbh ayniaTa h ctpijeTO mh, ho 6ax /jobojich, ne bh^wx 
6am;a ch. Pa36npax, ne ct>m bhhobch npea Hero 3a MtKHTe h CTpaflaHH^Ta 
My. Toh HHKora He Me 6enie ynpeKBan, ne HMaM KOMyHHCTHHecKH h 
aHTH^aniHCTKH H^eH, ho He 6eme npe/mojiaran, ne ce 3aHHMaBaM c 

KOHCnHpaTHBHa fleHHOCT. EflX flOBOJieH H Ce BI>3XHmaBaX, He He3aBHCHMO OT 

TOBa, toh H3u^no ce OTfla^e Ha 3aiu;HTaTa mh: n>pcH CBH^eTenn, HaeMa 
a/moKara, H3npama xpaHa, He acajiH MaTepnajiHH cpe^cTBa, B3eMa 3aeMH, 
oGmcajra poflHHHH h no3Hani, y6eac#aBa th b npaBOTaTa Ha MoeTO /jeno. 
ToBa JIHHH h no 3ana3HJiHTe ce hakojiko nncMa. 

H TaKa... ntpBOTo cBHac/jaHe MHHa. Cno/jennx CBOHTe BnenaTJieHHa h 
npe^cHBHBaHH^ c /jpyrapHTe ch b KHJiHATa. Te Me ycnoKOjreaxa h ce 
oraacflxa c pa36npaHe. BenepTa, cjie/j 3aracBaHe Ha ocBeTJieHHeTO npo/ji>ji- 

tfCHXMe pa3TOBOpHTe CH 3a HaUIHTe 6jIH3KH, pa3Ka3BaXMe CH pa3JIHHHH 

cnoMeHH flo kbcho npe3 HonjTa. 

CKOpo HMax hobo CBHtfc#aHe c MaMa, hhho Toflop h naHa Mnxa. MaMa 
6eme nocBpHajia, ct>ji3h Kanexa no 6y3HTe h, ho He nyx ynpeic. 

- Bhjio mo 6hjio, Hie/jan /ja ch 3/jpaB. 3a Hac He mhcjih. 

HaHa MHKa 6eme no-6o/jpa. "He na/jafi jsyxou. Cxopo BOHHaTa me 
cbi>phih. Bchhkh me bh ocboGoaht. naK me ce ci>6HpaMe y Hac Ha Becejra 
npHKa3KH 55 ? ycna ^a Kaace ta cpe/j myMa h nn>HKaTa, koato ce pa3Hacjmie b 
3ajiaTa. HaHa, hhho h JIio6Ka (6paTOBHe^ mh AHren 6eme bohhhk) npoaBH- 
xa hcthhckh repoH3i>M. Banca ceflMHita (#o /jejioTO h nocjie naK ro 1 MapT 
1943 r.), Te mh Hocexa Tornia xpaHa b cneimajiHO npncnoco6eHO Kame h b 
nepHO KapTOHeHO Ky(j)apHe, KoeTO bchhkh b KHJiHOTa no3HaBaxa. J^yK^bT, 
CHertT, CTy^OBeTe h tojiamoto naKaHe npe/j BpaTHTe Ha 3aTBOpa He Mo^cexa 
aa th cnpaT h otkjiohot. npe/j BpaTHTe Ha 3aTBOpa TaTe h Te '^aBtpsaxa" 
mhoto no3HaHCTBa c 6jih3kh Ha nojnrreaTBOpHHijH, cb^yBCTBaxa Ha MOHTe 
ApyrapH-cbKOHcnHpaTOpH h Ha CBKHJiHHHHijHTe mh MapKO, PwrbGa, 6afi 
HBaH ? a ci>mo h Ha TexHHTe po/jhhhh h ceMeficTBa. 

Cpemn h hobh 3ano3HaHCTBa. Ci>6paHH e/ura khjiha, HHe CTaHaxMe 
e^HO ceMeftcTBO, 3ae^HO ce xpaHexMe, bchhko /jejiaxMe no 6paTCKH ? H^Ma- 

92 



me M Moe h TBoe", caKam 6axMe acHBejiH AeceTKH iwuhhh. CnjioTHBam e K 
5 ffl aTa cbA^a, o6maTa 6op6a npoTHB (j)auiH3Ma. 3aBeTHTe Ha BoTen, jj e 
ckh h MHoro ApyrH 6opi|H 3a CBoGoaaTa Ha Hapo^a 6axa HauiH irBTeBcmtT 
3Be3 ^H. Te hh OKpHJiaxa. TaKa 6euie h etc ctothiihtc nojiHT3aTBopn Hu 

KOHTO a3 BHflflX H On03HaX B CLJ3, CKOIICKHfl 3aTBOp (HflpH30Bo) ' 

na3ap,a^HUiKH^ 3aTBOp. 

IIpe3 ntpBHTe ahh cjie# nojiynaBaHe Ha o6BHHHTejiHHTe aKTose 
cpemHax c hakoh no3HaTH apyrapH ()Khbko Hhkojiob, /Jhmhtbp PycuHo 
KHpHJi Hhkojiob) h Te3H cpemn ocTaHaxa 3aBHHara b naMeTTa mh. ' 

C >Khbko Hhkojiob ce 3ano3Hax npe3 1941 (hjih 1940?). Eax hjich k 
rHMHa3HajiHOTO p'BKOBOflCTBO Ha PMC, a toh 6euie aGHTypneHx HjT 
cTyneHT. rioMHii, ne npn 3ano3HaHCTB0TO mh, KoeTO CTaHa c napoj Ia 
rpaAHHKara Ha nepKBaTa "Cbcth Ce,HMOHHCJieHHUH M , toh 6euie o6jietj eH 
ckpomho KOCTioMHe h Hoceuie yne6HHK no xhmha. 3Haeuie MoeTO HMe h 
a3 He 3Haex HeroBo. He noMHH KaKBB pa3roBOp HMaxMe h KaKBH 3%%%^ M 
nocTaBH. OcTaHax c BnenaTjieHHe, ne e npe^cTaBHTeji Ha yneHHHecicoT 
6iopo Ha PMC b Co(|)Hfl. Benie cpaBHHTejiHO bhcok h cjiaGnntK. roBop eiIT 
6aBHO, ho JiorHHHO h npHOTHO. ToBa 6eme eflHHCTBeHaTa hh cpema, u 
3anoMHHx. BnocjieflCTBHe ce cpemax c apyrn npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha y^en^ 
necKOTO 6iopo - Tepo rp03eB, ,3,hmhti>p PycHHOB, Po3a KopHTapona. pr 
cro, ne b CLJ3 othobo ce bh^x c }Khbko Hhkojiob bt>b BenepTa cjre 

BpT>HBaHeTO Ha 06BHHHTeJIHHH aKT. 

Be^e 6axMe 3ae^HO c bchhkh Haiun apyrapn no cb^Sa ot OTflejieHHexo 
HMaxMe 1 nac 3a H3MHBaHe h ToajieT. Benie uiyMHO, 3aTBOpHHi|HTe ce n^r* 
Hcexa no KOpH^opa, pa3roBapaxa, no3^paB^Baxa ce. 06jierHax ce Ha nerm 
naTa h th Ha6jno,naBax. ToraBa hhkoh Me xBaHa jieKO 3a paMOTo. 

- 3flpaBen ? AHrejie. He ce o6pT>mafi. He Me no3HaBam #ocera. Cera c 
BH)KflaMe 3a m>pBH n^T. 

He ce H3HeHa,nax, tbh KaTO Bene no3HaBax KOHcnnpaTHBHHTe 3axBon 
HHHecKH npaBHJia. Be3 aa ce o6pi>maM norjie^Hax b CTpaHH h bjj^ 
no3HaTO JiHiie, ome no-cjia6o, ho oayxoTBOpeHO, c yMHH h TonjiH ohh. 

- Ka3BaM ce }Khbko, cera ce BH^cflaMe h ce 3ano3HaBaMe 3a ni>pBH nt T 
TaKHBa ca npaBHJiara. 

Pa3nHTa Me 3a npoBajia, koh ca npHBJieneHH b npoijeca. Ka3a mh HoMen 
Ha KHJiHHTa ch, koato 6euie b HanajioTo Ha OTCpemHHfl KopH^op. 

- BHHarn me mh 6tfle npHOTHO m ce cpemaMe h ,na ce no/jnoMaraMe. 

)Khbko Hhkojiob, CTy^eHT no xhmhh, ro HanajiOTO Ha 1942 r. e HJieH Ha PK Ha PMC -. k 
UonynuQ, KbRejo oiroBapa 3a GoHHaia fleHHOCT, ho e 3ajioBeH h octfleH Ha 3aTBop (n. HfiaH 
Ciy^eHTCKaTa MJia^OK b aHTHcJmiiiHCTKaTa 6op6a 1941-1944. C, 1985, 97, 147-148). 

93 



KbiiHTax HyBCTBO Ha HCKpeHO yBa^ceHHe kbm 5Khbko. Toh Me cnenejiH 
etc CBOjrra BceoTflafiHOCT, c HHTejieKTa h ,n;o6pOTaTa ch. BHHarH HaMHpauie 
BpeMe 3a cpemn h pa3roBOpH c mch; pa3X05K,naxMe ce noHAKora 3ae#H0 Ha 
"KOJiejiOTo", aaBanie mh khhth 3a npoHHT. TaKa e/jHHCTBeHara KOHcnnpa- 
THBHa cpema c Hero yicpenHa b apyacGa b U,C3 h b Ckohckhji 3araop- 
HapH30BO. Hakojiko ce/jMHijH cjie/j 9 cenTeMBpH 1944 r. noceTHX Coc^hh h 
norbpcHX 5Khbko h Hea^JiKO TaHHOBCKH b OK Ha PMC Ha yji. "06opHme". 
Hefl^JiKO mh ci>o6mH, ne >Khbko e 3aMHHaji 3a (j)poHTa KaTO /jo6poBOJieit c 
#jn>)KHOCT noMomHHK-KOMaH#Hp. MajiKo no-KbCHO Haynnx 3a HeroBara 
repoHHHa CMi>pT b cpaaceHHe c HeMijHTe. >Khbko, MaKap h MJia/j, 6eme 
rojiHMa jihhhoct, c TajiaHT, c yM. 

"life nadnam okobu, cmenu u npeepadu, 
nrbMHuifu, 3ameopu na cmapux cenm. 
C Kp-b6, c nom nanoena 3eMnma me xpanu 
eojiHun, ceoGoden u macmnue uoeeK. " 

Ha flpyrafl #eH ce bhaax c j3,hmhtt>p PycHHOB, c KoroTo ce 6axMe 
cpemajiH MHoro m>TH h 6axMe mhoto 6jih3kh. CpemaTa hh b 3aTBOpa MHHa 
niyMHO, 6e3 cna3BaHe Ha KOHcnHparaBHH npaBHJia. TIperbpHaxMe ce. 

Toh 6euie npeacraBHTeji Ha YHeHHHecKOTO 6iopo Ha PMC. CjieflBame 
MeflHitHHa. Eeme KpacHB h CHMnarHHeH MJiafleac, BHHarH #o6pe o6jieneH b 
chb koctiom. CpemaxMe ce Ha 3ace#aHHfl Ha ceKTOpHOTO p^kobo^ctbo Ha 
PMC, b KoeTO ynacTBaxa npe/jCTaBHTejiH Ha hhkojiko ynnjinma. H/jBaji e h b 
KBapTHpaTa mh Ha yji. "Ctoah 3aHMOB ,f N« 10. 

Cera toh mh pa3Ka3a noBene 3a ce6e ch h 3a npOBaneHaTa KOHcnnpaijHfl, 
HapeneHa "Bo^cypnme". ,3py5K6aTa hh yicpenHa cjiea 9 cenTeMBpH 1944 r. B 
CU,3 h oco6eHO b HapH30BO, toh npo^BHBanie rpH)KH 3a MeH - ^aBame mh 
cbBera, Kapanie Me /ja ce pa3xo)K,zjaM noBene h #a npaBH rHMHacTHica, 
aaBanie mh JieicapcTBa, CHa6flHBanie Me c khhth, tbh KaTO 6enie Hemo KaTO 
3aBe)K£am HMnpOBH3HpaHaTa nojiyjierajiHa 6n6jiHOTeKa Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKHH 

HH KOJieKTHB. 

3ano3Hax ce h c KiipiiJi Hhkojiob, 6paT Ha moji cbyneHHK HBaH Hhko- 
jiob, 3a KoroTo OT^aBHa 6hx cjiyniaji. Toh 6euie HOBeic ct>c 3a6ejie)KHTejieH 
HHTejieKT. Xoflex npn Hero b KHJiHsrra, pa3X05K#ajiH CMe ce 3ae,n;HO b 
KopHflopa hjih Ha KOJiejioTo. Toh 6euie 3aBT>pniHJi K)pHAHHecKHH (JmicyjiTeT 
Ha Coc|)hhckhh yHHBepcHTeT, ho 6euie H3BecTeH KaTO jiHTeparop, jihhch 



)K. Hhkojiob. ITpeziCM'bpTHH TeTpa^KH. C, 1972, 165. 
94 



npHJrreJi Ha HHKOJia BamjapoB h ynacTHHK b HeroBHa ji^xe 

3aeflHO c flpyra JieBH nncaTejiH h noeTH. Ome KaTO MJi a ^ e ^ T ^P e H Kpt^oK 

B fleiiHOCTTa Ha BtnrapcKaTa paGoTHHHecKa nap TH „ ° H Ce B KJiK>HBa 

MaiceflOHCKOTO ocBo6oflHTenHO ^BH}KeHHe. Benie ocL£ ei l ^ HacT Ba h b 

cTpor TbMHHHeH 3aTBOp b npoueca cpemy IJK Ha Epjj a ^5 toahhh 

BaimapoB 6eme oct^eH Ha CMi>pT. ' OHTo HHKojia 

KHpO HH H3HaC3IHie HHTepeCHH JieKUHH no (J)HJ10co(J) U 

hkohomha h jiHTepaTypa. HecTO ce o6ptmax kbm Hero, Kor ' n0JIHTI «ecKa 
cnopHH BtnpocH MOK^y MJiaae^KHTe. TaKHBa B3aHMOoxHon ° Bl>3HHKHe xa 
h b HflpH30BCKH)i 3aTBOp. H flocera ro noMHa KaK ce pa3 Xo H * 3ana3HX Me 
Ha 3aTBOpa npe3 3HMaTa b HeroBHA cnpeTHaT roji(|) 3 c R R # a uie b Kapeio 
nneTeHO niajine, HiHpoKO ycMHXHaT, c otkphto CHMnaxHHH ^ ^^^a h 

IIoflroTOBKa 3a cbfla. B KHJiHOTa 3anoHHaxMe % Hl * e - 
ci> ( zi;e6HOTO 3ace;jaHHe. °^ r °TBaMe 3a 

06BHHHTeneH aKT 6enie BpT>neH h Ha flpyrme hh clkhjt *- 
/J,o6peB ? ^HMHTbp TtntGoB h HBaH Hoch(|)ob. 3a^OHHo b HHi * H: MapKo 
tax 6axa npHBJieneHH no# ci>ae6Ha OTroBopHOCT h hskoh b ^ 0l * eca c Pemy 
jxevmn Haneno cbc ceKpeTapa Ha U,K Ha PMC A^ajifi HejI ^rajiHH 

MajiHHKa. 06BHHeHHHTa cpeniy tax 6axa tokkh. napxHg H ^tohob - 

Ha 3aTBOpHHHeCKHfl KOJieKTHB H mJIHOMOIIJHHUHTe Ha T ^ K ° B °^ CT B0 

npoflBjraaxa o6acHHMa 3arproKeHOCT 3a pa3Boa Ha T03H nn Ha ^PII 

TpHMaTa 6axa pa3nHTBaHH KaKBH CBeaeHHa ca #ajiH b noKa TOaiI J n poijec. 
flefiuH Ha napTH^Ta h PMC, kohto ca Ha CBo6o^a hjih b HH * Ta c h, koh 
6hjih pa3KpHTH, 3a aa 6i>aaT npe,uynpe#eHH. Me^Km^ JIerajI HocT, ca 
H3BecTH0 5 ne npH 6noKafla b Co(J)hh ManHHKa e 6hji 3 peMeiiH o CTaHa 

HHKBH3HpaH H y6HT... BCH ' ^SCTOKO 

E^hh hjih flBa ^hh cue;* KaTO hm 6euie BptneH o6bhh 
KHJiH)iTa hh 6enie flOBe^eH Hoch^) AcTpyKOB (Xepij), 3a ^ ejI HHHT aKT, b 
h ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha PMC. Beme bhcok, ho TOJiKOBa 6^^ aH KaT o HJieH 
npHUHHanie Ha ct>ii];hhckh xphcthahckh ivrbHeHHK. Toh H£ Ba ° TcjIa 6Haji, He 
a^a Ha H3Te3aHHjrra b ^HpeicijH^ Ha nojiHiiHATa. TpHMaxa ro n n ^ H Hac CJ1Q R 

Xepu; 6i>p3a ce a^anrapa klm HauiHa kojickthb, Koft To perL P Ha xa... 
flyniH. Cnefl KaTO cne^Baji Me^HijHHa b 3arpe6 h Eejirp a ^ BejI HHH Ha 8 
6eme OT^aji Ha aHTH(])aiHHCTKaTa 6op6a h 6enie cxaHan ' ° H H3I * ajI0 ce 
peBOJiiouHOHep. Bhji npefla^eH ot cbnpyraTa Ha EpHecT Ta ^ ecH0Haj ieH 
h 6hji 3ajiOBeH npH 3aca^a Ha i>n>Jia Ha yji. "BeHejin »» JIecK Y 5 Aopa, 
UlHiuMaH 11 . Toh ^OHece "HOBHHaTa" 3a npeaaTencTBOTo HaP H J 11 - "I^ap 
6eme noflct#HM b rioay^HCKH^ npou;ec 5 h Ha ctnpyraxa M ^ HecT ' kohto 
CBefleroiflTa 3a 3ajiaB^HeTO h y6nHCTBOTO Ha MajiHHKa ^ 0TB,L PAH h 

' pa3K a3a 3a hhkoh 

95 



ci>6HTHfl okojio npoBajia Ha OK Ha PMC. JJ^jito, nonra ufljia Hom 
npofltJi^cH HeroBH^T thx pa3roBop c MapKO flo6peB. 

Xepij 6euie CHpaK. Tojicmh rpH^cn 3a Hero nojiaraxa JiejiHTe My. C 
npHctcTBHeTO ch cflicam ocbokh aTMOc4>epaTa b KHJiHOTa. Benie MHoro 
eTHneH, npo^B^Banie rpH^CH 3a bchhkh, yMeenie aa 6ece^Ba h ^a pa3Ka3Ba. 
MaKap h peBOJiioijHOHep y Hero HManie h Hemo MejiaHxojiHHHO. Kbcho 
Benep, oGjieraaji KpacHBaTa ch rjiaBa Ha creHaTa, thxo neeuie pycKH 
poMaHCH h peBOJiioimoHHH necHH. Cjiyniax ro b 3axjiac. Oco6eHo 
HacTpoeHHe ce ci>3£aBanie, KoraTO 3aneeme: 

"Cuotcy 3apewemK0u e meMuuife cbipou... " 

HJIH 

"3aMyneH e mnotcenou ueeojie, 
Tbi cnaeHOW cMepmbw hohuji... 
B 6opb6e 3apa6ouee dejio, 
Tbi eojioey necmuo cjioztcwi... " 

CtfleSmiTe 3aceAamiH h no flBaTa npoijeca 6axa HacponeHH 3a 24. XII. 
1942 r. h Tpfl6Banie ^a ce npoBe^aT b 3ajiH 14 h 15, Haii-rojieMHTe b 
Ctfle6HaTa najiaTa. Pa3roBopH no no^roTOBKaTa ce Bo^exa b KHJiMTa, b 
KOpHflopHTe h no BpeMe Ha pa3xo£KaTa Ha KOJiejioTO... 

MeagjyBpeivieHHO b CIJ3 flOHfloxa h rpyna nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH ot 
IIjieBeHCKHa 3aTBOp. Cpefl Tax 6euie Teoprn HamcoB, bhcui napTHeH 
(JjymajHOHep, kohto flo6pe no3HaBauie MapKO, HBaH HochcJ)ob h ApyrHTe 
noflCb^HMH b npoiieca Ha OK Ha PMC. Ton necTO HflBanie b HaniaTa khjiha 
h pa3roBapfline c rax. 3aHHTepecyBa ce h ot HaniM npoijec. 

PtKOBOflCTBOTO Ha KOJieKTHBa BT>3JIO)KH Ha 2KHBKO >KHBKOB fla HH 

noMorHe b no^roTOBKaTa 3a npoueca. Ha Bi>3pacT toh 6euie okojio 25-28 
roflHHieH, HManie lopHflnnecKO o6pa30BaHHe, 6enie crpor, ho no npHpo^a 
HOBeneH h CHMnaraHeH hobck. IIoroBopHX c Hero Ha KOJiejioTO, onncax My 
noBflHraaTHTe o6BHHeHH5i, noica3aHHOTa h BemecTBeHHTe flOKa3aTencTBa, 

npHJIOHCeHH KbM o6BHHHTeJIHHfl aKT. 

IIoflroTOBKaTa hh 6enie MHoro ynecHeHa ot Bepraji ^hmob ? a^BOKaTa 
Ha KnpHJi Mhjicb. ^Ba TpH ahh cjie^ BptHBaHeTO Ha o6BHHHTejiHHTe aKTOBe 
6ax H3BHKaH h OTBe^eH Ha CBH^cflaHe b a^BOKaTCKaTa cTaa. Ilpea MeH 
3acTaHa e^tp mi>)k, c 6yiiHa Koca h MycTaim. YcMHXHa ce h ci>cpe,zjOTOHeHO 
ce ptKyBa. 

- A3 cbm BeprHJi ^hmob ? a^BOicaT Ha KnpHJi MnneB. 
ToBa Bene 3Haex. 

- 3a MeH - npofl'bjmH toh - e nojie3Ho ^a 3Haa mhchhcto h OTHonie- 

96 



HHeTO, JiHHMTa Ha noBeaeHHeTo Bh npH BamaTa 3amHTa b ct^a. Bne CTe 
rjiaBHHOT o6bhhhcm h 3aTOBa noHCKax aa ce cpemna c Bac. 

Pa3Ka3ax My KaK h KaKBO me OTpnnaMe ot noKa3aHHOTa, H3Tpi>rHaTH 

qpe3 HHKBH3HIJHH, KaKBO LU;e IIpH3HaeM OT BeiljeCTBeHHTe AOKa3aTeJICTBa. 

H3pa3HX Ha/joK^a, ne a^BOKaTHTe me hh no/jKperorr, me TtpcflT flOKa3a- 
TeJicTBa b Hauia nojm Hpe3 CBH/jeTejicKHTe noKa3aHHA h me HacTOflBaT, ne 

He CMe 6HJIH B CbCTOflHHe /ja H3Bl>pHIHM fle^HHHTa, B KOHTO HH 06BHHflBaT. 

BeprHJi /Jhmob ocTaHa bh^hmo aobojich. 3a,qa,ne mh hakojiko Btnpoca, 

CT>06mH MH HflKOH HOBHHH. He3a6eJIfl3aHO OT Hafl3HpaTeJI5I 5 KOHTO H3HH3a- 

uie ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe ot CTajrra, toh H3Mi>KHa ot namaTa ch naKeT c khh- 
)Ka, npeaaae mh th, a a3 th ntxHax bi>b BtTpeniHH^ ;pco6 Ha niHHejia ch. 

Tpfl6Ba fla OTGeneaca, ne BeprHJi JXumob 6euie H3BecTeH cpea 3aTBOp- 
HHUHTe KaTO aKTHBeH ynacTHHK b nojiHTHHecKHTe npouecn, fltp^ceme ce 
mhoto flo6pe, yMeenie aa 3aumTaBa flOBepHTejnrre ch, OTHacanie ce c 
pa36npaHe kbm nojiHTHHecKHTe hm Bi>3rjieflH, ci>o6pa3flBaHie ce c 
Bi>3npHeTaTa ot noflCbflHMHTe jihhhh Ha noBe^eHHe b ctfla. 3a a^BOKaT Ha 
KHpo toh 6hji HaeT ot HflKaKbB TbproBeij, o6bhhch b cneKyjia, c kototo 
Knpo aejiHJi HecroflH b e^Ha khjiha Ha /jHpeKima Ha nojnmHjrra. CneKy- 

JiaHTbT CTaHaJI CBHfleTeJI Ha HHKBH3HmiHTe Ha KHpO H My CLHyBCTBaJI. J\zr 

My ayMa, ne aKO ce ocbo6oah me HaeMe Haii-floGpHfl a^BOKaT aa ro 3aum- 
TaBa. H HancTHHa H3ni>jiHHJi o6emaHHeTO ch... 

BeflHara cnefl Bpi>maHeTO ch b KHJiHHTa npenieflax naKeTa. B Hero 
HaMepHx noKa3aHH^Ta Ha noflCbflHMHTe, kohto mhoto hh noMoraaxa npH 
no/i;roTOBKaTa 3a npoijeca. 

DKhbko >Khbkob BHHMaTenHO npoynn oGbhhhtcjihhh aKT h noKa3aHHa- 
Ta, KaKTO h KOHKpeTHHTe o6BHHeHHH Ha npoKypopa cpemy BceKH ot Hac 
cnopea CT>OTBeTHHTe HJieHOBe h naparpa(J)H Ha 33,0,, no kohto ce 
npeanarauie m 6tfleM ctfleHH. HanpaBHXMe hakojiko "peneraijHH". >Khbko 
cfl/jaine Ha e^HH ot cjiaMeromHTe h nrpaeuie pojiHTe Ha npoKypop, cbRiin h 
a^BOKaT. OmpaBflHie ki>m Hac BMipocn, kohto 6nxa hh 3aaaBajiH Te no 
BpeMe Ha npoijeca, a HHe OTroBapaxMe. Toh hh nonpaB^me h aaBanie 
CLBeTH. OnHTBanie ce fla npeflBHflH bchhkh bi>3M0)khh CHTyaijHH. Oco6eHO 
BHHMaHHe o6tpHa Ha m>pBHfl BMipoc, kohto ce 3aflaBame Ha bcckh 
noflCbflHM: n npH3HaBani jih ce 3a bhhobch ?" OTroBOptT TpaGBame %a 6tfle 
HceH h jiaKOHHneH, TaKa 5 ne cbflHHTa ^a aa^e bi>3mo)khoct 3a no-noapo6HO 
H3Jio)KeHHe Ha noKa3aHHHTa npea CT>,n;a, b kocto apryMeHTHpaHO ^a ce 

OTXBT>pjIHT 06BHHeHH^Ta H HaCHJICTBCHO H3Tpl>rHaTHTe nOKa3aHHfl. 

Oco6eHO BHHMaBaxMe fla He flonycHeM npOTHBOpennfl MOK^y noKa3a- 
HHHTa hh npefl cbfla, noaroTB)ixMe ce h 3a eBeHTyajiHH onHTH Ha ci>flHHTe h 

97 



npoKypopa r& hh o6i>pKBaT h npoTHBonocTaBAT. B pe3yjiTaT Ha Te3H 
"peneTimHH", HHe ce nyBCTBaxMe yBepeHH h totobh 3a cxBaneH etc 
CbflHHTe h npoKypopa. Cnefl BCflKa peneTHiiHfl )Khbko h apyrHTe apyrapH 
npaBexa pa36op h aaBaxa cbbcth. A eTO KaKBO ch cnoMHfl h me HanHiue 
cjiea MHoro roflHHH )Khbko )Khbkob: 

"Be/unoK, cnefl pa3xo,HKaTa no KapeTO, Bjmox b KHJiHflTa, onpcuejieHa 
3a TOKy-mo flOKapaHHTe MJiaaeacH peMCHCTH ot rbproBCKaTa rHMHa3HH. 
Meac,ny tax 6axa AHren HaynieB, kohto e^HH ,neH menie rz CTaHe npoc^ecop 
h MHHHCTbp; AHflpeii Ctoahob ot Bhahhckha Kpafi h pp. Ifecnyniax ra 
BHHMaTenHo KaK e BO^eHO cneflCTBHeTO, KaKBH noKa3aHHfl ca flajm, #o 
KaKBH pa3KpHTH« ce ,zi;o6pajia nojiHijHOTa. 3ae,HHO oGcb^HXMe KaKBO Aa 6T>^e 
noBeaeHHeTO hm no BpeMe Ha caMHa npoijec n KaKBH noKa3aHH5i aa aa/jar 
npefl ^aniHCTKH^ clr - He caMO aa OTpnnaT noronoBHO bchhkh npeflflBeHH 
hm oGbkhchha, ho aa HMa h JiorHKa b TBtpaeHHATa hm h B3aHMOBpi>3Ka b 
noKa3aHH^Ta hm. 3a pa^ocT Ha bchhkh Te H3,m>p5Kaxa Ha Kpi>CTOcaHHH 
pa3nHT b ctfla h H3m>JiHHxa bchhkh yKa3aHH*. H MaKap ne npHCBflHTe hm 
He 6axa JieKH, 3aBi>pHaxa ce b KHJiHATa c 6oapH jnma". 

HMaxMe cpema h c Teoprn HamcoB. Ton nponeTe mohtc noKa3aHH* h 
mh safla^e hakoh BMpocH. MajiKo a/jocaHO Me nonHTa: "3amo nHuieui, ne 
npe^CTaBHTejwT Ha YHeHHHecKOTO 6iopo e KpHBOKpaK?!" "3a ,na 3a6nyflH 

nOJIHIJHOTa", OTrOBOpHX a3. "Tofi B fleHCTBHTeJIHOCT e MHoro KpaCHB H 

CHMnaTHHeH. ToBa e Mhtko PycHHOB 11 , noflinyniHax My Ha yxoTO. 
ff npaBHJiHo! n ? ycMHXHa ce toh. 

B Kpaa Ha 1942 r. nojiHTHnecKaTa oGcTaHOBKa no CBeTa He 6eme 
ocoGeHO 6jiaronpH5iTHa. ApMHHTe Ha aHTHXHTJiepHencaTa KoajnnjHfl BO/jexa 
o^cecToneHH 6htkh c HeMiprre okojio CTajiHHrpaa h b CeBepHa A(j)pHKa. B 
Ei>JirapHfl aHTH(J)aHiHCTKaTa 6op6a nocTeneHHO ce pa3pacTBauie h (JmniHCT- 
KaTa BJiacT npeanpHeMauie Bee no-Maui;a6HH penpecHBHH MepKH. IIojih- 
ijHATa npaBeuie apecTH, HHKBH3Hpaine, opraHH3Hpauie npoijecH. BoeHHHTe 
CT>flHJiHHi;a paGoTexa aKTHBHO h CTporo npnjiaraxa 33,ZJ. 3a Hafi-MajiKH 
aHTH(J)aHiHCTKH npoaBH H3,naBaxa roneMH, CTporn HaKa3aHH*. 3anecTHxa h 
yGHHCTBaTa 6e3 cbR h npHCbfla. 3a bchhkh no-3HanHMH ct>6hthh 3aTB0pHH- 
necKHflT KOJieKTHB 6euie peflOBHO HH(|)opMHpaH ? Bi>npeKH CTporaTa H30Jia- 
ipra. H^Mauie BaacHO nojiHTHHecKO hjih bochho cbGhthc, kocto aa He CTa- 
Bauie H3BecTHO b 3aTBOpa h aa He ce npaBexa KOMeHTapH, oijeHKH h h3bo/jh. 

Ci>ae6HHTe 3ace^aHiiH. CyTpHHTa Ha 24. XII. 1942 r. craHaxMe MHoro 
paHO. ,ZjHec TpaGBauie ,na 3anoHHe npoitecbT. MHoro ce BMHyBaxMe, ho 



)K. )Khbkob. PeMcoBH roOTHH. C, 1979, 295-296. 
98 



HacTpoeHneTO hh 6enie dojxpo. Ylo #BaMa, no TpHMa Ha^HpaTejiHTe ^ 
oTBe,aoxa b 6pi>CHapHHijaTa, koato ce HaMHpanie Ha ebiijHfl eTa^c. Eax^ 

flOHHCTHJIH yneHMHeCKHTe CH yHH^OpMH. 

SaeflHO c apyrapHTe ot npoijeca Ha OK Ha PMC hh OTBeaoxa b 3ajiat a 
3a npHeMaHe h H3npamaHe na 3aTBOpHHiiHTe. 06ncKHpaxa hh h hh flaaox a 
m o6jieneM 3aTBOpHHHecKH hihhcjih - Ha paneTa. H3Beaoxa hh Ha ABOpa ^ 
n p H £py5KeHH ot nojnman hh HaTOBapHxa b 3aTBOpHHHecKa 3aKpHta 
KaMHOHeTKa. Cjiea okojio 30 MHHyra ce HaMepHXMe bt>b BtTpeinHHa flBop 
Ha C'bfleGHaTa najiaTa. CBajinxa hh 6ejie3HHijHTe h hh BKapaxa b nproeMH^ 
eia)K, KVjeTO 3aTBOpnxa b OTflejiHH khjihh Hac ce^MHHaTa h nerapHMaTa o^ 
OK Ha PMC. 

3anaKaxMe aa hh Bi>Be#aT b ci>fle6HaTa 3ajia. ITo e^HO BpeMe npn Hac 
flOBeaoxa h ocmha o6BHH5ieM - HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo). Ton 6euie bo£^ 
hhk h Hocenie CTapa Boemia yHH(|)opMa. Iferjieacflanie 6ofli>p. Ilo3flpaBHX]vi e 
ce cbpaeHHO c apyrapcKH nperptflKH. OKa3a ce, ne no BpeMe Ha cjie^ 
dBHeTO HBaH e 6hji fltpacaH bi>b BoeHeH 3aTBOp. Bi>p30 ro HH(J)opMHpax 3 a 
noBe^eHHeTO, KoeTO Tpa6Ba aa HMa npea CT>#a, 3a noKa3aHHATa hh h 3 a 
o6BHHeHH5iTa cpemy BceKH ot Hac. UleryBaxMe ce h cnofleiwxMe BnenaTJie. 
hhh. KnjiHflTa ce otboph h hh noBe^oxa no KopHflopa, a cjie/j TOBa no Tect^ 
cn>Ji6H. Cjiea BceKH ot Hac BtpBeuie erpaacap c nyniKa. "KaKBa near" 
ineryBaxMe ce HHe: BceKH ce oxpamiBa HHflHBHflyajiHO. Ilpe3 Te3H Herap^ 
aHH BceKH ot Hac ch HManie cboh erpaacap... 

Bi>Befloxa hh b mncaKBa craa. Oiea MajiKO BpaTaTa ce otboph h H^ e 
Biw30XMe b ci>fle6HaTa 3ajia. Th 6enie ntJiHa c xopa. CaMO ntpBHTe #B a 
pe/ja 6axa cbo6o,h;hh. Tpo6Ha THHiHHa. Oraanajio hhiijo He pa3JiHHaBax. 
BceKH ot Hac Ttpcn aa 3tpHe CBOHTe 6jih3kh - poflHTejiH, 6para, cecTp^ 
npHHTejiH. Orneacflax ce h Tbpcex no3HaTH Jinija. ITbpBO OTKpnx MaMa, 
3a6paaeHa c nepHa 3a6pa^Ka. Th, MHJiaTa, noctpHajia h 6jie,aa, TpeB0^c^ 
Me norjieamame. J\o Hea 6euie ce^Hajia naHa MnKa. Ta mh ce ycMHXHa ^ 
flaBauie mh Kypaac. 3a# tax ceflaxa TaTe h hhho To^op. TyK 6enie h JIio6ica. 
Te ctmo TpeBO^CHO Me norjie^Haxa. B ^tHOTO Ha 3ajiaTa CT>3pax HBa^ 
Hhkojiob (reoprneB) h To^op BaHHeB (^eHHH). CTpaacapHTe hh pa36yraxa 
h hh noflpe^Hxa b npaBa jihhha c Jinije kbm no^HyMa, Ha kohto 6axa 
MacHTe 3a ct/jHHTe H npOKypopa. CTpaacapHTe 3acTaHaxa 3a^ Hac, a ot jijib 
6axa HaomajiH a^BOKaTHTe. Te ctmo hh Ha6jnoflaBaxa h rbpcexa CBOHte 
noBepeHH. npn MeH aofifle a^BOKaT AHren IlonoB. Pa3MeHHXMe hhkojiko 
(J)pa3H. Oi>o6mH mh, ne CBH^eTejiHTe ca pe^oBHO npH30BaHH h ca b 3ajiaxa„ 
Ctfle6HHTe hhhobhhijh 6axa 3aejiH MecTaTa ch. 

BjiH30xa ctflHHTe. Bchhkh CTaHaxa. Haneno BtpBenie npeflce^aTejiHT H a 

99 



cbCTaBa Ha BoeHHO-nojieBra clr, nopyHHK Ha cpe^Ha BT>3pacT, floGpe 
oGjieneH. Gne/jBaxa ro jspyrwre flBaMa HJieHOBe Ha eb/ja, kohto 6axa 3anac- 
hh o4>HiiepH, KaKTO Jinneine no yHH(j)opMHTe hm. 3anoHHaxa ci>fle6HHTe 
npoije^ypH. npOBepHxa noflCb/jHMHTe h CBH^eTejiHTe, npe^cTaBeHH 6axa 
a^BOKaTHTe, o6BHHeHHeTO h 3amHTaTa npe^CTaBHxa hakoh HCKaHim 

OTHOCHO H3CJiyHIBaHeTO Ha CBHfleTejIHTC 

npeflceaaTejwT 6eme TbpacecTBeHO CTpor, caMOflOBOJieH, CTpeMeine ce 
aa aeMOHCTpHpa bhcok npocj)ecHOHajiH3T>M, ho h aa 3acBHfleTejicTBa 
npeflaHocrra ch kt>m (JjaniHCTKaTa BjiacT, kohto 6e npH3BaH aa 3anjHTaBa. 
npefl Hero CToaxa h3bccthh co(J)hhckh a^BOKaTH h toh He Moaceme npodo 
fla npeHe6perHe TexHHTe aoboah h HCKaHM. Mhcjihji ct>m ch KaKBH jih 
nyBCTBa e H3nHTBaji, /joKaTO e rjie^aji cpemy ce6e ch Te3H HeKOJiijHHa yne- 
hhijh, H3Bi>pHiBajiH nojiHranecKa fleHHOCT, kohto 6h rorjieayjajia no CBOfl 
xapaKTep HantJiHO HopMajiHa h 6e3o6nflHa b e^Ha aeMOKpaTHHHa crpaHa, 
KaKBaTO o6ane ToraBaniHa BtJirapHH OT^aBHa 6enie npecraHajia aa 6i>fle. 

CBH^eTejiHTe nojioacnxa KJieTBa, ne me roBOpsrr HCTHHaTa h 6axa 
noKaHeHH aa HanycHaT 3ajiaTa, 3a #a ce abot Ha cjie/jBamHfl aeH b 9 naca. 
KaTO npoKypopcKH CBH^eTeji 6enie npn30BaH HBaH IleTKOB, Hani cbyneHHK 
h cbKOHcnnpaTop, 6hbui HJieH Ha pi>koboactboto ho PMC b raMHa3HHTa. 
Toh ce cbrjiacnn aa cbTpyzjHHHH Ha nojiHijHflTa h npoKypopa h 6hji 
ocBoGo^eH ot o6BHHeHHeTO cpemy raycHaTa pojra Ha CBH^eTeji - npeaaTen 
Ha apyrapHTe ch. Toh CToenie TaM ry3eH h He CMeenie flopH aa hh 
norjie^He. HMame h flpyrn npoKypopcKH CBH^eTejiH h BenjH jnma. TyK 6axa 
h hakoh ot areHTHTe Ha nojiHitHsrra, bo^hjih cjie^cTBHeTO h ynacTBajin b 

HHKBH3HItHHTe. 

nponeTe ce o6BHHHTejiHHOT aKT. ToBa npe,zjH3BHKa TpeBora h CTpax 
cpefl npHci>CTBa^HTe. MH03HHa ot tax 3a npi>B ni>T nyBaxa o6BHHeHHjrra, 
Aoni>jiHeHH ci>c 3aKaHHTe Ha npoKypopa h HCKaHHsrra My 3a CTporo npnjio- 
HceHHe Ha 33/],. HjieHOBeTe h naparpacj)HTe, no kohto 6ax noflBeaeH noa 
OTroBOpHOCT, npe/jBHayjaxa CMtprao HaKa3aHHe. CMeniHO, ho (JmKT. Ka3Bax 
ch Ha yM, ne e flo6pe 5 fleTo b oGbkhhtcjikhh aKT ca noconeHH caMO cbOTBeT- 
HHTe HJieHOBe h naparpacjw, a He ce ci>o6maBaT npeflBHfleHHTe b tckctobctc 
hm HaKa3aHHH. TpeBoraTa Ha 6jih3khtc hh meine aa e yacacHa. 

Oiea npOHHTaHe Ha o6BHHHTejiHH5i aKT H3Beaoxa noflct/piMHTe ot 
3anaTa. OcTaHax caMO a3, KaTO m>pBH oGbhhhcm. npeflceflaTejiHT ce o6i>pHa 
kt>m Mem 

- H3CJiynia o6BHHHTejiHH5i aKT. IIpH3HaBani jih ce 3a bhhobch? 

- Tocnofla cbahh, BHHMaTejmo ce 3ano3Hax c o6BHHeHHHTa Ha 
npoKypopa h 3aflBABaM, ne He ce npH3HaBaM 3a bhhobch. IIo3BOJieTe aa 

100 



pa3K a^ca c KaKBO He ct>m ctrnaceH h c Koe ct>m ctrjiaceH ot o6BHHeHH5rra Ha 
npoKypopa. 

CbflMTa KHMHa c rnaBa b 3HaK Ha ctrnacHe. npOKypoptT ckohh ot 
cxoJia, ho npeflceflaTenaT Ha ctfla BflHraa ptica h toh ce^Ha. HanpaBHX 

KpaTKO H3JI05KeHHe Ha 06BHHeHHflTa H MOTHBHpaHO, TaKa KaKTO ro 6axMe 

o6mhcjihjih b 3aTBOpa ? th OTpeKOX. 

- He cbm HJieHyBan b PMC. 3a CT>mecTByBaHeTO Ha TaicaBa opraHH3aijHfl 
nayHHX b nonHijHOTa. Cb6paHHfl npaBexMe, ho caMO bt>b BT>3fli>p)KaTejiHOTO 
royacecTBO, npaBexMe BecenH c6hpkh h eKCKyp3HH. CbGnpaxMe ce 3a rpy- 
noBO H3ynaBaHe Ha ypoijH, nncaHe Ha flOMauiHH. 

npH3Hax ? ne ct>m npenncaji nnaT(J)opMaTa Ha OTenecTBeHHH (J)poHT npe3 
m. cenTeMBpH hjih oktombph: 

- EflHH aeH Herax b rpaflHHKaTa npe« rHMHa3HflTa. Ha nefticaTa mh ce^- 
Ha Heno3HaT MJiaaeac h cbiijo 3aneTe HflKaKBa KHHra. 3anoHHaxMe pa3roBOp 
Bi>pxy nponeTeHOTO h ce 3ano3HaxMe. Ha flpyrafl ^eH othobo ce bh^xmc h 
pa3roBapHXMe. Toft H3BaflH jihct H3nHcaH Ha ptKa. 06achh mh, ne TOBa e 
riJiaT^opMa Ha OTenecTBeHHfl <j)poHT, koAto ce 6opH npoTHB (J)aniH3Ma ? 3a 
He3aBHCHMOCTTa Ha EtJirapHfl, 3a CBo6oaaTa, KaKTO TOBa ca npaBejra Botcb 

H JleBCKH. 

npoKypopi>T h npeflceaaTejMT Me npeKBCHaxa hakojiko m>TH, ho a3 
npofli>Ji5KaBax aa roBOpa, MaKap h c tojwmo cMymeroie. 3Haex, ne HAMa aa 

MH nOB^pBaT HHTO CbflHHTe, HHTO aflBOKaTHTe, HHTO npHCBCTBamHTC 

- MnaflOiCbT Me noMonn aa My HanpaBfl ycnyra h ^a npenHma 
rijiaT(])opMaTa b hakojiko eK3eMnjMpa c nenaTHH 6yKBH, «a a CKpna h 
KoraTO ce bhahm rs. My npeaaM eK3eMnimpHTe. A3 HanpaBHX TOBa. nnaT- 
(|)0pMaTa CKpHx b flBOpa, K'bfleTO nojiHi^H^Ta a HaMepnna. 

- Mhoto HaHBHH o6ncHeHH5i ? rocno^a cb^hh - oGa^auie ce npoKypopT>T. 
GbflHHTe cbmo ce cnornoKflaxa c HacMennca. A3 o6ane npofltJDKHx: 

- B noKa3aHMTa noBeneTO ot HanncaHOTO e HeBflpHO. To e H3MHCJiHija 
Ha nojnmeftcKHTe areHTH. Te c noGonma Me npHHy)KflaBaxa aa Hannnia 
TOBa, KoeTO mh flHKTyBaxa. 

Eax npeKbCHaT othobo ot npoKypopa, a npcuceflaTejiflT mh OTHe ,oyMaTa. 

npoKypopT>T 3aaBH, ne MQTKjiy noKa3aHHHTa npea ct^a h npea 
cjie^cTBHeTO HMa roneMH npOTHBOpenna h npe,HJio)KH aa G^aT nponeTeHH 
noKa3aHHHTa ? kohto 6ax #aji b nojiHijHflTa. Mon a^BOKaT ce npoTHBono- 
CTaBH ? ho noKa3aHH^Ta Bee naK 6axa npoHeTemi, a TOBa 03HaHaBame, ne 
Moacexa «a nocjiyacaT KaTO ,noKa3aTejiCTBO Ha npoKypopa npe^ ct^a h Ha 
npaKTHKa ,na enHMHHHpaT mohtc cb,ne6HH noKa3aroifl. 

3anoHHa pa3nHTBT. npeflceaaTejMT Ha cbfla h npoKypoptT 3a«aBaxa 

101 



BtnpocH. OiroBapflx KpaTKO h tohho, KaTO ce npH,m>p>Kax ce ki>m ci>#e6HH- 
Te ch noKa3aHH)i. Bwipocn 3anoHHaxa ^a 3aflaBaT h a^BOKaTHTe: 3a noBe- 
fleHHeTO mh KaTO yneHHK, 3a ycnexa mh, 3a ceMeficTBOTO mh h jsp. Te3H 
Bi>npocHTe 6axa ao6poHaMepeHH h HacoHBaxa kt>m OTroBopn, Hpe3 kohto #a 

Ce OTXBfcpJIflT 06BHHeHH^Ta KbM MeH H flpyTHTe nOflCbflHMH. 

C TOBa cyTpeniHOTO 3aceflaHHe npHKJiioHH h 6euie ^afleHa noHHBKa. Eax 
flOBOJieH ot ce6e ch, 3aui;oTO He flonycHax npoTHBoperafl, He ce uorrzlaox 
Ha yjiOBKHTe Ha cbflHOTa h npoKypopa. H3Be#oxa Me ot 3anaTa h 
oxpaHjreamHflT Me CTpa^KapH Me noBe^e kt>m ToaneTHaTa. TyK ce bhaax c 
Toflop BaHneB (Hchhh). Ton ce o6tpHa ki>m CTpaacapa MHoro ynraBo: 

- TocnoflHH CTpaacap, pa3peniH mh #a ce bhaa c moa 3eMJiflK. Th ch 

MHOrO fl06l>p HOBeK. 

Mi>JiHaHHeTO Ha CTpaacapa, kohto HancTHHa ce OKa3a HOBeneH, To#op 
B3e 3a cbrjiacne. Pi>KyBaxMe ce cbp^eHHo. 

- HeHHH, — TaKa ce o6pT>m;axa noMOKfly ch yneHHijHTe ot EaTaK, - rope 
rjiaBaTa. Bchhkh no3HaTH roBopm c o#o6peHHe 3a Bac h bh no3#paBflBaT! 

Pa3npaBH mh Ha6i>p30 hakoh hobhhh h 3a HapacHanaTa aHTH(j)aiHHCTKa 
CMpoTHBa b CTpaHaTa. HaKpaa CTpaacapflT Me noBe^e no Bi>TpeiiiHHTe 
ctkji6h kt>m KHJiHJiTa, Ki>fleTO c HertpneHHe Me onaKBaxa mohtc flpyrapn. 
Pa3Ka3ax hm 3a BMpocHTe h OTroBopHTe h ^o6aBHX 5 ne Bi>3npHeTaTa jihhha 
Ha noBeaeHHe npe^ cw e npaBHJiHa h Tpa6Ba ^a ce npH,m>p)KaMe ki>m Hen. 

Cjie^oGeflHOTO 3ace^aHHe 3anoHHa b 14 naca. B 3anaTa Bi>Be#oxa MeH h 
cjieflBamHH no cnncbKa ot o6BHHHTejiHHfl aKT - HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo). 
Pa3nHTaxa Hero, a nocjie h ome e^HH ot no#CT>#HMHTe (He noMHfl koh 
tohho). Pa3HHTaHHTe ocTaBaxa b 3anaTa h Mo^cexa ^a cjiyuiaT noKa3aHH#ra 
Ha cjie#BamHTe. 3aceaaHHeTO 3aBi>pniH b 16 naca. AflBOKaTHTe noncKaxa ot 
npoKypopa #a pa3penin CBH^caaHe Ha noflCb^HMHTe c TexHHTe 6jih3kh. Toh 
Hape^H #a ce H3npa3HH 3anaTa h Bi>Tpe ^a ocTaHaT caMO po^HTejiHTe hjih 

HaH-6jIH3KHTe. Pa3peiHH HH fla Ce BH/JHM 3a 15 MHHyTH. 

npH MeH flofifloxa MaMa 5 TaTe, naHa h hhho. IIocjieaBaxa B3aHMHH 
no^KejiaHH^ 3a Kypaac, 3a na3eHe Ha 3#paBeTO. TaTe Ka3a, ne CBH^eTejiHTe ca 
MHoro flo6pn h aBTOpHTeTHH, He Byfino Ore^aH ce e cpeman c thx h Te 
3HaOT KaKBO fla roBOpflT. H naK H3pa3H HeofloGpemie Ha KOHcnnpaTHBHaTa 
mh #eHHOCT, ho Bene b mhoto no-MeKa 4>opMa. Beuie ce cpeman c moh 
cbyneHHUH h yHHTejin, kohto mhoto Me yBaacaBajiH, roBopHJin My, ne cbm 
floG'bp HOBeK h OTJiHHeH ynemiK. ToBa 6enie noBHiunjio caMonyBCTBHeTO My 
h #0HflKT>#e ro 6enie HaKapano ,a;a H3nHTa yBaaceHHe ki>m HauiaTa aeHHOCT. 
/Jo6pe My ce 6axa OTpa3HJiH h cpeiiprre c po^HTejiHTe h 6jih3khtc Ha 
ApyrHTe no^cbflHMH ot HaniHfl npoijec h Ha ocTaHajiHTe mh cbkhjihhhhijh. 

102 



Te 3aeflHO npe>KHBflBaxa HainaTa ci>#6a, 3ae#Ho cxpa^axa 

HainaTa 3amHTa npea cwja. o5 MHcjiHxa 

H3Befloxa hh ot ctfleGHaTa 3ajia h hh no/jKapaxa neiuicoM 

oSrpa^eHH ot hakojiko CTpa^capH. Bi>pBHXMe no 6yji. "Xpuc ^ 3aTB °pa, 

uie cTyaeHO. XopaTa cnnpaxa h hh orjieac/jaxa cbc ctHy BCT ° Te B M . Ee- 

HaHCTHHa 6enie HHTepecHa - rpyna ot 7 MJia,zje)KH b 3axBot)H ^ JIe flKaTa 

jih h c yneHHHecKH (J)ypa^cKH 5 o6rpa,ueHH ot CTpa^capn ce ° KH mHHe " 

^cHaTa CTpaHa Ha 6yjieBapaa. rpaac^aHHTe hh npneMaxa 3 a H>KexMe no 

3 aTBOpHHIJH. n0JI HTHHeCKH 

Ha Hac ctmo hh 6euie HHTepecHO. OnioK/jaxMe ce - X0D 

kh h TOBapHH kojih... JjBa Meceija He 6axMe xo^hjih no yjmim ^ aMBaH > Jie- 

MHHaxMe no njiomaa "Bi>3pa)K,zjaHe M , Kpaii Tearbpa, Kpag eir Ha ^ 0( Na- 

HaBHpHO rHMHa3HH. YHeHHijHTe 6axa Ha flBopa b Me)Kfly HacH ° y HHJ inme 5 

hh. Mhoto ot tax 3acTaHaxa noKpan orpa/jaTa Becejiar ejIH3 axa 

3aTHXHa. Hakoh hh Maxaxa c ptica 3a no3flpaB. Te ei>m hh M rjII>HKa 

nojiHTHHecKH 3aTBOpHHijH, a He 3a npecTbnHa rpyna. Hne hm ^ HeMaxa 3a 

c ycMHBKa h c noBAHTHaTH ptije, OKOBaHH b 6ejie3HHijH. HyxM Tr ° Ba P ;iXMe 

- Te ca ot TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3HH. ^acoBe: 
Ilo3HanH hh 6axa no 4>ypa)KKHTe... 

IIpHCTHrHaxMe npea MpaHHOTO orpOMHO 3aaHHe Ha ^r^ 

pHTe hh npe/ja/joxa Ha TbMHHHapHTe. B HauiaTa khjihh OTBen ^ T P a >Ka- 

Hop#aH, CaBaTa h Knpo, ocTaHajiHTe 6axa H3npaTeHH £py ra Caiv *o MeH, 

me OTBe/jeH bi>b BoeHHHfl 3aTBOp. EflXMe yMopeHH ot bhj^h ' ^ H ^ e " 

ho cnoflejwxMe BnenaTJieHHATa ch ot pa3nHTa, ot pa^ocTH H H ^ T0T0 ' 

poflHTejiH h 6jih3kh, c a^BOKaTHTe. e c P e mn c 

Cjiea MajiKO b KHJiH^Ta BJifl30xa Mapico, PljibGob, Actdv 

6afi HBaH. Eaxa HanoKeHH. TexHHAT npoijec 6eme MHoro t B ^ P 1 *) h 

jiHxa c Hac KaKBO ce e cjiynnjio npe3 aeHH. Hne cbiijo hm pa3K K * ^ no ^ e " 

niHTe npe^cHB^BaHHH. BenepTa, cjiea npOBepicaTa, Xepij naK XMe 3a Ha- 

poMaHca. Taxa npeMHHa m>pBHH ci>,ue6eH ,ueH, ntpBOTo hh * HHK °flKo 

Co(J)hhckhh BoeHHonojieBH cbr. ^BaHe npea 

Ha flpyrHH ,ueH, 25 ^eiceMBpH, othobo hh OTBe^oxa b ctrrep; 

npofl'bJi^cH pa3nHTBT Ha ocTaHajiHTe noac'b/jHMH. npe3 noHH Ta najIaTa - 

ce cpemHaxMe, Maicap h 6e3 pa3pemeHHe, c po^HTejiHTe h ntm ^ 0TH0B0 

hhkoh ce no3flpaBHXMe OTflajiene, c MaxaHe Ha pi>ije. Pa3nHrK JIHTe CH " ^ 

Cbwjix HanHH KaKTO h npeflHHH aeH. HeToxa hm nojinn;eH CKHT P° TetIe no 

npoKypopi>T no e^HO BpeMe He rofltpflca: n ° Ka 3aHHH. 

- Eto, BH^cTe th, cjiymaHTe rn 5 rocno^a ctflHH, Te ca ce h 

cera hhkoh HeBH^HMa pi>Ka HanpaBiwBa TexHHTe mhcjih h jiqk c B °P Hjih - H 



Hne 

103 



me cnynHM Taa pi>Ka Ha areHTHTe Ha 6ojinieBH3Ma! 

CeHaeTejiHTe. 3anoHHa pa3nHTT>T Ha cBH^eTejiHTe. A Te 6axa MHoro. 
IIo ^BaMa-TpHMa h noBene 3a BceKH noflCbflHM. H3BHKBaxa th b 3ajiara 
e^HH no e^HH. IIpe,nce,naTejiOT rn nHTaiue KaKBO 3HaaT no /jenoTO. CBHfleTe- 
jiHTe ecTecTBeHO ce H3Ka3Baxa Han-noxBajiHO 3a Hac h po/jHTejiHTe hh. ToBa 
noBflnranie HaineTO caMO*iyBCTBHe, a h caMonyBCTBHeTO Ha poflHTejiHTe h 
6nH3KHTe hh. Te 3anoHBaxa r& hh BH5KflaT b HOBa CBeTJiHHa, KaTO ckpomhh, 
MHoro floGpH yneHHijH, aBTOpHTeraH, yBaacaBaHH ot yHHTenn h yneHnijH. 

Oco6eHO iteHHH 6axa noKa3aHHjrra Ha yHHTenHTe, aeceTHHa ayiiiH, 
Haneno c ^HpeKTOpa Ha rHMHa3Hjrra Henno HBaHOB - IlamaTa. HnKora 
H^Ma aa 3a6paB)i HeroBOTO BJiH3aHe b cbfleGHaTa 3ajia. BennnecTBeH, e/jT>p h 
KpacHB mt>5k, c 6pa,zja, OHHJia, c 6acTyH b pi>Ka. KoraTO MHHa noKpafi Hac, 
OHHTe My ce Ham>jiHHxa ct>c ct>ji3h, ho norjieflw My 6e 6o,m>p h m>jieH etc 
cbnyBCTBHe. Ton 3a^BH ? ne cbfl^T HeBHHHH MJiaaeacH. Cjia6o hh no3HaBanie, 
ho HHe 6axMe HeroBH ynemmH, HeroBH fleija. npOKypopT>T ro 3anHTa: 

- Bne, rocno^HH ^npeKTOpe, kojiko yneHmca HMaTe b rnMHa3HflTa? 

- OkOJIO RBQ XHJWflH. 

- HnMa e bt>3MO)kho, rocno^a cb^HH, aa ce no3HaBaT TOUKOBa ronflM 

6pon yneHnijH? 

r U,HpeKTOpi>T pa36pa HaMexa Ha nponypopa h KHnHa. Bflnraa 6acryHa h 
3aKaHHTenHO OTnpaBH rHeBeH nornea kt>m npoKypopa: 

- A3, yBaacaeMH, cbm Hefino HBaHOB, 32 ro^HHH ct>m /jnpeKTOp, H3Be- 

CTeH Ha Co(|)HHCKaTa yHHTencKa KOJierna h Ha CTOUHHHaTa o6iu;ecTBeHOCT. 
TyK cbm, 3a ,na 3amnTfl Hafi-aoSpHTe ch ynemmH, aa 3amHT>i h Hecrra Ha 
HauiaTa rHMHa3Hfl! 

npe/jce/jaTemrr ro ycnoKOH. riy6jiHKaTa ce Ha/jHraa, a/jBOKaraTe ci>mo 
npoTecTHpaxa cpemy HeyMecTHHTe BT>npocn Ha npoKypopa. 

Cnea Hefino HBaHOB npe/j Cb^a ce jibh Teoprn ^eneB, moh KJiaceH 
HacTaBHHK. Ton 6eme oGneneH b o6nKHOBeHa BOHHHimca yHH(J)opMa ? tbh 
KaTO 6e Mo6HHH3HpaH. TJa^e 6jiecT>ima xapaKTepncTHKa 3a MeH h 3a /jpy- 
rHTe yneHHijH, kohto no3HaBanie. ToBOpenie MHoro cnoKOHHO h o6ctohho, 
3acTaHaji CT>meBpeMeHHO MHpHO no bohhhhikh. 

IIoKa3aHHH fla^e h KnnpHJioB, ynnTejiOT mh no jinTeparypa, kohto 6eine 
CBH^eTen Ha Hop^aH, ho /ja^e CBefleHHfl h 3a MeH. IIocjieflBaxa noKa3aHHATa 
Ha ocTaHajiHTe yHHTenn. Bchhkh Te roBopexa nacKaBO b non3a Ha cbohtc 
yneHHi|H: Han-npnjie>KHHTe, Han-,n;o6pHTe, HaH-yneHonioGHBHTe, kohto He 
Morar ^a H3Bi>piiiaT jioihh flena, h HaBflpHO ca ^eepTBa Ha HAKaKBO Heaopa- 
3yMeHHe. A aKO ca crpeuiHUH, Tpa6Ba aa hm ce noMorae, aa hm ce aaae 
bt>3mo)khoct ,na npofl'bJi^caT yneHHeTO ch Karo aoGpn rpa^aHH h naTpno- 

104 



TH BcflKa T^xHa ayMa b Hania no^Kpena yBejiHHaBame HaniaTa Bnpa, Haiua- 
xa yBepeHOCT b cnpaBeflJiHBOTo #ejio Ha 6op6aTa npoTHB (f>aHiH3Ma, 3a cbo~ 
6oflaTa Ha po/jHHaTa. 

Cpefl cbflHHTe h npoKypopa HacrbnH cMyT. Te HepBHHHexa h npeKtcBa- 
xa noKa3aHHOTa c Bwipocn. HecnoKOHHH 6axa h nojiHijeHCKHTe areHTH 
kohto ce HaMHpaxa b 3ajiaTa. Hne B^HraxMe rop^o rjiaBH: Hac hh o6nnaxa 
c Hac 6^xa HauiHTe npeno^aBaTejiH. Te hh noflKpenaxa, Manap He bchhkh ot 
tax fla cnoflejwxa HauiHTe H^en h 6op6n. Te o6ane ocTaBaxa BepHH Ha 
MOpajia Ha yHHTejw. Ta3H 3anjHTa Hpe3 CBH^eTejicKH noKa3aHH>i ce npe- 
BfcpHa b nojiHTHnecKa aeMOHCTpaima Ha cojiH^apHOCT Ha yHHTejiHTe c 
TexHHTe yneromH aHTH^aniHCTH. H aocera ome nyBCTBaM HactpHHTenHHTe 
noraeflH Ha oGhhhhtc hh yHHTejiH, b cbpijeTO mh e CKKraHa BeHHaTa jiio6ob 
KbU tax h kt>m bchhkh npenoaaBaTejiH b rHMHa3Hjrra, kohto ca Me yHHJlH H 
kohto no3HaBax ot yneHHHecKHTe cb6paHHfl, eKCKyp3HH, MaHH(j)ecTaijHH h 
no Han-pa3JiHHHH noBOflH. IIoKa3aHHHTa Ha yHHTejiHTe ce OTpa3Hxa Btpxy 
caMonyBCTBHeTO Ha HauiHTe po^HTejiH h npHjrrejiH. MHeHHeTO Ha ynu~ 
xenHTe 3a tax 3Haneuie mhoto noBene ot cb^HHCKHTe 3anjiaxn. 

HHTepec npe,n;H3BHKaxa noKa3aHH>rra Ha CBemeHHKa ot c. KaMeHHija 3a 
5Iko Mojixob. Toh 3acTaHa c paco h KHJiHMflBKa npea cb^HHTe h pa3Ka3a c 
thx rjiac 3a TpynojHoGneTO, HecraocTTa, bhcokhtc HpaBCTBeHH flo6po,n;eTe- 
jih Ha ^KOBHTe poflHTejiH: 3a MaHKaTa CTpHHa IleTpyHa, chjiho npHBi>p3aHa 
kt>m h3tohhoto npaBOCJiaBHe, poflHJia h Bi>3nHTajia neT po^ojiioGhbh aeija; 
3a 6amaTa hhho Hoch(|), kohto e npneji XpHCTOBaTa Bapa, a Ha neTHa^eceT 
roflHHH ocTaHaji CHpaK, 3amoTO 6anja My 3arHBa KaTO bohhhk 3a Po^HHaTa 
b HanajioTO Ha IlbpBaTa CBeTOBHa BOHHa. ^BaMaTa yMHH h Tpy^omoGHBH 
po/tHTejiH, npeoflOJiflBaHKH mhoto TpyflHocra, ci>3flaBaT npeKpacHO ceMefi- 
ctbo, KoeTO HMa rojiflM aBTOpHTeT cpea cbcejwHHTe ch. CBemeHHKtx 
xapaKTepH3Hpa caMM ^Iko KaTO thx MJia#eac, kohto cjiy)KH 3a npHMep Ha 
BptcTHHijHTe cbc CBoeTO noBe,neHHe, c naTpHOTH3Ma, yneHOJHoGneTo h 
BHpaTa ch b ,zjo6poTO y HOBeKa, h kohto HCKa bchhkh HauiH cbrpaayjaHH, a h 
bchhkh xopa, #a ECHBeflT CBoGoflHO H IIjaCTJIHBO. 3aTOBa toh e 06HHaH H 
nowraH ot MJia^H h CTapH. 

"ilKO He Moace «a H3Bi>pHiH jiohih flejia, rocno^a cb^hh. ^afi Bor 
bchhkh MJiaae^KH ^a 6tflaT KaTO Hero", 3aBi>pHiH CBemeHHKbT. 06tpHa ce 
KtM Hac h hh 6jiarocnoBH c B^HTHaTa pi>Ka ? KaTO HanpaBH KptcT, 
cto6pa3HO nepKOBHHTe pHTyajin. Hne ro rjie^axMe c ynynBaHe h 6jiaro- 
flapHocT. HacTbnn ntJiHa THHiHHa. CBemeHHKbT naKanie BtnpocH. TaKHBa 
HflManie. npeflceaaTejiflT, bhotmo CMyTeH ot noKa3aHHOTa Ha CBemeHHKa, 
Ka3a: "CBoGo^eH CTe OTHe". CBemeHHKbT ce noKJioHH h ce^Ha Ha 

105 



nocneflHaTa CKaMeHKa. 

KMerbT Ha BaTaK Teoprn ^hhcb xapaKTepH3Hpa 6ama mh KaTO naTpnoT, 
ynacTHHK b HbpBaTa CBeroBHa BOHHa, flo6i>p ropcKH pa6oTHHK, a npe3 
nocneflHHTe neT-inecT ro^HHH hhhobhhk b o6mHHaTa. KoraTO o6ane 
3anoHHa aa roBopn 3a MeH, npoKypoptT CTaHa h 3anjianiHTejiHO ro nonirra: 

- KaK Bne, kmctbt Ha cenoTO, ch no3BOJi5iBaTe ,zja flaBare 
xapaKTepHCTHKa 3a MJia^eac, KoroTO HaBapHO He no3HaBaTe?! 

Teoprn ^HHeB He ce CMyTH h OTroBopn c TBtpa h KaTeropnneH rjiac: 

- A3, rocnoflHH npoKypop, ctmo cbm MJiaa hobck, flonpe^H e^Ha 
roflHHa 6hx CTyneHT, a npe^H TOBa yneHmc, h KaTO Tara>B flpy^ox c 
yneHHiiHTe ot BaTaK, a3 6ax TexeH apyrap. ripe3 BaicaHiiHHTe ce cb6npaxMe, 
opraHH3HpaxMe BenepHHKH, H3Hac5ixMe miecH, CKa3KH. A h cera KaTO KMeT, 
a3 ce HHTepecyBaM ot pa3BHTHeTO h noBeaeHHeTO Ha yneHHijHTe h CTy- 
aeHTHTe ot MoeTO cejio. ToBa e Moe rpaayjaHCKO h cjiy5Ke6HO 3a,zjbJi)KeHHe. 

IIpoKypoptT ocTaHa npaB no BpeMe Ha OTroBopa h bh^hmo 5iflocaH ce 
onHTa aa BJie3e b noneMHKa etc CBH^eTejifl, ho npeflce^aTejiflT BflHraa pbKa 
(toh necTO H3noji3Bame T03H aceer) h c Bb3niaca "Mojia, mojia!" aa^e 3HaK 
Ha npOKypopa m ce^He. ".Hcho KaKbB ch KMeT!", BMeTHa npoKypoptT. 

Tojihm HHTepec npe,zjH3BHKa no^BaTa Ha #-p Ilerbp KboceHBaHOB, 
noflnpeflceaaTeji Ha XXV OGhkhobcho HapoflHO eb6paHHe. KoraTO toh 
BJie3e b 3ajiaTa ? npeflceaaTejiflT Ha ct^a ce H3npaBH, CTaHaxa h flpynrre 
cb^HH, npOKypopi>T h aflBOKaTHTe. Toh ce npH6nH)KH KbM nbpBaTa pe,mma, 
pticyBa ce c a^BOKaraTe h 3acTaHa Ha mhctoto onpe^ejieHO 3a flaBaHe Ha 
noKa3aHHH. IIpeaceaaTejDiT npHCTbnH kt>m pa3nHTa. Ilerbp KboceHBaHOB 
nono^KH KJieTBa, tbh KaTO He floftfle npe3 m>pBH5i j\qu h He 6e nojio^cHJi 
KoneKTHBHa KJieTBa c ocTaHajiHTe CBH^eTejiH. "Karao 3HaeTe h KaKBO me 
Ka^ceTe 3a ceMeficTBOTO Ha noflCbflHMHfl AHreji HayineB h 3a caMHfl Hero? M , 
3anHTa ro npeaceaaTejwT Ha ct^a. 

- Ilo3HaBaM IlerLp HayineB mhoto OTflaBHa. Moot 6ama e ynacTBaji b 
BaTauiKOTO anpHJicKO BtcTaHne h no,zwbp)KaHie Bpt3KH c MHoro 6aTanaHH, 
b t. h. h c 6amaTa Ha Ilerbp HayuieB. Oiu;e KaTO fleTe xo^ex c 6ama mh b 
BaTaK, rocTyBanH CMe h y HayuieBH. ToBa e rojiflMa h poflomoGnBa 
c^aMHJiHH. A3 cbM HapofleH npeflCTaBHTen h Ha BaTaK. IlpH nocemeHMTa 
TaM ce cpemaM c Ilerbp HaymeB, Gece^BaMe. Ilo3HaBaM h CHHa My AHren, 
cera noflCb^HM. He 3HaM o6BHHeHH5rra h aokojiko Te OTroBap^T Ha 
HCTHHaTa. 3HaM o6ane, ne toh e flo6bp, yneHOJiio6HB MJia^e^c, naTpnoT. 
Toh h ocTaHajiHTe noflCbflHMH ca MJia^H xopa, MO^ce .aa ca ce yBJieioiH b 
hakoh HfleH, ho He 3acny)KaBaT aa 6b^aT b 3aTBOpa. Ho... TOBa e pa6oTa Ha 

Cbfla, KOHTO CnpaBeflJIHBO H CHH3XOflHTejIHO me OTCbflH. 

106 



HflMame BtnpocH. IleTtp KboceHBaHOB ce iiokjiohh jieKO h c niHpoica u 
yBepeHa KpaHKa npeKOCH 3anaTa, bhaa }Kopac (Teoprn ^ypKOB), pi>KyBa Ce 
c Hero h 3aeflHO H3Jifl30xa ot 3anaTa. 

Tpn6Ba aa OT6ejie5Ka, ne Ilerbp KboceHBaHOB 6eme a^BOKaT, HJien jj 
^eMOKpaTHHecKaTa napraa h npHBT>p)KeHHK Ha MnxaHJi TaKeB, kohto cw 
npoH3XO)Kflaine ot Ilemepa. Cjiea KaTO 6paT My TeoprH KboceHBaHOB cxa^a 
MHHHCTbp-npeflceflaTen, toh ce OT^aae Ha nojiHTHKaTa, H36HpaH 6enie 3a 
Hapo^eH npe^cTaBHTeji b IlemepCKa okojiha h CTaHa noflnpeaceflaTeji H 
HapoflHOTO ci>6paHHe. Maxap ^a noflKpemmie nonHTHKaTa Ha 6paT ch, xou 
HMauie h hakoh cboh fleMOKpaTHHHH npoflBH: c rpyna flenyTara nocexu 
CCCP h ce cpema c Mojiotob; HMaine nono^cHTejiHO OTHomeHHe icw 
eBpeme h noflnoMoraa hakoh ot tax, 3acTbnn ce h 3a hhkoh aHTH^auiHcxu 
npe3 MapT 1944 r., cnefl pa3rpoMa Ha oipswa "Ahtoh HBaHOB", toh crtacu 
ot pa3CTpen 6aTaniKaTa ynHTejiKa BeTKa K)pyKOBa, fl-p Teonn PeKoB a 
CBHJieH PaHeB h flpyrn xremu h noMarann Ha napTH3aHHTe. B HanajioTo n a 
1945 r. Ilerbp KboceHBaHOB 6euie ocvjeH ot HapoflHHfl clr 3ae^HO c flpyx^ 
HapoflHH npeflCTaBHTenH, ho cnefl aeceraHa roflHHH H3Jie3e Ha CBo6oaa. 

IIpe3 1969 hjih 1970 r. b npenoaaBaTencKaTa mh CTaa b crpa^aTa ^ a 
Bhchiha HKOHOMHnecKH HHCTHTyT Ha yn. "Eoapx HochcJ)' 1 Ns 14 BJle 3e 
npeflCTaBHTeneH Bi>3pacTeH hobck, o6neneH c BexT, ho #o6pe cKpcw 
6ajiTOH ? c Hianxa h c OHHJia. 

- ^oGtp fleH, TbpcH npo(j). AHren HayineB. 

- 3anoBj«aHTe, Ka3ax a3, ce^HeTe - h My no^aflox ctoji. - A3 cw 
AHren HaymeB. C KaKBO Mora aa bh noMorHa? 

JlnijeTO mh ce bhah no3HaTO. rioorjieaax ro ome BeairaK, ho He y3^av 
koh e noceTHTejw. Toh cbujo Me orjie^cflauie. 

- A3 ct>m Ilerbp KtoceHBaHOB. 

H3BHHHX ce, ne He ro no3Hax Be^Hara. Toh mh pa3Ka3a, ne OT^aBHa e 
ocBo6ofleH ot 3aTBOpa ? ho HAMa npaBO aa ^cHBee b Co(])Hfl h 3aTOBa ce e 
ycTaHOBHJi b c. ^ojihh EorpoB. Bhji b E[jiOBflHB ? KtfleTO 5KHBeena ctnpyraxa 
My. Bujvrn ce c 6ama mh, kohto My flan aapeca mh. 

- C Ilerbp pflflKO CMe ce cpemajiH, ho ce yBa^caBaxMe. 

H3BHHH ce, ne Me 3aHHMaBa c jihhhh BMipocH. B ^ojihh BorpOB H^ajj 

n03HaT MJiaflOK, KOHTO CJieflBaJI 3a#OHHO BT>B BhCHIHA HKOHOMHHec^ 
HHCTHTyT H HMaJI HflKOH npo6jieMH. riOMOJIH, aKO e BT>3MO)KHO, fla ]viy 

noMorHa. C totobhoct noex sa/j'bJDKeHHeTo ^a ypeflH npo6jieMHTe Ha Mji a ^ 
fleaca. 3aBi>p3axMe pa3roBop h toh noapo6HO mh pa3Ka3a 3a nocemeHHe ^ a 
6i>jirapCKa napnaMeHTapHa fleneraiiH^ b MocKBa b 1940 r.(?): KaK e 6n Jla 
c(])opMHpaHa, KaK ca 6hjih npneTH b MocKBa, 3a cpemHTe c Mojiotob ^ 

I07 



.Hpyra pT>KOBO,mrrejiH Ha cbBeTCKaTa BMUiHa nojiHTHKa, 3a H3pa3eHOTO ot 
Mojiotob CTaHOBHme fla ce Bi>pHaT Ha Ei>JirapHfl MaKeflOHHfl, /JoSpyflaca h 
TpaKHfl (TpHTe cecTpH Ha Ei>JirapH5i, KaKTO toh ce H3pa3HJi) h ,op. 
Ejiaro/japHX Ha Ilerbp KtoceHBaHOB 3a noceujeHHeTO h My noacenax #a 
3anHine cnoMeHHTe ch h /ja ra npcaa/je b ,m>p)KaBHHfl apxHB. noacenaxMe ch 
HOBa cpeuja, ho ta TaKa h He ce ct>ctojl.. 

Ho aa ce BtpHa b cb/jeGHaTa 3ajia. 3anoHHa H3CJiyuiBaHeT0 Ha 
CBH,neTejiHTe, npH30BaHH ot o6BHHeHHeTo. C HHTepec onaKBaxMe noKa3a- 
HHHTa Ha npcaaTejw HBaH neTKOB, Ham 6hbui .upyrap, nocTaBHJi ce b 
ycjiyra Ha nojiHijHflTa. MHoro ce Ha^HBaxMe, ne toh me ce onoMHH h me 
oci>3Hae npecrbnHaTa ch rpeuiKa. Hakoh ot HauiHTe cbyneHHijH My 6axa 
BHyuiaBajiH /ja OTpene b cb/ja npe/j JiHijeTO Ha cbohtc apyrapH nojiHijeHCKH- 
Te noKa3aHH5i, H3TptrHaTH c HacHJiHfl. 

Ho TOBa He CTaHa. HBaH neTKOB noTB'bp.uH ntpBOHaHajiHHTe ch 
noKa3aHHfl, a CT>mo npOKypopCKHTe h nojnmeiicKHTe oSbkhchha cpemy Hac 
He norjieacflame kt>m Hac h kt>m nySjiHKaTa. E^hh ot nojnmeiicKHTe areHTH, 
ce^Haji Ha m>pBaTa CKaMefiKa BHHMaTejiHO ro HaGjno/jaBame. AflBOKaraTe 
My 3a^aBaxa mhoto Btnpocn c ijeji /ja ro HaKapaT aa aa^e nojioacHTejiHH 3a 
noflCb^HMHTe noKa3amifl. Ho, yBH... HBaH, 3a HeroB cpaM, He HaMepH 
Kypa^c h chjih m CTOpH TOBa, aa cnacn b nocjieflHHfl momcht CBOsnra near h 

MJia/JOKKO flOCTOHHCTBO, J\2i 3aiI];HTH H^KOJIKOrOflHUIHaTa CH fleHHOCT KaTO 

peMCHCT h fleeu Ha Bi>3,n'bp)KaTejiHOTO .upyacecTBO n Pa3yM h bojia". Hakoh 
a^BOKaTH H3Ka3Baxa MHeHHe, ne h toh Tpa6Ba aa 6tfle cb/jeH 3ae,UHO c Hac. 
Hhiijo He 3HaM 3a no-HaTarbuiHaTa My Cbfl6a. B rHMHa3HflTa yneHHijHTe ca 
ce oraacflJiH c npe3peHHe kt>m HeroBaTa nocrbmca, OTGaraajiH ro h toh 
Apy^caji e caMO c hakoh HJieHOBe Ha npoc^auiHCTKaTa opraHH3ai|Hfl "Oreii 
nancHH' 1 . 

Cjiea HBaH neTKOB KaTO npoxypopcKH CBH^eTeji 6euie pa3nHTaH PaftKO 
PafiKOB, ot rp. Ta6pOBO, yneHHK ot VIII KJiac, e^HH ot p^KOBO/jHTejiHTe Ha 
opraHH3aijH5iTa "Oreii naHCHH ff b TbproBCKaTa rHMHa3HH. Toh 6euie 
6oraTo, HaxanaHO h Ha/jMeHHO Konejie. Toh ce onHTa aa noTB'bp.UH 
npe^aTejicKaTa poira Ha HBaH neTKOB. CTaHa acho o6ane, ne HBaH neTKOB 
e ocBo6o,neH ot nojiHiyiflTa cjie^ saB'bpuiBaHe Ha norameiicKOTO cjie/jcTBHe 
h aa^eHHTe o6eiijaHHfl /ja cjiyacn Ha nojiHijHflTa h npoKypaTypaTa (no-rope 
Bene cnoMeHax, ne ce bhahxmc c HBaH cjie/j 3aBtpuiBaHe Ha cjie/jcTBHeTO b 
6pi>CHapHHijaTa h npn (j)OTorpacj)HpaHeTO hh). ^okojikoto ch cnoMHAM 
HMauie oiije e^HH npOKypopCKH CBH^eTeji ot opraHH3aijHflTa Ha "Oreu 
nancHH" (ho He yneHHK ot HauiaTa rHMHa3Hfl), kohto noTB'bpflH Ka3aHOTO 
ot neTKOB h PafiKOB. ToBa aa/je ocHOBaHHe Ha hakoh ot a/jBOKaraTe /ja 

108 



H3Ka)KaT MHeHHe, ne HBaH IleTKOB Tpa6Ba ctmo j& 6i>Ae oewjeH h ne 
neroBHTe noKa3aHHfl He Tpa6Ba aa ce B3eMaT noa BHHMaHHe ot ctfla. 

HHTepecHa pa3MAHa Ha penjiHKH cTaHa flOKaTO aaBauie noKa3aHHfl e/jHH 
noJiHueflcKH areHT, kohto TB'bpfleme, ne noflctflHMHTe He ca 6hjih 6hth h 
HHKBH3HpaHH. KtM Hero ce o6T>pHa c oCTpa pennHKa IlaHTeB, otabjich 
(bauiHCT, o. 3. nonKOBHHK, Ghbhi nojiHLjaft, kohto 6euie a/jBOKaT Ha moa 
cbyneHHK CaBa FeBpeHOB: 

- Th npea MeH He M05Keui «a TBtpflHin TOBa. A3 ct>m 6hji anpeKTop Ha 
noJiHUHHTa h 3HaM KaKBO CTaBa TaM npH cjiynaH KaTO T03H. 

^pyrH npo^BH Ha CBH/jeTejiH He ct>m 3anaMeTHJi b noapo6HOCTH. IIohth 
bchhkh o6ane aaaoxa MHoro nojioacHTejiHH cBe/jeHHfl 3a noACtflHMHTe. 
CBemeHHK, KMeT, ynHTejiH, TbproBiiiH, o<J)HL<epH, npeflCTaBHTenH Ha bchhkh 
cbcjiobha, Ha o6mecTBeHH h fltp^caBHH HHCTHTyijHH ce npOTHBOnOCTaBHXa 
Ha o6BHHeHHATa, 3amHTHxa Hac, a no ctmecTBO h HaiuaTa aHTHcJmnmcTKa 
fleiiHOCT, H3pa3Hxa MHeHHe, ne 3a Ta3H aeHHOCT He 6HBa «a 6i>fleM cvjeHH. 

BenepTa b KHJiHjrra, flOKaTo aHanH3HpaxMe Ha xo/ja Ha flenoTO, HHe 
pa3rae5KflaxMe Ta3H no/jKpena He caMO KaTO no/pcpena jihhho kt>m Hac, ho h 
Ha HauiHTe Hflen, KaTO cojnmapHOCT c aHTH(|)aiHHCTKaTa 6op6a, c 6op6aTa 3a 
MHp, aeMOKpaiiiH)! h coiiiHajiHa cnpaBeanHBOCT. B HauiHTe ohh CMejiocrra Ha 
CBH^eTejiHTe 6euie roiuiMa h nopa/jH TOKKaTa aTMOC(|)epa b ctfle6HaTa 3ana. 

HAUIHTE CBH/JETEJIH 6axa npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha 6i>jirapcKHfl Hapo/j, 
kohto Mpa3H THpaHHTe, onaKBanie Kpaa Ha BOHHaTa h no6eaaTa Haa 
4)auiH3Ma 5 oflo6p)iBauie h noflKpenanie CKpoMHaTa aHTH(^aniHCTKa aefiHOCT 
Ha ocMHHaTa no/jcvuiMH, HJieHOBe Ha PMC b TbproBCKaTa ruMH&mn. 
YBa^ceHHeTO Ha CBH/jeTenHTe kt>m Hac hh OKpHJumie, HanpaBH hh no- 
yBepeHH h no-CMenH. TexHHTe noKa3aHHfl ,a,o roji^Ma CTeneH ycnoKonxa 
HauiHTe poflHTejiH, poflHHHH h flpyrapH. nonyBCTBax rojiflMa npOMAHa y 
MafiKa mh h 6auja mh - Te CTaHaxa no-cnoKOHHH, OTHacaxa ce kbm MeH c 
ome no-rojiflMO flOBepne h jiio6ob. CtacajMBax, ne Ha npoijeca He 
npHctcTBa 6paT mh Ejiaroa, kohto Tpa6Bajio «a ocTaHe b BaTaK h fla ce 
rpH^CH 3a flo6Hir>Ka. Ho toh 6eme pe/joM c MeH c H/jeme ch, c yHacraeTO ch 
b aHTHC^auiHCTKaTa 6op6a, c MopajiHaTa h MaTepnajiHaTa ch noMom. B Hero 
nyBCTBax Haft-rojiflMa HfleftHa 6paTCKa no/jKpena. 

IIpoKypopT>T. Ha Tperaa j\qu H3cnyuiBaHeTO Ha CBH/jeTemiTe npn- 
kjiiohh h ayMaTa 6euie flaaeHa Ha npoKypopa - nopyHHK Ha cpe^Ha Bi>3pacT, 
Mo6njiH3HpaH K>pHCT, 3a aa npOH3Hece o6BHHHTenHaTa ch pen. Toh roBopH 
cpaBHHTejiHO ffbJiro h c y6eac#eHHe, hq Tpa6Ba fla ce npneMaT OTnpaBeHHTe 
ot Hero h ot nojiHLjHjrra oGbkhchidl Toh otxbt>pjih HaniHTe noKa3aHHa npefl 
ct^a h noKa3aHH^Ta Ha HaniHTe CBH^eTejiH. HHTepecHa 6eme norHKaTa My. 

109 



YHHTejiHTe h ApyrHTe CBHfleTejiH #0Ka3Baxa, ne noflCLflHMHTe ca MHoro 
flo6pH ynemmH, HMaT aBTopmeT, yBaacaBaT ce ot ymueim h yneromH. 

- J\& TOBa e TaKa. Ho, rocno,zi;a cl,hhh, Te ca TaKHBa, 3amoTO H3m>jiHaBaT 
yKa3aHH^Ta Ha 3a6paHeHHfl ot 33^ PMC aa 6i>flaT Hafi-floGpH yneHHim h c 
ycnexa h flo6pOTO ch noBefleHHe aa bjihaot Bi>pxy flpyrHTe yneHHijH h 
MJiaaeacH, aa ra npHBJiHHaT b npoTHBOfl'LpflcaBHaTa fleiiHOCT, koato npOBeac- 
aa Ta3H opraHH3au;H5i ? nocTaBHJia ce h3ii#jio b ycnyra Ha KOMyHHCTHHecKaTa 
napTHfl. 

npOKypopT>T OTBOpH nanKa h nponeTe hakojiko H3peneHHfl ot 
HHCTpyKijH5i Ha U,K Ha PMC "KaK fla ce fl'bpacHM npea Bpara", b koato ce 
nocoHBa KaKBH KanecTBa Tpa6Ba m npHTeacaBaT peMCHCTHTe. 

- Eto, Te H3m>nH5iBaT Te3H yKa3aHHa. Taxhoto noBefleHHe e flOKa- 
3aTejicTBO 3a npHHaflJieflCHoeira hm kt>m Ta3H HejierajiHa opraHH3aijHfl. 

ToBa flaae noBOfl Ha a^BOKaTa IlaHTeB nocjie b penTa ch aa Kaace: 

- Cnopefl rocnoflHH npOKypopa bchhkh otjihhhh yneHHijH ca 
KOHcnnpaTOpH, bchhkh flo6pH MJiafleacn h rpaacflaHH ca KOHCnHpaTOpH. A 
3HaHH h HHe c Bac, rocnofla cb^HH, CMe KOHcnnpaTOpH. 

nocjie HayHHX, ne T03H flOKyMeHT e 6hji ijHTHpaH ot noHTH bchhkh 
npOKypopH npH pasrjieflyjaHeTO Ha flejia cpemy MJiafleacn KOHcnHpaipra... 
06BHHHTejiHaTa pen npo/t'bjraaBanie: 

- noflCb^HMHTe OTpeKOxa nojiHijeHCKHTe noKa3aHHa, kohto yac 6hjih 
H3Tpi>rHaTH c HacHJine. TaKOBa Hacnjine He e HMajio. ToBa ce flOKa3Ba ot 
noKa3aHH^Ta Ha nojiHijeHCKHTe cjiyacHTejiH h Ha noeMHHTe jnma. Uor- 
cbflHMHTe aaBaT cboh BepcHH Ha o6BHHeHHjrra. 3a6ejie^ceTe KaK /to6pe ca ce 
noflroTBHJiH 3a cb^eGHHTe ch noKa3aHHfl... 

TyK npOKypopi>T othobo ijHTHpa hakoh nacaacH ot HHCTpyKijHfl Ha LJK 
Ha PMC ff KaK m ce ,m>p)KHM npe/t Bpara". 

- Eto, noflCLflHMHTe tohho H3m>JiHflBaT Te3H HHCTpyKijHH. TyK, b 
CT>fle6HaTa 3ajia, Te ce ,m>p)KaT npea Bac, rocno^a cbflHH, pi>KOBOfleHKH ce 

OT Te3H HHCTpyKIJHH. J\?lJKQ TyK HeBHflHMaTa pl>Ka Ha PMC p^KOBOflH 

taxhoto noBeaeHHe, HanpaBJWBa TexHHTe MJiaflH mo3t>uh. 

B Kpaa Ha peHTa ch toh HacToa 3a cTpora npncb^a 3a npoTHBOfl'bpflcaBHa- 
Ta fleiiHOCT, HaconeHa kt>m CMAHa Ha yeraHOBeHHfl oGmeereeH crpoH. LjHTHpa 
cbOTBeTHHTe HJieHOBe Ha 33^. KaTO flOKa3aTejicTBO cpemy MeH toh pa3Max- 
Baine no3HBHTe 3a UnaTcJjopMaTa Ha OrenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT ? npenncBaHH ot 
MOHTa pi>Ka, KoeTO 6eme ycTaHOBeHO ot eKcnepT h npH3Haro ot MeH. 3a fla 
flOKaace, ne ce 3aHHMaBaM c nonHTHKa h ce HHTepecyBaM ot pa3Boa Ha 
BoeHHHTe flencTBH5i ? npOKypopi>T iiocohh HaMepeHH b KBapTHpaTa mh 
H3pe3KH ot bccthhijh, b kohto HaHCTHHa HMame ei>o6meHHfl 3a nojio^KeHHe- 

110 



TO Ha (JDpOHTOBeTC Te3H H3pe3KH 6flXa, KaKTO nOCOHHXMe Ha3 ? H a^BOKaTHTe, 
OT CTaTHH, nOCBCTeHH Ha K)6HJieHHH rOflHIIIHHHH Ha BH^HH HaHIH H CBeTOBHO 

H3BecTHH nncaTejiH h noeTH. Ha o6paraaTa hm CTpaHa HMame h nacT ot 
d>o6meHHfl Ha TjiaBHara KBapTHpa Ha Oiopepa. Te3H oGbmhchha npe,zjH3BH- 
Kaxa HacMeniKaTa Ha a^BOKaTHTe, ny6jiHKaTa h aaace Ha ctfleGHH^ cteraB. 

PeHTa Ha npoKypopa o6ane npoH3Be,zje tatoctho BnenaTJieHHe Bi>pxy 
6jiH3KHTe, kohto npnctcTBaxa b 3ajiaTa. Ta HaMajiH b H3BecTHa CTeneH 
6jiaronpMTHOTO BnenaTJieHHe h caMonyBCTBHeTO hm ot CBH^eTejicKHTe 
noKa3aHHH. JJpyro ot peHTa Ha npoKypopa HHe h He onaicBaxMe. EaxMe 
noflroTBeHH 3a HeroBHTe o6BHHeHHe, 3a H3Ka3BaHHOTa My «a ce fla^aT 
cTporH npHCi>flH 5 b CBOTBeTCTBHe c HanncaHHa ot Hero 06BHHHTeJieH aKT. 

AaeoKaTHTe, Cjiea npoicypopCKaTa pen 3anoHHaxa 3amnTHHTe penn. 
HMaxMe aeceTHHa a^BOKaTa. A3 HMax flBaMa: AHren rionoB (3a kohto Bene 
cnoMeHax, ne mh 6eine po^HKHa h aKTHBHO opraHH3Hpaine 3amHTara mh) h 
ome eflHH, hhcto HMe He noMHfl h kt>m kototo HMax OTpHijarenHO OTHonie- 
HHe. Tofl 6eme oxpaHeH, ao6pe oGjieneH h BepoaTHO ro 6axa HaejiH no npe- 
nop'bKa Ha AHreji rionoB. TaKa hjih HHane, cpea aflBOKanrre HMame HHTe- 
pecHH h KOJiopHTHH jihhhocth. BceKH ot rax HeH36e>KHO TpaGBaine m 3amn- 
TaBa He caMO cbohtc kjihchth, ho h ocTaHanHTe noflctflHMH no HameTO fleno. 

Cothp XiieB, poflOM ot c. Cto6, 6enie a^BOKaT Ha Hop^aH Bohhob, c 
hhhto 6ama 6hji npHHTeji ot MJiafleacKHTe roflHHH (6amaTa Ha Hop^aH 6hji 
comiajiHCT, noHHHaji MJiafl h ocTaBHJi cHHa ch cnpaK ome Ha KpexKa 
BKspacT). CaMHHT CoTHp ^HeB 6eme 6hbhi coipiarweMOKpaT. OT30Ban ce Ha 
M0Ji6ara Ha HopaaHOBara MaflKa h noeji HeroBaTa 3anj,HTa. HMame 
npe^cTaBHTejieH bh«. Sax neji HeroBH CTaTHH h 6pouiypn no coimajmeMo- 
KpaTHHecKH TeMH. HMauie tojiamo caMonyBCTBHe h ce fltpaceme c Hac 
noKpoBHTejicTBeHO-flo6po^cejiaTejiHO. Ha CBHfleTejnrre 3aflaBame cmhcjichh 
Bwipocn. Pearapame c pennracH Ha o6BHHeHHHTa Ha npoKypopa h Ha 
noKa3aHH^Ta Ha npH30BaHHTe ot Hero CBH^eTejiH. Benie Maficrop Ha cjioboto 
h npOH3Hece Kpanca, jiorHHHa h UBeracTa pen. Cnpa ce rnaBHO Ha 
xapaKTepncTHKaTa Ha HopaaH, Ha HeroBHTe cnpaiiiKH to,hhhh, Ha ycHJiHHTa 
Ha MaflKa My aa ro H3yHH, Ha HaaeacflHTe fl h aa CTaHe MaTepnanHa h 
Mopajraa onopa Ha ceMeficTBOTO, Ha MJiaaeacKHa HfleajiH3i>M ? kohto o6ane 5 
cnopea Hero, He BHHarn npaBHJiHO 6hji Bi>3npHeMaH ot Mna#HTe„ 
Pe3ynTaTHTe ot cbfleGHOTO 3ace,zjaHHe flaBanH ocHOBaHHe Hop^aH m 6tfle 
ocBo6oaeH h aa ce 3aBi>pHe npn MaflKa ch, ceMeficTBOTO h ynnjinmeTo. Tosa 
Ba^cano h 3a ocTaHanHTe noflCB^HMH. 

Moot a^BOKaT, hhcto HMe He noMHfl, cbiijo npoH3Hece 3amnTHa pen, b 
koato HaKpaTKO pa3rne^a CBH^eTejicKHTe noKa3aHH^ ? o6i>pHa BHHMaHHe Ha 

111 



naTpH0TH3Ma Ha ceMeficTBOTO mh h Ha MoeTO MHoro ao6po noBe^eHHe, Ha 
yBaaceHHeTO, kocto yHHTejiHTe H3nHTBaxa kt>m MeH. IIomojih cb/ja #a 
npneMe mohtc o6acHeHHfl KaK ct>m nojiynnn h npenHcan IlnaT^opMaTa Ha 
OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT h ApyrHTe no3HBH, 3a kohto HflManie #OKa3aTejiCTBa 
aa ca 6hjih pa3npocTpaHABaHH. Cnpa ce h Ha BecTHHKapcKHTe H3pe3KH h He 
nponycHa T03H noBOfl #a ocMee nojiHijHflTa h npoKypopa. 

Toh HanpaBH h hakoh rpeniKH, kohto fla^oxa noBOfl 3a Majn>K 
koh(|)jihkt Meacfly MeH h KnpHJi Mhjicb cnea npHKJiiOHBaHe Ha 3aceflaHHeTo. 
Moat a^BOKaT Ka3a, ne b Mojrra achhoct a3 ct>m ce ptKOBO^HJi ot "hhcto 
HaefiHH cboGpaflceHHfl, ot HHKaKBH HenocTH^CHMH H^eajm", a He OT 
coijHajiHOTO ch nojioaceHHe, KaKTO HanpHMep KHpHJi Mhjicb. HancTHHa, 
CBHfleTejiHTe Ha KnpHJi no^nepTaxa, ne toh e mhoto 6e#eH h 3a #a ce 
H3flT>p^ca pa6oTH KaTO KenHep - e^HH nojioacHTejieH Ha nptB nornea 4>aKT. 
Ho T03H 4>aKT 6enie H3noji3BaH ot moh a^BOKaT no HeyMecTeH HanHH h 
Taica, 6e3 #a ro acejiae, toh hh npoTHBonocTaBH: eflHHHAT ce ptKOBO^eji ot 
H^eajiH, a flpyrMT - ot 3aTpy^HeHOTO ch coijnajiHO nojioaceHHe. 

B KHJiH^Ta a3 oTXBtpnnx Te3H mhcjih Ha a^BOKaTa h ce pa3TpaHHHHX OT 
rax, ho BtnpeKH TOBa KnpHJi MnjieB wpoffbivKU aa mh fltp^KH CMeTKa 3a 
tax, cflKaiu ct>m th H3Ka3an a3 caMHflT. HaKpaa apyrapHTe Me 3amHTHxa h 
BHyniHxa Ha Knpo, ne a3 H^MaM BHHa 3a TOBa. Bee naK, Ha ApyrH* rcr 
(neTBtpTH^ ot HananoTO Ha npoijeca) a3 ce onjiaKax npea AHren IlonoB ot 
KoneraTa My, ho toh ro 3amHTH, 3amoTO c hhhjo He 6hji HaBpe^HJi Ha 
KnpHJi Mhjicb. 

BeprHJi ^hmob, a^BOKaTBT Ha KHpHJi MnjieB, HManie BHyniHTejraa 
(Jwrypa. Toh 6enie ynacTBaji KaTO 3amHTHHK b mhoto ot nojiHTHHeciarre 
npoijecn, kohto ce BO^exa no TOBa BpeMe cpemy HJieHOBe Ha EPII, PMC, 
B3HC h 6e3napTHHHHTe naTpHOTH. Bjiaro^apeHHe Ha TOBa, toh ce 
noji3Baiue c h3bccthoct cpea nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe h necTO 6enie TtpceH ot 
tax h 6nH3KHTe hm 3a a#BOKaTCKa 3an^HTa. 

no BpeMe Ha HaniM npoijec BeprHJi ^hmob ce CTapaenie #a 3amHTH He 
caMO KnpHJi Mhjicb, ho B3eManie OTHonieHHe no bchhkh oGbhhchha, kocto 
6enie onpaB^aHO h jiothhho: o6BHHaeMHTe ro rojiflMa CTeneH 6axa o6bt>p- 
3aHH b e^Ha KOHcnnpaTHBHa opraHH3aijHfl, b koato bcckh HManie pa3JiHHHa 
CTeneH Ha ynacTHe, ho npeflCTaBJi^Banie HAKaKBa HacT ot i^ijioto. Mhoto 
yHTHBO, ho apryMeHTHpaHO h cmcjio, toh otxbt>pjih nojiHi^eHCKHTe noKa- 
3aHHfl. OnHTa ce #a y6e#H cbflHHTe ^a npneMaT ctfleGHHTe noKa3aHH^ Ha 
o6BHHHeMHTe KaTO Han-6jiH3KH ao HCTHHaTa. IIocohh xapaKTepHHTe HepTH 
Ha noBe^eHHe Ha KnpHJi Mhjicb, KaTO noncKa toh h bchhkh ocTaHann 
o6bhhacmh aa 6tflaT onpaB^aHH, 3a #a npofltjDKaT o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. 

112 



A^BOKartT Ha CaBa TeBpeHOB, o. 3. nojiK. ATaHac IlaHTeB, roBopH 
tohho, otphbhcto 5 MHCtJiTa My 6eme flCHa. JlHHenie ch BoeHHaTa h iiojih- 
neHCKa My imcojioBKa, ot kooto He Moacenie aa ce ocbo6o#h h b ijHBHJiHaTa 
ch aflBOKaTCKa npo(J)ecHH. Toft CKpHBanie OMpa3aTa ch kt>m KOMyHHCTHHe- 
ckoto h aHTH(J)aHiHCTKOTO ABH^ceHHe. JlHHenie ch, ne ce no3HaBa etc 
cbflHHTe h ne e TexeH cbHfleftHHK, ho #o6pe H3m>jiHH a^BOKaTCKHTe ch 
3 ajXbjiyKemm kt>m CaBaTa, c KoeTO noMorHa Ha bchhkh noaeb/jHMH. Toft 
Ka3a 5 ne yBJieneHH^Ta kt>m jieBHTe naen ca Hemo ecTecTBeHO 3a MJiaaeflorre, 
ho He e npocTHMO /ja ce opraHH3HpaT b HejierajiHH opraHH3aijHH h /ja 
3arOBOpHHHaT npOTHB atpacaBHHfl cipoft. 

reoprnee, a^BOKaT Ha HBaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo), np0H3Hece npo- 
nyBCTBeHa pen, b kooto ce aojiaB^xa HeroBHTe aHTH(J)aHiHCTKH HacTpoeHHH. 
Cnpa ce Ha nojiHTHHecKaTa o6cTaHOBica h Ha TOBa KaK MJiaaeacHTe pearapaT 
Ha TpyanocTHTe, cb3flaaeHH ot BofiHaTa, h Ha nojiHTHHecKOTO nojioaceHHe 
Ha cTpaHaTa. BnenaTJiH Me, ne HMauie Kypaac #a H3Ka^ce no;jo6HH mhcjih. 
npHapy^caBanie ro craacaHT-aflBOKaT, kohto abho ci>mo HMauie jicbh 
y6eflc,zjeHHfl h npaBenie bchhko bt>3mo)kho /ja roBOpn c Hac h aa hh 
oKypancaBa. 

PeHHTe Ha apyrHTe a#BOKaTH He ctM 3anoMHHJi. Cjiea Te3H mieaoapHH, 
kohto ce xapecaxa Ha npHCBCTBanjHTe b 3ajiaTa h B,m>XHaxa HOBa yBepeHOCT 
Ha po^HTejiHTe h npMTejiHTe, npeflce/jarejiflT Ha ci>aa aaae nocjie^HaTa 
/jyivia Ha noflCbflHMHTe. EaxMe ce npnroTBHJiH 3a TOBa. Othobo bchhkh 

OTpeKOXMe 06BHHeHH^Ta H Ha CBOft pea 06BHHHXMe nOJIHIJHflTa 3a 

HaHeceHHTe hh no6oHiija, c kohto 6eme H3Tpi>rHajia noKa3aHHH 3a He 
H3Bi>pmeHa aeftHOCT. He ce npH3HaxMe 3a bhhobhh h noncKaxMe #a hh 
onpaBaa^T. 

IIpeaceaaTejMT 3aKpH 3ace#aHHeTO c KpaTKO cjiobo h ci>o6mH, ne 
npHCb^aTa me 6i>ae np0H3HeceHa Ha 31 aeKeMBpH. 

npoKypopi>T pa3peniH CBHayjaHe b 3ajiaTa Ha eb/ja. IIoroBOpHx c MaMa, 
TaTe, hhho 5 naHa, To/i;op BaHHeB, HBaH Hhkojiob h jip. nocjie othobo cbc 
3aTBOpHHnecKaTa KaMHOHeTKa 6axMe OTBe/jeHH b Co(J)hhckhh ijempajieH 
3aTBOp. EaxMe b ao6po HacTpoeHHe. Pa3Ka3axMe Ha apyrapHTe 3a penHTe Ha 
a^BOKaTHTe, 3a nocjieaHaTa hh ayMa 5 3a CBH5KflaHeTO h 3a HayneHHTe hobh, 
3a pa3JiHHHH cjiyHKH ot ci>fle6HaTa 3ajia. 

npe3 neTHpHTe ahh 5 aoKaTO Teneuie HauieTO aejio, b 3ajia N« 16 Ha 
Ci>ae6HaTa nanaTa ce BO/jeme h CT>fle6HH^T npoiiec cpemy HJieHOBeTe Ha 
Co(|)hhckhh OK Ha PMC. Bcjnca cyTpHH npe3 Te3H nerapH ahh hh oraeHCfla- 
xa 3aeflH0 5 ho ce Bpi>maxMe no pa3JiHHHO BpeMe. Ta3H Benep Te ce 3aBtpHa- 
xa b KHJHDrra aocTa yrpH^ceHH h yMOpeHH. Taxhoto aejio ebiijo 6euie 

113 



npHKJiioHeHO. HeTHpHMara cno/jejraxa, ne npoijecbT e MHoro TeactK, HMa 
o6bhh^cmh b HejierajiHoer, hakoh ot kohto c npoH3HeceHH Bene cmi>pthh 
npHCb^H ot apyrn npoijecn. ManHHKa 6euie y6HT, ho h toh 6eiue 
noflCbflHM. IIpOKypopHTe h cb/jHHTe He CKpHBann OMpa3aTa ch ki>m thx, 
onaKBanH ce tokkh npHCb/jH. HaniaTa 6o,qpocT ce 3aMeHH c yHHHHe h 
6e3noKoficTBO 3a ci>fl6aTa Ha /jpyrapHTe hh-ci>khjihhhhijh. 

IIpHCbaaTa. Ha 31 /jeiceMBpH 1942 r. ceflMHHaTa o6bhh^cmh no HaiiiHa 
npoijec 6axMe OTKapaHH c KaMHOHeTKa b crpa/jara Ha Co^hhckha bochho- 
nojieBH chj\ Ha yn. "AiccaKOB" cpemy BoeHrora KJiy6. B 3anaTa Bene 6axa 

flOUIJIH H5IKOH OT a/JBOKaTHTe H HaiHH 6JIH3KH. Bjie3e Cbfle6HH5IT CbCTaB. 

npeflceaaTejwT TBpacecTBeHO nponeTe npHCb^HTe b hmcto Ha HeroBo 
BejiHHecTBO BopHC III: AHren HayuieB ce ocbacfla no cbOTBeTHHTe HJieHOBe 
Ha 33/J Ha 10 roflHHH CTpor n>MHHHeH 3aTBOp, ho tbh KaTO e Hem>nHOJie- 
TeH, npncb^aTa ce HaMajWBa Ha 6 r. h 8 m. h Tpa6Ba aa 3anjiaTH rjio6a ot 
175 000 jib. Ha fl^pacaBara, a aico He Moace aa % 3amiaTH, ta aa ce 3aMeHH c 
ome 6 m. 3aTBop. 

OcTaHajiHTe noflCb^HMH: KnpHJi Mhjicb, HBaH TeopraeB, AceH MaHOB, 
CaBa TeBpeHOB, 5Iko Mojixob, Hop#aH Bohhob, AHflpea Ctoahob ce 
onpaB^aBaT nopa^H Hefloiea3aHOCT Ha o6BHHeHHeTO h Be^Hara ce 
ocBo6o)KflaBaT. 

Paflocrra Ha npncbCTBamHTe b 3ajiaTa 6euie rojiflMa. BtpHaxa hh b 
3aTBOpa. OnpaBAaHHTe npnroTBHxa 6ara»ca ch h 3anaicaxa #a ra ocboGoaat. 
Bchhkh ch c6oryBaxa c MeH h c ocTaHanHTe apyrapH Hafi-cbpfleHHO. 
IIocjieflBaxa noacejiaHHfl 3a CKOpouiHH cpemn, fla^oxa ce nopi>HKH, 6ejieacKH 
h nncMa. CaBaTa mh no^apn ofleajio to ch h cpe6i>pHaTa ch jnoKHija, koato 
fli>jiro na3HX h cjiea 9.IX.1944 r. AH#pea mh no^apn cboa CHHMKa, koato 
om;e cbxpamiBaM KaTO CKi>na pejiHKBa. Kbcho cjieaoGefl Te HanycHaxa 
3aTBOpa. Ha H3JiH3aHe CaBaTa bujuiji fleija aa ce m>p3ajiOT c ineiiHH, B3eji 
e^Ha ot tax h CT>mo 3anoHHan aa ce m>p3anfl, a po/jHTejiHTe My npe3 TOBa 
BpeMe ro onaKBanH npea BpaTHTe Ha 3aTBOpa... 

OcTaHax caM 5 ho ce pa^Bax, ne apyrapHTe mh ca Ha CBo6o.ua, ne me 
npofl'bJDKaT yneHHeTO ch h 6op6aTa npoTHB (J)aniH3Ma Bene no-3aKaneHH, 
npeMHHajiH npe3 nojiHijeftcKHTe hhkbh3hijhh, no-onHTHH KOHcnnpaTOpH, 
no-yBepeHH peMCHCTH. 

Te npofli>Ji5KHxa o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. He rn H3KJiioHHxa ot rHMHa3HflTa, 
tbh KaTO flHpeKTOpi>T Heftno HBaHOB ce 3acTi>nHJi 3a tax. Te ocTaHaxa 
BepHH Ha HfleHTe ch b 6op6aTa 3a CBo6oaa h aeMOKpaijHfl. 

Kiipiui MnjieB 3aBi>pinH o6pa30BaHHeTO ch h npe3 1944 r. cTaHa 
napTH3aHHH b OTpa^a "HaB^ap", cpaacaBa ce c (JmuiHCTicaTa acaHflapMepM h 

114 



e paHHBaH. Cjie^ 9.IX.1944 r. eraHa KOMemjaHT Ha rp. EaHKH, cjiyacn b 
apMHHTa KaTO o<J)Hijep ot TaHKOBM nonK b Coc|)H5l 3aBT>pniH BHCine 
HH ^eHepHO-HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe b npara h jxbjim to,hhhh pa6oTH b 
cHCTeMaTa Ha BMnimaTa TtproBHfl, BKjnoHHTenHO b npara h BepnHH. 3a 

KpHTHKH H 3aKaHH KbM TOflOp 2KHBKOB 6eiHe HHTepHHpaH B /JeHHOpMaH. 

Hko Hoch4>ob Mojixob npe3 1944 r. cTaHa napTH3aHHH b OTp^m 
"HenHHeu;". YnacTBa b OTenecTBeHaTa BOHHa, 3aBT>pniBa Bochhoto yHHUH- 
me h BoeHHaTa apTHJiepHHCKO-mDKeHepHa aica/jeMM b MocKBa, a cne^ 
xoBa h Kypc no paiceTHH chctcmh b JleHHHipa/j. MHHa npe3 bchhkh 

flJTb)KHOCTH H 3BaHHfl B apMHflTa, 3amHTH flHCepTaiJHfl, npHfl06H HayHHO 

3BaHHe "/joijeHT" h Seine HanajiHHK Ha KaTe/jpa bt>b BoeHHaTa aKa^eMHH b 
Co(J)H5l npHKnioHH BoeHHaTa ch Kapnepa KaTO reHepan-neHTeHaHT h 3aM.- 
HanajiHHK Ha TeHepajiHHfl ma6 Ha B'bnrapcKaTa apMHH. 

Casa TeBpeHOB 3aBT>pniH BHH "Kapn MapKc", npeno/taBame bt>b 
BoeHHaTa aicafleMHfl, CTaHa /joicrop Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe HayKH h npo^ecop 
b HHCTHTyTa 3a coijHajiHO ynpaBneHHe npH AOHCY. 

AceH MaHOB 3aBT>pniH apxHBHCTHKa b MocKBa. Pa6oTeuie b U,K Ha 
BKH h b AOHCY no cneiyiajiHocrra ch. 

HopAaH Bohhob pa6oTeuie KaTO (J)HHaHCOB cneijHajiHCT b po/jHHfl en 
KpaS h CTaHa 3aM.-^npeKTOp Ha ,H,3C b rp. ,HynHHija. 

Aimpeii Ctohhob 3aBT>pniH bochhoto ynnnnme n BoeHHa aica/jeMM. 
CnyacH b rpaHHHHH bohckh h flocrarHa hhh nonKOBHHK. KaTO neHCHOHep 
pa6oTeuie bt>b Bhahhckha OK Ha BKQ h 6euie npeaceflaTen Ha EtJirapcKM 

aHTH(|)aUIHCTKH CT>K)3. 

HeaH Hhkojiob (CTapoTo) pa6oTH b pa3JiHHHH CTpoHTejnm opraHH- 
3aann B rp. CO(|)Hfl. 

3aTB0pHHHeCKH /KIIBOT cjie# npiici>AaTa 

Ilpe3 nocneflHHTe nacoBe Ha 1942 a3 TpeBomio onaKBax Hacn>nBaHeTO 
Ha HOBaTa ro^iiHa. npe/jcToeine mh #a ce a/tanrapaM kt>m 3aTBOpHHHecKHfl 
pe^CHM. H3npaTnn Ha CBoSo^a CBOHTe flpyrapH, a3 ce oxna/jox Ha nenajnm 
pa3MHnineHHH - cnoMH^x ch Ka*c nocpemax HOBaTa 1942 ro/jHHa cbc 
ceMeiicTBOTo ? po/jHHHHTe h npH^TenHTe mh b EaTaK. A c KaKBO HacTpoeHHe 
me nocpenjaT Ta3H HOBa ro,n,HHa mohtc poflHTejin h 6paT mh? Cjich KaTO 
Bene 3Ha^T npHCb/jaTa, ycnoKOHJin jih ca ce, hhh ca ouje no-pa3TpeBO)KeHH? 

JSpyTHTQ MH CBKHJIHHHHIJH - MapKO J\o6pQB, PuTbGoB, AcTpyKOB H 

HBaH Hoch(])ob HecnoKOHHO onaKBaxa npHctflHTe ch cjie/t ^Ba-TpH ahh. 
KaKBH jih npHevjH me nonynaT... Oco6eHO yMHcneH 6eme 6afi HBaH. Tofi 
HMaine ceMeiicTBO, kocto ^cHBeeme ctBceM 6jih3ko #o 3aTBOpa, Ha yn. 

115 



"BpaHfl". Ho HHe 6i>p30 npeo/jo-raxMe MenaHxonHHHOTO HacTpoemie, to He e 
citbthhk Ha peBonioijHOHepHTe. 3anoHHaxMe npHroTOBJieHM, nocTeraaxMe 
ce, noflpeflHXMe 3aBHBKHTe Ha cnaMeHHijHTe. 3a HOBa ro/jHHa nonyHHXMe 
xpaHa ot 6jiH3KHTe 5 kohto ce 6axa norpH5KHJiH 3a Hac noBene ot 
o6hkhobchoto. HcKaxa #a hh 3apa#BaT, aa hh noica)KaT, ne He CMe caMH, ne 
Te ca c Hac h hh no3#paBflBaT 3a HOBaTa roflHHa. 

05KHBJieHHe ce nyBCTBaine bt>b bchhkh khjihh Ha ce/jMOTO OTflejiemie. 
HyBauie ce nn>HKa, OTHflKb^e aojiHTaxa thxh necHH. Hhkojiko naca npe^H 
HOBa roflHHa, ariefl BenepHaTa npoBepica, flHpeKTOp'bT Ha 3aTBOpa o6hkojih 
KHUHHTe. MHHaBauie, no3flpaBHBauie h hh nHTame KaKBH HCKaHHH HMaMe. 
^HMHTtp ri>jn>6oB ot hmcto Ha bchhkh b KHJiHHTa HacTOH /ja hh ce #aBa 
noBene BpeMe 3a pa3xoflKa, npe3 Ta3H Hom fla HMa ocBeTJieHHe, aa ce 
noflo6pH OTonneHHeTO h pp. HaKpaa noacena Ta3H ro^HHa #a flOHece 
CBo6ofla Ha nojiHTHHecKHTe 3aTBOpHHu;H. ^HpeKTopi>T exHflHO ce ycMHXHa h 
Ka3a 9 ne Ta3H Hom me HMaMe CBeTJiHHa, a Moace 6h h MajiKO TonnHHa. CaMo 
TOBa HCKaHe Moaceji «a H3m>JiHH. 

H Tana, He3aBHCHMO ot bchhko, HHe nocpemnaxMe 1943 r. c hobh 
HaflOK/jH 3a no6eaaTa Haa (|)aiHH3Ma, c noflcejiamifl 3a ycnex Ha HepBeHaTa 
apMHH h Ha apMHHTe Ha aHTHXHTJiepHCTKaTa KoajiHijHfl, c Haae5Kfla 5 ne TOBa 
me 6i>fle nocneflHaTa ro^HHa Ha BOHHaTa. 

IIpHCT>AHTe Ha npoueca Ha OK Ha PMC. Pa3CTpejn>T Ha Mapno 
,3,o6peB. B nocneflHHTe ahh Ha aeiceMBpH 1942 r., ^OKaTO naicaxa 
npHCBflHTe ch, MapKO, Xepij, ri>jn>6oB h 6afi HBaH HochcJ)ob HMaxa mhoto 
cpeuiH c ApyrapHTe-nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH, Bo^exa pa3roBopn c npeflCTaBHTejiH 

Ha napTHHHOTO H peMCOBOTO pI>KOBOACTBO B 3aTBOpa. 

Ha 2 flHyapH 1943 r. nerapHMaTa 6axa OTBe^eHH b crpa^aTa Ha 
Co^hhckha BoeHHononeBH cbR, 3a aa hm nponeTaT npHCb/jHTe. OcTaHax 
caM b KHJiHOTa. Ctohx npaB npea acexuBHaTa BpaTa, Maicap aa 3Haex, ne me 
ce Bi>pHaT cnea flBa-TpH naca. OcjiyuiBax ce h flonaB^x bcako flBHaceroie Ha 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe no KopH^opa Ha OTflejieroieTO. BpeMeTO MHHaBanie 6aBHO... 
H eTO, nyx crbntcH, flOJiennx oko ao uinHOHKaTa. 

npefl BpaTaTa 3acTaHa MapKO ,ZJo6peB. Bhah, ne ro rneaaM h tb^cho ce 
ycMHXHa. Cnea Hero flofifloxa ocTaHajnrre TpHMa. OnHTBax ce aa pa36epa 
HMa jih CMi>pTHa npHCb^a. Te ckpt>6ho norjieac/jaxa npe/j ce6e ch h kbm 
MapKO. Heui;o flceraa CBpijeTO mh. HnMa... MapKO? ^BaMa Ha#3HpaTejiH 
Be^Hara 3acTaHaxa 3aa tax. B OTfleneHHeTO HacTbnn raiHHHa. Bchhkh 
3aTBOpHHitH 6axa b HanperHaTO onaKBaHe... 

3KejM3HaTa BpaTa ce OTBOpH. MapKO npi>B npeKpann npara. "Haft- 
tokkoto, TOBa h onaicBax", Ka3a toh h othobo ce ycMHXHa tbacho. 

116 



npen>P HaxMe ce SpaTCKH. Ct>ji3h 3aji^xa mmero mh. M Bi>p30 B3eMafl Garaaca 
ch, oTHBam b flpyro OT/jejieHHe", Ka3a cTporo czjhh ot Ha,n3HpaTejiHTe. 
]ytapKO B3e Hemara ch, c6oryBa ce c apyrapHTe ch. Te caicam 6axa 
na pajiH3HpaHH. Hobh nperpt^KH h noacejiaHHfl m He ce cjiynn Haft-JiomoTo, 
H3Ka3axa ce Ha/jeacflH 3a noMHJiBaHe. Cn>nKHTe Ha MapKO h Ha 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe ce oxnajiennxa h 3arjn>XHaxa... Cjiea ceKyH/jH nojiHT3aTBop- 
HHUHTe ot oT^ejieHHeTO Bene 3Haexa, ne MapKO ^o6peB e ocb^eH Ha cmt>pt, 

HOCH4) ACTpyKOB (Xeplt) H /"(.HMHTbp PbJrbGOB - Ha flOflCHBOTeH 3aTBOp ? a 
HBaH HOCH^OB - Ha 15 TOflHHH CTpOr TbMHHHeH 3aTBOp. 

KaKBO jih ro onaKBa MapKO, me ce H3m>jiHH jih npHCb^aTa? Ilo BpeMe 
Ha oGe^HOTO OTBapjrae Ha khjihhtc nonra bchhkh flofifloxa npn Hac, 
pa3nHTBaxa ? HCKaxa no,npo6HOCTH. Ha hakoh ot noflCb/jHMHTe b npoijeca - 
HejierajiHHTe MeTO/m LLIaTapOB h BtJiKa TopaHOBa - 6axa H3#a#eHH 
3aflOHHH CMtpTHH npHCBflH, Ha CMtpT 6eme ocbfleH h ManHHKa, kohto Bene 
6enie 3BepCKH y6HT b ^HpeKima Ha nojiHitHOTa. Ilo KopH/jopa bchhkh ce 
^BH^cexa thxo, cbGnpaxa ce Ha rpynn h MtJinanHBO CKbpGaxa 3a 
npeflCTO^maTa CMtpT Ha npeKpacHM peMCOB ptKOBO/tfrreji MapKO ^o6peB. 

IIpe3 HomTa He cnaxMe. Mactoto Ha MapKO ocTaHa npa3Ho. 
OnaKBaxMe, ne Ta3H Hom toh me 6i>,ne eoeKyrapaH, TanaBa 6eme 
npaKTHKaTa, npHCbflHTe ce H3m>jiH5iBaxa Be/jHara. Ho Bee naK HMaxMe e^Ha 
nocneflHa Ha/teayja: MapKO HMame Byfino reHepan h 6jih3khtc My ce 
HaflflBaxa ,na ct/jeHCTBa 3a noMHJiBaHeTO My. 

CyTpeuiHara pa3xo/i;Ka. Eax e/jHH ot m>pBHTe totobh 3a H3JiH3aHe Ha 
KapeTO. Bi>p3o 3acjiH3ax kt>m #BOpa no CTptMHHTe 2cejie3HH cn>najia. Hcnax 
aa BHfla aajiH b CT>ce#HOTO Rape 3a pa3xo^Ka Ha "cMtpTmrre" me ce no^BH 
MapKO. J\di, eTO ro. Maxa c pT>Ka, cnoKoeH, c npHctmaTa My ycMHBKa. 
Bchhkh, kohto H3JiH3axa Ha flBOpa ro no3flpaB^Baxa. H TaKa bcckh /jeH... B 
npofltJi^ceHHe Ha mecT /jhh ch MaxaxMe 3a no3#paB c MapKO... ,3,0 3Jiono- 
nyHHHfl 1 1 AHyapn, KoraTO toh 6euie 3BepcKH y6HT ot 4>auiHCTKHTe nanaHH. 

Ha 11.1.1943 r. cjie/j o6*m Ha rapHH30HH0T0 CTpejiGnme 6enie 
pa3CTpejwH npeKpacHH^T hobck h naTpnoT MapKO ^o6peB. npncbflaTa My 
He 6euie oTMeHeHa hjih OTJioaceHa, BtnpeKH ycHJiHOTa Ha 6jih3khtc My. Oa- 
niHCTHTe onaKBaxa /xa MHHaT kojicuhhtc npa3HHipi, 3a /ja yftvLxi czjhh npe- 
flaH chh Ha Hapo#a, Ha EtJirapHfl. Ora^e ch e/jHH naTpnoT, npoc|)ecHOHajieH 
peBOjnou;HOHep ? kohto ocTaBH HeBptcTHO ,neTe, JiioGHMa cbnpyra h MaftKa. 
B npeflCM'bpTHOTO nncMO j\o CHHa ch, toh ocTaBH cboa 3aBeT kbm Hero: 

"CHHe moh, He ce cpaMyBaft, ne 6ama th e y6HT. A3 yMHpaM necrao 3a 
CBo6o,naTa Ha Hapo,na. IJcjihat ch »chbot cbm nocBeraji Ha /jejioTO Ha 
napTH^Ta. KoraTO nopacHeiu, cjiy^cn necTHO h BflpHO Ha Hapoaa h cjieflBag 

117 



npHMepa Ha cboh 6am,a. GbacajiaBaM, ne 3arHBaM TOJiKOBa MJiafl, flopH HHMa 
fla 3anoMHHin moa o6pa3. . . " . 

# * # 

CKOpo b KHJiHHTa hh 6eme npexBi>pneH ApMeHHK KajiaHflacHHH, ocBflen 
b npoijeca Ha JI1060 KapTaneB. ApMeHeij, o6ymapcKH pa6oTHHK, BHHarn 
3acMHH. Be^Hara ce cnpHOTenHXMe. 

3iiMaxa Seine Mpa30BiiTa. B KHJiMTa HMame Tpi>6a 3a napHo 
OTonjieHHe, KoeTO TpaGBaine aa ce nycKa cyTpHH h Benep 3a no e^HH nac, 
ho TOBa npaBHJio He ce cna3Banie. KnjiHATa 6eme BJiaacHa. CTy# 
np0HH3Bame tajioto mh. Ha flBOpa KaTO ne jih 6eme no-Tonjio. 
Pa3xo>K,zi;axMe ce c 6i>p3a KpaHKa h TOBa hh crpflBaine. 

Tp^GBauie aa ce caoGha ci>c 3hmhh apexn. HauiHTe mh H3npaTHxa 
Tonna (JmaHejia, noaapi>K ot Jiejia JIio6a #HeBa, a ci>mo h tojicJ), ,m>jn>r ^o 
rjie3eHHTe. HMax h HajibMH. He noMHH KaK ce cao6ux c thx. Man rn Kynnx b 
3araopa, 6axa H3pa6oTeHH b 3arBOpHHHecKaTa pa6oTHJimmara. nycTHTe Hajn>- 

MH, Te 6^Xa HCTHHCKH HaUI 3aTBOpHHHeCKH aipH6yT. EflXMe BHHarH C TAX, 3a- 

moTo ,zi;o6pe H30JiHpaxa ot CTyjipjmx iihmchtob nofl. Hajn>MHTe hochx h b 
TpHTe 3aTBOpa ? BflpHO mh cjiyacnxa. B npofli>Ji5KeHHe Ha 22 Meceija xo^ex c rax 
no iiHMeHTOBHTe noflOBe, no Kajiffbpi>MeHHTe m>TeKH Ha "KOJiejiara" 3a pa3- 
xoflica. Te H3flaBaxa oco6eH uiyM. ,H,o6pe pa36npaM T03H noeT-nomrreaTBOp- 
hhk, kohto HanHca KHHraTa ci>c 3amaBHe "neceHTa Ha HajibMHTe"... 

XpaHaxa b 3aTBOpa 6eme MHoro ocKtflHa. Xjie6HaTa aaacGa 6eme 200- 
250 rpaMa Ha #eH. Ha 06^ h 3a Benepa xanBaxMe nocTHa Hop6nija, kohto 
hh H3JiHBaxa ot 6aKH b KaHHeTaTa. Po^HTejiHTe h po/tHHHHTe ce CTapaexa aa 
hh noflnoMaraT. E^eceflMHHHO nojiynaBax ot tax xpaHa - totbcho h xjdi6. 
HaHa MHKa h GpaTOBHe/tKara mh JIioGna Bonca cpaaa ce Hapeac/taxa npeA 
Bpanrre Ha 3aTBOpa - npn fltacfl, chht h CTya. Tpn6Bame aa naKaT Ha fli>jira 
onaniKa 3a npneMaHe Ha xpaHaTa, koato ce onncBame Ha cneiinajiHO 
6ejie)KKa, npOBepflBaine ce maTejiHO ot TbMHHHapHTe, a u KO(J)TeTaTa" 
(KpHMHHajiHH 3aTBOpHHijH c JieKH npHCbflH h flOBepeHH jraiia Ha ynpaBaTa 
Ha 3aTBOpa) a pa3Hacaxa no OTflejieHHfl h khjihh. XjiaGt/t h xpaHaTa mh 
Hocexa b nepHO MajiKO Ky^apne, KoeTO TaTe 6eme KynHJi ome npe3 m. 
aeKeMBpH. Kojiko HecroflH noHacaxa naHa Mnna h JIio6Ka 3apa/i;H MeHe, 
KaKBa roji^Ma 6naroaapHOCT h npH3HaTejraocT hm flT>jraa... 

noH^Kora nojiynaBax xpaHa h ot cbyneHHijH - ot Hjiha Hjihcb h flpyra 
6jih3kh npH^TejiH h flpyrapH. MonTe ct>khjihhhhiih ci>mo nonynaBaxa 
pe^OBHO xpaHa. XpaHexMe ce kojickthbho, no 6paTCKH. HMaxMe ^OMaKHH 
Ha KHJiHHTa, kohto pa3npeflejrane xpaHaTa paBHOMepHO no ahh. Te3H 

118 



KOJieKTHBH 3a xpaHeHe HapnnaxMe "cTOJineTa". H3BecTHo kojihhcctbo t 
0JI y H eHaTa xpaHa npe^aBaxMe Ha ^OMaKHHa Ha OTflejieHHeTO, kohto h 
pa3n pefleMine Me^cfly no-6eflHHTe "cTOJineTa". 

Oco6eHH rpH^cH pt>kobo,hctboto Ha KoneKTHBa nojiaraine 3a 6ojiHHxe 
npyrapH. OnpeaeneH npoijeHT ot napHTe, kohto nojiynaBaxivie, ci>m 
npeflaBaxMe b o6ma Kaca. Te3H cpe^cTBa ce H3noji3Baxa 3a KOJieKTHBa^ 
H y^yjH ? 3a noKynKa Ha JieicapcTBa h HaeMaHe Ha a#BOKaTH 3a no-6e^HHTe 
npyrapH. HauieTO CTOJine 6enie o6mo B3eTO ao6pe CHa6,n#BaHO h Mo^cexMe 
#a A^BaMe Ha apyrHTe. Eaxivie He^oxpaHeHH, ho h He raa/jyBaxMe 
06HHaxMe fla nneM Haft cbc 3axapHH, kohto pe^OBHO KynyBaxMe 0T 
jiaBKaTa Hpe3 KO<|)TeTaTa. 

CTonneTaTa, kohto o6eflHHjrcaxa 5-7 ayuiH, 6axa /jo6pa (|)opMa Ha 
KOJieKTHBHO noflnoMaraHe h H3xpaHBaHe, Ha apyrapCKa cnnoTeHocT ^ 
coJiH^apHOCT. B MHHanoTO BCHHKaTa nonynaBaHa xpaHa e 6nna o6ma - Ha 
uejiHH 3aTBOpHHnecKH KOJieKTHB. IIo-CTapHTe 3aTBOpHHi^H pa3Ka3Baxa, tj e 
TOBa aaBajio jiohih pe3yjiTaTH: HflMajio CTpeMe^c aa ce nojiynaBa xpan a 
otbi>h, tbh KaTO nojiyHaTejwT Bi>o6me He e Moaceji ^a a bh/ih. 3a TOBa xa3n 
(|)0pMa Ha pa3npeflejieHHe 6njia OTXBi>pjieHa h 6njia Bi>3npHeTa opraHH3a^ 
UHHTa Ha "cTOJineTaTa", kohto /jaBauie mhoto /jo6pH pe3ynTaTH. B 3aTBopj^ 

Te no T03H BMpOC Ce BOflHJIH MHOIX) flHCKyCHH, HMaJIO pa3JIHHHH MHeHHa 
HO ECHBOTbT CH Ka3aJI flyMaTa, 0C06eH0 CJiefl OTXBT>pJI5IHeTO Ha JieBOCeKTaHT- 

cKHfl Kypc Ha napTH^Ta. 

nojiHTHHecKaTa npoceera. KmiraTa - Hain yHHTeji h npHHTeji 

BnxMe MJia^H h xpaHaTa HHManie tojihmo 3HaneHHe 3a Hac. BHHMaHHe jj h 
6eme HaconeHO kbm o6cb)KflaHe Ha nojiHTHHecKH Bwipocn, kbm Hag- 
paitHOHajiHO H3noji3BaHe Ha BpeMeTO 3a nojiHTHHecKa no^roTOBKa ^ 
npHflo6nBaHe Ha HayHHH 3HaHHH npe3 neTeHe Ha KHHra h pa3roBopH no 
aKTyajiHH nojiHTHHecKH, HayHHH h KyjnypHH BMipocH. B TOBa OTHouieHne 
nojiHTHHecKOTO pi>KOBOflCTBO Ha KoneKTHBa 6enie ct3flaji MHoro flo6p a 
opraHH3ai^H^ ? KaTO OTHHTaMe, pa36npa ce, Te^KKHTe 3arBOpHHHecKH ycjioBHa 
Ha H30Jiai^H«. OauiHCTKaTa 3aTBopHHnecKa ynpaBa 6enie Bi>Bejia CTpop 
pe^KHM h ce CTpeMeuie aa H30JiHpa nojnrreaTBOpHHijHTe, aa ct3fla^e 
HenocHJiHH ycnoBHH 3a achbot h aa rn cjiomh ayxoM. Ho th He ycmiBaiiie n a 
hh npeKT>puiH. ,ZJa Cb3#a#e TeacKH ycjioBM - ^a, ho He h ^a cjiomh flyxoM 
ocb^eHHTe 3a aHTH(|)auiHCTKaTa 6op6a, 3a 6op6a npoTHB KanHTajiHCTHHe- 
CKaTa eKcmioaTaijHfl, 3a coijnajiHa cnpaBe/yiHBOCT, 3a CBoGo^aTa h He3aBn- 
CHMOcrra Ha Ei>JirapHfl. 

B ce^MO h ocmo OT^eneHHe Ha CLJ3 6eine ci>3flafleHa MHoro ao6p a 
opraHH3ai^HH 3a B3aHMonoMom ? 3a KyjrrypHa h nojiHTHHecKa no^roTOBKa Ha 

119 



OCHOBaTa Ha BHCOKa HpaBCTBeHOCT H HOBeUIKO flOCTOHHCTBO. TyK HMame 

xopa c pa3JiHHHH npo(|)ecHH h o6pa30BaHHe - pa6oTHHijH, cejiaHH h 
3aHa^THHH 5 HHHOBHHmi, nHcaTejiH h noera, a^BOKaTH, JieicapH, CTyfleHTH, 
yneHHiiH, yneHH. HMauie h npo<|)ecHOHajiHH peBOJiioiiHOHepH: HJieHOBe Ha 
IJK Ha BPI1 h PMC, 3aTBOpHHijH ct>c cM^pTHH npHCb^H, kohto onaKBaxa 
pa3CTpeji BceKH ^eH, BceKH nac. HMauie 3aTBOpHHiiH, npeMHHajiH no 

HflKOJIKO m>TH npe3 CbflHJIHIHaTa, CT>C COJIHfleH 3aTBOpHHHeCKH "CTa>K f \ 

HMauie ynacTHHi^H b HcnaHCKaTa rpaacaaHCKa BOHHa, 6hbuih nojnrreMH- 
rpaHTH b CCCP, OpaHiina, lOrocjiaBHa, repMamia, Abctpha h ap. ToBa 
6euie e^HH pa3HOJiHK, ho nojiHTHHecKH h H/teojiorHHecKH cnjioTeH KOJieK- 
thb, kohto HCHBeeuie, pa6oTenie h ynacTBauie b nojiHTHHecKHa hchbot Ha 
cTpaHaTa, b kohto nocToaHHO npHCTHraxa xopa ot 3Ji0BemaTa ^pacaBHa 
cnrypHocT h ot jspyru 3aTBOpH 5 a flpyrn 3aMHHaBaxa 3a 3aTBOpHTe b 
RneBeH, BapHa, CTapa 3aropa, Cjihbch, XacKOBO h KiocTeHflHJi... Mhoto 
6axa 3aTBOpHTe b LJapCTBO BT>jirapHa. 

BOJIUIHHCTBOTO OT 3aTBOpHHIJHTe 6flXa MJia/JOKH. JlHHHOCTHTe Ce MeHfl- 

xa, ho KOJieKTHBi>T 3ana3Banie cboat xapaKTep h acHBeeme cboh coGctbch 
5khbot. Brjie^cflax ce b Te3H xopa, 6ax onapoBaH ot BHCOKaTa hm nojiHTHHe- 
CKa Kyjrrypa, ot apyrapcKaTa hm cojiHflapHOCT, ot bhcokha hm Mopaji. Ca- 
Kaui 6ax nonaflHaji b jjpyr cbot. Ot e#Ha CTpaHa - TeacbK 3aTB0pHHHecKH 
pe)KHM 5 raeT, TOpM03, CTy/i;, yHH^ceHHe ot e^Ha CTpaHa, a ot flpyra - npe- 
KpacHH xopa ct>c cboa opraHH3aijHH 5 kooto CT>3flaBanie yBepeHocT, Ha/i;e)Kfla, 
ycjiOBH^ 3a HOBeuiKH hchbot h caMonyBCTBHe, Bflpa b HeH36e^cHaTa no6eaa 

Ha aHTH(|)aUIHCTKHTe CHJIH, Ha aHTHXHTJiepHCTKaTa KOaJIHItflfl. 

HainaTa 251 khjiha b ce^MO oxaejieHHe Ha CLJ3 6euie Majuca, CKpoMHa 
nacT ot T03H KOJieKTHB, nofl HHeTO 6jiaroTBOpHO BJiH^HHe 5khb^x b npo- 
AT>ji^ceHHe Ha TpH Meceija, ot aeKeMBpn 1942 «o 4>eBpyapH 1943 r. 

npe3 Ta3H 3HMaTa b CTpaHaTa HaGnpauie CHJia 05KecToneHaTa 6op6a 
npoTHB MOHapxo(|)auiH3Ma 5 Ha KoeTO BjiacTHTe OTroBapaxa c Tepop, apecra, 
HHKBH3HIJHH h y6HHCTBa, c HKOHOMHHecKO orpa6BaHe Ha Hapoaa. npoayK- 
iIHjrra Ha cejicKOCTonaHCKHTe npoH3BOflHTejiH HacnjicTBeHO ce H33eMBauie 
Ha hhckh ijeHH ot TbproBijH h cneKynaHTH, kohto a H3Hacaxa b repMaHM, 
a 6i>JirapCKHflT na3ap o6eflH^Bauie. He flocraraxa ejieMeHTapHH xpaHH - 
xjia6, Ma3HHHH, KapTO(|)H, 606, Meco. Bi>BefleHa 6enie KynoHHa CHcreMa. 
^a^c6nTe 6axa mhoto MajiKH, a h He BHHarn HacejieHHeTO Moaceme #a ra 
nojiynn. He aocraraxa apexn, o6yBKH, ryMeHH i^pByjiH. Tpy^OBHTe xopa 
rjia^yBaxa h H3HeMorBaxa. 3acHJinxa ce penpecHBHHTe nojiHiieiicKH MepKH 

flOpH Cpemy HaH-MaJIKHTe fleMOKpaTHHeCKH H aHTH(|)aUIHCTKH npOHBH. 

ynacrbiiHTe h 3aTB0pHTe ce npem>jiHHxa ot nojiHTHHecKH 3aTBOpHHii;H. B 

120 



orroBOp Ha TOBa Tpy^emHTe ce 3acHJiHxa ctnpoTHBaTa ch cpeiny npaBH- 
xeJicTBOTO Ha Bor^aH Ohjiob. 

C HHTepec cjieA^xMe ci>6HTHflTa Ha (J)poHTOBeTe b CeBepHa A(J)pHKa h 
oco6eHO Ha H3tohhha (J)pOHT. He3aBHCHMO ot peacHMa Ha H30JiaijHfl ot 
bt>huihhh cbot, HHe noHTH BceKH aen nonynaBaxMe "cBOflKa" 3a BoeHHHTe 
^eHCTBH^ h 3a ci>6HTHflTa b CTpaHaTa. OraBamoTO b CTpaHaTa h no CBeTa 
6i>p30 hh CTaBauie h3bcctho no "HeBHflHMHTe KaHanH M Ha KOJieKTHBa: Hpe3 
hhkoh Hafl3HpaTejiH ? a^BOKaTH, apyrapn h npwrreim. IIojiHTHHecKOTO pwco- 
BOflCTBO Cb6npanie o6o6maBame n npe/jocTaBanie HH(])opMaijHfl Ha bchhkh 
qpe3 oiTOBOpHHiiHTe no OTflejieHHfl h khjihh. Tana 6enie h b 3aTBopnTe b 
kohto 6ax npeMecTBaH no-KtCHO. ,3,o6pe no/troTBeHH /jpyrapn H3Hacaxa 
6eceflH, b kohto npcueraBflxa n aHaiiH3Hpaxa pe/tHija nojiHTHHecKH 

Cb6HTHfl... 

3a MeH ntpBHTe MeceijH Ha 1943 r. 6axa BpeMe Ha ynopHTa pa6oTa Haa 
KHHrHTe 3a ycBOjraaHe Ha noBene 3HaHH*. OTMHHa aflanrapaHeTO mh kt>m 
3aTBOpHHHecKHTe ycjioBHA, OTMHHaxa TpeBO^cHHTe ahh no no/i;roTOBKaTa n 
npoBe^cflaHeTO Ha npoijeca. A3 h cbKHJiHHHHijHTe mh ce 3aexMe etc 
cHCTeMHO neTeHe h 3aHHMaHM. noptnaxMe KHHra Ha 6jiH3KHTe hh, ho Te 
ce 6aBexa. OrflejieHHeTO o6ane HManie cboa 6H6jiHOTeKa h cboh 6n6jiHOTe- 
KapH ? ot kohto nonynaBax xyao^cecTBeHa, HayHHononynapHa h HCTOpHHe- 
CKa jiHTepaTypa. 

KaTO npaBHJio npe^H o6^a HMax TpH naca 3a neTeHe h apyrn 
HHflHBHflyanHH 3aHHMaHM h e^HH nac 3a pa3X0AKa Ha flBOpa. Cnea o6a,na h 
Benep^Ta othobo npeKapBax o6mo okojio nerapH-neT naca b 3aHHMaHH*. 
HacT ot BpeMeTO b KHJiHtfra H3noji3BaxMe h 3a nrpa Ha max, kohto caMH ch 
6axMe HanpaBHJiH. Oco6eHO ce yBJinnaine no niaxa 6afi HBaH. 

PtKOBO^CTBOTO npe/uioacn ,na ce bkjiiohhm b rpynoBO (KptacoHHo) 
H3ynaBaHe Ha hakoh Btnpocn ot HCTopna Ha pa6oTHHHecKOTO flBHaceHHe, 
nojiHTHHecKa hkohomha, (J)hjioco4)h^. A3 ce bkjhohhx b rpynaTa 3a H3yna- 
BaHe Ha nojiHTHKOHOMHH. Benie Tpymio, 3amoTO b KHJinaTa caMO a3 H3yna- 
Bax Ta3H AHCiinnnHHa. ^eTox hakoh 3anncKH h yne6HHKa Ha KoBantOB, a 
no BpeMe Ha pa3xo#KHTe c apyrapn ot apyrHTe khjihh ch pa3Ka3BaxMe h 
AHCKyTHpaxMe nponeTeHOTO. 3anoHHax c npoH3BO,nHTejiHHTe chjih h npoH3- 
BOflCTBeHHTe OTHonieHH^, ctohhoct, KOHKpeTeH h a6cTpaKTeH Tpyfl h #p. 
ToBa 6axa KaTeropHH, kohto TpynHO ce ycBOABaxa h o6acHflBaxa ot hakoh 
KptHcoHHHitH, ho 3a MeH Te He npeflCTaBJiflBaxa TpyzmocT, 3amoTO 6ax 
H3yHaBan 6yp)Koa3Ha nojiHTHKOHOMH* b TbproBCKara rHMHa3Hfl. 

C rojWM HHTepec nponeTox KHHraTa "BejiHKara (J)peHCKa peBomoijHfl" ot 
E^peMOB (nceBAOHHM Ha Bna#HMHp ToneHHapOB, KaKTO y3Hax no-KBCHo), a 

121 



CT>mo "HcTopHfl Ha 4)HJioco(J)H^Ta M ot Tpy/jHH (nceBflOHHM Ha CaBa TaHOB- 
ckh) h 4)hjioco(|)ckh peHHHK Ha MapKO MapneBCKH. Herax h npenponnrax 
khhth Ha B. lOro, Aji. Tojictoh, O. /Joctocbckh h ap. 3a H3flCHflBaHe Ha 

HflKOH 4)HJIOCO(J)CKH BMpOCH Ce 06pT>maX 3a KOHCyJITaitHH KbM Khphji 

Hhkojiob h )Khbko Hhkojiob. 5Khbko c totobhoct OTflejiauie BpeMe ^a pa3ro- 

BapH C MeH no pa3JIHHHH npo6jieMH ? CBT>p3aHH C HCTOpHflTa Ha 4)HJIOCO(|)HHTa. 

B HauiaTa khjiha ce 3axBaHax fla orpaMOTABaM ApMemnc. Toh 6euie 
MHoro flo6po,zi;yuieH ? nyBCTBax ro KaTO cboh 6paT, ho He 3Haeme fla neTe h 
aa nHHie. no3HaBauie itH(|)pHTe, c tax ce onpaBmie flo6pe, no3HaBauie h 
6yKBHTe ? ho TpyzjHO neTeuie, a He Moaceuie h fla nHHie. 3anoHHax BceKH /jeH 
fla pa6oTfl c Hero. Oco6eHO ce uieryBaxMe, KoraTO TpaGBauie fla nnina b 
nHCMaTa My ao cbnpyrara My BejiHHKa. Toft H3Ka3Bauie mhcjihtc ch, a a3 ra 
pa3HiHpHBax no CBoe ycMOTpeHHe, npoHHTax My rn h toh th oflo6pHBaine. 
CMeexMe ce, KoraTO 3aBT>pniBax nncMOTO c "nperp^maM Te h Te ijejiyBaM". 

- AHrene, MaxHH Te3H ayMH, 3a,npacKaft ra, KaK Mora aa a nperpT>maM h 
itejiyBaM c nncMa. Heaeft nnca TaKHBa Hema, mojia Te! 

Ho HaKpaa Bee naK ce cbrjiac^Bauie h ce noflnncBauie. C Hero bcckh 
aeH oxuejiaxMe BpeMe 3a 3aHHMaHHfl h HaKpaa toh 3anoHHa aa neTe 
caMOCTO^TejiHO. /JocTaBax My khhth c no-ea^p mpH(])T h no-flocTbnroi no 
CT>fli>p^caHHe. HMaxMe HHTepeceH cjiynafi. nponeTe c yaoBOJiCTBHe KHHrara 
Ha nncaTejM aHTHtjmuiHCT KpT>CTi>o BejieB 3a nocememieTO My b ObBeTCKra 
ct>k)3. HecTO mh 3a,naBanie Bwipocn h H3Ka3Bame ofloGpemie hjih 
Heoflo6peHHe Ha nponeTeHOTo. 

Ilpe3 4>eBpyapH b khjiha, 6jih3ko ao HamaTa, 6eme HacTaHeH KpT>CTi>o 
BejieB. Beuie ome cneflCTBeH h He ro nycicaxa Ha pa3xoflKa c Hac. 
YcTaHOBHXMe o6ane Bpi>3Ka npe3 HinHomcaTa. ApMeHflK necTO pa3roBapfline 
c Hero no T03H HaHHH h ro pa3nHTBame 3a nponeTeHOTO b KHHraTa. Toh 
6eine macTJiHB h paaocTeH, ne 3a nptB m>T BHacfla h pa3roBapa c nncaTen. 
CnoMH5iM ch, npncbCTBax Ha cneflHHH HHTepeceH pa3roBop. 

- flpyrapio BejieB, b KHHraTa 3a nocememie b C^bctckh^ ct>K)3 nnuieui 
h onncBam mhoto noapo6HO Kora h KaKBO CTe hjih. 3amo npaBHHi TOBa? 

- 3a ,a;a noicaaca no T03H HanHH, ne ctBeTCKHTe xopa acHBeaT mhoto 
flo6pe, ne HMaT bchhko, kocto hm e Hy^cHO. 

- H AHreji TaKa mh o6acHflBa, ho CTpyBa mh ce, ne h th o6HHaui /ja ch 
noxanBaui. 

- H TOBa e BflpHo, - OTroBapame KptcTbo BeneB. 

3a MeH 6euie roiuiMa paaocT aa ce 3ano3Haa c Hero. Eax neji poMaHHTe 
My "npoGHB^T 11 , "Mnp^T", hakoh pa3Ka3H. Toh 6eme eflHH ot Hafi- 
nonyjMpHHTe aBTOpn cpea MJia^HTe peMCHCTH h MnaflOKH c jicbh 

122 



y6e>K#eHH5i. KHHrHTe My H3Hrpaxa ron^Ma nonHTHHecKa pojia. IIo-kt>cho c 
Kpi>cti>o BejieB ce cpenmaxMe b IIa3ap,zpKHniKHfl 3aTBOp, ho 3a TOBa me 
pa3Kaflca no-HaTan>K. 

IlHCMaTa. TojiiiMa pa^ocT 3a Hac 6axa nncMaTa. Te 6axa HaniaTa Bpi>3Ka 
etc ceMeficTBaTa hh, c 6jiH3KHTe npHOTenH h flpyrapH. Te 6axa np030peij 
ki>m Bi>HiiiHHfl cbat. H Hafi-KpaTKOTO nHCMO nopa>Kflanie ^cejiaHa ayineBHa 
Bpi>3Ka c no/jaTejifl, cb6yacflaine cnoMeHH, mhcjih, pa3d>>KfleHHfl 3a Hacrofl- 
meTO h 6i>fleiu;eTO. IlHCMaTa /jaBaxa He caMO HH(j)opMaijHfl, ho h npHarao 
Bi>36yHCflaxa 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa mh flynia h ncnxHKa, ycnoKOjrcaxa Me, 
B/fbXBaxa mh Bapa b no6e#aTa Ha/* (j)aniHCTKHfl peacHM, b no6e/i;aTa Ha 
jo6poTO. 06HKHOBeHO nojiynaBax nncMa ot po/jHTejiHTe ch, b kohto ce 
ci>o6maBaxa hobhhh 3a po/jHHHHTe, 3a pa3JiHHHH 6htobh ci>6hth^ 3 
ompaBflxa ce noacejiaHM 3a 3/jpaBe h yBepeHHfl, ne BOHHaTa CKOpo me 
cBtpniH h me ce bh/jhm othobo Ha CBo6o/ja. riojiynaBax nncMa h ot 
poflHHHH, npHirrejiH, cbyneHHijH. npe^H rzl hh G'bflaT Bpi>HeHH Te ce 
nperjie^caaxa h Hocexa noannc h nenaT Ha ijeH30pa. 

IIomh^ acho m>pBHTe nncMa, kohto nojiynnx. Eeine hakojiko .ahh arcefl 
BpT>HBaHeTO Ha o6BHHHTejiHHii aKT. Oiefl Benepa ce pa3xoac,zi;axMe no 
KOpHflOpa, KoraTO b /jmoto My ce CTpynaxa 3aTBOpHHijH. Benie npHCTHraaji 
npeflCTaBHTeiwT Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa KaHijejiapHfl, onpe/jejieH /ja pa3/i;aBa 
nHCMaTa. HacTaHa paflocrao oacHBJieHHe. 3acTaHanH b KpT>r okojio 
,f pa3flaBaHa M (3aTBOpHHK Ha cpe/ma Bi>3pacT, cpaBHHTenHO flo6pe o6jieneH, 
kohto pa6oTeine b KaHijejiapHOTa Ha 3aTBOpa), 3aTBOpHHijHTe onaKBaxa rzl 
ny^T HMeHaTa Ha macTJiHBijHTe, kohto me nonynaT bccth ot bi>h. 

ff Pa3,zi;aBaHi>T" Ba/jeine njiHKOBeTe h neTeine Ha bhcok rjiac HMeHaTa Ha 
nonynaTenHTe, kohto CKanaxa h 6i>p30 B3eMaxa nncMara ch. Hyx hmcto ch. 
H3ni>JiHeH c pa/jocTHO nyBCTBO, noex nncMOTO, MHHax b CTpaHH h Be/mara ro 
otbophx. 3a moa rojMMa pa^ocT b nnHKa HManie He e/mo, a ijejiH ^Be nncMa 
ot 6ama mh, HanncaHH c HeroBHfl aceH h hctjihb nonepK. Gbo6maBaine mh 
KaK no^roTOBKaTa 3a npoiteca h ne Te 3ae/i;HO c Byfino CTe(|)aH ca 
npeaBHflHJiH eBeHTyajiHHTe CBH^eTejiH, ne ce TBpcn noaxo^m a^BOKaT, ne 
AHreji IIonoB e noeji 3amHTaTa mh, ne MaMa h Ejiaroa ca /jo6pe, ne toh 
KBapTHpyBa npn hhho To/jop. H cera e npe/i; ohhtc mh KapTHHaTa KaK 
pa3flaBaHi>T ? o6KpT>>KeH ot 3aTBOpHHim, neTe HMeHaTa hm h th ^apflBa c 
pa^ocTHH ycMHBKH... Toh 6euie 3aTBOpHHK, pa36Hpaine /i;o6pe 3HaneHHeTO Ha 
nncMaTa h He cnynaHHO HapyniaBanie npaBHJiara, KaTO ntxanie b njiHKOBeTe 
noflBenncMa... 

Pa3XOflKHTe Ha „kojicjioto". CyTpHH n cjie^oGea ce pa3X02c,n;axMe Ha 
flBopa no m>TeKa bi>b ^opMaTa Ha Konejio 3 HacTJiaHa c naBeTa. B ueHrtpa Ha 

123 



KOJiejioTO cToeine Ha^HpaTeji, kohto HaSjiioAaBaine cna3BaHeTO Ha pe^a. 
^jtbhchh 6axMe m ce #bh)khm no #BaMa h HAMaxMe npaBO #a cnnpaivie. 
TyK, Ha KOJienoTO, CTaBaxa Hafi-HHTepecHHTe cpeujH Memjiy 3aTBOpHHijHTe 
ot pa3JiHHHHTe khjihh. HecTO #Be #bohkh, ABH^ceHKH ce e#Ha cnefl flpyra, 
o6cb^caaxa BtnpocHTe, kohto H3ynaBaxMe KaTO KptacoHHHiiH no (Jmjioco- 
(fma, nojiHTHKOHOMHH h jiHTepaTypa. Taxa npOBeayjaxMe Hemo Karo ceMH- 
HapH. TyK CTaBame h ono3HaBaHeTO Ha 3aTBOpHHijHTe: pa3roBapaxa, 
pa3npocTpaH5iBaxa ce hobhhh, #aBaxa ce cbBera h yKa3aHH*. ITo BpeMe Ha 
Te3H pa3XOAKH BHHMaHHeTO hh npHBJiHHame Tpafino Koctob, KOHTO 
pe^OBHO pa3roBap^uie c hakoh ot no-OTroBOpHHTe (})yHKijHOHepH Ha 
napTMTa h PMC. TyK, Ha kojicjioto, a3 ce 3ano3Hax c HnKOJia ITaBjioB 
(KoMapa), Teoprn HaHKOB, Bopnc BenneB h flpyrn H3BecTHH aefiijH Ha 
napTHjrra... 

Tojihm HHTepec mie, MJia^HTe, H3nHTBaxMe cnpaMO H3npareHHTe ot 
CtBeTCKHH ct>k)3 napauiyTHCTH h no/jBOAHHHapH, oijejiejiH cnea npoijeca 
npe3 m. k)hh 1942 r., Koraro BoeHHononeBHOT eta ocbacaa 18 naTpnora 
Haneno c IJbotko Pa^OHHOB. Bchhkh TbpcexMe KOHTaKTH c tax. Pa3nHTBax- 

Me TH 3a SCHBOTa B CtBeTCKHfl CI>K)3, 3a HepBeHaTa apMHfl, 3a KOJIX03HTe H 

coBX03HTe, 3a acHBOTa Ha MJiaflOKHTe, 3a yHHUHmara h no mhoto BtnpocH, 
kohto hh HHTepecyBaxa. Te 6axa 3ana3HJin yHH(j)opMHTe ch h TOBa ra 
npaBenie ome no-npHBJieKaTenHH. A h Te yMeexa #a pa3roBapOT, aa ce 
nieryBaT. PycHaKbT HnKOJian PoMaHOB thxo hh neenie cbbctckh h CTapH 
pycKH necHH. Oco6eH HHTepec npoflBmax kt>m Teopra EauiHKapOB, 6an 
TeoprH, KaKTO rajibOBHO ro HapHnaxMe. Ton 6eme ot ITaHariopcKHTe cena h 
ro CHHTax 3a 3eMJMK. HaBpeMeTO toh ce bkjiiohhji b CenTeMBpHHCKOTO 
BtCTaroie (1923 r.) h 6hji b neTaTa Ha Khckhhob, a nocne eMHrpnpaji b 
CtBeTCKHa ci>K)3. CpemaxMe ce c Hero h cjie/t 1944 r., KoraTO 6euie CTaHan 

OTTOBOpeH CTOnaHCKH pT>KOBOflHTeJI. 

IIoayHHCKHflT npoutec. HBaH XpncTO - 3i>6HeTO. ITpe3 m>pBHTe #hh 
Ha jmyapH b 3aTBOpa #OKapaxa ronaMa rpyna oGbhhhcmh no t. Hap. 
ITofly^HCKH npoijec. ToBa 6axa noBene ot 30 ayum, Haneno cbc 
ceKpeTapHTe Ha panoHHHfl komhtct Ha PMC HBaH CeprneB h HBaH 
XpHCTOB (3i>6HeTo), 3a kohto Bene cnoMeHax bt>b Bpt3Ka etc 3ano3HaH- 
ctboto mh c MaHyK b ,ZjHpeKijHaTa Ha nonHijHflTa. HBaH XpHCTOB 6enie 
HacTaHeH b cbce^HaTa khjihh (K 250). 3ano3HaxMe ce npe3 mnHOHKara. 
Ka3ax My, ne 3HaM 3a Hero ot MaHyK, c KoroTO CMe 6hjih b e#Ha khjiha b 
,ZjHpeKijHOTa Ha nonHijHflTa h ne cbm ot BaTaK. Meac/ty Hac ce Cb3flaae 
ctpfleHHO npH^TencTBO, KoeTO ce 3acnjiH cjie/t KaTO rn npeBe^oxa Ha o6m 

pOKHM. 

124 



HBaH XpHCTOB 6eine cjia6, bhcok, CTpoeH, H3Mi>HeH Ha bha, ho BHHara 
ycMHXHaT, npHKa3JiHB 5 roBOpeuie bhcoko c xy6aBHH ch rjiac. C Hero 
ycxaHOBHXMe h flpyr THn KOHTaKT. HynaxMe c KaH^eTaTa no CTeHaTa, 
nocxaBHXMe th e^HO cpemy flpyro h c flOJieneHO ^o KaHneTO yxo cjiyuiax 
HBaH, kohto ce npOBHKBame ot apyraTa CTpaHa. Cjiea TOBa a3 npaBex 
cbfflOTO - BHKax npe3 KaHHeTo, a toh cjiyuianie. Pa36npaxMe ce, MaKap h 
oxKi>cJieHHO. HBaH BHHarH 3anoHBanie "ceaHca" c neceHTa "c^auiHSMtT 
uapH, TepoptT ro Kpenn, ho 6opnecKHfl pyx He me cjiomh". A3 noBTapax 
cjiefl Hero. Ta3H necHHHKa Ha HBaH a3 Heero neex b apyrHTe 3aTBOpH, a 
noHHKora h cera. 

npoiiectT Ha nofly^HiiH 3anoHHa npe3 4>eBpyapH 1943 r. h npofltjraH 
^eceTHHa ahh. npe3 TOBa BpeMe HBaH mh pa3Ka3Banie 3a ro,n;eHHijaTa ch, 3a 
Manna ch h 6paT ch. Toh MHoro oGnnauie ceMeficTBOTO ch. HeTenie mh nnc- 
Ma, cnoflejwnie h npeflCHB5reaHH5rra ch ot CBH^maHHOTa ct>c cbohtc 6jih3kh. 

06BHHeHH^Ta Ha nponypaTypaTa cpemy HBaH h apyrapHTe My 6axa 
Te^cKH, onaKBaxa ce cmt>pthh npHCbflH, tojihm 6enie h 6po«T Ha o6bhhhc- 
MHTe b T03H npoijec. 3ano3Hax ce h necTO pa3roBapax c HBaH CeprneB, etc 
CretJmH Mhtcb, Ore(|)aH Hotob (cTy^eHT), CrecfraH BacnjieB (yneHHK) h #p. 
Othobo ce cpeumaxMe - Bene KaTO CTapH no3HaTH - h c MaHyK. Toh, KaKTO 
imcax, 6enie ocBoGo^eH ot nojiHimaTa, ho nponypoptT ro no^Beji no# 
oTroBOpHOCT h b o6BHHHTejiHH^ aKT (JjHrypHpame KaTO yKpHBaTeji Ha 
HeneranHH, h no-KOHKpeTHO Ha HBaH XpHCTOB-3i>6HeTO. 

noMHH, ne MHoro necTO ce KOMeHTHpanie noBeflemieTO Ha EpHecT 
TaBpHJiecKy, ot HjiOBflHB, kohto 6hji H3npaTeH ^a pa6oTH no jihhha Ha 
PMC b Co(j)Hfl 5 CBtp3aji ce c HBaH XpHCTOB h flpyrn o6BHHaeMH. KoraTO 
6hji apecTyBaH h HHKBH3HpaH, toh ce nocTaBHJi b ycjiyra Ha nojiHimsrra. 
IloTBtpflH ce h npe^aTejiCKaTa pojw Ha CMpyraTa My /Jopa, kohto npeaana 
HochcJ) AcTpyKOB-Xepij npe3 HoeMBpH 1942 r. Ha tn>Jia Ha yji. "BeHejiHH" h 
"IJap IIlHHiMaH M ? 3a KoeTO nncax no-rope, flopa, kohto npofltJDKaBanie aa 
cbTpyflHHHH Ha nojiHi^HHTa, y6e)KflaBajia EpHecT, ne cb^^t me ro onpaB^ae 
hjih noHe HHMa #a ro octflH Ha CMi>pT, KaKTO H3HCKBanie npoKypoptT b 
o6BHHHTejiHHH aKT. Ha cboh pea apyrapHTe, kohto ro no3HaBaxa h 6axa 
pa6oTHJiH c Hero, ro npeflynpeacflaBajin, ne BpartT me ro M H3CTHCKa" KaTO 
jihmoh h me ro 3axBtpjiH, me hm CTaHe HeHyaceH, HAMa rzl Gt^e nomaaeH, 
me Gtfle HantJiHO ono30peH. BHyniaBajiH My h no BpeMe Ha ctfleGHHTe 
3aceflaHH5i aa ce oraaace ot nojiHijeHCKHTe ch noKa3aHHfl, aa ce oeb3Hae, aa 
He npe^aBa apyrapHTe ch, #a He 3arHHe KaTO floneH, acajn>K npe^aTeji. 
EpHecT o6ane npo^B^BHJi MeKyniaBOCT h H3m>JiHHJi BOJiOTa Ha ctnpyraTa 
ch: b ctfla toh ce fltpacaji KanHTynaHTCKH h ce npoaBHJi othobo KaTO 

125 



rayceH npe^aTeji. 

B HanajiOTO Ha (^eBpyapH 1943 r. npoijecbT 3aBT>puiH. IIpoKypopT>T 

HaCTOHBaUie 3a MHOrO CMtpTHH npHCbflH H 3aTBOpHHHeCKHflT KOJieKTHB 

6eine HacrptxHaji. Ha 8 (^eBpyapn noflCb^HMHTe ot no^yflHCKHfl npoijec 
6axa OTKapaHH b cb^a. Ci>fl6aTa hm 6eine 5KecTOKa: HBaH Xphctob - 
3i>6HeTO ? HBaH CepraeB h EpHecT TaBpHJiecKy 6axa ocb^eHH Ha CMtpi 
Hpe3 pa3CTpeji. npHCb^HTe Ha apyraTe noflCb^HMH ci>mo 6axa rojieMH, a 
MaHyK h h5ikoh apyra 6axa onpaB^aHH. 

^BaMaTa HBaHOBijH ce ,m>p)Kaxa ^octohho. Te 6i>p30 ce c6oryBaxa c 
Hac, a c 6jiH3KHTe ch Bene ce 6axa npertpHajiH 3a nocjie^HO c6oroM b Cb^a, 
Ci>maTa Benep 6axa pa3CTpejiflHH. Pa3Ka3Baxa, ne npH pa3CTpejia ^BaMaTa - 
HBaH XpHCTOB h HBaH CepraeB - ce npertpHajiH, KaTO OTKa3ajiH aa 
HanpaBOT TOBa c EpHecT. Ha 9 (^eBpyapH bchhkh 6axMe b Tpayp. BenepTa 
ce ci>6paxMe npea napaneTa Ha Ce^MO OT^ejieHHe h c MbJinaHHe oxna,noxMe 
noHHT Ha flsaMaTa repon, Ha ^BeTe nopeflHH acepTBH b 6op6aTa npoTHB 
4)auiH3Ma ? 3a CBo6cmaTa Ha BbJirapH^. Thxo 3anaxMe "Bhh ^cepTBa 
na^HaxTe"... H .HBaMara pa3CTpejmm ocTaBHxa npe^cMbpTHH nncMa, kohto 
pa3KpHBaT THXHaTa jiio6ob kbm 6jiH3KHTe h apyrapHTe hm, TaxnaTa cmcjioct 
h repoH3i>M. Eto nacT ot nncMOTO Ha HBaH XpHCTOB-3i>6HeTo: 

Mhjih pOflHTeJIH H 6paTH, 

Haii-nocjie mh nponeToxa npiict/iaTa. Th KaKTO 3a sac, TaKa h 3a 
MeH, He e inHeHa/ja. HiiMa Moxce /ja ce onaKsa Miuioci>pane ot 

Kl>peaBHH (()aUIH3T>M... 

Tope rjiaBHTe, mhjih poflHTejin h 6paTn! A3 KaTO hcthhckh chh Ha 
MOHTa KJiaca h Hapo/ja ii3m>jiHiix atjira ch. Ct>c ccthh chjih ce 6opex 
npoTHB T03H HeHacHTeH 3BHp h cera c Han-rojiHMO cnoKoiicTBiie h 
HHCTa ctBecT ce npomaeaM c Bac h xcHBOTa, moh CKpoivieH hchbot, 
kohto noHecox b yKepxea Ha bchhkh noaTHCHaTH... 

A3 ct>m 6oai>p h cnoKoeH - 3HaM, ne MOHTe poflHTejiH me Me 
pa36epaT, KoeTO ca mh AOKa3ajin mhoto m>TH 

Haii-ropeino bh uejiysaM h HCKaM nocjieaHO npocTH. 

Bam chh h 6paT BaHHO 

Jlpyrn cmt>pthh npHCb^H. no BpeMe Ha TpHMeceHHH^ mh npecTOH b 
CU,3 6axa ocb^eHH Ha cmi>pt h eK3eKyTHpaHH 10 aHTH(|)aiHHCTH. Ha 25. XL 



3a no,zjpo6HocTH b>k.: HenpeioioHHHTe. CnoMeHH h onepim. Cber. 3. AnocTOJiOBa h T. Ctohhob. 
ITjiobzjhb, 1975, c. 262. 

126 



j 942 r., t. e. flBa-TpH mm cnejx npHCTHraHeTO mh b 3aTBopa, 6axa pa3CTpe- 
jihhh Acnapyx 3apKOB (ot c. ToneMO ManoBO, Co(J)hhcko) 3 To/jop OraMe- 
hob (ot CT>moTO cejio) h KpyM Ctohhob (ot C. EortOBIJH, Co(|)hhcko). He TH 
no3HaBax jihhho, noHeace ome 6ax cne/jcTBeH, ho TOBa He HaMajiaBauie 
6oJiKaTa no tax. B 3HaK Ha npOTecT HHe flyMKaxMe c HajitMHTe ch no 
^ceJie3HHTe Bpara Ha khjihhtc Exoto Ha TOBa ayMKaHe ce pa3Hacame H3 

lieJIHH 3aTBOp. KpHMHHaJIHHTe OT nO-flOJIHHTe eTa)KH CbHJO Ce npHCbeflHHH- 

xa kt>m npOTecTa. Tana 3aTBOpHHijHTe H3npamaxa hobhtc acepTBH Ha 
(baiiiH3Ma n OT/jaBaxa noHHT kbm tax. 

Ha 22.XII. ctmaTa ro^HHa 6eme pa3CTpejiaH JIioSeH KapTajiee, 3a 
KoroTO nncax bt>b Bpt3Ka c apecTa Ha MapKO ,2,o6peB. Ha 23. XII. npe^H 
BenepHaTa npoBepKa, ce CT>6paxMe okojio nepnnaTa Ha Kopn^opa Ha OT/jejie- 
HHeTO, 3a fla OTfla^eM noane/jHa noHHT kt>m HOBaTa acepTBa. Tpyna 3aTBOp- 
hhuh, CT>6paHH okojio AceH EncepOB, kohto 6eme flHpnreHT, thxo 3anaxa 
npomanHHH Mapni "Bhh acepTBa na/jHaxTe..." Bchhkh thxo no^exMe 
neceHTa c HaBe/jeroi rnaBH. 

3a nptB m>T npnctcTBax Ha TaKOBa TpaypHO ctGnpaHe. HaGmo/jaBax 
KOJierHTe ch 3aTBOpHHijH. MH03HHa njianexa. He c,m>p)Kax ei>ji3HTe ch h a3. 
Cnefl TOBa, npe/jH TbMHHnapHTe /ja ce HaMecaT, ce npn6paxMe b khjihhtc 
ch. JJpjiro MtnnaxMe. MapKO ,2,o6peB pa3Ka3a 6norpa(J)H5iTa Ha JIio6o 9 
KaKTO ro HapHHame. Cera e/jHa ot yjiHijHTe Ha Co(J)H5i, 6jih30 ro CU,3, hoch 
HMeTO Ha JIio6eH KapTajieB. npe3 1968 r., ^OKaTO ce Bptmax ot Eenrpa/j 
ki>m Co(|)H^ c KOJia, MHHax npe3 rp. nnpOT. CnpaxMe Ha nnoma/ja h 
nonHTax MHHyBaHHTe 3Ha#r jih Henjo 3a JIio6eH KapTaneB. noconnxa mh e/jHa 
ot yjiHijHTe, kohto 3anoHBanie ot nnomaaa - th Hocenie HeroBOTO hmc 
IlHpOTHaHH yBaacaBaxa cboh cbipa^cflaHHH, CTaHaji acepTBa Ha 6T>JirapCKH5i 

4)aiHH31>M. 

B HanajioTO Ha 1943 r. Hapo/jHOTO ei>6paHHe, no npe/jjioflceHHe Ha 
EoiyjaH Ohjiob h HeroBOTO npaBHTencTBO, npne H3MeHeHH5i Ha 33/],, kohto 
npe/jBHHyjaxa cmi>ptho HaKa3amie h 3a Heni>jiHOJieTHHTe. HtpBaTa 
^cepTBa He 3aKbCHJi. Benie ocb^eH Ha cmt>pt h pa3CTpeji5iH Ha 28 jmyapH 
1943 r. MajioneTHHHT nerbp KnpHKOB, o6bhhch 3a ynacTHe b MJiaaefloca 
6ofiHa rpyna, opraHH3Hpajia no^najiBaHeTO Ha CKJia/j 3a KO^cyxneTa, 
npeflHa3HaHeHH 3a HeMCKHTe bohhhijh Ha H3tohhh5i (J)poHT. CKpi>6Ta no 
IleTbp 6enie rojiHMa: toh 6enie ntpBHHT MajioneTeH b ET>jirapH5i, ocb^eH Ha 
CMT>pT h pa3CTpenHH. KaK He TpenHaxa cbpijaTa Ha cb^HHTe h npoxypopa, 
npoH3Hecnn Ta3H HenoBeniKa npncb/ja, kohto nora3Bame HaH-eneMeHTap- 
HHTe HOBeniKH npaBa h to 3apa/jH He oco6eHO cepH03Ha npo^Ba. KaK He 
ipenHa pi>KaTa Ha ijap Bopnc /ja h noTB^p^n... 

127 



H TOBa 6eine caMO HanajioTO. IIpe3 1943 h 1944 r. (JmumcTKaTa 
nojiHijHfl h 5KaH^apMepHH H36Hxa 6e3 ctfl h npHCb^a hakojiko aeceTKH aeija 
h HentnHoneTHH MJia^eacH caMO 3apa,HH TexHHTe y6eac#eHHfl h ynacTHeTo 
hm b aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a... 

IleTbp Khp^kob 6euie o6ymapcKH pa6oTHHK, 3aBi>piiiHJi caMO 
nporHMHa3HH (VII kjl), ho caMOo6pa30Baji ce. HeroBaTa npe^aHOCT ki>m 
6op6aTa 3a CBoGoaara Ha Hapo^a, npoTHB noflTHCHHHecTBOTO, HeroBara 
HHTenHreHTHOCT, ca ce OTpa3HJiH oco6eHO apKO b nHCMaTa ,no poflHTejime 
My. Te3H nHCMa jxbiiGoKO Me Tporaaxa, 6ax ra npenHcaji h Hecro ra Herax, 
nerax h mianex, cnoaejDfflKH HeroBHH bhcok 6otcbckh peBOJiiomioHeH ,oyx, 
HeroBaTa o6hh kbm po#HTejiHTe ch, a h poflHTencKara h GparoBara CKpi>6 
kt>m Ilerbp. 

Munu podumejiu, 

ffnec mu uemoxa npuctdama - npucbda maKaea KaKeamo ouaxeax, 
omKaKmo ckm e MpauHume kujiuu na 3ameopa. 3naex, ue Mootce da cmana 
Dtcepmea, ho etnpeKU moea ne ce ynnaiuux, a ce nonecox e 6op6ama, e 
Koxmo eeue msapnM. 3naex 3a yuacmma na eceuu peeojuoijuoHep, ho 3uaex, 
ue ne e daneu deuxm, e Koumo u/e ce cnpaeuM c nodecnejiume nanauu. 
HaMupax ce no Kphcmorrbm - edununm ntm 6etue nucm u mhoso Jiecuo da 
npeMuna no neao, ho mou eodeme ki>m MU3epun u nponacm, dpyzunm 6etue 
cmptMeH, odpacbJi c 6odnu, no mon ntm eodetue kt?m ijeemyuio dtdeuje na 
Hoeenecmeomo. Hhmox epeMe da mdupaM u noex no mp-bwiueun ntm, no 
ni>m, Koiimo eodu kt?m no-ceemnu u u^acmnueu dtdnuHu. Hrkou u^e Me 
ynpeKHam, ne cbM c6-bpi<aji, ho noeeuemo u$e Me onpaedanm, Koemo e 
ednuHKama naspada 3a Men. 

Cuh euIJemyp 

^pyroTO nHCMo: 

Pootcdena MauKo, 

3nan y ne HHMa necno da Me 3a6paeuw } 3aw f omo a3 3aeueaM, cKbno 
MauKo, e nau-sojiRMama 6op6a 3a cnacneane na mM-bHenume napodu. E-bdu 
zopda, CKtna MauKo, ue mo3u cuh 3aeuna u 3amyu } ne ckuthhuk He mpae 
nped Kbpeaeun (paiurnhM enaea da CKJiann, 

A3 ce uyecmeaM nanhJino ufacmjiue, ue yMupaM e 6op6ama 3a edno 
eenuKo deno. ffeno, Koemo sue ne Mooicaxme da pa36epeme y ho enpeaM, ue 
eue me cu 3adademe ehnpoca u me nornhpcume npuuuHume 3a Monma 
CM-bpm. CMT?pm, Konmo docesa ne e 6una Hanaaana na MajionemHume. A3 
CbM nau-uiacmjiueuR, ue u3m?jihux d-bma cu na 6opeu, 3a ceododama na 

128 



Hdpodume. A3 ne Dtcann otcueoma cu, 3a myu, 3aufomo Ka3eam "Ceododa ujiu 
cMtpm WHaiuKa". 

Btdu eopda, CKtna mcluko, ne cu omxpanuna maKte cuh, koutho ne 
rm>pnu wnpaedume, Koumo npe3upa nodjiocmma u jitDtcama. TIpe3upaume 
moea v^apcmeo na nodnocm u cbJi3u! Etdeme yeepenu, ne t^ejiunm napod u{e 
nJiane 3a Men u nadnanume dpyeapu. Pa3eeume Kamo necen Monma wnamKa 
cMbprn. IIpe3upaume mux, Koumo eu mjwbneam, mtrmam u xynnm. A3 
u3H'bJiHUX moh ceeu^en dhm u eene yMupaM om Kypwyjuume, Koumo tqe 
nponuofcam Mootce 6u Moemo whcouko chpi^e. Kaotcu na Moume dpamuema, 
ueKd u me ce naynam Kamo 6pam cu da 6tdam - "cujiho da jnodnm u 
Mpa3Hm, demo cpeu^nam dywjuaHUH, c KypwyM da eu no3dpaenm". Tope 
ziiaeama, CKtna juaiiKO, a3 euotcdaju, ne dennm na nauiama nodeda e 6jiu3hK. 
Tu cu ujacmjiuea da otcueeevu me3u tqacmjiueu epejuena. He ruiauu, 
pootcdena, MauKO, ne ne cbM nuufo ornKpaduan, a3 cbM ce dopun u yjviupaM 
3a eduo eenuKO deno. 

Teou cun u 6opeUf IJeuio 

Ilpe3 ivuiaTa 1942 r. b Co^hhckhh ijempajieH 3aTBOp 6axa pa3CTpejiflHH 
noBene ot 40 /jyuiH aHTH(J)ainHCTH. IIojiHTHHecKHTe 3aTBOpHHijH hh 
pa3Ka3Baxa 3a TexHHTe iioabh3h, 3a repOHHHOTo hm noBe/jeHHe no BpeMe Ha 
pa3CTpejia. 3a civrbprra Ha hhkoh ot tax 6ax y3Han ome npe3 jiatoto, 3a tax 
ce Hocexa jiereH^H. B 3aTBOpa y3Hax noapo6HOCTH 3a tax ot ^pyrapme, 
kohto 6axa cnoflejiHJiH TaxHaTa ynacT b KHJiHHTe h kohto etc ct>ji3h Ha ohh 
hm 6axa Ka3BajiH nocjie/jHO c6otom. 

Ilpe3 e^HH CTyneH AHyapcKH jxcu no^Kejiax m ce pa3xo,na Ha KOJienoTO c 
Kiipiui Hhkojiob, KoroTO MHoro yBaacaBax. C 6paT My HBaH 6axMe MHoro 
6jih3kh, no3HaBax Mamea My, 6xx xoahji y tax. Bhx My ce npe/jcTaBHJi Bene 
h 6axMe pa3roBapajiH c Hero. KHpHJi Hhkojiob 6eme He caMO ao6i>p iopHCT, 
ho h floGtp jiHTepaTOp h (J)hjioco(J). EflHa p^flKO Ha^apeHa jihhhoct, c mhoto 
3HaHHH 5 c aap-cjiOBO. Toh npoH3xo^cflaine ot CTapa naTpHapxajma (JDaMHJira 

C BHCOKH HpaBCTBeHH IjeHHOCTH, ynaCTBaJia B MaKeflOHCKOTO peBOJIIO- 
IJHOHHO JJfiUyKQUUQ. KHpHJI MH pa3Ka3a 3a }KHBOTa H fleJIOTO H JIHHHHTe CH 

BnenaTJiemifl 3a Ahtoh HBaHOB, cenpeTap Ha LJK Ha EPII, 3a Ahtoh nonoB, 
kohto ckjiiohhji 6paK MauKO npe^H pa3CTpejia ch, 3a ATaHac PoMaHOB, 
Ilerbp EoivjaHOB, c kohto toh 6eme cb^eH. 

Ka3ax My, ne 6paT My HBaH mh e no^apHn CTHxoc6npKaTa Ha HnKOJia 
BanijapoB "MoTopHH necHH n 5 ne b yneHHHecKHTe rpynn Ha PMC neraxMe 
CTHxoTBOpeHHiiTa My h ce Bi>3XHmaBaxMe ot t^x ? ne nporpecHBHHTe MJia^e- 
kh Bene 3HaaT 3a TBOpnecTBOTO Ha BaniiapoB h 3a HeroBHH pa3CTpeji. 

129 



KHpHJi HanpaBH e^HH TB'bp^e o6uiHpeH npernefl Ha craxoTBOpeHHATa Ha 
BanijapoB, roBopH 3a HeroBaTa peBOJiiouHOHHa aHTH(|)ainHCTKa achhoct, 3a 
HeroBHTe BMHeroifl h npe5KHBjraaHHfl npe/jn pa3CTpejia. Cnea pa3xoflKaTa 
toh Me noKaHH b KHJimrra ch h mh muz TeTpa^Ka c npeflCMtpTHHTe nncivia 
h cTHX0TB0peHH5i Ha BanuapoB. 

- nponeTH rn, b tax me HaMepHiu OHOBa KoeTO Bene th Ka3ax 3a 
TBOpnecTBOTO Ha e^HH reHHajieH noeT, y6HT ot (jmniHCTKHTe najiaHH. 

Tpa6Hax TeTpa/ticaTa, oth/jox b KHJiHHTa ch h Be^Hara 3anoHHax r& neTa. 
npenncax hakoh ot craxoTBOpeHHOTa b 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ch TeTpa^ica, b 
koato HMax 3anncKH h CTHXOBe Ha flpyrn 6tJirapcKH noeTH. Ta3H TeTpa/jKa 
npeHacax h o6oraTjreax c hobh craxoBe h necHH b apyrHTe rbzl 3aTBOpa, 3a 
m x H3ry6a b ni>pBHTe ^Ba-TpH Meceija cue/* 9.IX.1944 r., KoraTo 
6aTaniKHTe MJia,zje)KH npenncBaxa h aeKJiaMHpaxa craxoTBOpeHHATa Ha 
BamjapoB h neexa peBOJnoijHOHHH necHH. CnoMHAM ch oni;e "Eop6aTa e 

6e3MHJIOCTHO ^CeCTOKa" H HJIKOH flpyrH HerOBH CTHXOBe, KOHTO HH 

BfltxHOBABaxa Hapea c noe3Hjrra Ha Eotcb, Ba30B, Cmhphchckh, XpejiKOB... 

Eopdama e 6e3MUJiocmho otcecmoKa. 
Eopdama, KaKmo Ka36am e enuuna. 
A3 nadnax. JJpye life Me CMeuu u 

mOJlK03. 

KaKeo myK 3nanu HRKciKea cu nuHuocm?! 
Pa3cmpeji, u cjied pcvscmpejia - nepeeu. 
Toea e mojiK03 npocmo u rozuhho. 
Ho e dypnma me 6tdeM nax etc mede, 
uapode mou, 3aiqomo me odunaxMe. 

Ho da yjupew Koeamo ce orrrbpea 
3eMnma om ompoeuama cu nnecen, 
Koeamo MUJiuouume e^Kp-bceam, 
moea e neceu, da moea e neceul 

Oco6eH HHTepec 3a Hac npeflCTaBJMBaxa npe^cMtpTHHTe nncMa Ha flpyra 

BHflHH (J)yHKIJHOHepH H aHTH(|)aHIHCTH - AHTOH HBaHOB, BnaflHMHp 3aHM0B, 

U,botko Pa/jOHHOB, Ilerbp Bor^aHOB h pp., kohto neraxMe c Tbra h rop^ocT. 

3aTBopHHHecKO e'/Ke^HCBiie. npe3 jmyapH h 4>eBpyapH 1943 r. CKOBaxa 
roneMH ciyaoBe. B KHJUDrra 6axMe ocTaHajin neTHMa AyniHi KfeaH Hoch(J)ob, 

^HMHTbp PbJTbGOB, H0CH(J) ACTpyKOB-XepIJ, ApMeHflK H a3. riapHOTO 

OTonneHHe He pa6oTeme, 3aTOBa cryjxbT h BJiaraTa 6axa HaniHTe Haft-rojieMH 

130 



BparoBe h MHoro aonpHHacaxa 3a MtHHTejiHHH hh 3aTBOpHHHecKH peacHM. 

CTeHHTe 6axa BJiaacHH, ptijeTe h KpaKaTa hh 3aMpT>3Baxa. Ho h HHe ce 
npHraayjaxMe - o6jiHHaxMe ce h ce noKpHBaxMe c bchhko, KoeTO HMaxMe 
Ha pa3nojio5KeHHe. HecTo ch MHCJiex: f, KaK jih acHBeOT h ce 6opHT napTH3a- 
HHTe - 6e3 no,n;cjioH, H3Jio^ceHH Ha fltacA, chat, CTyn h npecjie^BaHe? A Kax 
jih noHacHT CTyna ctBeTCKHTe bohhhiih, cpaacaBaHKH ce cpemy HeMCKHTe 
oKynaTOpH? Tcxhhot nojjBHr hh B,uT>XHOBflBaiiie, Mo6HJiH3Hpaine ctnpoTH- 

BHTeJIHHTe CHJIH Ha T5DIOTO, nOflffbpflCailie BHCOKHfl hh ayx. 

IIpe3 4>eBpyapH npoatJi^caBax ^a neTa h aa H3ynaBaM hojihthkohomhh h 
4)HJioco(J)HH. Bee noBene ce cGjinacaBax c ocTaHanHTe nomrrcaTBOpHHijH, h 
oco6eHO c yneHHijHTe h CTyzjeHTHTe. Pa3roBapaxMe h ^HCKyTHpaxMe no 
BpeMe Ha pa3xo^KHTe Ha KapeTO, no KopHjjopa, KoraTO ce OTBapaxa BpaTHTe 
3a ToajieT. CtGnpaxMe ce Ha rpynn, thxo neexMe 6tJirapCKH h ctBeTCKH 
necHH, HMame h ,zi;eKJiaMaTopH, He nnncBaxa ocTpoyMHH niern. ToBa 
pa3Be,np5iBaiHe o6cTaHOBKaTa. 

rtojiynaBaxMe eaceflHeBHa HH(|)opMai|Hfl - hobhhh 3a nojiHTHnecKHTe 
ci>6hthh b CTpaHaTa, npo^BH Ha napTH3aHH h 6ohhh rpynn, hobh apecTH h 
npoijecH, 3a 3acnjiBaHeTO Ha 4>aniHCTKHH Tepop. Bto6me t. Hap. aremjHH 
"HajitM" pa6oTenie. B ntpBHTe ^hh Ha 4>eBpyapH HayHHXMe paaocraaTa 
Beer 3a norpoMa Ha XHTJiepHCTKHTe bohckh npn CTanHHrpaa, 3a njieH^Ba- 
Hero Ha MHoroxHJiHflHa apMHM h Ha HeftHHfl rjiaBHOKOMaH^Bam (JjejiflMap- 
uiaji rtayjiyc. Cpe,u nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe HacTMiH oacHBJieHHe. Ha,u3Hpa- 
TejiHTe m>K ce apa3Hexa ot HamaTa pa/jocT h 3aTeraaxa 3aTBOpHHHecKH)i 
peaaiM. Te Tbpcexa npOBOKaitfiH, ho HHe He ce no^maBaxMe. 

Hhkojiko flHH cjiea Ta3H pa^ocTHa BecT 6^XMe CBH^eTejiH Ha apyro 
ci>6HTHe. E^Ha cyTpHH hakoh ce Kannji Ha np030pn;HTe b yMKBajimrra h 
BHflHJi, ne b KBapTana okojio 3aTBOpa ce boit TpaypHH nepHH 3HaMeHa. 
Bchhkh ce CTpynaxMe TaM, ho MajmHHa Moacexa ^a ce noKaTep^T #o 
BHcoKHTe np030pijH h aa norjie^HaT kt>m rpa^a. He MHHa nac h y3HaxMe, ne 
e o6)iBeH Tpayp bi>b Bpt3Ka c KanHTyjiaijHflTa Ha XHTJiepo^aniHCTKaTa 
apMHH Kpan CTajiHHrpa^. 

no TOBa BpeMe 6euie H3Bi>pineH h npo6HB b 6ji0Ka^aTa Ha JleHHHrpaa, 
Bo^exa ce 6oeBe okojio KajiHHHHrpafl, BopoHeac, XapKOB, Poctob h flpyrn 
rpa^OBe. C HHTepec cjie/^xMe ctmo h cpa^KeHHflTa Ha 6pHTaHCKHTe h aMe- 
pHKaHCKHTe bohckh b CeBepHa A(J)pHKa cpemy apMMTa Ha (J)ejmMapinaji 
PtOMeji. 

nojiHTHnecKOTO HanpeaceHHe b CTpaHaTa HapacTBanie. nojiynnxMe 
Cbo6m;eHHe ? ne 3apa^H raxHaTa ^aniHCTKa achhoct ca 6hjih y6nTH H3BecTHHHT 
a^BOKaT CoTHp ^HeB h o.3. reHepan JlyKOB, BO^an Ha JieraoHepHTe b 

131 



BbJirapHX. 

npe3 (J>eBpyapH 3anoHHax «a 6ojieayBaM. B^Hrax TeMnepaTypa, a 
ptiieTe h KpaKaTa mh ce no^yBaxa h 3anepB^Baxa ot CTyaa h b pesyjrrar Ha 

HHKBH3HIJHHTe, Ha KOHTO 6flX nOflJIOflCCH B nOJIHIJHHTa. IlOR JIflBaTa MH 

MHiHHHija ce noflBH no^yBaHe c roneMHHa Ha opex. EflHa Hom BflHraax 
MHoro BHCOKa TeMnepaTypa h nojioaceHHeTO mh ce bjioihh. KoMnpecHTe He 
noMorHaxa. PaHO cyTpHHTa Xepii, kohto 6euie 3aBi>piHHJi Me^HijHHa, ce 
pa3TpeB0>KH h c HajrBM 3anoHHa «a nyKa no BpaTaTa. E[ohbh ce Hafl3Hpareji. 

- riojioflceHHeTo Ha HauiHfl flpyrap AHreji e MHoro tokko. HMa MHoro 
BHCOKa TeMnepaTypa. 

Hafl3HpaTenHT otboph BpaTaTa norjie^Ha Me, hhiiio He Ka3a, H3Jie3e h 
3aKJiioHH BpaTaTa. HaicaxMe pe3yjrraT, ho hhhio He nocjie^Ba. Xepij 3anoHHa 
othobo MHoro chjiho h npofltJiaorrejiHO j\?i 6ne no BpaTaTa. Othobo ce 
noHBH Ha#3HpaTejm\ 

- CTHra, 6e, me Te KapijHpaM! 

Cjiea MajiKO flOH^e (])ejmiHep, kohto Me nperjie^a, yeraHOBH, ne HMaM 
39 rpa^yca TeMnepaTypa h peuin ^a Me H3npaTH b 6ojnnma. TaKa ce 030Bax 
b 6ojihhhhoto noMenjeHHe Ha 3aTBOpa. CaHHTapH Me H3Ki>naxa, fla^oxa mh 
hhcth flpexH h Me HacTaHHxa b CTaa c ^eceTHHa Jierna. TyK cbm 3ary6nji 
ci>3HaHHe. KoraTO ce ci>6yflHX ? bh^x Ha^BeceH Ha« MeH MJia^ hobck c 
6jie«o jiHije, oGneneH b Gojihhhch xajiar, kohto fltpflceme MOKpa KBpna Ha 
nenoTO mh. YcMHXHa ce h bh^hmo ce 3apa^Ba. 

- Ot Bnepa ennui. HMauie mhoto BHCOKa TeMnepaTypa, ho 3anoHHa m 
cna^a. A3 ci>mo ct>m nojiHT3aTBOpHHK. 

Cjiea hakojiko flHH ce nonyBCTBax no-^o6pe h 3anoHHax ^a CTaBaM. Eax 
Ha Jierjio 3a m>pBH m>T ot TpH Meceija, OTonneHHeTO 6euie cpaBHHTenHO 
flo6po. nojiHT3aTBopHHKi>T ? kohto nono^cH roneMH rpH^KH 3a MeH, 6euie OT 
c. KbTHHa. Bhjih ro mhoto b nojinijHflTa, ocb^eH 6hji Ha 15 ro^HHH h ot 
noBene ot Meceu 6hji Ha jieneHHe TyK. C T03H momt>k, Ha kototo fltJDKa 
rojMMa 6naroflapHOCT ? ce BH/wxMe cjiynafiHO hakojiko Meceija cnefl 
9.IX.1944r., noroBopHXMe, Ka3a mh, ne fltJiro 6ojie,ayBaji, ho Bene 6hji 
flo6pe etc 3flpaBeTO. 3a acanocT 3a6paBHx hmcto h (JmMHJiHATa My. 

B CTOJiOBaTa Ha 6ojiHHijaTa HMax CBH^aHe c naHa MnKa h JIio6Ka. 
Mhoto ce 3apaflBax ? 3amoTO T03H m>T Meayiy Hac HHMauie nperpa^a. 
Ce^xMe npea MacaTa, npHKa3BaxMe cbo6o#ho noMeayiy chhc apyrHTe 
noceTHTenH Ha Gojihhtc 

Cnefl flBe ce^MHijH, Ha 25.11.1943 r. (nen>K), HayHHx, ne npe3 HomTa 
rpyna 3aTBOpHHijH ca 6hjih OTKapaHH HeH3BecTHO HaKBfle, HaBapHO kbm 
flpyr 3aTBOp hjih Jiarep. Ha 27. II. cyTpHHTa Me H3nncaxa ot 6ojimmaTa h 

132 



e TBe,zi;oxa b HainaTa khjiha. ,3,pyrapHTe mh ce 3apa^Baxa. Te noTBtp^nxa, 
qe flBe rpy nH ca 0TKa P aHH B flpyrw 3aTBOpH. OnaKBajio ce, ne h Ta3H hoiij 
Hie BflHraaT HOBa rpyna. ^tjiro roBOpuxMe, pa3Ka3BaxMe ch hobhhh. Cnea 
o6fl,a 6ax Ha pa3X0flKa Ha kojicjioto. Bh,o#x ce c noHTH bchhkh no3HaTH. 
KoraTO ce BtpHaxMe ot pa3xo,HKa, 3anoHHaxMe aa ce npHroTB^Me 3a 
3aMHHaBaHe. nojiynnxMe yKa3aHM aa He B3eMaMe cbc ce6e ch 
KOMnpoMerapamH MaTepnajiH, tbPl KaTO o6hckt>t Ha H3JiH3aHe e MHoro 
cTpor. Pa3npeAejiHXMe ch KHHrHTe, kohto Tpfl6Bame aa hochm. Hepa3penie- 
hh KHHra h flpyrn MaTepnajiH ce noBepjreaxa Ha no-onHTHH KOHcnnpaTopH 
h ce yicpHBaxa MHoro flo6pe. EaxMe totobh, ho He 3HaexMe koh ot Hac me 
6i>A aT BKJiioHeHH b rpynaTa h aajin H3o6iu;o me HMa TaKaBa. 

Cjiefl nojiyHom hh cb6y,HHxa, OTBapaxa e/ma no e^Ha khjihhtc h BHKaxa 
noAJie^camHTe Ha npeMecTBaHe. Ot HauiaTa khjiha H3BHKaxa MeH h 
ApMeH^K. Gb6pax 6araaca ch b /ternc. C6oryBax ce cbpaenHO c ApyrapHTe - 
6aS HBaH Hochc|)ob, ,II,HMHTbp PbJTi>6oB h Hoch(J) AcTpyKOB-Xepu. C 
nocjie^HHTe flBaMa ce BH^caaxMe necTO cjiea KaTO H3Jifl30XMe Ha CBo6o r na. C 
6an HBaH, KoroTO MHoro o6HKHax, noBeqe He ce cpemHaxMe. HHTepecysax 
ce 3a Hero h 3Haex, ne e npeMecTeH bi>b BapHeHCKHfl 3aTBOp. Hakojiko 
ceflMHUH cjiea 9.IX.1944 r. 6ax b CocJjm h ome clujjiz j\eu oth^ox Ha yji. 
"BpaHfl" aa ro non>pcH h no3/ipaBfl c no6e/i;aTa. Ho... yBn! Ha BpaTaTa Ha 
Ki>mHHKaTa My bhaax ^Ba HeKpojiora cbc CHHMKa Ha 6aii HBaH: toh 6enie 
noHHHaji npe3 m. aBrycT 1944 r. bi>b BapHeHCKHfl 3aTBOp. Ot CHHMKaTa Me 
norjiOKflanie 3acMflHOTO My Jinije. nocToax npea HeKpojio3HTe, norniaicax, h 
KaTO HMMax Kypa^c #a Bjuna b flOMa My, 6aBHO ce OTaajiennx. ToBa 6enie 
nocjie^HOTO mh c6oryBaHe cbc CKpoMHM, ,a;o6pHfl hobck h peBomoijHOHep 

HBaH HoCH(j)OB... 

A3 h ApMeH^K c aeHKOBeTe ch Ha paMO 6axMe OTBe^eHH Ha napTepHHfl 
eTaac b a^MKHHCTpaTHBHOTO KpHJio Ha 3aTBOpa. B e^Ha 3ana ce ci>6paxMe 45 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHu;H. Hakojiko Ha^HpaTejiH npOBe^oxa maTejieH o6hck. Rbh 
ce rjiaBHH^T Ha,n3HpaTeji, kohto hh cbo6iijh, ne me 6 r bjiQM OTBe^eHH Ha 
rapaTa noa CTpora oxpaHa. H3jifl30XMe ot 3aTBOpa h noflpeaeHH no 
neTHpHMa noexMe b nocoKa kt>m rapaTa c fleHKOBe na paMO, o6rpa r neHH ot 
B'Bop'BaceHH kohhh h neniH CTpa)KapH. 

Beme npea H3rpeB. no yjini^HTe HflMame ABHaceHHe, ijapeme m>jiHa 
THniHHa. HyBauie ce caMO qaTKaHeTO Ha CTpaacapCKHTe 6oTyniH h Ha 
KOHCKHTe KonHTa. 030BaxMe ce 3a# rapaTa h e^HH no ejxau, KaTO hh 
6poaxa, hh BKapaxa bi>b BaroH, npe,HHa3HaHeH 3a npeB03 Ha apecraHTH, c 
)Kejie3HH peuieTKH Ha np030pijHTe. Othobo HanpaBHxa noHMeHHa npoBepKa. 
HMauie Bi>HiHHa h BtTpeuraa oxpaHa Ha BaroHa. 3arosopHXMe ce etc 

133 



CTpaacapHTe. Te o6ane He d>o6mnxa Haio>fle 3aMHHaBaMe h oTTOBapaxa Ha 
BtnpocHTe hh c BflnraHe Ha paMeHe. Pa3CT>MBaine ce. Ka3Baxa, ne ce 
HaMHpaMe b 3anaflHaTa nacT Ha rapaTa. CKopo npHKannxa BaroHa kbm Bjiaic, 
kohto noe Ha 3anafl. TaKa pa36paxMe, ne me ntiyBaMe 3a CKonne. 

B CKoncKHH oGjiacTeH 3aTBop - <J>HJiHaji "HupmoBo" 

IlbTyBaHe 3a CKonne. 28 (JjeBpyapn 1943 r. Helena. BjiaKi>T Ha6n- 
paine CKOpocT. Benie OTHOCHTejiHO xy6aB, CBerbJi aeH. 3a Hac, npeKapajiH 

MHOrO flHH H MeCeiJH B 3aTBOpHHHeCKHTe KHJIHH, 6enie npH^THO ^a 

pa3rjie^cflaMe oKOJiHOCTHTe Ha Cocjwfl, xopaTa no rapHTe h b noneTO. 

Hakoh fla^e n^ea #a HannineM nncMa h aa rn H3nparaM He3a6ejiH3aHo 
ot oxpaHaTa. H3MtKHax ot aeHica TeTpa^Kara c njiHKOBe n Hanncax nncMo 
ao 6ain;a en, c KoeTO ro yBe^OMnx, hq 3aMHHaBaMe HaB^pHO b CKoncKM 
3aTBOp 5 ne ct>m flo6pe h ^a He ce 6e3noKOOT. IIhcmoto MyniHax npe3 
np030pii;HTe Ha BaroHa Ha e#Ha ot rapHTe cnefl Co(|)Hfl. Itfimca 3aBHx b 
xapraa, Ha kohto Hanncax: "Mojdi Bh, H3npaTeTe nncMOTO Ha aapecara. 
E[ojiHT3aTBOpHHK ct>m h ntTyBaM b HeH3BecTHa nocoKa c BJiaic". 3a no- 
rojiHMa cnrypHOCT Hanncax n BTOpo nncMO ,n;o 6paT en Enaroa n no CT>mMT 
HannH ro nycHax ot BaroHa Ha m>pBara cnnpKa cjie,zj ^paroMaH. H flBeie 
nncMa 6axa nojiyneHH b BaTaK. C^xpaHnjio ce e caMO e,nHO ot nncMara - 
TOBa ^0 6paT mh. Eto hctoboto cbfl'bp^caHne. 

28 (peepyapu 1943 ^. 

flpaeu Enaaomo, 

06aotcdaM ce nhmbOM. IThmyeaMe edna epyna om 45 
noRum3ameopHux\u. IJo ecHKa eepornnuocm 3a CKonue. Hue CMe mpema 
epyna, Konmo eduenaxa om 3ameopa. Che 3dpaeemo cbM mhozo dodpe. 
Xpanama, Konmo 6euie mnpamun nojiynux. life ce odadn eednaza cued 
Kamo ce ycmanoeuM. Ktde ne nu e ou\e meecmno. ITpednojiaeaMe, ne e 
CKonue ua pa6oma. JJpyeo hhmci. BnpeaM da nojiynume nucMomo mu. 
TaKoea U3npamux u ua mame. IJaK noemapnM, mhozo ckm dodpe. Xumdu 
no3dpaeu ua scuhku. 

BpamcKU npueem Amen 

P.S. Bene MunaxMe zpauux^ama (cmapama). /JpaeoMau MuuaxMe. Mhozo 
CMe dodpe! 

BnaKbT HaBJie3e b t. Hap. hoboocboGoachh 3eMH. MnHaxMe noKpaii 
U,apn6po#, Eajia najiamca, Hnni... BtHniHara oxpaHa 6enie noeTa ot boh- 
hhiih. Ha BCflica rapa Te CKanaxa ot cboa BaroH, kohto 6enie ao HaniHfl h 

134 



o6rpaaW axa BJiaKa: 4> a uiHCTKaTa BJiacT ce 6oeuie ot Hana,neHH5rra Ha loro- 
cjiaBCKHTe napTH3aHH. 3a6ejifl3ax, ne okojio rapHTe h MocTOBeTe HMa 
H3rp a # eHH 6y HKe P H > ot kohto ce noflaBaxa ayjiaTa Ha KapTeHHHijH. Ot rapa 
Hhui flo MaKeaoHM, t. e. npH npeMHHaBaHeTO npe3 cpi>6cKa TepHTopna, 
BJiaKvr ce oxpaH^Bauie ot hcmckh bohhhiih. Te crbpnaxa no rapHTe h 
okojio 6yHKepHTe ? BtoptaceHH c niMaihepH - 3a m>pBH m>T BH^yjax TOBa 
op'b^cHe. 

ri'BTyBaHeTO 6enie cnoKOHHO. CTpa^capHTe ce ,m>p>Kaxa CTporo, ho 6e3 
rpy6ocTH. na3exa hh, ho He hh o6pi>maxa BHHMaHHe h He npenexa Ha 
HauiHTe pa3roBOpH, 3aKaHKH h Ha6jnofleHH^ npe3 penierbHHHTe np03opijH. 
Mora a a OT6ejie^ca caMO eflHa cjiyHKa, koato e MHoro noKa3aTenHa 3a 
oTHOiueHHeTO Ha HacejieHHeTo h MJiafleaera kt>m Hac, nojnroaTBOpHHiiHTe. 

YcTaHOBHXMe KOHTaKT c BOHHHijHTe. Ha rapHTe Te HflBaxa Kpafi BaroHa 
h hh no3apaB5iBaxa c MaxaHe Ha pi>ue. Hakoh Bflnraxa lOMpyun 3a no3,npaB, 
t. e. noica3Baxa, ne ca HauiH npHOTejin, a MO>Ke 6h h cbMHimieHHijH. Okojio 
o6ha 3a6ejiH3axMe ? ne CTpaacapme h BOHHHijHTe noBe^oxa pa3roBop. no 
eflHo BpeMe BpaTaTa ce otboph, flBaMa bohhhuh BHecoxa njiaTHHiije h ro 
ocTaBHxa no cpe^aTa Ha BaroHa. B rniaTHHiijeTO HMame aeceraHa xjw6a - 
BOHHHijHTe hh OTCTtnBaxa nacT ot aa^c6aTa ch. npn6paxMe xjia6a h 
ropemo hm GjiaroflapHXMe. Ilpe3 u;ejiHfl aeH BOHHHijHTe HaMHpaxa HaHHH #a 
ce BH^a,aT c Hac, aa pa3roBapOT, ^a aaBaT ipirapH Ha nynianHTe. 

H3o6mo 5 T03H acH 6eme HHTepeceH, pa3Hoo6pa3eH. Bhahx rapn h 
cejinma, kohto no 6ht h apxHTeKTypa ce pa3JiHHaBaxa ot HaniHTe, 6axa no- 
6eAHH h etc cxjiyneHH KtmypKH. XopaTa 6axa no-H3Mi>HeHH h 6e,HHO 
oGjieneHH. no MajiKHTe hhbhhkh ce BHae^axa opann, hakoh ot kohto 6axa 
BnperaajiH bojiobc, ho noBeneTO H3noji3Baxa KpaBH h cahhhhhh kohc 
3anpeflCTaB^x ch hhbhtc no 6anpHTe okojio EaTaK, kohto cnrypHO ome 
6axa noKpHTH etc chat. OrponBrr peacHM Ha oxpaHaTa o6ane HanoMmmie, 
ne cbm 3aTBOpHHK h ce HaMHpaM b MajibK ntTyBam 3aTBOp. BoflexMe 
oacHBeHH pa3roBOpH noMeamy ch, cno^ejiflXMe BnenaTJieHM, H3Ka3Baxa ce 
necHMHCTHHHH h onTHMHCTHHHH npe,miojio>KeHHfl 3a HeH3BeCTHaTa HH 
ci>#6a. Bchhkh 6nxMe 6oapH. ^OKaTO ntTyBaxMe, ome no-ao6pe ce 
ono3HaxMe h cnjioTHXMe. B^XMe 3ae^HO c ApMeHHK, CaMH (CaMynji Hjiha 
Hhchm), Teoprn MapHHOB, Teoprn QKop>K) BtJieB, AHreji CnacoB, Bopnc 
ZJOHKOB, Bopnc BoraaHOB H flp. 

BenepTa okojio 22 h. npHcraraaxMe Ha rapa CKonne. CjunoxMe ot 
BaroHa h c aemcoBe Ha paivio, o6rpa^eHH ot CTpaacapHTe, MHHaxMe no MocTa 
Haa p. Bapaap h no e^Ha yjnma, no kooto nonra HflMame xopa, 6axMe 
OTBe^eHH b CKoncKM o6jiacTeH 3aTBOp. Tofl npeflCTaBJWBame CTap TypcKH 

135 



3aimaH, npHJiHMeH Ha MajiKa KpenocT, h ce H3flHraine Ha e^Ha BHCOHHHa, ot 
koato flo6pe ce BHacflaine cna6o ocBeTeHMT rpa^. ITpe3 roneMH ^cene3HH 
BpaTH BJi>i30XMe b flBOp, 3acTJiaH c KajifltptM h o6rpaaeH c bhcokh ctchh, c 
KyjiH no trnHTe, ot kohto Ha6nioflaBaHie CTpa^caTa. 3arB0pHHHecKaTa 
crpa^a 6enie HHCKa, BH^c^axa ce ome aflMHHHCTpaTHBHa crpa^a h KapayjiHo 
noMememie, oTfleneHH c MajiKa orpa^a ot flBopa Ha 3araopa. Ha6yTaxa hh b 
hakojiko khjihh. 3acnax Btpxy aeHKa, 6e3 aa pa3TBapflM oaeajioTO ch, 
3amoTO 6ax yMopeH, a ce 6oax h ot 6oKJiyijHTe no ijHMeHTOBHfl nofl. 

PaHO cyTpHHTa Ha 1. III. 1943 r., nibpBHfl npojieTeH aeH ? 6axMe CTpoeHH h 
npoBepeHH b ^Bopa h noexMe b HeH3BecTHa nocoKa. /JeHKOBeTe h ocTaHa- 
jiha 6ara>K HaroBapHXMe Ha KOHCKa Kapyi^a. ITofl CTpor kohboh H3Jifl30XMe 
ot rpaaa h noexMe no HAKaKBO moce. Ot KpafinibTHHTe Ha,miHCH y3HaxMe, 
ne BibpBHM Ha ioroH3TOK kt>m rpaa Benec. Beme acHa h Beapa yTpHH. 

MapTeHCKOTO cjibHije 3anoHHa aa CTonjia npeMpjb3HajiHTe hh b Co<|)hh- 
ckha 3aTBOp Tena. CBajrax niHHena h 4>ypa}KKaTa, koato no-KtcHO 3axBi>p- 
jihx HKKbRe KaTO HenoTpe6Ha Bene Bem, H3JiHineH yneHHnecKH aTpn6yT. 
Kpanex 6aBHO cpea rpynara, kooto nocTeneHHO, BibnpeKH BHKOBeTe h 
npHKJiaflHTe Ha CTpa^capcKHTe Kapa6nHH, ce pa3Teraa. BtpBax h ce pa^Bax 
Ha npHpo^aTa. MnHaxMe noKpafi hakoh MajiKH cejma, cnnpaxMe npe^ 
hakoh neniMH, kohto no CTap 6ibJirapcKH o6HHafi 6axa H3rpaaeHH TyK-TaM. 
Haa Hac npejiHTaxa ntpBHTe npojieTHH othhkh, b hhbhtc )khtoto Bene 
3ejieHeenie ? b jiHBa/jHTe ce BH^axa >khbothh. CpemHaxMe cenflHH c 
KapyitH hjih neniKOM, HapaMHJiH mothkh. H3MjbneHH 6ibJirapH MaKe^OHitH, 
OTHBamH #a pa6oT)iT HMOTa ch. B nojieTO ce BHflc/jaxa opann c bojickh hjih 
kohckh Bnp^roBe. Tneflax h ce paflBax, a b ctmoTO BpeMe ctpiteTO mh ce 
CBHBauie ot MibKa no oraeTara CBo6oaa. Bn^cflax, ne ctmHTe HyBeraa 
H3nHTBaT h MOHTe apyrapH no 6op6a h ynacT. 

Cjiea okojio 4-5 naca npHCTHraaxMe bt>b (Jmnnajia Ha CKoncKHA 3aTBop 
b m. HflpH30BO. EflXMe H3MHHajiH okojio 15 KHJioMeTpa. OTflajiene 3a6ejra- 
3ax nocTpoifrcH, CKynneHH okojio 3arB0pa, kohto 6euie o6rpaaeH c bhcokh 
CTeHH. Cnpflxa hh Ha inoceTO npea 3aroopa. TyK HMaine neniMa, koato 
BjbnpeKH BHKOBeTe h 3aKaHHTe Ha CTpa^capHTe, "HanaflHaxMe", 3a aa nneivf h 
aa ce ocBe^KHM. 06jiHBaxMe ce e/jHH apyr, no MJia^OKKH ce pa/jBaxMe Ha 
xy6aBaTa BOfla, 3a6paBHJiH yMopaTa h TOKKara ch ynacT. 

Hbpeirre ahh b H^piBOBO. Ot KapayjiKara, kooto ce HaMHpaine npe# 
Bxofla Ha 3aTBopa 5 H3JM30xa Ha^HparejiH, o6jieneHH b oMpa3HHTe hh nepHH 
yHH(J)opMH. Haa 5Kejw3HaTa BpaTa Ha 3araopa nponeTox Haannc ff Ka3HeHH 3a- 
BOflH n . ITocjie y3HaxMe ? ne TyK e HMajio TypcKH hh(J)jihk ? HapeneH no HMeTO Ha 
HeroBHa HAKoraineH co6ctbchhk H,apH3 6efl ? kohto BnocjieflCTBHe 6hji npe- 

136 



Bl>pHaT B 3aTB0p OT lOTOCJiaBCKHTe BJiaCTH, a 3aTBOpHHItHTe 6HJIH H3nOJI3BaHH 

3 a pa6oTa b CTonaHCTBOTO. Bi>jirapcKHTe BJiacTH He npoMeHHJiH hhiijo - Mfl- 

nH30BO CTaBa 6l>JirapCKH 3aTBOp, B KOHTO 3aTBapflT H H3MT>HBaT aHTH(|)aiIIHCTH 
OT LtapCTBOTO H OT npHCbeflHHeHHTe KT>M MaHKaTa Po^HHa MaKeflOHCKH 3eMH. 

TonHMaTa )Keji)i3Ha BpaTa ce otboph h HHe, npH#py)KeHH ot Ha^Hpa- 
xeJiH h CTpaacapH, BjmoxMe b flBOpa. TyK hh nocpenjHaxa npHCTHraajiHTe 
npe^H flBa-Tpn ahh HaniH apyrapn nojnroaTBopHHijH ot Co^hhckh^ 
ueHTpajieH 3aTBOp. Cjiea pi>KOCTHCKaHHH h nperpT>flKH Te hh BtBe^oxa b 
3aTBOpHHHecKaTa crpa^a. Ta 6eine ^ByeTaacHa, Ha bcckh eTaac HMauie no 
qerapH CTan c pa3Mepa Ha yHHJiHiijHH KJiacHH cran. BceKH ce HacTaHH b 

HHKOH CTafl, KaTO TbpCeUie npHflTCJIHTe CH H CbKHJIHHHHIJHTe CH OT Co(])HJI. 

C Teoprn MapHHOB, CaMynji Hhchmob (CaMH) h flpyrn ce HacraHHXMe 
3aeflHO Ha m>pBHfl eTaac. 

BT>p3axMe fla ce aflanrapaivie kt>m hobhtc yarcoBHJi. 3a6ejifl3ax, ne no 
cTemrre HHMa BJiara, KaKTO 6enie b CLJ3, b cTaHTe HMauie noBene CBeTJiHHa. 
Ha ropHHTe eTaacn ce KOB^xa HapOBe Ha no asa eTaaca. CTaHa jicho, ne me 
npHCTHTHaT h Apyrn rpynn 3aTBOpHHUH. Grcefl hakojiko flHH ynpaBaTa Ha 
3aTBOpa H3TOTBH cnHCBUH Ha 3aTBOpHHUHTe b a36yneH pea. A3 6flX 
nonHT3aTBOpHHK N° 2 c aflpec: rp. Qconne, 06jiacTeH 3aTBop (eronaHCTBO- 
to). Ome npe3 m>pBHfl Ren bchhkh H3npaTHXMe nncivia: Tpa6Baine m 
yBeflOMHM po^HTejiHTe h 6jiH3KHTe ch KbRQ ce HaMHpaMe, 3a aa He 
H3na,nHeM b ntJiHa H30JiaijHfl ot bt>huihhh cbat, kocto peajiHO hh 
3anjianiBauie. Eto ntpBOTO mh nncMO ao mohtc poflHTejin: 

CKonue, 1 Mapm 1943 ^. 

JJpaeu mame, 

Odaztcdaju ce om cmonancmeomo na Ckohckum 3ameop, Koemo ce 
uciMupa e'bH om epada. Che 3dpaeemo cbM mhozo dodpe. Kunuume ca 
dodpu. Uodoeeme ca om d-bCKU. 

H3npameme mu uonem no Bff)K (3a no-6-bp3o om noiijume) c ejiaeno 
xjih6 u mcijiko cjianuna. Mootce da ce 3a6aeu KOJiema, 3amoea xjind-bm Mootce 
da ce nanpaeu na cyxapu. 

Cto6pa3u ce c KUJioepaMume, Koumo ce donycKam 3a KOJiemume. 
OnaKoeKama da d^de neKa, 3a da Mootce da uMa noeene xjim6. 3aedno CMe c 
ApjueHMK (ApMememo). 

TlaK noemapnM etc 3dpaeemo ctM mhozo dodpe. TyK e mhozo no-monno 
om Co<puR. M3npameme mu edun Kajn>n canyn 3a npane, noepuDtceme ce 3a 
no-namam-bK da naMepume xuhuh u acnupun 3a e cnynau na nyotcda. 

Ceea mnpameme Konema c xjix6, cnanuna u 1 Kajitn canyn 3a npane. 

137 



Life eu nuiua cned edna cedMutfa n<m. Ehdeme chokouhu u ue ce 
mpeeoDfceme, mhobo ckm dodpe. Om dpyeo ue ce Hyjtcdan. 
Adpec: 3a noRum3ameopnuKa Amen 77. Hayxuee, 
Ckohcku odjiacmen 3ameop (cmonaHcmeomo), zp. Cnonue 
3aTBopHHHecKO evKeflHeBiie. 3aTB0pHHHecK0T0 hh OKe/uieBHe npofltji- 
)kh, ho npH hobh ycjioBHJi, flajien ot 6jiH3KHTe, 6e3 noflKpenaTa hm, 6e3 
xpaHaTa hm, 6e3 cBH^caaHH^. OTKbCHara 6axMe HantJiHO ot apyrHJi cbht. 
4)auiHCTKHTe nanaHH 6axa peuiHJiH aa hh nocTaB^T Ha m>jiHa roojiaima, 
aajien ot 6jih3kh, apyrapH h npjDrrejiH, 6e3 Bpi>3Ka c napTHHHH h peMCOBH 
opraHH3aijHH ? 6e3 hobhhh ot cipaHaTa h BenHKaTa Gnraa Ha Hapo^HTe 
npoTHB 4>auiH3Ma. Ho hccjiomhm e syx-bT Ha aHTH^auiHCTHTe. TyK, aajien ot 
poflHHfl Kpafi, a3 ome eflHH ni>T nonyBCTBax CHJiaTa Ha napTrarra h PMC, 
TexHHTe Bpi>3KH c Hapoaa. KbojiauHOTa 6euie 6i>p30 npeoflOJWHa. IlapTHH- 

HOTO H KOJieKTHBHOTO pfcKOBOflCTBO Ha 3aTBOpHHHeCKHfl KOJieKTHB yCTaHOBH 
no HeBHflHMH KaHaJIH KOHTaKTH C aHTH^aiHHCTH H naTpHOTH OT CKonHe H 
CO(|)Hfl. 

YcjiOBHATa 6axa tokkh. XpaHaTa h TyK 6euie cjia6a: 200-250 rp. xjw6, 
nocTHa h p^flKa nop6a, He aocTHraine nHTeftHa BO.ua, HManie onacHOCT ot 
MajiapHH. KoneKTHBi>T o6ane 6euie mhoto ao6pe opraHH3HpaH. Ome b 
m>pBHTe flBa-TpH #hh cnefl npHcraraHeTO HMaxMe HHimaeHT c ynpaBaTa Ha 
3aTBOpa, b kohto ce npoflBH HauiaTa opraHH3HpaHOCT h MfcflpocTra Ha 

pT>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha 3aTBOpHHHeCKHJI KOJieKTHB. TOBa 6eilie ntpBHAT ypoK, 

kohto aafloxMe Ha 3aTBOpHHnecKOTO HanajicTBO. Ha HeroBaTa ncecTOKOCT h 
6pyTajiHOCT ? HHe npoTHBonocTaBHXMe HauiaTa tbi>p,hoct, CMenocT h 
totobhoct 3a OTnop. nonynnxMe 6aKHTe c nop6aTa. 3a Hania H3HeHa,na tji 
chjiho MHpHuieuie Ha ra3. PeuiHXMe #a npoTecTHpaMe. Ho KaK? Pi>kobo,h- 
ctboto npefljioacn aa noHCKaMe cpema etc 3aMecTHHK-/mpeKTOpa Ha 
3aTBOpa ? kohto ynpaBJiflBame (JmjiHajia, aa h3jio)khm HauieTO Bi>3MymeHHe h 
aa OTKanceM xpaHaTa, ho TOBa aa CTaHe MHpHO, BHHMaTejiHO. Cpemy TaKOBa 
pa3peuieHHe Ha KOH^JiHKTa ce npoTHBonocTaBHxa rpyna ot 7-8 ayuiH 
aHapxHCTH. Te npefljio^cnxa aa BflHraeM CTaHKa, #a H3JieeM 6aKHTe npea 
AHpeKTOpa, aa HanpaBHM #eMOHCTpaijHfl b flBOpa Ha 3aTBOpa. Beuie hm 
o6acHeHO, ne ynpaBaTa me ce Bi>3noji3BaT ot TOBa, 3a aa 3a6paHH pa3- 
xoflKHTe, aa hh jihihh ot nncMa h ot CBH)KflaHe. Bee ome HflMaxMe Bpi>3Ka c 
6nH3KHTe ch h He Mo^cexMe aa pa3HHTaMe Ha noflKpenaTa hm. Hakoh ot Hac 
ujflxa fla 6i>flaT KapijnpaHH, meine aa HMa no6oHiu;a. ToBa He 6euie 
npHeMHHBO. PeniHXMe aa npnno5KHM apyra TaKTHKa - aa npoTecrapaivie, ho 
c ijeji aa nocTHraeM H3roflH, aa ce Bi>3noji3BaMe ot HapyineHMTa Ha 
3aTBOpHHnecKaTa ynpaBa h aa noHCKaMe CMeKnaBaHe Ha pe)KHMa. 

138 



- Bne He ere hcthhckh peBonioimoHepH, - Ka3Baxa aHapxHCTHTe. 

- ^eficTBaMe ci>o6pa3HO yonoBHATa, - OTroBapaxa hm ptKOBO/jHTenHTe 
Ha KOJieKTHBa - HHe Tpa6Ba /ja ctxpaHHM 3^paBeTO Ha 3aTB0pHHijHTe. 

IIoHCKaHa 6eme cpema ci>c 3aTBOpHHHecKHfl HanajiHHK. EaKHTe c xpaHa 
HapeflHXMe b flBopa h 3anaKaxMe. >Ibh ce 3aMecTHHK-flHpeKTOpi>T. 

- KaKBO HMa? IU,e GvjeTe HaKa3aHH 3a Heno/jHHHeHHe, 3a HapyuiaBaHe 
Ha npaBHJiHHKa 3a BtTpeuiHHfl pea! - 3anoHHa /ja BHKa toh. 

CnoKOHHO ro H3CJiyuiaxMe. npe/j Hac H3Jie3e XpHCTO AnocrojiOB (6afi 
XpHCTo). Toh Ka3a, ne e HaTOBapeH aa roBOpn ot HMeTO Ha bchhkh. 

- Hne 5 rocnoflHH /jHpeKTOpe, ce o6pi>maMe - klm Bac, ptKOBO/jeiiKH ce 
HMeHHO ot npaBHJiHHKa, Ha kohto Bne ce no30BaxTe. XpaHaTa, koato hh 
jiaBBTQ e aajien HeflocTartHHa h He cbOTBeTCTBa aaace Ha onpe^ejieHHTe 
MH3epHH HOpMH. Hop6aTa, kohto e b 6aKHTe npe/j Bac, MHpHine Ha ra3. 
#bho e, ne hhkoh 3noynoTpe6HBa ct>c 3arB0pHHHecKaTa xpaHa. Koh e toh, 
BHe Tpa6Ba aa yeraHOBHTe. Mojia Bh, npo6Bajrre nop6aTa h caM pemeTe 
Moace hh aa ce azje /jaace ot 3aTBOpHHK. 

H 6afi XpHCTO My no^a/je JitacHijaTa. Toh He a noe. HaBHpHO Bene 
3Haeme 5 ne nop6aTa MHpnuie Ha ra3. Cnen 6an XpHCTO 3aroBOpH >Khbko 
5Khbkob. Toh cnoKoeH toh Ka3a: 

- A3 cbm K>pHCT, MHoro /jo6pe no3HaBaM 3aKOHHTe h npaBHJimiijHTe. 
Hne MO^ceM /ja ce o6i>pHeM 3a 3amHTa kt>m 06jiacTHHfl npoKypop h 
aflBOKaTCKaTa o6mecTBeHOCT b CKonne h Co<f)Hfl. Hne CMe ocb^eHH 3a 
aHTH^aniHCTKa fleiiHOCT, He CMe npecTBnHHijH, a naTpHOTH. Hop6aTa He 
Mo^ceM aa npneivieM h peniHTejmo npoTecTHpaMe. 

3aM.-flHpeKTOp1>T BHflHMO CMCKHH Bpa^Cfle6HOTO CH fltpacaHHe H 

o6achh, ne e CTaHajio Heaopa3yMeHHe 5 ne npoayKTHTe ca ce cbxparoiBajiH b 
6jih30ct flo TeHeKHH c ra3 h ca nonnjiH MHpH3MaTa ii. OcTaHaxMe 6e3 Tonna 
xpaHa, ho npOTecxbT MHHa ycneniHO. Eeme acho, ne ynpaBaTa KynyBa 
eBTHHH h pa3BajieHH npo^yKTH h 3aeflHO cbc CHaG/jHTejiHTe 3JioynoTpe6flBa 
h Kpa/je ot MH3epHHTe cpe^cTBa 3a npexpaHa Ha 3aTBOpHHUHTe 3aT0Ba h He 
ce BflHTHa niyM okojio HaniHTe achctbh^. AHapxHCTHTe, kohto ce m>Hexa 
npe/j Hac c JibfluiHBaTa ch pcbojiioijhohhoct, MT>jraaxa h flyMa He 
npopoHHxa, He H3cnnaxa 6aKHTe npe/j KpaKaTa Ha 3aM.-flHpeKTOpa, KaKTO ce 
3aKaHBaxa /ja HanpaBAT. 

H 3a ome e^HH HHijH/jeHT ot no/jo6eH xapaKTep. B HaqajioTo Ha anpHJi 
3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa ci>o6mH, qe CKOpo me 3anoqHeM pa6oTa b 
CTonaHCTBOTO Ha 3aTBOpa, BpeMe 6hjio 3a nponeTHHTe 3eMe,zjejicKH pa6oTH, 
He hm flocrarajiH pa6oTHHi(H, a h 3a TOBa CMe 6hjih npexBi>pjieHH b to3h 
3aTBOp. ToBa o6ane TaKa h He CTaHa ao Kpaa Ha moa npecTOH b H^pH30B0. 

139 



CnyHH ce o6ane Hemo Apyro. Ka3axa hh, ne me 6enHM bt>p6obh npi>HKH, or 
kohto pa6oTHHi|HTe Ha CTonaHCTBOTo npn 3aTBopa me npaBAT koiiihhijh h 
KoniOBe. Ha CT>6paHH>i b khjihhtc o6ci>,zi;HXMe fla ce cirjiacHM jih aa 6ejiHM 
bi>p6obh npi>HKH b flBopa Ha 3aTBOpa hjih aa OTKa^ceM h aa ce npOTHBo- 
nocTaBHM no HflKaia>B HaHHH? EflHH 6)ixa "3a", a Apyra "npoTHB 11 . Oco6eHo 
KaTeropHHHa 3a OTpHijaTejieH OTroBOp h cbnpoTHBa 6euie rpynaTa Ha 
aHapxHCTHTe. Te Ka3Baxa, ne KonioBeTe me ce noji3BaT ot HeMijHTe, ne c tax 
me ce H3HacflT Moace 6h xpaHa 3a HeMCKaTa apMM Ha H3tohhha (J)poHT h t. 
h. ToBa npeflH3BHKBanie cmhx h mhoto 3aicaHKH. P^koboactboto Ha 
KoneKTHBa H3Jie3e c npeflJioaceHHeTO fla ce cbrnacHM, ho j\& nocTaBHM 
ycjioBM, kohto j\2i BOflHT flo o6jieKHeHHe Ha peacHMa b 3aTBOpa, a hmchho: 
6eneHeTO aa CTaBa Ha ^Bopa b onpe^ejieHH nacoBe, a khjihhtc fla He ce 
3aTBap^T flo 20 naca; aa ce noflo6pn xpaHaTa h «a cjicahm 3a npnroTBflHeTo 
fi b KyxHHTa; aa ce npHeMaT Ha pa6oTa nojiHT3aTBOpHHim h h3bt>h crpaaara 
Ha 3aTBopa - b eronaHCTBOTO, KyxH^rra h KaHijejiapH^Ta. Bo^nxa ce 
nperoBopH h ce nocTHrHa cbrjiacne no hakoh ot HCKaHHflTa. Pokhmt>t ce 
no,n;o6pH, flocTaBHxa hh noBene BO^a, Bpamre Ha khjihhtc npe3 ijejiHfl «eH 
6axa OTBOpeHH h HHe cbo6oaho ce pa3X05KflaxMe Ha flBOpa. /{oKapaxa 
Bi>p6oBH npi>HKH h th HaTpynaxa Ha flBopa. "nptHKoGeneHeTo", KaKTo Ha 
niera HapnnaxMe Ta3H pa6oTa, 3anoHHa c nope^eH HHim,n;eHT, CBi>p3aH c 
rpynaTa Ha aHapxHCTHTe. CyTpHHTa b 8 naca nofl Ha6jno;i;eHHeTO Ha 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe H3iw30XMe ot khjihhtc h c mhoto niern h Becejra 3aKaHKH 
3anoHHaxMe pa6oTa. AHapxHCTHTe o6ane He H3JDi30xa, He ce noflHHHHxa Ha 
3anoBeflHTe Ha 3arBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa. Cjiea ManKO o6ane Te ce noaBHxa 
Ha flBOpa, THHafiKH nofl yaapme Ha KonaHa Ha e^HH ot Hafl3HparejiHTe h 
3acTaHaxa npea KynHHHa bt>p6obh npi>HKH. BejieHeTO npo,m>Ji)KH caMO 
hakojiko flHH. KaKBO e CTaHano nocjie, cjiea MoeTO 3aMHHaBaHe, He 3HaM. C 
Te3H cjiyHKH ce H3Hepnn "pcbojikhjhohhoto" ffbpacaHe Ha aHapxHCTHTe 
npefl 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa. 

HapoBeTe Ha ropHHH eTaac 6axa totobh. Te 6axa flByeTaacHH h 
0(|)0pMeHH b 4 6noKa 3a Bcaica khjiha. Pa3nopeflHxa hh «a 3aeMeM nerapHTe 
khjihh, 6e3 o6ane aa onpeaejiflT koh b koa khjiha ^a ce HacTaHH. 
npeMecTBaHeTO hh npo,m>jraH «Ba-TpH ahh. A3, Teoprn MapHHOB h AHren 
CnacoB 3aexMe HapoBeTe b CTaa N° 2, koato HManie kukho rajioaceHHe. 
Pa3,zi;ejiHXMe ce c ApMeHHK - toh ce ci>6pa etc cboh apyrapH apMempi. 
CaMH Hhchmob ce npHCbeflHHH kt>m cbKOHcnnpaTopHTe ch. HaKpafl b 
HaniaTa khjihh cnea hakojiko pa3MecTBaHira ce CT>6paxivie 52 aynin - hobck 
flo HOBeK, HacTaHeHH Ha #ByeTa)KHHTe HapOBe. 

HauieTO ctojihc 3anoHHaxMe aa (|)0pMHpaMe CTOJineTa Ha ao6pOBOJiHH 

140 



H anaJia. HaineTo BKjnoHBame MeH, TeoprH MapHHOB (yneHHK), AHren 
CnacoB (cTyaeHT), Bopnc ,H,ohkob, Bjia^HMHp 3apKOB h JleoH JleBH. CKopo 
xpaHaTa ce bjioiiih ome noBene. Okojio flBe ce^MHijH cjie/i; npHCTHraHeTO hh 
o6ane ce nojiynnxa ntpBHTe kojicth h nncMa, kocto RcmxKbRe o6jickhh 
noJio^ceHHeTO hh. Ejih3khtc hh Bene 3Haexa Kbfle CMe, a TOBa 6enie MHoro 
sa^cHO. IlojiyHHX ntpBOTO nncMO ot TaTe, a cjie/i; TOBa h ot EjiaroiiHO, 
JIio6Ka h Jiejifl Mapna. Ha 31. III. h Ha 6.IV. nojiynnx kojicth c xpaHa, jicthh 
Apexn, 6ejn>o, khhth, TeTpa^KH, mojihbh, acnnpHH, xhhhh h pp., a HHKona 
CaMyHeB mh H3npara 300 jib. Teoprn MapHHOB, AHren CnacoB h apyrHTe 
ot cTOJineTO ci>mo nojiynaBaxa kojicth, kocto mhoto hh noMaranie. 

HacT ot xpaHaTa npe/taBaxMe 3a o6mo noji3BaHe ot 6ojihh h no- 
Hy>Maeiu,H ce apyrapn. Ot napHTe ei>mo OTflejiaxMe npoijeHT 3a o6mo 
noji3BaHe. IIojiyHeHaTa xpaHa H3pa3xoflBaxMe MHoro necTejiHBO. Teoprn 
6euie flOMaKHH Ha cranneTO, Bopnc My noMaranie. Qiomham ch KaKBa 
xy6aBa Mac, npeToneHa c mjiako, nojiynn b tojiam 6ypKaH TeoprH ot 
po^HOTO ch cejio fle6ejieii. "CaMO MafiKa mh yMee aa npaBH TaKaBa BKycHa 
Mac", Ka3Banie c rop/i;ocT toh. Tp>i6Ba HancTHHa aa e 6njia mhoto /i;o6pa 5 
3amoTO ome noMHfl BKyca h. MaacexMe a Ha tt>ht>k cjioh Btpxy (Jdhjihhkh 
xjih6 h th npeKapBaxMe c pa/ycaTa nop6HHKa. 

IIo HapoBe 6axMe cbce^H c xopaTa ot ctojihcto Ha He/i;ejiHO TaHHOBCKH: 

)KHBKO 5KhBKOB, IleHKO IleHKOB, ^HMH CTaHOCB H flp. HeCTO OpraHH3H- 

paxMe o6iu,a Tpane3a Ha ^BeTe CTonneTa hjih ch pa3MeH>ixMe npo#yKTH. 
EaxMe MJiaflH h He oxnaBaxMe 3HaneHHe Ha nonyrjia/uioTO ch ctmecTByBa- 
HHe, 6>ixMe onTHMHCTH, He roBopexMe 3a xpaHa, a HeraxMe, pa3roBapaxMe, 
pa3xoayj;axMe ce b flBopa, HieryBaxMe ce, TbpcexMe hobh 3ano3HaHCTBa etc 
3aTBOpHHi^HTe ot /ipyrHTe khjihh. 

He Mora aa He pa3Kaaca 3a apyrapHTe ot ctojihcto, c kohto flBa Meceija 
(MapT h anpHJi) aejwxMe ocKb^HaTa ch xpaHa, cnaxMe Ha e^HH Hap, 
flejiaxMe Tpy^HOCTH, pa^ocTH h n>rH, HeraxMe nncMaTa ch e/jHH Ha jipyr rn 
o6cb)KflaxMe. 

CTaHax mhoto floGtp npHOTeji c Teoprn MapHHOB, po/i;oM ot ,H,e6ejieij, 
BenHKOTbpHOBCKO, kohto 6euie ocb^eH 3a ynacrae b yneHHHecKa KOHcnn- 
paima b rp. nepHHK npe3 npojierra Ha 1942 r. EjiH30crra hh npo/t'bJDKH ro 
HeroBaTa KOHHHHa. HMaxMe e^HaKBa Cbfl6a - h ^BaMaTa 6axMe cb^eHH KaTO 
rHMHa3HajiHH OTroBOpHHi^H Ha PMC. TeoprH HManie 6nar xapaKTep, oGnna- 
uie pe#a h XHrneHaTa. HeTenie mhoto. Cjicu 1944 r. 3aBi>pHiH BHCiiie o6pa- 
30BaHHe bi>b BapuiaBa, cneiinajiHOCT MeTajiyprHfl. Pa6oTenie b Ojiobho- 
ijhhkobha 3aBO/i; b RbpflacajiH h b anapaTa Ha IJK Ha BKn. 06HHanie 
npo(J)ecH>iTa ch h nono^KH mhoto ycHJina 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha ijBeTHaTa 

141 



MeTajiypraa. Hhkojiko ioahhh toh pa6oTH h b anapaTa Ha ObBeTa 3^! 
HKOHOMHHecKa B3aHMonoMom. floKaro 6hx 3aMecTHHK-ceicpeTap Ha CHB % 
MocKBa npe3 nepHo^a 1981-1985 r., toh 6euie cbBeTHHK b oxuena 3a 
ijBeraa MeTanyprna h ce BH^caaxMe nonra eaceflHeBHO. 

AHreji CnacoB ot c. Ei>p3Hfl, MnxaHJioBrpa^cKO, CTyzjeHT-arpoHOM, 6euie 
oebfleH Ha 15 roflHHH 3a KOHcnnparHBHa achhoct B cTy^eHTCKa opra- 
mmipm. Oiea 1944 r. 3aBi>puiH bhcuicto ch o6pa30BaHHe h pa6oTH b Mh- 
HHCTepcTBOTO Ha 3eMe,n;ejiHeTO, KaKTO h b HHCTHTyTa no HKOHOMHKa h opra- 
HH3aijHH Ha cejiCKOTO eronaHCTBO, Ki>AeTO 6euie CTapuiH HayneH cbTpyzjHHK. 

BopHC ^OHKOB OT C. ToJIflMO MaJIOBO, Co(J)HHCKO, HIHBaHIKH pa60THHK, 

6euie ocb^eH Ha 15 roflHHH. MHoro KOHTaicreH, ho CKpoMeH, nojiarame 
ycHJiHH 3a caMOo6pa30BaHHeTO ch. Cjiea 1944 r. pa6oTH b opraHHTe Ha 
MBP h b MnHHCTepcTBOTO Ha TpaHcnopTa. 

JleoH JleBH, po^eH npe3 1926 r. b Co(j)Hfl, 6euie no-MJia/j ot Hac. Ka3Bax 
My JleoHHO. Toh 6euie nojiyHHJi 15 roflHuraa npHCb^a. Cjiea 1944 r. 

3aBT>pHIH BhCHIHA HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT, CneiJHaJIHOCT HKOHOMHKa Ha 

npOMHiHJieHOCTra, a no-KtcHO craHa h npenoaaBaTeji b HHCTHTyTa. Pa6oTHJi 

e H Ha pI>KOBOflHH AJTB2CH0CTH B H5IKOH MHHHCTepCTBa. 

BjiaaHMHp 3apKOB 5 poaeH b 1922 r. b c. TopHa CeKHpHa, riepHHimco, 
HManie 15 roflHuma npHCB^a 3a aHTH^auiHCTKa achhoct b Co(^h«. Cjiefl 
1944 r. 3aBT>puiH apXHTeKTypa h pa6oTeuie b npoeKTaHTCKH h CTpOHTejiHH 
opraHH3aijHH. 

rpn'/Kii 3a xnnieHaTa. Boaara 6euie HeaocTaTbHHa. IIoflBHxa ce 
napa3HTH. Ilpe3 e^Ha ot ereHHTe, kooto o6rpa^c«auie 3araopa, npoKapaxa 
BOflonpOBOAHa Tpt6a, ot koato Teneuie n>HKa CTpya BO^a - ronojmaxMe a 
3a MHeHe h nneHe. B 6jih30ct ao neuiMaTa nocraBHxa Ka3aH, b kohto 
TonjiexMe BO.ua 3a npaHe h 3a KtnaHe. Bt>b Bcjnca khjiha HMauie onpeaejiemi 
XHrneHHCTH, kohto cjiea^xa 3a cna3BaHe Ha HHCTOTaTa h 3a 3£paBeT0 Ha 
3aTB0pHHijHTe. Oco6eHH rpHHCH b TOBa OTHomeHHe nojiarame ^HMHTbp 
PycHHOB (floKTOp'bT). B HamaTa khjiha, a h b Apynrre, HMaxMe onpeaejieH 
"nac 3a HHCTKa Ha napa3HTHTe", KoraTO ch CBanaxMe apexHTe h BHHMaTenHO 
rn nperjieacaaxMe. Te3H npo^HJiaKTHHHH MepKH, Hapea c npaHeTO, fla^oxa 
pe3yjiTaT: b Hama khjiha napa3HTH He ce noflBHxa. Hne c Teoprn MapHHOB 
6axMe oco6eHO yctpflHH b TOBa OTHomeHHe. BpeMeTO 6euie Tonjio h no 
BpeMe Ha pa3xo#KHTe b ABOpa npaBexMe cjn>HHeBH 6aHH. 

Hobh 3ano3HaHCTBa. HMaxMe ,nocTa BpeMe 3a pa3xo^Ka Ha flBOpa. 

KHJIHHTe CTOflXa OTBOpeHH nOHTH npe3 IjeJIHfl ^eH. IIpH Te3H pa3XOflKH 5 

KaKTO h b CIJ3, Hne pa3roBapaxMe h 3aBi>p3BaxMe 3ano3HaHCTBa. TaKa 
ycTaHOBHX KOHTaKTH h c hhkoh no-H3«BeHH apyrapn: 

142 



HHKOJia IlaBJiOB (KoMapa), eaHa H3KJiK)HHTejiHO HaaapeHO jihhhoct, c 
roJi^M KOHcnnpaTHBeH oiiht, 6hbhi aeJioBoanTeji Ha LJK Ha EPII, octfleH no 
npoueca cpemy LJK npe3 1942 r. Ha hakojiko m>TH Bene 6eme H3Jie^caBaji 
npHCBflH no 33J\. Toh 6enie BcenpH3HaT napTneH ptKOBoanTeji Ha 

3aTBOpHHHeCKHfl KOJieKTHB B CKOnHC 

XpHCTO AnocrojiOB, poaeH npe3 1911 r. b rp. XapMaHJiH. OnnTeH 
napTneH aeflTeji. CjieaBaji b lOpHannecKHfl (JmKyjrreT, ctaeH MHoroKparao, 
c BHCOKa nojiHTHHecKa h o6ma KyjiTypa. Ilojiaranie roneMH rpHACH 3a 
3aTBOpHHijHTe. EaxMe b eflHa khjiha h HMax bt>3mo)khoct aa o6myBaM c 
Hero h aa H3nHTaM GjiaroTBOpHOTO My bjih^hhc 

He Mora aa He cnoMeHa HMeHaTa Ha )Khbko )Khbkob, KnpHJi Hhkojiob, 
Jleno Cre(])aHOB, )Kejifl3KO KojieB, )Khbko Hhkojiob, Heaenno TaHHOBCKH, 

MHTKO TpHrOpOB, ^HMHTbp PyCHHOB, HBaH MaHroB, Ctohh TlOpOB, 

ATaHac JIiotob, HHKona ToHeB, HBaH Komhtckh, Bacnji TepraHOB, OrecJmH 
Hb. BacHJieB, AHreji CojiaKOB h ap., kohto etc CBOflTa Kyjnypa h c 
nonHTHHecKOTO ch noBeaeHHe cnyacexa 3a npHMep h BJinaexa Btpxy 
Bi>3nHTaHHeTO h noaroTOBKaTa Ha apyrHTe. 

HHTepecHH jihhhocth, HaaapeHH c nncaTejiCKH h apTHCTHHeH Tanam, 
6axa JJp6pn 3KoTeB ? kohto necTo aeKJiaMHpaine craxoTBOpemifl, h nen>p 
By^HHOB. H flBaMaTa CTaHaxa Bceo6mn jho6hmij;h, oco6eHO Ha MJiaae)KHTe. 
C rax M05KexMe aa pa3roBap^Me no cepH03HH JiHTepaTypHH h nojiHTHnecKH 
Bi>npocH ? hjih aa 6t6pHM Beceno, Ha KoeTO Te 6axa roneMH MancTopH. 
BnocneacTBHe ,ZJo6pH )KoTeB CTaHa H3BecTeH noeT h nncaTeji. no-ao6i>p 
nnneH KOHTaKT o6ane HMax c nerbp EyaHHOB. npe3 1953 r. 3a ntpBH m>T 
noceTHX Earner . nHTax mccthh xopa 3a nexLp, ho b oiroBOp mh noKa3axa 
HeroB 6iocT-naMeTHHK b rpaaHHaTa Ha poaHOTO My cejiHme. y3Hax, ne e 
B3en ynacTHe b OTenecTBeHaTa BOHHa h e noHHHaji npe3 1949 r. 

Mofi ao6pH npHjrrejiH 6axa h no-Bt3pacTHHTe apyrapn XpHCTO neTpoB 
h Mnjieimco IUhhikob. C XpHCTO IleTpoB ce 3ano3HaxMe b 3aTBOpa. 
CtBceM H3HeHa#Bamo Haynnx, ne e poaeH b EaTaK, ho KaTO aeTe ce 3acejiHJi 
b nemepa, a nocne achbaji b KapnoBO h b Co<])Hfl. OetaeH 6enie Ha 15 
roaHHH c npoueca Ha IJK Ha napraaTa, KaTO ATaK Ha Tpafino Koctob. 
CKpoMeH, thx, o6hhjihb MOBeK. BereTapHaHeu;. HeroBaTa cecTpa acHBeeme b 
BaTaK h 6enie Hama ebceaKa. Ban XpHCTO MHoro ce ropaeeine, ne HMa 
6aTaniKH KopeH. Pa3Ka3a mh, ne ome 5-6 roaHineH 6hji ochhobch ot 
nemepCKO ceMencTBO, Kbaera H3pacHaji. Beme ce OTKtcHaji ot GaTanaHH, He 
no3HaBanie no-MJiaaHTe, ho 6enie 3ana3HJi 6aTaniKHJi ch ayx h TpaaHUHH. 
"Ako cbm >khb h 3apaB me aoftaa aa noflCHBea b BaTaK, aa o6hkoji^ 
BaTaniKaTa miaHHHa, aa ce nopaafiaM Ha Bptx KapjrbK, Ha mccthocthtc 

143 



BerjiHKa, Ciotkm h CeMH3a, Ha hhcthtc h 6ncTpH peKH", Ka3Bauie 6ag 
Xpnero, KoraTO ce pa3xo^cflaxMe b /jBopa Ha H,zjpH30BCKHfl 3aTBop. 
06Hnauie «a pa3Cb)KflaBa 3a HOBeuiKHTe xapaKTepn, 3a flo6pofleTenHTe, 
H3Ka3Bauie /jocTa MtapH mhcjih. A3 ro Bt3npHeMax no-cieopo KaTo 

TOJICTOHCT, OTKOJIKOTO KaTO KOMyHHCT. 

MHHaxa roflHHH h a3 3anoHHax no-,n;o6pe /ja oci>3HaBaM Mt/ipocTHTe Ha 
6afi XpHCTO. 3a nojiHTHHecieaTa ch aeHHOCT He roBopeuie, h to He ot 
KOHcnHpaTHBHH cboGpaaceHHfl, a ot ckpomhoct. 3anHTax ro 3a BnenaTJie- 
HH^ETa My ot Tpafino Koctob, KoroTO He caMO 6euie yicpHBaji (npeaocTaBHJi 
My 6euie KBaprapaTa ch), ho h ao6pe ro no3HaBauie. 'ToiuiMa h BcecTpaHHa 

JIHHHOCT, BHCOKO 06pa30BaH, ynopHT, KpaHHO pa60T0Cn0C06eH, aHaJIHTHHCH 

- flaBa BepHH oijeHKH Ha ci>6HTHflTa, cmch, a 3a npe/jaHOCTTa h y6efleHocrra 
My b KOMyHHCTHnecKH HfleH conaT aejiaTa My h Ha CBo6oaa, h b nojiniiMTa, 
h b 3aTBopa", OTroBopH mh toh. IIo3flpaBHTe flo cecTpa CH CO(|)Hfl TOH 
npeaaBauie Hpe3 mohtc nncMa ao 6anja mh. H^Mauie bt>3mo)khoct npaieo «a 
h nnuie, 3anjOTO HMauie npaBO «a H3npanja caMO e/uio nncMO Ha 15 ahh. 
IIpe3 cenTeMBpn 1943 r. othobo ce ci>6paxMe c 6aft XpncTO b 

ria3apfl^CHUIKH^[ 3aTBop. 

C MejieiiiKO IIIhiukob ce cpemHaxMe b flBopa Ha 3aTB0pa KaTO erapH 
no3HaTH. "O, AHrejie, h th jih ch Tyic", Bi>3KJiHKHa 6afi MejieuiKO h Me 
nperbpHa 6amHHCKH. IIo3HaBaxMe ce ome ot 1938 r. Toh HMauie pa6oTHJi- 
mma 3a K)praHH Ha yji. "IJap IIlHiiiMaH" cpemy II fleBHHecica rHMHa3Hfl, ao 
KHH^capHHijaTa Ha hhho Toflop, c kototo 6axa He caMO ctceflH, ho h flo6pn 
npH5iTejiH. 3aroBa 6afi MejieuiKO nonra Bcaica Benep, cjiea KaTO 3aTBopeuie 
pa6oTHJiHHijaTa ch, HflBauie b KHH^capHHijaTa aa oxm>xHe, m pa3MeHH 
mhcjih h oijeHKH 3a HAKoe cbGhthc, 3a nponeTeHa KHHra hjih CTaraa bt>b 
BecTHHK. A3 h 6paTOBHea mh AHreji xoflexMe b pa6oTHJiHHi^aTa My h 
Ha6jnoflaBaxMe KaK pa6oTH. 

Ban MejieuiKO hh npHBJiHHauie c floGpna ch xapaicrep h Han-Bene c 
no3HaHHATa ch no ecnepaHTO. Toh KopecnoHflHpauie c ecnepaHTHCTH ot 
mhoto CTpami, noKa3Bauie hh chhmkh, neTeuie hh nncMa. Chhmkh h 
ecnepaHTCKH KajieHflapn yKpacflBaxa CTeHHTe Ha CKpoMHaTa My pa6oTHJiHH- 
iia. IIpH cpemaTa hh b 3arB0pa 6aS MejieuiKO Me pa3nHTa 3a hhho Toflop, 3a 
KocTa BpaHneB, 3a npoMerorre, kohto ca CTaHajiH Ha yji. "IJap UlHuiMaH 11 h 
yji. "BeHejiHH M . Pa3Ka3a mh, ne 6hji octfleH Ha CMi>pT no nomeHCKHfl 
npoijec, ho 3aMeHHJiH npHct^aTa My c aoaoiBOTeH 3aTBOp. 

n IU,e naKaMe, AHrejie, ome roflHHa-flBe. MepBeHaTa apMHfl Hanpe^Ba b 
YKpafiHa h CKOpo me 6tfle Ha p. ,ZfyHaB n , 060611m CHTyaimaTa toh h ao6aBH 
hakojiko H3peneHHfl Ha ecnepamx), 3a aa npOBepH /janH He ct>m 3a6paBHJi 

144 



Ha yqeHOTO npH Hero. BnocjieACTBHe necTO Me npHKaHBauie /ja ci>6epa 
rpyna MJia#e)KH h ^a H3ynaBaMe ecnepaHTO. 

Ban XpHCTO h 6afi MeneniKO 6axa MHoro Ao6pH npHjrrejiH, BHHarH ce 
flBHHcexa 3aeflH0. 

IIOJIHTHHeCKa npOCBeTa H 3aHHMaHHfl. H TyK, B HflpH30BCKH>I 3aTBOp 5 

npofl'BJi^aBaxMe Aa neTeM, #a ca yHHM h caMoo6pa30BaMe. H3noji3BaxMe 
Hafi-pauHOHajiHO khhthtc, kohto #OHecoxMe ct>c ce6e ch ot CL(3. HMauie 
onpe^ejieHH 6H6jiHOTeKapH, kohto ce rpn^cexa 3a pa3npe/i;ejieHHeTO Ha 
KHHrHTe, a BceKH caM npeueHABame aajin ,na ce 3aHHMaBa c nojiHTHKOHO- 
MHfl, 4>hjioco$h)i ? HCTOpM Ha pa6oTHHHecKOTo flBH^ceHHe h ,np. Ci>3fla,noxa 
ce Kpi>)KOiiH, pi>KOBoaeHH ot #o6pe no^roTBeHH #pyrapH. 

A3 OTHOBO Ce 3aeX nOJIHTHKOHOMHflTa, KaTO H3nOJI3BaX HflKOH 3anHCKH ? 

flOHecemi ot CL(3 ot 3Kejw3KO KojieB. Herax h xyfloacecTBeHa JiHTepaTypa, 
c KOflTO rpn^cjiHBO Me CHa6flHBauie ^hmhtbp PycHHOB. B HauiaTa khjiha 

KOJieKTHBHO H3yHaBaXMe H HCTOpHOTa Ha BKTI (6) no KpaTKHfl Kypc Ha 

CrajiHH, H3fla^eH Ha 6i>JirapcKH e3HK b CCCP. Pi>KOBO,nHTeji h jieKTOp Ha 
KptacoKa 6euie 5Khbko }Khbkob. OpraHH3HpaxMe npenHCBaHera Ha Kypca 
Ha Teipa^KH- cbhtbiih no rjiaBH, kohto ce na3exa MHoro BHHMaTejiHO, 3a #a 
He rn otkphat Ha,n3HpaTejiHTe - Te Ha6nK)flaBaxa bcako Hame fleficTBHe h 
npaBexa BHe3anHH o6hckh. PfoynaBaHeTO Ha Ta3H KHHra 6enie none3Ho h 
npH^THO. ToBa CTaBame nonra BceKH ^eH bi>b BpeMeTO, KoraTO ce 3aKJiK>H- 
Baxa KHJiHHTe. }Khbko >Khbkob BO^euie 3aHOTH5iTa MHoro yBJieKaTenHO, toh 
HMauie acHa mhcbji h yMeeme #a no^nepTaBa Hafi-cbmecTBeHOTO, fla #aBa 
npHMepH, #a TBpcn hobh oGflCHemm Ha TeoperaHHHTe nono>KeHHfl, ^a ce 
ci>o6pa3^[Ba c m>CTpH>i CBCTaB Ha cjiyuiaTejnrre, cpe/t kohto HMauie CTy- 
fleHTH, ynemmn, pa6oTHHiiH, cejwHH h cjiyacHTenn, cbc cpe#HO, BHCiue h 
ochobho o6pa30BaHHe. Bchhkh c ron^M HHTepec cjiyiuaxa 6ece#HTe My. 

)Khbko }Khbkob c^auie no TypcKH Ha BTOpHfl eTaac Ha e#HH ot HapOBe- 
Te 5 cjiarauie Ha CKyTa ch KHHraTa h 3anoHBauie #a roBopn no onpe#ejieH 
Bi>npoc KaTO ce o6pi>mauie Ty ki>m eflHHM, Ty ki>m flpyrnfl Kpan Ha khjihh- 
Ta. IIpHKa3Bauie thxo, ho KaTeropHHHO, noHAKora noB^Hrauie pi>Ka, 3a ^a 
no^nepTae HflKoa oco6eHO BaacHa mhcbji, nojioaceHHe, cbGhthc hjih (JmKT. 
O^HTe My 6axa uinpoKO OTBOpemi, necTO noB^Hrauie MHoro3Hawrejrao 
rojieMHTe ch Beacon, 3a #a OTKpon hakoh 3HanHMH momchth. 

HHTepecHH 6axa h KpaTKHTe 6ece#H, kohto npOBe)K,naxMe cnea JieK- 
UHHTe Ha )Khbko )Khbkob. HauiH^T rpyna ot 7-8 Ayuin 6euie p^KOBO/teHa 
ot He^ejiHO TaHHOBCKH, kohto ce OTJinnaBauie c tojiamo Tpyaojiio6He h yM, 
c TaKTHHHOCT h yMeHHe /ja pa6oTH c apyrapHTe. Ei>p30 ro o6HKHax. Toh ce 
noji3Bauie c Bceo6mo yBaaceHHe. 

145 



Kt>m MOMetrra, KoraTO 6ax npeMecTeH ot H,n,pH30BO b na3ap,n)KHiiiKHH 
3aTBop 6axMe H3yHHJiH inecT pa3flena ot HcTopMTa Ha BKII (6). Hag- 
chjiho BnenaTJieHHe mh HanpaBH ruaBaTa, b koato ce H3acHflBaxa BtnpocHTe 
Ha flHajieKTHHecKHfl h HCTopHHecKM MaTepHajiH3i>M (mhcjia, ne 6euie tji. 
IV). B IIa3ap,zpKHiHKHfl 3aTBOp othobo H3ynaBaxMe HCTopHjrra Ha BKTI (6) h 
TaM CTHrHaxMe ao tji. VI. 

Hobh 3aTBopHHUii. Okojio Kpaa Ha MapT h HanajioTo Ha anpHJi 1943 r. 
3anoHHaxa aa npHCTHraT 3arB0pHHijH ot apyrHTe 3aTBOpH Ha Btnrapra. 
rioBeneTO 6axa MJia^H h HHTejinreHTHH. ToBa BHece pa3Hoo6pa3He b 

HCHBOTa HH. HOBH XOpa, HOBH 3an03HaHCTBa, pa3JIHHHH Cbfl6H. C MH03HHa 

ce cnpHjrrejiHx, a c hakoh no;mi>pHcaM Bpi>3Ka h aocera. 

Ot 3aTBOpa npn MHHa ff IlHpHH n npHCTHraaxa ^hmhtt>p IleTpOB 
(OaHTeTo) h BeprHJi Bohhob. H c flBaMaTa CTaHaxMe npHjrrejiH. IIo-TecHH 
Bpi>3KH HMax c Beprnji ot rp. IlepHHK, pa6oTHHK-CTpyrap. ^ecTo ce 
pasxo^aax h pa3roBapax c Hero h Teoprn MapHHOB, kohto 6euie yneHHK ot 
IlepHHiHKaTa rHMHa3H* h HMame o6iijh no3HaTH c Bepirui. 

C roiwM aBTOpHTeT ce noji3Bame ^hmhtbp IleTpoB (OaHTeTo). Toh 
BeflHara ce OTKpon c nojiHTHnecieaTa ch noflroTOBKa, c o6mHTejiHHfl ch 
xapaKTep h npHpo#HHfl ch HHTejieKT, c yMeHHeTO fla o6myBa, aa 6tfle Ty 
Beceji, Ty cepH03eH. CTaHa Jiio6HMeij Ha MJiaae^HTe h oco6eHO Ha njiOBflHB- 
naHH. IIo-ki>cho 6eme npeMecTeH b XacKOBCKH* 3aTBOp, OTKb^eTO H36araji 
h CTaHaji napTH3aHHH h nojiHTKOMHcap Ha OTpa^a "Ahtoh HBaHOB". 3arHBa 
npe3 4>eBpyapH-MapT 1944 r. 

Hafi-Ba^cHO eb6HTHe 3a MeH 6eme HflBaHeTO Ha nojiHT3aTBOpHHii;HTe ot 

ILlOBflHBCKHfl 3aTBOp. 3an03HaX Ce C nOHTH BCHHKH 3aTBOpHHIi;H OT 

IIjiOBflHBCKHfl Kpaii. Cpefl tax HMame rojiaMa rpyna ot c. Hexjiape - Mhtko 
h MaHOJi MaHOJioBH, MaHOJi Bpa6neB, Ilerbp ^eneB 5 Teoprn Cpe6peB, 6afi 
ATaHac KionyKOB (ok. 50 ro^HmeH) h pp. HMame hakojiko ayum ot ceno 
CBe^ceH: KptCTio KyHneB, PamKO PaimcoB, XpHCTO ,ZJaBHflOB, Cnac CnacoB 
h ap. Mhoto flo6pH cnoMeHH HMaM h ot nnoBflHBHaHHTe }Kejia3KO AHrejiOB, 
IJbotko TaroB, /Jhmhtbp HaieajiOB, Py,n;oji(|) JleBH h flp. 

Ot nepymnija 6axa nerbp CaBOB, AHreji ^hhkob h Ehi>o TomeB. C 
Ehbo ce cnpHATejiHXMe, aonaflHaxMe ch. Toh mh pa3Ka3Bame 3a po^HOTO ch 
macto, 3a ceMeficTBOTO ch, 3a ynacTHeTO ch b aHTH^auiHCTKara 6op6a. npe3 
Man ci>maTa roflHHa ro npeMecTHJin b Jiarepa Kpafi c. ^hhcbo, XacKOBCKO. 
Ycnan ^a H36ara h CTaHaji napTH3aHHH b OTpa,zja "Ahtoh HBaHOB n . npe3 
npojieTTa Ha 1944 r. b na3ap,u;)KHiHKHfl 3aTBOp npHCTHraa Becrra 3a HeroBa- 
Ta repoHHHa ra6eji b cpa>KeHHe c (JmuiHCTicaTa ^amjapMepM. TK3C b ne- 
pymniia Hoceme HeroBOTO HMe, c KoeTO cejiflmrre H3pa3Hxa CBOflTa noHHT 

146 



itt>M T03H repofi- napTH3aHHH, aaji acHBOTa ch b 6op6aTa npoTHB 4>aiiiH3Ma. 

IlHCMaTa. CBHTKjxaue c 6ama mh. KopecnoHfleHijHflTa c 6nH3KHTe 
npofltJiHaBanie. Ilmnex Bcaica ceflMHija b BaTaK hjih b Cocj>jra. B HananoTO 
na anpHJi H3npaTHX nHCMa ro EjiarofiHO h TaTe c MOJi6a m HanpaBHT 
nocrbnKH 3a npeMecTBaHeTO mh b IIa3ap,ipKHiiiKHfl 3aTBOp hjih b 3arBOpa npn 
mhhh "IlHpHH". TojiflMa 6enie H3HeHaaaTa mh, KoraTO okojio cpe/jara Ha 
anpHJi Me H3BHKaxa Ha CBH5KflaHe. ToBa CTaHa b eflHa KaHijejiapHfl h3bt>h 
3aTBOpa. 

Bjijbox h bha^x cpeiuy MeH TaTe. 3flpaBHcaxMe ce cbpaeHHO. Ton Me 
me^aine tbacho. Ct>ji3h ce nojiBHxa Ha OHHTe My. MtajiHax, any MeH cbiijo 
HanHpaxa ct>ji3h. He acajiex ce6e ch. CTaHa mh mt>hho 3a CTpaaaHHHTa Ha 
poflHrejiHTe mh. TaTe H36i>pca ci>ji3HTe ch. Ci>B3e ce. 

- ^OHecox th xpaHa, flpexn, khhth, MajiKO xhhhh h acnnpHH. 
rioctBeTBax ce c poahhhh b Co^hh h peuiHXMe aa HCKaMe aa Te npeMecTHT 
b 3aTBOpa b E[a3apfl»cHK. Byftno th Ore(|)aH Ka3a, ne e hob h CKopo me 
3anoHHe 3acejiBaHeTO My. HaBflpHO b Hero me H3Jie^caBaT npncbflH rnaBHO 

riOJIHTHHeCKH 3aTBOpHHIJH. TbpCHM npHHTCJIH Ha HaiHHTe pOflHHHH, KOHTO 

aa noMorHaT 3a npexBT>pjiflHeTO th. B^npocbT 3a npeMecTBaHeTO ce 
pa3peuiaBa ot Mhhhctcpctboto Ha npaBOCbflneTO. Byftno th HMa hhkoh 
no3HaTH ? 6paTOBHeflHTe 6para rionoBH - ci>mo. Tpa6Ba h th aa noanHuieni 
MOJi6a 3a npexBi>pjwHe KaTO h3jio)khih, ne Hcxam aa 6i>fleHi 6jih3ko ao 
ceMeficTBOTO ch, KoeTO no-necHO me Te H3fli>p^ca. A3 ce KOJie6aex... Ton Me 
norjieflHa TpeBO)KHO, pa36pa pa3flBoeHHeTO mh. Haxpaa Bee nax noanncax 
MOJi6aTa 3a npeMecTBaHe. 3aroBOpHXMe 3a poflHHHHTe, 3a hobhhh ot BaTaK, 
3a BoeHHHTe achctbh^ Ha H3tohhha 4>poHT no ei>o6meHHflTa Ha 
6tJirapcKHTe bccthhijh, KoeTO noycnoKOH 6aiu;a mh. Toh mh ci>o6iim, ne 
Byfino JIhko e H3npaTeH b KOHijjiarepa "EeneHe". 

Ha,zj3HpaTejDrr Me noBe^e kbm 3aTB0pa, hhoto BpaTa 6enie caMO Ha 
hhkojiko MeTpa. C Hac TpT>raa h TaTe. CnpaxMe h ce c6oryBaxMe. BpaTaTa 
ce OTBOpH h a3 xjii>THax b flBOpa. Eanja mh c HHTepec Ha^HHRHa BT>Tpe 
npe^H BpaTaTa 6aBHO aa ce 3aTBOpH. Bhx pa/jocTeH, ne ce bhahx c Hero, ho 
h mhoto CMyTeH h Harb^ceH ot MT>icaTa, koato toh H3nHTBanie h kooto 
HaB^ipHO 6eme o6xBaHajiH h Maftica mh. Ta Me pa36Hpanie no-;i;o6pe ot 6aiija 
mh, ho 6enie no-KpexKa, MafiHHHaTa MtKa 6enie no-CHjma, no-cbKpyniH- 
TejiHa. Pa3Ka3ax Ha apyrapHTe 3a cpeujaTa, 3a pa3roBopHTe h 3a MOJi6aTa. 
Oco6eHO noapo6HO onncax CBH^cnaHeTO h HacTpoeHHeTO Ha 6ama mh Ha 
6afi XpHCTO AnocTOJiOB, kohto 6enie napTHeH ottobophhk Ha KHJiHjrra. 



147 



IIpeMecTBaHe h ni>TyBaHe #o IIa3ap#5KiiiiiKiiH 3aTBop 

IIpe3 ntpBHTe #hh Ha Man (Ha 3-th hjih 4-th) e^Ha cyTpHH 6ax npe^y- 
npeaeH fla no^roTBfl Garaaca ch h cjiea flBa naca #a ce zbz npe# BpaTaTa Ha 
3aTBOpa 3a OTntTyBaHe. Ci>6pax CKpoMHHfl ch Garage h ce cGoryBax c 
ApyrapHTe. IIo^cejiaxMe ch CKopo ^a ce bhahm naK Ha CBo6o#a, nojiynnx h 

nOptHKH, KOHTO npH BT>3MO)KHOCT fla npe^aM Ha HflKOH OT 6jIH3KHTe HM. 

XpHCTO AnocTonoB h HnKOJia IlaBJioB (KoMapa), nojiHTHnecKH ptKOBO/m- 
TejiH Ha KOJieKTHBa, Me H3BHKaxa h mh fla^oxa hakoh Ham>TCTBHfl 3a 
Atp^caHHeTO mh no BpeMe Ha ntTyBaHeTO (Te HMaxa tojiam onHT b TOBa 
OTHonieHHe); KaKBO a a ci>o6mfl Ha 3aTBopHHijHTe ot Ckohckha 3aTBOp, aKo 
yenea #a ce cpeujHa c tax; #a npe^aM onHTa Ha HauiHfl 3aTBopHHHecKH 
KOJieKTHB b IIa3apfl^cHHiKHH 3aTBOp, mo ce oraacfl ao opraHH3aiiHHTa 5 
napTHHHaTa npocBeTa, noaroTOBKaTa Ha npoijecHTe h fltpacaHeTO b cb#a h 
t. h. Ka3axa mh, ne He 6nBa #a ce npe^npHeMaT GarcTBa 6e3 peuieHHe Ha 
ctOTBeTHHTe napTHHHH ptKOBOflCTBa h 6e3 ocnrypeHH jibkh. ToBa npenn 
Ha napTHHTa #a opraHH3Hpa Ghtctboto Ha napTHHHH (j)yHKijHOHepH, kohto 
ca ocoGeHO HeoGxoflHMH Ha ptKOBO^CTBOTO Ha aHTH(|)auiHCTKaTa 6op6a, 
3amoTO cnefl bcako Ghtctbo poKHMtT ce 3aT^ra. 

Okojio o6jm 3acTaHax npe^ roji^MaTa acejifl3Ha BpaTa h 3anaKax, o6rpa- 
fleH ot npHHTejiHTe ch. #bh ce Hafl3HpaTeji h Me H3Be,n;e ot 3aTBOpa. B noMe- 
meHHeTO OTnpea 6ax o6ncKHpaH, a GaraacBT mh - npoBepeH. KoHBOHpaH ot 
nojiHijan, Btopt^ceH c nyimca, a3 noex no m>Tfl kbm CKonne, no kohto 6hx 
AOhtbji npe^H ABa Meceija. ^eHKa ch nocTaBHx b e#Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKa 
Kapyija, HaTOBapeHa c Garage h pa3JiHHHH 3eMeaejicKH ceHHBa, koato ce 
ABH^ceuie ycnope^HO c Hac. CrpaacapOT npe3 noBeneTO BpeMe ce B03euie, a 
noHHKora mh pa3peniaBauie h a3 #a omaM b KapyijaTa 3a MajiKO. CjrtHijeTO 
HanHHanie, pa,n;Bax ce Ha npHpo^aTa. H3nHTBax CMeceHH nyBCTBa. Eax 
TbaceH, ne Tp^6Banie fla ce c6oryBaM c e^HH npeKpaceH kojickthb, c mohtc 
flo6pH apyrapH. Mhoto mh fla^e T03H kojickthb, mhoto Haynnx 3a flBa 
Meceija, 3ano3Hax ce etc 3a6ejie)KHTejiHH xopa. Tt>)khoto nyBCTBO o6ane 6e 
noTHCKaHO ot paflocrra, ne me Gt^a 6jih3ko ao poahoto ch macto - caMO 
Ha 36 km ot EaTaK, me Mora #a ce cpemaM necTo c po^hkhh h no3HaTH. 

Ha BJiH3aHe b CKonne CTpaacapOT ce nonpHCTeraa, ohhcth npauiHHTe ch 
GoTyuiH h c nyimca b ptKa Me no^Kapa 3a# KapyijaTa. npe^H 3ajie3 cjn>Hije 
3acTaHaxMe npe/i; no3HaTMT mh Bene Ckohckh 3aTBOp. CTpaacapflT npe#afle 
naKeTa c ^OKyMeHTHTe mh Ha oxpaHaTa, a t% Me OTBe,n;e b e^Ha khjihh Ha 
npH3eMHM eTaac, koato ce OKa3a Kapijep. BenepTa 3aTBOpHHitHTe 6^xa 
nycHaTH 3a pa3xo^Ka H3 ^BOpa h yenax ^a ce CBtp^ca c tax. Ha flpyrn^ ^eH 

148 



H e 3aMHHax. TbMHHnapHTe mh Ka3axa, ne b Coc])Hfl HMajio 6jiOKa#a bt>b 
Bpi>3Ka c y6hhctboto Ha o. 3. nojiKOBHHK A. IlaHTeB. Taica npeKapax flBa 
^eHa b CiconcKHfl 3aTBOp. IlycKaxa Me Ha flBOpa 3a pa3X0AKa, KoraTO 
3aTBOpHHijHTe 6axa b KHJiHHTe ch. C tax pa3roBapax npe3 "uniHOHKaTa", 
KoraTO Te ce pa3xo)Kflaxa ? a a3 ctoax 3aKJiioHeH b KHJiHOTa. IIomojihx th 3a 
cpema c npeflCTaBHTeji Ha pt>kobo,u;ctboto Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKHfl kojickthb. 
TaicBB cjiea MajiKO ce abh. Pa3Ka3ax My 3a nonHT3aTBOpHHHecKHfl kojickthb 

B HflpH30BO ? KOJIKO flyiUH Ca, nOMOJIHX TO OT HMeTO Ha TaMOIHHOTO pT>KO- 

BOflCTBO aa npefljio^caT Hpe3 6jih3khtc ch Ha hakoh aflBOKara h o6mecTBe- 
hhuh aa noceTflT 3aTBOpa h flaaox HMeHaTa Ha hakoh 3aTBOpHHijH, c kohto 
xe 6nxa motjih aa ycTaHOBAT Bpi>3Ka. 

rionpHKa3Bax h c flpyrn 3aTBOpHHijH. IIo BpeMe Ha pa3xoflKaTa hm npea 
MOOTa uinnoHKa nocTOAHHO HManie acejiaemn aa oGmchat h^ko* ayMa c 
MeH. OKa3a ce, ne noHTH bchhkh nojiHT3aTBOpHHii;H ca MaKeflOHCKH 
6i>JirapH ? ocbfleHH 3a aHTH(|)aniHCTKa /jchhoct. Pa3nHTax HMa jih hakoh ot 
rp. KonaHH. CKOpo ce abh MJia^oK: 

- A3 ci>m ot KonaHH. 3flpaBeHTe ? flpyace. 

06achhx My, ne HMaM cbyneHHHKa ot KonaHH, koato npe3 1942 r. 
3aBT>puiH Ti>proBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl b Co(J)H5i - HaflH IIonoBa. 

- O, 3HaM 5i. Hchhhat 6paT e TyK. 

CjieA hakojiko MHHyTH npe/i; imiHOHKaTa ce no^BH MJiafleac Ha okojio 
25 r. Bi>3pacT. 

- A3 ct>m 6paTbT Ha Ha,a# - Ka3a toh. 

- Bne HaBflpHO CTe Bjiarofi. Ha^a mh e pa3Ka3Bajia 3a Bac. H a3 HMaM 
6paT Ha HMe Bjiarofi h 3a TOBa 3anoMHHx BameTO hmc C Hea ynnxMe b 
Ti>proBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. EaxMe npraTejiH, HJieHyBaxMe b e^Ha peMCOBa 
opraHH3aijHfl - npeflCTaBHX ce a3 Ha Bjiarofi IIonoB, kohto npe3 70-Te 
roflHHH meuie aa CTaHe MHHHCTtp-npeflceflaTeji Ha Peny6jiHKa MaKeaomifl.* 

HaflKa IIonoBa npHCTHraa b Co(|)Hfl npe3 1941 r. ot Eejirpa# h 
npofli>Ji»CH o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. 3ano3HaxMe ce c 
Hea b HananoTO Ha yne6HaTa ro^HHa npe3 cemeMBpH. Beuie mh npe/jCTa- 
BeHa ot HeHHaTa 6paTOBneflKa ? kooto ei>mo ce Ka3Banie Ha/pea IIonoBa h 
6euie HJieH Ha PMC b rHMHa3H5rra. Ta 6i>p3o ce aaanrapa b HOBaTa 
o6cTaHOBKa h ce bkjiiohh b aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a. H3Hece flOKJiaa no 
MaKeflOHCKH^ Bi>npoc npefl hakojiko rpynn MJiafle^cn b rHMHa3H5rra h b 



* BjiaroH IlonoB (1920-1992) cjich 1944 r. 3aeMa pe^Hua bhcokh .zjjtdkhocth, 6hji e KMeT Ha 
CKonne (1963-1969), a npe3 1974-1978 e npeflceflaTen Ha H3m>JiHHTejiHHfl ct>bct 
(llpaBHTejiCTBOTo) Ha CP MaiceflOHHfl. 

149 



KBapTajia "KpacHa nojuiHa", KbfleTO acHBeeuie npH cboh poflHHHH. Ejiarog 
mh pa3Ka3a, ne Ha^ e 6HJia Ha cBHac^aHe npe/jH hakojiko ahh, npe#ana My 
e nepBeHH aniia no cjiynafi BejiHiyjeHCKHTe npa3HHijH. A3 onncax Ha 

BnarOH yCJIOBHOTa B HflpH30BCKHfl 3aTBOp, ECHBOTa Ha nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJHTe, 

ci>3flafleHaTa opraHH3aitHH Ha KOJieKTHBa. Ha pa3#HJiaTa, toh Me noMOJiH #a 
Hannuia nncMO Ha Ha^Ka, tt>h KaTO toh e MHoro orpaHHHeH b KOpecnoH- 
fleHijHHTa ch. H3ni>jiHHX 3apT>KaTa Ha Ejiaron h ome bt>b BJiaica Hanncax 
nncMO flo Ha,mca, nncax h noBTOpHO h ot IIa3ap,zpKHHiKH)i 3aTBOp. Eto h 

HeHHHfl OTrOBOp. 

17 Mau 1943 a. 

flp. Hayiue, 

Kojiko mhozo Me U3ueuada nucMomo mu y cbiifeepeMeHHO ce u 3apadeax. 
Tu cu 6wi c Enazou. Kojiko mhozo mu 3aeuoicdaMe gcuhku. Oh e dodtp. J\a 
3uaeMe zo Hue moea. flodpu cMe gcuhku. Tu kcik cu? MnmepecyeaMe 
3dpaeemo? rnedau KOJiKomo e ettMootcno noeene na nezo. M3jiuiuho e da 
mu npuKa36dM 3a nezoeama u^euuocm. M Hue CMe myK do6pe. Ttu Kamo CMe 
cu npu doMaumume cu, uanu? 3a Men ce uwnepecyeaiu. Padomn. 
Cnemoeodumen na eduo npednpunmue. MMaM do6pa 3aruiama. Toea e 

6CUHKO. 

3a BenuKden 6hx e Cxonue npu Enazou, da 3naexMe y ne u mu cu maMO 
cuzypno u^hx da m-bpcn ceuotcdane u 3a me6e u da me 3apadeaM c HHKoe 
BenuKdencKo nui^e. Ho ceza e eene Kbcuo. Tu cu 6jiu3ko do ceoume, tye mu 
mnpaiifam noeene. Tlpedu edna cedMutfa mu ce 6eiue odadwi BenuKO. 
Cmeznana My ce dyiuuijama - acKep uoeeK. IJ-bK omzope u canmuMenmaneH. 
KaKeo u^e My npaeuiu - ucua zo. 

Hanu 3Haeiu kojiko oduuaM da cjiywaM, Kozamo nee cnaeen, me omuda 
no-6nu30 do max, 3a da Moza no-do6pe da zu pa36epa. Ha Monma... dyiua 
uyotCHO e moea. Te ca 6jiu3ko do KaHijenapuxma mu u tyo da ne omuda? 
Hayuie, numu My na Enazou nouHKoza. Toil om uac eene no-pndKO u^e 
nojiyuaea, a sue ceza ce 3uaeme - uanu? Ha Meue nedeu mu eene nuca. A3 
Mootce 6u naK u/e mu nuiua, 3a da mu 3haetu monnuH adpec. 

rnedau ece naKyMuo da otcueeeiu u maMO. Tu cu Mnad u scuhko Mootceui 
da omnecetu. Ha3u cu 3dpaeemo - kojiko e 6-b3MOJtCHO noeene. 3a ceza 
mojiKoea. TaMO Ha gcuhku mhozo nponemnu ucKpenu no3dpaeu om Men. 

B TOBa nncMO Ha/ja IlonoBa bct>iu;hoct mh ci>o6maBa, ne OTHBa npH 
napTH3aHHTe, kohto Hapnna "cjiaBen". He noMHfl fla ctM nncaji noBene 
nncMa Ha Hea h Ha Bjiarofi. no BpeMe Ha Thtobhh peacHM b lOrocjiaBH* He 

150 



cMeex fla HanpaBfl TOBa, 3a m He hm HaBpe#fl. IIo-kt>cho ? Koraro 6ax 3aM.- 
ceKpeTap Ha CHB b MocKBa, cno,nejiHX c nocTOAHHHfl npeflCTaBHTen Ha 
jOrocJiaBHH, kohto 6euie ot Hhui, ne no3HaBaM Bnarofi ElonoB h HaAfl 
rtonoBa. Oica3a ce, ne rn no3HaBa h ne #BaMaTa 6hjih H3BecTHH jihhhocth... 
H ome e^HH cnoMeH bt>b Bpi>3Ka c npecToa mh b Ckohckhh 3aTBOp. 
3aM.-flHpeKTop Ha 3aTBopa no TOBa BpeMe 6euie e^HH 6hbui CTyzjeHT-iopHCT 
c npHKOp MyijaTa, KoroTO no3HaBax. HaBpeMeTO toh raynaBame naTHHCKH 
e3HK npH yHHTejiH MonnaHOB, pycKH eMHrpaHT-6ejiorBap,zjeeij, kohto 
)KHBeeuie no# HaeM y hhho To/top. MyijaTa 6euie floGtp npHATeji c 
MoJinaHOB, noceiijaBanie ro Hecro, CBHpeuie Ha KHTapa h #BaMaTa 3ae#HO 
neexa pycKH poMaHCH. Hne c 6paTOBHe,n; mh AHreji noHAKora xo^exMe npH 
tax h rn cjiyuiaxMe. Cnefl KaTO ce flHnnoMHpaji KaTO lopHCT, MyijH 6hji 
Ha3HaneH 3a 3aM.-flHpeKTop Ha Ckohckha 3aTBOp. IIpe3 np030peija Ha 
KaHitejiapHHTa ch toh Me bh,h#ji, HaGjiKwaBaji Me no BpeMe Ha pa3xo#KHTe 
mh b flBOpa. Ho TaKa h He mh ce o6a^H - cnrypHO ce e CTpaxyBaji, hjih My e 
6hjio Heyao6HO. KaKTO pa36pax no-KtcHO o6ane, toh 3Bi>HHaji no Tene(|)OHa 
Ha MojinaHOB h My ct>o6iij;hji Kora me MHHa npe3 rapa Co(|)Hfl, a toh npe^aji 

TOBa Ha HHHO TOflOp... 

Cnefl flBa flHH, paHO cyTpHHTa, b KOBanHHitara mh nocTaBHxa Bepnra, 3a 
ni>pBH ni>T h nocjie^eH ntT b >KHBOTa mh. KoHBOHpaH ot e^HH CTpa^cap, 
noex neniKOM kt>m rapara, KB#eTO Me BKapaxa b apeeraHTCKOTO Kyne 
3aeflHO flBaMa cneKyjiamrH, kohto Tpa6Banie #a 6i>flaT ctfleHH b Coc|)Hfl. 
IltTyBaxMe ^o6pe. 3aTBOpHHHecKOTO Kyne 6euie no-yioTHO b ot khjihhtc Ha 
3aTBOpa. Bece^Bax ei>c cm>THHijHTe ch, Te mh pa3Ka3Baxa 3a HacTpoeHHeTO 
Ha HaceneHHeTO b MaKe^OHHfl, 3a rojwMaTa pa#ocT npH nocpenjaHeTO Ha 
StJirapcKaTa apMHfl h ycTaHOBABaHeTO Ha 6i>JirapcKaTa BJiacT, ho h 3a 
pa3onapOBaHHeTO ot hakoh HaniH KopyMnnpaHH ,m>p)KaBHH hhhobhhijh h ot 
cneKynaTa, kooto ce BHXpH b "hobhtc 3eMH". C HHTepec HaGjuo^aBax 
MecTHOCTHTe, noKpaii kohto MHHaBaxMe, h xopaTa, kohto ce TbJinaxa no 
rapHTe. 

BenepTa 6axMe b Co(|)hh. 3aKapaxa Me b apecTa Ha "ETanHOTo" - 
apecTaHTCKOTO noMememie Ha rapaTa. Bjia30x b rojiflMa khjiha h 3acTaHax 
npea BpaTaTa. IIoMemeHHeTO 6enie npem>JiHeHO, a rne^KaTa 6eme y^cacHa. 
Ha Hapa 6axa HacflflanH hjih HajiarajiH apecTaHTH - 6i>jirapH h ijnraHH. 
HMaiue h npaBOCTOfliijH. E#hh ot apecTaHTHTe 6euie ci>BceM ron. 

- Th KaKtB ch, 6e, MOMHe, KaKBO npecTbnneHHe ch h3bt>puihji? - nonHTa 
e^HH ot ijHramiTe h noorneaa BepnraTa mh, kooto abho ro pecneKTHpanie. 

A3 no#p'i>HKax c BepnraTa h OTroBOpnx: 

- nOJIHTHHeCKH CT>M. 

151 



- A..., 3anoBjmaH, csmafi! - Ka3a jxpyr apecxaHT h mh HanpaBH mhcto. 
Bjiaro^apHX, ho He ce^Hax, a npofli>JDKHX #a ctoa #o BpaTaTa. noHyB- 

CTBaX BHHMaHHe H yBa)KeHHe KBM nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJHTe. 06flCHHXa mh, He 

rojiHOT e jiya, kohto H36>iraji ot 6ojiHHijaTa, ho 6hji 3ajiOBeH h cera no 
eTaneH pea ro Bpi»majiH b po^HOTO My macto. IIpeflH nac H3naflHaji b 
KpocT h pa3Ki>caji apexHTe ch. A3 My no^aflox uiHHejia ch, kohto Hocex Ha 
pt>Ka h My npe^JioacHX aa ce o6jiene. Ton Me nonieflHa, 3acMH ce, B3e 
uiHHejia h ro o6jiene. 

3anoHHaxa aa Me pa3nHTBar, Hemo, KoeTO e o6HHaftHO Meayjy 

3aTBOpHHI(HTe. 

- ,H,acKajie, KaKBa npHcvja HMaui, KbRe Te Kapar, OTKVje ch? - 3anoHHa 
e^HH ot apecTaHTHTe. 

OTroBopHX Ha BMpocHTe My. "JlyflMT", KaTO pa36pa ne ct>m ot EaTaK, 
ce pa3flBH^cH h mh Ka3a, ne e ot EpaipiroBo: 

- A3 HMaM 6paT b BaTaK, cjia^Kap e. 

- IIo3HaBaM ro, Ka3Ba ce Mnjiyui - OTroBOpnx My a3. 

Cjiea okojio nojiOBHH nac 6ax H3BHKaH ot CTpa)Kapa, kohto mh noaafle 
naKeT c xpaHa: 

- T03H naKeT th ro H3npama r-H Ctohji CaMyHeB - Ka3a CTpa^Kap^T h 
KaTO norjie^Ha kbm apecraHTCKOTO noMemeHHe #o6aBH: 

- >I ejia b npneMHOTO noMemeHHe, ne TyK me Te Hana^HaT h me th 
OTHeMaT xpaHaTa. 

Ce^Hax Ha e^Ha neHKa, otbophx naKeTa. XpaHaTa 6euie 6oraTa h 
BKycHa. 3anoHHax cbc cjiaflKHiHHTe. Cjiea ManKO floftae h hhho Ctohji 
CaMyHeB, ni>pBH 6paTOBne,n Ha 6ama mh, kohto fltp^Keuie 6K)(J)eTa Ha 
pecTopaHTa Ha rapara. ]1o3bojihjih My CBH)K,n;aHe, noHeace CTpa^Kapme 
floGpe ro no3HaBanH, Hecro ce HaBtpTann b pecTopaHTa h noji3Bajin ycjiy- 
rHTe My. Pa3roBopHXMe ce. ]1o-tohho a3 6i>p30 ce xpaHex, 3amoTO BpeMeTO 
3a Tpt>rBaHe Ha BJiaKa 3a ILiOBflHB Ha6jiH5KaBauie, a hhho Ctohji roBOpeuie. 
Ka3a, ne HacKopo ce cpeman c TaTe, ne hhho To^op Bnepa Hanpa3HO Me e 
naKaji Ha rapaTa. Bjmoxa rpyna CTpa^KapH h CBH5KflaHeTO ce npeKbCHa. 
Othobo Me BKapaxa b Kayuia. 3anoHHaxa noereneHHO ,na npHBHKBaT 
apecTaHTHTe h #a th OTKapBaT. EflBa cjie^ nojiyHom H3BHKaxa MeH h ome 2- 
3 ayuiH. OTKapaxa hh b apecTaHTCKO Kyne Ha BJiaKa 3a Hjiobjxhb nofl 
oxpaHaTa Ha #BaMa CTpa^KapH. 

PaHO cyTpHHTa npHCTHrHaxMe b IIjiob,zjhb h 6axMe oTBe^eHH b 
eTanHOTO KOMeHflaHTCTBO, pa3nojio)KeHO b paftoHa Ha rapaTa. OKa3a ce, ne b 
E[a3apfl^cHK H)iMa eTanHO KOMeH^aHTCTBO h 3aTOBa TpnGBano #a Me OTKapaT 
ni»pBO b rijioBAHB, a e,n;Ba cjiea TOBa maxa aa Me Bi>pHaT b na3apfl^cHK. B 

152 



KHJiHflTa, KVteTO onaKBax na3apflflCHuiKHH BJiaK, 6flXMe 7-8 /jyniH. Ce^sx Ha 
neHKa, a BepHraTa 6ax nycHan Ha no^a. BctmHOCT, a3 e/jHHCTBeH 6hx c 
pepHra. B KOpH/jopa ce ny HiyM h 6opHHKaHe. 

- A3 HeroBaTa MaMa. LU,e ro y6Hfl, nycHH Me! - Kpemeine hhkoh. 

- HaKafi, 6e, He e toh. To3h 3aTBOpHHK e MJia/j, ynemiK - ao6aBH #pyr 
rjiac. - Eto npOBepH. 

IlInHOHKaTa ce OTBOpH. 

- J\a, ce noicaace AHren HayineB. 

A3 CTaHax h 3acTaHax b cpe^aTa Ha Kaynia. 

- Eto ro, bhec, yneHHK. 

Mbeckh rnac H3ncyBa h innnoHKaTa ce 3aTBopn. A3 ce /jocerax KaKBO e 
cTaHano. nocne CTpaacapHTe pa3Ka3axa, ne e/jHH CTpaacap nponen Btpxy 
naKeTa, kohto Me npH/tpyacaBaine, hmcto AHren HayineB, noMHCJiHJi, ne e 
XBaHaT napTHsaHMHtT AHren HayineB, h HCKan aa Me y6HBa. 

Cnefl flBa naca OTm>TyBaxMe 3a na3ap;pcHK. Benie Bene CBerao. Ha ne- 
poHa HManie tojmm 6pon m>THHijH. A3 HapOHHO noflptHKBax c BepHraTa h 
npHBHHHax BHHMaHHeTO hm. CTpaacapOT Me OTBe^e b KyneTO 3a apecTaHTH. 
Cjiea ManKO flpyr CTpaacap flOBe/te e^Ha aceHa. OKa3a ce, ne TOBa e CnaBKa 
TyMHepoBa, CMpyra Ha Jlio6eH TyMHepOB, kohto 6enie e/jHH ot pi>KOBOflH- 
TenHTe Ha napTH3aHCKOTO ABHaceHHe b ]Ia3ap,zpKHinKHfl Kpafi. 3ano3HaxMe 
ce. Ka3a mh, ne % apecTyBajiH b AceHOBrpa/t, Kb/jeTO Snjia Ha tocth y 6paTa 
Ha Mi>)Ka ch. Flo BpeMe Ha e/tHonacoBOTO hh m>TyBaHe c HHTepec cnyniax 
pa3Ka3HTe Ha CnaBKa, kohto ce TpeBoaceine 3a cbfl6aTa Ha cbnpyra h 
ceMeficTBOTO ch. Ta npe/tnojiaranie, ne me h HHTepHHpaT 3ae#HO c 6jih3kh- 
Te Ha napTH3aHH ot U,epoBO h flpyrn cena ot IIa3ap,zpKHniKa okojihh. 
H3Ba^H ot naHTaTa ch e^HH canyH h mh ro no/ja/je. OrpaacapHTe He hh 
npenexa, a Ha rapa IIa3ap,zpKHK npe/yio)KHxa aa HaeMaT (j)afiTOH, 3a aa hh 
OTKapaT flo okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe Ha MBP, KoeTO ce HaMHpanie Ha 
okojio 3 km. A3 npe/yioacHX /ja BtpBHM nema, BMpeKH BepHraTa. CnaBKa 
norne^Ha o6yBKHTe ch c bhcokh tokobc h Ka3a, ne He Moace aa H3MHHe Te3H 
Tpn KHnoMeTpa ro ynpaBJieHHeTO. ILiaTHXMe. H TaKa ^BaMaTa apeeraHTH h 
ABaMaTa CTpaacapH m>TyBaxMe ro nojiHijeficKOTO ynpaBJieHHe c (j)aftTOHa. 
TyK ce cSoryBaxMe etc CjiaBKa TyMHepOBa, 3a aa ce bh^hm othobo cnefl 

rOflHHH... 

Cjie/t KpaTi>K npecTOH b flBopa Ha okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe noex 
nema, KOHBonpaH ot CTpaacap, kt>m HOBaTa crpaaa Ha 3aTBOpa, kohto ce 
HaMHpanie h3bt>h rpa#a no inoceTO 3a IlaHarcopHme. Bhx npeBT>p3aji 
BepnraTa c KonaHa ch h h Hocex 3a y^oScTBO npeMeTHaTa npe3 paMO. 
MnHaxMe noKpafi na3apa h xopaTa, rnaBHO cejnmH, kohto npo^aBaxa 

153 



CBOflTa npoflyKEtfM, Me 3^naxa c HHTepec. HapoHHo no^ptHKBax c Bepnra- 
Ta, kooto pa3rjieac,nax KaTO chmboji Ha 4>aniHCTKOTO MpaKo6ecne, a hchhh- 
Te HOCHTejiH - KaTO naTpHOTH. Kojiko npH^THO e aa rjie^ani KaK xopaia 
HaoKOJio ce flBHflcaT cbo6o,zjho, pa3roBapOT, KynyBaT hjih npo^aBaT. ToBa 
Me HaKapa aa ce 3aMHCjra kojiko 6jih3ko cbm ao po^mm EaTaK, #o 
ceMeiicTBOTO h po^HKHHTe, ao npMTejiH h apyrapH... 

Bene 6axMe h3bbh ot rpa,na, BH^yjax 3aTBOpa c HeroBHTe bhcokh ctchh 
h CTpa^ceBH KyjiH. Benie xy6aB cjitHneB aeH. Okojio 3aTBOpa 3ejieHeexa 

HHBH H JIHBaflH, B ITbJIHa flHCXapMOHHfl CbC CHBHTe 3HflOBe Ha 3aTBOpa. 

CTaHa mh mt>hho, He cjiea hakojiko MHHyTH h a3 me xjibTHa b Ta3H crpa#a. 
CtpijeTO mh ce cbh. Ta a3 cbm oiqe MJiaa, a Tpa6Ba Han-xy6aBHTe ch 
roflHHH aa npeKapaM cpe/j Te3H creHH, OTKBCHaT ot apyrapHTe ch, ot 
6op6nTe Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl npoTHB 4>aniH3Ma. Mhoto ot mohtc 
ApyrapH Bee no-aKTHBHO ce BKJiiOHBaxa b 6op6aTa, hakoh ot tax 6axa Bene 
napTH3aHH. YTemaBax ce, ne BOHHaTa CKOpo me CBtpuiH c nopaaceHHe Ha^ 
XHTJiepocjmuiHCTKa repMaHM, ne h b 3arBopa cbhjo ce bo,hh CBoeo6pa3Ha 
6op6a, ne h mie, njieHHHijHTe Ha (j)auiH3Ma, cbiu;o cMe nacT ot 
aHTH(|)auiHCTKaTa 6op6a Ha Hapo/ja. 

B HOBIIH Ila3apA>KHlllKH 3aTBOp 

CTpa^capHT Me npefla^e Ha TBMHHnapHTe, o6jieneHH b nepHHTe ch 
yHH(J)opMH. 0(J)opMHxa #OKyMeHTHTe, o6ncKHpaxa Me h npoBepnxa 6araaea 
mh. EflHH Hafl3HpaTeji Me noBe,ne. H3Ji^30XMe ot KapayjiHOTO noMemeffiie h 
BJiM30XMe b crpa^aTa Ha 3aTBOpa, MHHaxMe npe3 hakojiko BpaTH h 
nona^HaxMe b e^HO npH3eMHO noMemeHHe, KoeTO 6euie KOBaHHHija. 

- CBanH My BepnraTa - 3anoB^a Ha,zj3HpaTejiflT Ha hobck b 

3aTBOpHHHeCKH flpexH. 

Ton pa3HHTH BepnraTa, koato hochx noBene ot nerapH ReuoHowjan, h 
ocbo6o«h KpaKa mh. Hakoh BJie3e b noMemeHHeTO h (JmrypaTa My mh ce 
CTOpH no3HaTa. Brjie^ax ce no-ao6pe. Upeji mqu CToenie 6aii AjieKca 
KojiyHHee, octaeH npe3 jiototo Ha 1942 r. no t. Hap. "BaTaniKH npoi^ec". 
BHHarn cbm ce OTHacaji kbm Hero c tojiamo yBaaceHHe. Toh ce npnGjinacH, 
CTHCHaxMe ch ptije h ce npertpHaxMe. 

- Ex, AHrene, AHrejie, Kt/je ce BHayjaMe! 3Haex, ne ch b Ckohckhh 3araop 
h onaKBax, ne CKOpo me ce bh#hm. TyK e IIoneTO (rierbp T. BpaHHeB) h 
rpyna ot /jeceraHa nojiHTHHecKH 3aTBOpHHijH. MeH Me H3npaiu;aT bt>b 
BpanaHCKH^ 3aTBOp, Kb/jeTO me paGora b HiHBauiKa pa6oTHJiHHija. 

AjieKca KojiyHHeB 6e HJieH Ha BKQ oiu;e ot MJia/jeflCKHTe ch ro^HHH. 
npe3 jmtoto Ha 1941 r. 6euie ceKpeTap Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aima b 

154 



BaxaK. npH onHT ^a 6-bfle apecTyBaH h HHTepHHpaH, toh h HHKona BenKOB, 
ceK peTap Ha PMC b EaTaK, npeMHHajiH b HejierajmocT, a npe3 cenTeMBpH 
cbfflaTa roaHHa ce bkjiiohhjih b ntpBaTa 6aTaniKa napTH3aHCKa neTa 3aeflHO 
c 6para HHKOJia h TeoprH HojiaKOBH, Gpara AHreji h Hjiha HaymeBH, 
Toflop KojiapOB h IleTbp HefineB. 

Ilo-K-bCHO npe3 3HMaTa Ha 1941-1942 r. 6afi AjieKca ce yKpHBaji b 
EaTaK, ho 6hji 3ajiOBeH h ocbfleH c rpyna aHTH(J)ainHCTH ot EaTaK, PaKHTOBO 
h CapaHeBO. Kbm MOMeHTa Ha HamaTa cpema toh Bene 6eme npeKapaji 18 
Meceua b 3aTBOpa. BepnraTa, koato CHexa ot MeH, 6eme nocTaBeHa Ha 
Kpaica Ha AjieKca. riocbBeTBax ro KaK aa ona3H OKOBaHHfl ch KpaK ot 
HapaH^BaHe c xajiKaTa h KaK no-yao6HO aa hoch BepnraTa. Cjiea TOBa 6an 
AjieKca 3aKyuyKa, no/jptHKBaHKH c BepnraTa, no cboh m>T ki>m BpanaHCKHa 
3aTB0p, ot kohto H3Jie3e Ha 9.IX.1944 r., a Ha 10.IX. a3 6ax eflHH ot 
nocpemaHHTe My b poflHHfl BaTaK. 

KoHBOHpaH ot Hafl3HpaTeji, BIUI30X b npneMHOTO noMememie, KbfleTO 

eflHH 3aTBOpHHK-KO(f)Te OT BeJIOBO MH flafle CbBCeM HOBH 3aTBOpHHHeCKH 

flpexH h Me noBeae ki>m 6aH#ra. Ta npeacTaBJWBame khjiha c hakojiko 
KOpHTa h neuiMH c Tonjia h CTyaeHa BOfla. H3Ktnax ce c rojiaMO yaoBOJi- 
CTBHe, o6jwkox hobo 6ejn>o h HOBaTa ch panpaHa 3aTBOpHHHecKa "yHH(|)op- 
Ma ff h othobo 6ax OTBe,zjeH b npneMHaTa, KbfleTO npn6paxa mohtc co6cTBe- 
hh flpexH (KypTKa h naHTajioH). Ot aeHKa mh pa3peniHxa aa B3eMa caMo 
jihhhh Bemn: TeTpaflKH, mojihbh, khhthtc, canyH, neraa h naera 3a 3i>6h. 

noBe^oxa Me kt>m KHJiHsrra. CnpaxMe npea roji^Ma pemeTbHHa BpaTa, 
oxpamreaHa ot Ha#3HpaTeji. Toh otkjiiohh h HHe TptraaxMe Harope no 
CTT>ji6HnjeTO ao Tperaa eTaac, Kt/teTO hh OTBOpnxa ome e#Ha acejifl3Ha 
pemeTbHHa BpaTa, 3a #a BJie3eM b KopHflopa. Ot #BeTe ctchh ce peaaxa 
KHJiHHTe c acejie3HH BpaTH c mnnoHKH. 3acTaHaxMe npe;j khjihh N° 16, 
nocjie^HaTa Ha eTaaca. Hafl3HpaTejiOT Hafl3tpHa npe3 mnnoHKaTa, nocjie 

6bp30 OTKJIIOHH H OTBOpH BpaTaTa. 

- Eto bh hob flpyrap. HacTaH^Bafi ce, Kb,zjeTO HaMepnni macto - o6i>pHa 
ce Ha#3HpaTejiii ki>m mch. 

Iloorjieflax ce. KnjiHflTa 6enie aocTa rojiflMa, c 12 Jieraa, noKpHTH etc 
3aTBOpHHnecKH oflejuia. Hacpema mh BHacflax 10 cypoBH h MtacecTBeHH 
roma, kohto rpeiiHaxa b ycMHBKH. 

- ,H,o6pe flonnwi, apyrapio, OTKbfle H^Bani? 
H3BeflHi>^c nyx no3HaT rjiac: 

- AHrejie! 

H3BtpHax ce h b jiabo npe/t e^HO ot nerjiaTa bhaax Ilerbp r. BpaHHCB 
(IIoneTo), H3BecTeH 6aTaniKH KOMyHHCT, octfleH no EaTauiKHa npoijec KaTo 

155 



ceKpeTap Ha napraHHaTa opraHH3aijHM 3aeAH0 c AjieKca KojiyHHeB. Ton 
6eme e^HH ot ocHOBaTejiHTe Ha PMC h Ha EPII, aKTHBeH o6mecTBeH #eeij h 
bhcoko yBa^caBaH 6aTanaHHH. 

- O, 6afi IleTpe! - OT30Bax ce a3. IIperbpHaxMe ce. H ome e^Ha H3HeHa- 
fla. TyK 6eine h 6afi HBaH /JaM^HOB ot c. BapBapa, c KoroTO ce 6axMe cpe- 
majiH npefl ^eKeMBpH 1942 r. b CIJ3. 

IlpeflCTaBHxa mh h ocTaHajiHTe hh cbkhjihhhhiih: HBaH nemeB, CTy- 
#eHT, HJieH Ha E3HC, octfleH no npoijeca cpeiuy T. M. ^hmhtpob (TeMeTo), 
h 6paT My Teopra IlemeB, HacKOpo 3aBT>puiHJi rHMHa3Hfl, HJieH Ha PMC; 

6paTfl ^HMHTbp H Ilerbp KopCHMOBH, H flBaMaTa 3aBT>pIHHJIH THMHa3HH; 

KHpHJi CnnpoB, yneHHK; To^op KoeB h Ctoah TonajiOB. Bchhkh Te 6axa ot 
c. Majio KoHape. Eahhctbcho BacHJi, hhoto (])aMHJiHfl cbm 3a6paBHJi, 6euie 
ot BapHeHCKO, h CKOpo cjiea MoeTO npHcraraHe 6eine npeMecTeH blb 
BapHeHCKH^ 3aTBOp. Bchhko aeceT ayniH, a3 6ax eflHHaaeceTH. Onpe/je- 
jiHxa mh Jierjio ^o TOBa Ha Ilerbp BpaHneB h Me !f 3aHHCJiHxa" ki>m HeroBOTo 
"cTOJine" 3aeAHO cbc CnnpoB, /JaM^HOB h Bacnji. OcTaHajiHTe 6axa o6e#H- 
HeHH flpyro CTOJine, KoeTO HapeKoxMe "ManoKOHapcKo", tt>h KaTO bchhkh 
TaM 6axa CT>cejiHHH. CtTpy^HKHecTBOTO MOK^y CTOJineTaTa 6eine 6paTCK0, 
pa3flejieHHeTO HMame ycjiOBeH xapaKrep, HanpaBeHO 6eme caMO 3a 
y#o6cTBO. 

HanpaBHxa mh BnenaTJieHHe HHCTOTaTa h jiernaTa. B KHJiHOTa HMauie 
Maca h eTaacepKa, a npe# bcako Jierjio - Ta6ypeTKa, np030pijHTe c acejie3HH 
peineTKH 6axa MajiKH h bhcoko Ha ereHaTa, nonra no;j TaBaHa, o6ane npe3 
tax BJiH3anie flocTartHHO CBeTJiHHa. Hape^nx 3aTBOpHHnecKHTe ch BemH Ha 
e^Ha ot KJieTKHTe Ha eTaacepKaTa. Ce^Hax Ha Ta6ypeTKaTa npea JierjioTO h 
pa3Ka3ax Ha hobhtc ch apyrapH 3a CU,3 h CKoncKM 3aTBOp - H#pH30BO. 
Te3H pa3roBOpH npo^MDRHxa h npe3 cjie^BamHTe ahh. 

^pyrapHTe no6tp3axa ,na Me 3ano3Ha^T c npaBHJiHHKa 3a BtTpeiiiHHfl 
pea b 3aTBOpa, kohto 6eine MHoro CTpor h TpaGBame ce cna3Ba ctphktho. 
Ka3axa, ne 6hji pa3pa6oTeH Ha ocHOBaTa Ha hcmckh npaBHJiHHijH. HaKa3a- 
roDrra 3a HapymeHHfl 6axa MHoro roneMH. C rojiMMa tohhoct 6axa (J)hkch- 
paHH nacoBeTe 3a CTaBaHe, 3aKycica, pa3xo^Ka ? o6e^ 5 Benepa. JLiraHeTO 
6eine b 22 naca IIpe3 rqhx He ce pa3peinaBaHie jiaraHe h amaHe Ha JiernaTa. 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe necTO hh npOBepflBaxa npe3 HinnoHKaTa. BparaTe ce 
OTBapaxa 6e3inyMHo h BHe3anHO. Bnocjie^cTBHe pokhmt>t ce H3MeHH, 
3amoTO 3aTBOpi>T ce 3acejiH c okojio 500 nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH h cna3BaHeTO Ha 
npaBHJiHHKa 6eme Tpy^HO 3a 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa. A h Hanmxr 
KOJieKTHB cbmo HMame cboh npaBHJia, kohto npoTHBonocTaBaine Ha 
oc^HijHajiHHTe npaBHJiHHijH Ha (JmniHCTKaTa BJiacT. 

156 



Tp*6Ba aa OT6ejie>Ka, ne ntpBOHanajiHHOT MajitK 3aTBopHHnecKH 
KOJieKTHB e 6hji npeMecTeH ot OrapHfl 3aTBOp b Hobm ^Be ce^MHijH npe^H 
MoeTO npHCTHraHe. /JpyrapHTe mh TyK ome HMaxa aocTaTi>HHo onm, 

TpaflHUHH H yCTaHOBeHH Bpt3KH C napTHHHHTe ptKOBOflCTBa H OpraHH3aiJHH 
B ria3apfl^CHK H pOflHHTe HM MeCTa. HH(|)OpMaiJH* 3a nOJIHTHHeCKHTe 

ci>6hth)i o6ane nojiyqaBaxa pe/jOBHO, 6hjio ot 6jih3kh npH CBHayjaHHATa, 

6HJIO OT aflBOKaTH, OT KpHMHHaJIHH 3aTBOpHHIJH, H3m>JIHflBamH pa3JIHHHH 

pa6ora b 3aTBopa, /jaace h ot Hafl3HpaTejiH npn HenpHHyzjeH pa3roBop c tax. 

B asha cjiea npHCTHraHeTO mh oGcvtfiXMe hakoh BtnpocH, CBi>p3aHH c 
opraHH3aimjrra Ha KOJieKTHBHH* achbot h paijHOHajiHOTO H3noji3BaHe Ha 
BpeMeTO 3a caMoo6pa30Bamie. IIo30Bax ce Ha mhcjihtc Ha Teoprn 
#HMHTpOB, H3Ka3aHH B nHCMOTO My flO HeTOBHfl mieMeHHHK: "H npH Hafi- 
Te^cKHTe ycjiOBHH, aKO 3aTBOpHHKi>T HMa bojia h yMeHHe, Moace aa Hayqn 
MHoro, #a HanpaBH MHoro 3a no-HaTaTLHmaTa ch no/jroTOBica h pa3BHTHe. 
He ocTaBafiTe hhto nac ot cbocto BpeMe 6e3 H3noji3BaHe, hhto nac b 
6e3#ejiHe. TaKa me H3Jie3eiu ot 3aTBOpa Bi>3MT>)Kaji /jyxoBHO h 

nojiHTHHecKH, noAKOBaH etc 3HaHH)i ? totob 3a TBOpnecKa pa6oTa h 6op6a 

Tpfl6Ba aa ce ynn, nocTO^HHO m ce ynH...." (ijHTHpaM no naMeT). 

CtcTaBHXMe cnncbK Ha khhth (HayHHa h xy/joacecTBeHa JiHTepaTypa), 
kooto MO^cexMe aa nojiynHM ot 6jih3khtc ch c pa3penieHHe Ha npOKypaTy- 
paTa. HanpaBHXMe njiaH 3a KOJieKTHBHa h caMOCTOjrrejma nojiHTHnecica 
npocBeTa. OGmhcjihxmc KaK #a BHeceM no KOHcnnpaTHBHH ntTHma 3a6pa- 
HeHa nojiHTHnecKa JiHTepaTypa. no-KBCHO noptnaxMe Ha 6paTa Ha IleTtp 
BpaHHeB - /Jhmhtlp BpaHHeB fla HanpaBH ninepnjiaTOB Kycjmp c flBOHHa 
CTpaHHHHa nperpa/ja, koato #a npHKpHBa TafiHHK. Ton H3m>jiHH 
noptneHHeTO h Ky(J)api>T npeHece flocra tojiam 6poii MaTepnajin ot BaTaK 
Ilemepa h IIa3ap,zpKHK. 

C^maTa Benep IleTBp BpaHHeB thxo mh pa3Ka3a hobhhh ot BaTaK: 

aHTH^aniHCTKOTO flBH^CeHHe Ce aKTHBH3HpaJIO, HflKOJIKO MJia^OKH peMCHCTH 

npeMHHajiH b HenerajiHOCT h CTaHajra napTH3aHH (MapKo KapmoKOB, 
Teoprn /JacypKOB, IleTbp Kbhcb h Ajickch BaHHeB), kt>m napTH3aHHTe ce 
npHCbeaHHHJiH h H3BecTHHTe 6aTaniKH KOMyHHCTH ^,HMHn>p HynyjieB, 
IleTbp IlejieB, ATaHac KbHeB, tbh KaTO nojinijHflTa 3anoHHajia ^a rn 
npecjieflBa. 

/JpyrapHTe cnaxa, hakoh noxtpKBaxa, a MeH He Me jioBeuie ct>h. HoBaTa 
oGcTaHOBKa h HflKOJiKOflHeBHOTO m>TyBaHe c Bepnra Ha KpaKa Me 6axa 
H3HepBHJin h npeHanperaajiH. Mncjiex 3a apyrapHTe ch b Haph3obo, npe3 
ct3HaHHeTO mh npeMHHaBaxa BnenaTJieHHOTa ot nbTyBaHeTO Meacay CKonne 
h IIa3ap,zpKHK. IJapeine nbjma, 3aTBOpHHHecica rainHHa. KmiHATa 6eme 

157 



nojiyrbMHa. Ha# BpaTaxa CBeTeuie cna6a KpyuiKa. Ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe ce 
nyBaine TponoT Ha 6oTyuiH b KopH^opa. Hafl3HparejraT npe3 nac HflBame Ha 
Bparara, nyBax ro KaK OTBapa irniHOHKara h Ha6mo,zjaBa KHJiMTa. Ot ABopa 
flonHTauie HiyMtT ot pa3roBopHTe Meacfly nocroBHTe bohhhijh. Ilpe3 MajiKH- 
Te penieTBHHH npo3opijH npoHHKBauie 6jie,zja CBeTJiHHa: 6euie ntJiHOJiyHHe... 

Mhcjihtc Me oraacaxa kt>m 6jiH3KHTe h npHATejiHTe b EaTaK, kbm 
ApyrapHTe h npHflTejiHTe ot rHMHa3Hjrra. 3acnax HeyceTHO. Gb6y,zjH Me 
ocn>p 3ByK Ha KaM6aHKa. Bchhkh HacKanaxa h 3anoHHaxa 6tp30 «a ce 
o6nHHaT. "Xaftfle, AHrejie", no6yTHa Me 6aft nen>p. Hakoh ot flpyrapme 
Bene 6axa npea BpaTaTa h 6tp30 H3JW30xa, 3a Aa H3non3BaT no-m>JiHoijeHHo 
KpaTKOTO BpeMe, KoeTO hh ce nonaranie 3a ToaneT. 

3anoHHa ntpBH^T mh aeH b IIa3ap,zj)KHHiKHfl 3aTBOp. Cnefl okojio nac hh 
OTBe^oxa b CTOJioBaTa, KtfleTO nojiynnxMe Haft, 3axap h MajiKO xjm6. A3 
o6ane 6ax yflHBeH ot caMHfl 4>aKT, He tYk HMa CTOJioBa h ne ce xpaHHM Ha 
Maca. Eax OTBHKHaji ot TOBa. Kbm 10 naca hh OTBe^oxa Ha pa3xoflKa Ha 
KOJiejioTO b flBOpa. ^BH^cexMe ce no flBaMa noa Ha6jnofleHHeTO Ha Ha«3H- 
paTeji. 3nflOBeTe 5 koAto orpa^cflaxa flBOpa, 6axa mhoto bhcokh. Ha BceKH 
T>rr>ji HMauie Kyjia, b kohto CToeme Btopt^ceH BoftHHK. ^BOptT h kojicjioto 
ch ocTaHaxa 3a MeH, a h 3a apyrHTe, Hafi-flo6pOTO macto b to3h 3aTBOp: TyK 
ce pa3xo^cflaxMe no flBa m>TH Ha fleH, ot TyK BHayjaxMe He6eTO, cjrbHijeTO, 
ycemaxMe hcthhckh TonnHHaTa h CTy^a; TyK, MaKap h noa CTpofi, pa3roBa- 
paxMe, flHCKyTHpaxMe, pa3MeHAXMe HH(j)opMaijHfl h mhcjih Btpxy nponeTe- 
hoto, ono3HaBaxMe ce, pa^BaxMe ce Ha TpeBHHKaTa, kooto ce no^aBame TyK 
TaM Meamy naBeTaTa... ToBa 6eme HaniMT MajitK M oa3Hc". TyK npoBe^caax- 
Me h HauiHTe npoTecTH, OT6en5i3BaxMe npa3HHijH h Ba^cHH ci>6hth5i. 

Cnefl hakojiko ,zi;hh ce bha^x c TaTe h MaMa, a no-KbCHO h c Bjiarofino, 
jieim BaHKa, Byftno OrecJjaH. npn cBH^caaHH^Ta nojiynaBax h xpaHa. 

OauiiiCTKii Tepop h penpeciin. 3aciuiBaHe Ha aHTii^aiiiiiCTKaTa 
6op6a h napTH3aHCKOTO aBHHcemie b IIa3apA/KHiiiKn 0Kpi>r. MaKap h 
OTKtcHaTH ot BT>HUiHHfl cbat, HHe HyBcraaxMe, He HeflOBOJicTBOTO Ha Hapo/ja 
ot 6e3HHHCTBaTa Ha (JmuiHCTKara BJiacT ce 3acHJiBa, a 3ae#HO c Hero ce pa3- 
pacTBauie opraHH3HpaHOTO aHTH^auiHCTKO flBHaceHHe h napTH3aHCKaTa 6op- 
6a. C Bi>3T0pr KOMeHTHpaxMe hobhhhtc 3a ycnexn Ha napTH3aHHTe h jxbji- 
6oko CKbp6axMe, KoraTO y3HaBaxMe 3a y6nftcTBa h apecTH Ha aHTH^auiHCTH. 

TaKa HanpHMep, CKOpo cnefl npHCTHraHeTO mh CTaHa h3bcctho, ne npe3 
m. anpnji e 6hji HanpaBeH onHT 3a no^nanBaHe Ha fltcKOpesHa 4>a6pHKa b c. 
JIi>^ceHe h ne ca 6hjih apecTyBaHH aeceTKH aHTH^aniHCTH b cejiaTa Ha 
HenHHCKOTO KOpHTO, a Kpaft c. HennHO cnefl 3BepCKH hhkbh3hijhh ca 6hjih 
pa3CTpen^HH 3aBapHH TopaHOB h AHreji HoneB. Ci>c 3aBapHH ce 3ano3Hax b 

158 



Ha^aJioTO Ha m. cenTeMBpH 1942 r., KoraTO c TaTe h MaMa xo/yixMe Aa 
xonHM JieH b MecTHOcrra "TonHJiaTa" Kpafi JltaceHe. Okojio 7-8 ahh 
KBapTHpyBaxMe y TopaHOBH. EanjaTa Ha 3aBapHH A*mo Ctoio h MafiKa My 
6nxa MHoro mhjih h cbpaeHHH xopa. IIpH tax ce nyBCTBaxMe KaTO y 
poflHHHH. HMaxa MHoro floG'bp pa^HoanapaT h Benep cjiyuiaxMe pa^HO 
JIoh,zi;oh. TyK 3a m>pBH m>T nyx j\& roBopH 3eMe,nejiCKHflT aeeij ,H,hmhtt>p 
MauaHKHeB. HMauie npMTeH h Ti>p5KecTBeH rjiac. Homha, ne oTnpaBH anen 
KbU 6i>JirapCKHTe ceji^HH ,na He npcuaBaT achtoto ch Ha HeMiwre, 
3aKJiefiM^Bauie 6i>nrapcKHTe (JjauiHcra h ijapCKaTa flHHacTM, ci>o6mH 3a 
3anoHHajiHTe Bene Kpaii CTajiHHrpaa 6htkh... 

B Kpaa Ha m. Mafi nojiynnxMe HH(|)opMaijHfl, ne aHTH(j)aiiiHCTH ca y6HJiH 
TeHOB, HanajiHHK Ha /fcpflcaBHa CHiypHOCT npH na3ap,n}KHiiiKOTO nojiffljeii- 
cko ynpaBJieHHe. 3a Hero Haunrre MajiOKOHapijH pa3Ka3Baxa, ne e rojiflM 
naJian, ne jihhho e pa3CJie,HBaji h HHKBH3Hpaji aHTH(j)aiiiHCTH, 3a rzl th 
H3npaBH npe,zi; cb^a h H3npaTH b 3aTB0pa. nocjie^Baxa apecTH Ha fleceTKH 
na3apfl)KHiHKH MJiafleacn. ToraBa 3a m>pBH m>T nyx hmcto Ha ^iihko 
EaHeHKHH, HJieH Ha OK Ha EKQ, kohto OTroBapM 3a 6ohhhtc jxqPlctbh^ Ha 
napTH^Ta. 3a Hero no-KtcHO na3ap;pKHiHKHTe 3aTBOpHHiyi pa3Ka3Baxa c 

BT>3XHHi;eHHe H TOpflOCT. 

IlojiyHHxa ce ci>o6meHHfl 3a MHoro6poftHH apecTH b rp. naHariopHme h 
cejiaTa Orpejina, ,fl,K)JieBO, CMHJieij, EamiTe, naTajieHHija, BapBapa, 
CapaHeBO h jjp. H TaKa, HHe 3anaKaxMe npHCTHraHeTO Ha hobh noflCbflHMH 
h npoBe5K,zi;aHeTO Ha chRe6mi npoijecH bt>b BoeHHonojieBHTe cbflHJiHma. 

Ha 17 Maii 1943 r. a3 h n. BpaHHeB 6axMe b oco6eHO HacTpoeHHe: 
6euie roflHiHHHHa ot AnpHJicKOTO B^CTamie, Hafi-rojieMMT npa3HHK b 
BaTaK h 3a 6aTanaHH, K'bfleTO h j& ce HaMHpaT Te. ToBa CTaHa noBOfl 3a pa3- 
roBopH c apyrHTe nojiHTHnecKH 3aTBOpHHiyi. 06HKHOBeHHflT hm no3,npaB 
npe3 T03H aeH 6eine "Ot BaTaK ct>m hhho... 3Haein jih BaTaK?" BaTauiKHTe 
aHTH(J)aiHHCTH me ce noKaacaT aoctohhh 3a no^BHra Ha cbohtc jxqjxh, 
Ka3Baxa Te. 

Cjiea okojio ce^MHija HMax CBroK^aHe c 6paT mh Bnarofino. Tofl ycmi ^a 
mh CT>o6mH, aoKaTO npHKa3BaxMe npe3 peuieTKHTe, ne napTH3aHHTe ca 
Hana^HajiH flT>CKOpe3HaTa 4>a6pHKa b MecTHOcrra "KtoiiiKa", Kb^eTO ce 
npOH3Be)K#ame fltpBeH MaTepHaji h crjio6aeMH 6apaKH 3a HeMiyrre. 

HMauie h e^HO nenajiHO H3BecTHe. B m. n KapTejia M (Ha 12 km. kokho ot 
BaTaK) b cpa^ceHHe Ha napTH3aHH c nojiHijeftcKH h bochhh nacra 3arHHan 
TeoprH ^^KypKOB. ToBa 6euie ntpBHAT y6HT 6aTauiKH napTH3aHHH, m>pBaTa 
acepTBa Ha BaTaK bt>b Bi>opTOKeHaTa aHTHcJmiiiHCTKa 6op6a! Mi>KaTa mh 
6eme roji^Ma. C Teoprn 6axMe npHOTenn h cbce^H. noMHex ro ome ot 

159 



fleTCKHTe h K)HomecKHTe hh roflHHH, ot e)Ke,a;HeBHHTe HrpH Ha HauiaTa 
yjiHija h b OKOJiHocTHTe Ha BaTaK... Ora^e ch eflHH MJiaa )khbot, e^HH 
6opeij. npeflCTaBHX ch MtKaTa Ha 6ama My hhho Hjiha h Ha Mafiica My, 
ABaMa necTHH cejiCKH Tpy}KeHHijH. HecTO ce cpemax c hhho Hjihh cjie,a; 
^eBeTH cenTeMBpH, CTHCKaxMe ch ptijeTe, ho b onme My BHHara Hannpaxa 
CBJI3H. Cera CKpOMeH naMeraHK Kpafi moceTO Ha CTOTHHa MeTpa ot jio6hoto 
macto Ha Teopra HanoMHfl 3a HeroBM noflBHr. 

Ha CBH)KflaHeTO b a^BOKaTCKaTa CTaa Byfino OrecJDaH noTBtpflH Te3H 
hobhhh h #om>jiHH, He napTH3aHHTe, HanaflHajiH (J>a6pHKa "KtouiKa", 6hjih 
MHoro Ha 6pofi h ao6pe B'BOp'BflceHH, a (JDauiHCTKaTa BJiacT 6njia b naHHKa h 
H3 OKOJiHocTHTe Ha EaTatc HMajio MHoro nojiHuan. 

riojiynaBaxMe CBeaeHHfl 3a flpyra y6HTH napTH3aHH h ATaijH b 
ITa3apfl}KHiHKH)i Kpan h PoflonHTe. TepoptT BHJiHeeuie. ^eceTKH aHTH(J)a- 
hihcth 6axa h36hth 6e3 ctfl h npHCb^a. 

nojinT3aTBopHiiun ot CTpejina h apyrii cejiiiiua. B Kpan Ha Man b 
3aTBopa 6axa npexBtpjieHH rojwMa rpyna aHTH(|)aiHHCTH ot dpejina, 
^lOJieBO, Kpi>CTeBHH 5 CMHJieij, IJap EopHCOBO, ocb/jeHH Bene ot njiOB^HB- 

CKHfl BOeHHOnOJieBH CbR. Te fltJirO 6hJIH pa3CJieflBaHH H HHKBH3HpaHH B 

IlaHanopcKHfl nojinijeHCKH ynacrbtc h b ITjioBflHBCKaTa /J'bpacaBHa cnryp- 
hoct, a cjiea TOBa 6hjih H3npaBeHH npe/j BoeHHonojieBH ctfl b na3apfl5KHin- 
KHTe Ka3apMH. 

T^BaMa ot tax 6axa etc CMtpTHH npHctflH: Mhjibo AnocTOJiOB 
(BemeBaTa) ot Orpejina h Ctohho Eohhcb ot c. /JiojieBO. KbojiHpaxa ra 
Be^Hara b e/jHHHHHH khjihh, ho th nycKaxa aa ce pa3xoac#aT e Hac 
BHHMaHHeTO Ha bchhkh 6euie HaconeHO kbm tax, nocTOHHHO ce TpeBoacex- 
Me aajiH BHe3anHO HflMa ^a rn eK3eKyTHpaT. HomeM ce ocjiyniBaxMe. Cyr- 
pHH CKanaxMe c Bi>npoca echbh jih ca? 

B cpaBHemie c ocTaHajiHTe 3aTBOpHHijH 6afi Mhjibo h 6afl Ctohho 6axa 
flocTa Bi>3pacTHH 5 no Ha okojio 50 ro/jHHH. H #BaMaTa 6axa CBi>p3aHH c 
6op6nTe Ha OTpyzjeHHTe xopa h BKIT KaTO jrraijH Ha napTH3aHHTe ot 
IlaHariopCKHfl Kpafi Ha Cpe/jHa ropa. Te cnotcoHHO h rop/jo noHacaxa 
ci>a6aTa ch. Baft Mhjibo, KoroTO CTpejinaHH He 3HaM 3amo Hapnnaxa 
BemeBaTa, nyuieuie mhoto. H /jBaMaTa oxotho pa3roBapaxa c Hac, MJiaae- 
acHTe, pa3Ka3Baxa hh Han-pa3JiHHHH cjiyHKH ot TexHHa echbot h ynacraeTO 

HM B nOJIHTHHeCKHTe 6op6H. CnOKOHCTBHeTO H BflpaTa HM OKpHJIflXa BCHH- 
KH. Bi>p30 ce ono3Hax h c flpynrre ot to3h npou;ec, CTaHaxMe ao6pn npHH- 
TejiH, c hakoh 5khbhx b e/jHa khjihjl HauieTO KpHJio Ha 3aTBOpa ce HantnHH. 
06pa3yBaxMe hobh CTOJineTa. 3ano3HaBaxMe HOBO#ouiJiHTe etc 3aTBopHH- 
HecKHa pe^KHM h c opraHH3aijHflTa, ycTaHOBeHa ot pt>kobo#ctboto Ha no- 

160 



jiHT3aTBopHHHecKH>i KOJieKTHB. OnpeaejiHxa ce h ottobophhijh 3a BCflKa 

KHJIHH. 

C oco6eHH CHMnaTHH ch cnoMHHM 3a rierbp TenieB ot c. fliojieBO, 3a 
cxpeJinaHHTe HHKona JlyjineB OnnHnoB, CraHKO CTafiKOB, Ctoah 
TeoprHeB, Ctohko JlyjineB KanGypOB, Hjiha TKyneB, 3a /Jhhko IIoptf30B ot 
c. CMHJieij, flejibo IIhckob ot c. IJap BopHC h mhoto apyrn. C hakoh ot tax 
b pa3HHHHO BpeMe ci>m 6hji b e^Ha khjim, xpaHHUH CMe ce 3aeflHO b e^HO 
ctohhc IIo3HaBax 3aflOHHO ceMeficTBaTa h 6nH3KHTe hm. CtnpyrHTe Ha 
hhkoh ot tax KaTO HHKona JlyjineB, Tepo CaBOB, 6afi Ctohh TeoprHeB h ,np. 
HflBaxa nem ot CTpejina ^o IIa3ap,zpKHK c ije^HJiKH Ha rpi>6, 3a #a flOHecaT 
xpaHa Ha ci>npy3HTe ch h #a rn 3apa^BaT Ha CBHayjaHe. HeraxMe nncMaTa 
hm. Bi>3XHmaBax ce Ha e3onoBCKHa hm e3HK - Te Tana yMeno npe^aBaxa 
HOBHHHTe 3a npOHBH Ha napTH3aHH 5 3a hobh apecTH h np., ne ijeH3ypaTa He 
ycn^Baine fla aojiobh 3a KaKBO CTaBa #yMa, KaKBa HH(j)opMaijH>i ce npe^aBa. 
CbnpyrHTe Ha nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe ot CrpenHaHCKHfl pafioH 3acny^caBaT 
jXbJiftoK noKnoH. Oco6eHO 6jih3kh CTaHaxMe c HnKOJia JlyjineB, a 3a#OHHO 
h cbc cbnpyraTa My, kooto b nncMaTa BHHarn mh H3npaiu;anie no3,npaBH h 
no^cenaHHH. C tax /jBaMaTa ce bhahxmc cjie^ 15 to,hhhh, KoraTO hh 
rocTyBaxa b Co^h^l h e^BaM ycnaxMe ,na ce no3HaeM... 

Ejih3t>k 6ax h c KyHHO Hb. KyHHeB, kohto 3aBi>pniHJi rHMHa3H£Ta h 3a 
aHTH(^auiHCTKaTa ch aefiHOCT nonaflHan b 3aTBOpa. C Hero cno^ennxMe 
Hafi-cbKpOBeHHTe ch mchth, jxbiiro ch roBOpHXMe no HaH-pa3HHHHH tcmh. 
Toh 6enie BJiio6eH b e/jHa moh cbcenflHKa-yHeHHHKa, kohto npeKapana 
jwTHaTa ch BaicaHijHfl npe3 1942 r. Ha 6aHH b Crpejina. KyHHO Me 3ano3Ha 
3aflOHHO ct>c cecipa ch Jlanica, yneHHHKa b rHMHa3Hjrra, kooto necTO My 
HflBanie Ha CBHac/jaHe, nHineine hh nncMa, a npe3 jwtoto Ha 1944 r. CTaHa 
napTH3aHKa. 

CnoMH^M ch Tepo CaBOB, yMeH cejicKH TpyaceHHK. npe3 iohh 1943 r. 
3aTBOpHHnecKaTa xpaHa 3HaHHTeirao HaMajw. Xjie6HaTa aaacGa Meacay 
ABeTe peKOjrra cna^Ha ^o 150 rpaMa /jhcbho, npn TOBa xjia6i>T 6eine ot 
6paniHO c Han-pa3JiHHHH npHMecH. KoraTO CTHCHexMe ^HeBHaTa ch fla^c6a b 
ptica, o6pa3yBaine ch Tonne no-ManKO ot aftije. CynaTa 6eine 6e3 Ma3HHHH, 
b e^Ha nopijHfl 6o6eHa nop6a nnyBaxa 3-4 3i>pHa. OrpenHaHH ^OHecoxa 
6yTHJiKH inapnaH. Tepo rn na3eme h pa3npeflejwine ojihoto Meayjy bchhkh 
AOKaTO oG^flBaxMe. Toh MHHaBaine 6tp30 Kpafl bcckh ot Hac h cnnBaine no 
JibacHHica ojiho b ajiyMHHHeBHTe hh hhhhh. ToBa ojiho h aocera e npefl 
OHHTe mh, to o6pa3yBanie MajiKO neTHO Ha noBtpxHOCira Ha HHHH>rra h a3 c 
y^OBoncTBHe h 6naroaapHOCT ro pa36tpKBax c jii>^CHL(aTa... IIoHHKora Tepo 
ce CMeenie norne^caaHKH CaMH 5 OTroBopHHKa Ha ctohhcto hh 5 h Ka3Banie: 

161 



"A3 ct>m no-me,m>p ot CaMH. HMa jih b Cipejina, me HMa h TyK M . 

Tepo 6euie h ao6i>p neBeij. 06HHame Benep thxo aa nee "AneH MaK !! , 
jiK)6HMaTa neceH Ha /JaaoTO (J\. EjiaroeB). H HHe noaxBamaxMe cjiea Hero... 

^HCKycHHTa 3a "remiHTe 11 . Bail J\o6pu TepneuieB. He noMHa 
noBoaa, ho npe3 m. kdhh Bt3HHKHa cnop Meacay hjikoh apyrapH MJiaaeacn 
KaKBO 03HanaBa noHflraeTO "reHHH", koh HcropHHecKH jihhhocth ca 
reHHanHH h np. To3H cnop ce npeBtpHa b pa3najieHa aHCKycHfl, oco6eHo 
cpea yneHHiiHTe. H3Ka3Baxa ce Han-pa3JiHHHH MHeHHfl, KaTo ce conexa khh3 
Bopnc I, uap CnMeoH, Eotcb, JIcbckh, HMnepaTop HanoneoH n ap. Bchhkh 
CHHTaxa, ne JleHHH n CTajiHH ca 6e3cnopHH reHHH, ho cnoptT ce H30CTpH, 
KoraTO 6eme noBanraaT BtnpocbT reHnn jih ca ToraBa XnTJiep h 
MycojiHHH. Pa36npa ce, HHe ra CMflTaxMe 3a MpaKo6ecHHiiH h 3acn>nHHi^H 
Ha aHTHHOBeuiKH HaeojiorHH, ho HAKOH H3anrHa Te3aTa ? ne Moreno aa HMa 
h reHHH Ha 3jioto. ToBa MHeHHe BeaHara 6eme OTXBtpJieHO, ho BinpocbT 3a 
onpeaeneHHeTO Ha noHOTHeTO "reHHH 1 ' TaKa h ch ocTaHa HeaoH3acHeH. 

B Te3H fftm Ha cnopOBe y3HaxMe, ne b cTaproi na3apaacHiiiKH 3aTBOp e 
aoBeaeH /Jo6pH TepnemeB, kohto 6eme eanH ot HaH-atJiroroaHiiiHHTe 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH b EtJirapHfl h H3n>KHaT napTHeH pT>KOBO£HTeji. 3aeaH0 c 
Hero TyK 6axa aoKapaHH JIi>He3ap ABpaMOB h TpHina OnjinnoB. Ban /Jo6pH 
TepnemeB h asaMaTa My apyrapH 6axa H3npaTeHH b KOHijjiarepa b 
EtJirapOBO (BypracKo). Ho-kbcho y3HaxMe, ne f H,o6pH TepnemeB e H36araji 

H Ce e BKJIIOHHJI B pl>KOBO,UCTBOTO Ha napTH3aHCKOTO flBH^CeHHe b Ei>JirapHfl. 

/JoKaro ome 6axa b na3apaacHK, HHe ycTaHOBHXMe Bpi>3Ka c tax Hpe3 hakoh 
3aTBOpHHijH ? kohto pa6oTexa b KaHiienapHHTe. Bi>3Jio^ceHO mh 6eme aa 
Hannnia nncMO ao 6an /Jo6pH, b kocto HaicpaTKO h3jio)khx cbmHocrra Ha 
cnopa 3a reHHHTe. Cjiea hakojiko ann no ci>mHfl HaHHH nojiynnx OTroBOpa 
Ha 6an /JoSpH, HanncaH c xy6aB nonepK. "H3noji3BaHTe BpeMeTO ch 3a no- 
cepH03HH 6ecean, He ce 3axBamaHTe c npa3HH, HeHymm cnopOBe. BaniHHT 
cnop npHJiHHa Ha cnopOBeTe Ha apeBHHTe 4>hjioco(J)h - kojiko ahbojih MoraT 
aa ce noflpeflflT Ha Btpxa Ha eaHa Hrna." nponeTOXMe nncMOTO no khjihh h 
npennpHHTe hh ceKHaxa... 

HenHHUH. B HanajioTO Ha m. kdhh b 3araopa npHCTHraa rojwMa rpyna 
ot 30-40 ayniH ot cenaTa b HenHHCKOTO KopHTo: JTbaceHe, Hemmo, 
KaMemma, /JopKOBO h PaKHTOBO. Hne 6axMe noaroTBeHH 3a HaBaHeTO hm, 
noHeace Bene 3HaexMe, ne Te ce HaMHpar b nojnmeftcKHTe ynacrbiiH b 
JIbaceHe h njiOB^HB. H3Mi>HeHH h 6jieaH, ho h HanepeHH, Te ce HacraHHxa b 
onpeaeneHHTe hm khjihh. ntpBaTa hh rpH)Ka 6eme aa rn o6oapHM h aa hm 
noMoraeM 3a OTroBOpa Ha o6BHHHTejiHHTe aKTOBe h npn HaeMaHeTO Ha 
aaBOKaTH. 

162 



06BHHeHHflTa klm noBeneTO ot tax 6axa Te^KKH: Bpi>3KH h cpenjH c 
napTH3aHH, opraHH3HpaHe Ha Gohhh rpynn, ca6oTa)KH. 3a hakoh 6axa 
noHCKaHH CMtpTHH npHCb^H. IIpoijecbT ce cbCTOfl npe3 m. iojih 1943 r. h b 
KpaflHa cMeTKa 6axa H3flaaeHH pe^Hiia 3aflOHHH CMtpTHH npHCb^H, a hakoh 
ot noflciflHMHTe 6axa onpaB/jaHH. C nenHHijH HMax MHoro ao6pH OTHonie- 
hha, flpy^cax c MHoro ot tax h ocTaHaxMe 3aBHHarn npHjrrejiH. Cpea tax 
6eine K)ceHH IHoneB, ropa h KpacHB 6i>JirapHH-MoxaMe,naHHH, npHpo^HO 
HHTejinreHTeH, KOHTaicreH, BHHarH ycMHXHaT (npe3 1946 r. toh menie ^a 
cTaHe flenyTaT BtB BenHKOTO Hapo^HO CT>6paHHe h hjich Ha 6tJirapcKaTa 
^ejieraiiHH 3a CKJiiOHBaHe Ha MHpHHfl ^oroBop b IIapH>K), a cbmo h 
MycTac|)a Ka^bOB, AceH Bo3aa^cHeB 5 BacHJi Kpi>CTHH, Mnxanji MnxaftjioB 
(Mhjibo), BopHC TojioMexoB, ^HMHTtp TajiHneeB, /jHMHTbp MnpOB 
(yHHTen), KocTa^HH LJokob, IleHKO TenieB, aopKOBiiHTe Hum MajieB, 
XpHCTO CTaTeB, KocTa^HH JIacKOB, HBaH ^ohhhhob, Kpi>CTbo 3apeB (hjich 
Ha 3MC) h flp. Oco6eHO 6jih3t>k 6ax c Hjihh MajieB, ^HMHTbp TajiHneeB h 
XpHCTO CTaTeB. 

B rpynaTa 6enie h 3anoBeHHHT napTH3aHHH To/jop Jly kob, e^HH mhoto 
ypaBHOBeceH h cnoKoeH HOBeK. HecTO ce pa3xo^caaxMe 3ae^HO. Pa3Ka3a mh, 
ne npe3 TpHflecerre toahhh e 6hji b 3aTBOpa 3a KOHcnnpaTHBHa ^eHHOCT. 
IIpe3 anpHJi 1943 r. MHHaji b HenerajiHOCT h CTaHan napTH3aHHH. YnacTBaji 
b Hana^eHHeTO cpemy (JjaGpHKara b m. "Kboimca". IIo-KbCHO npn npecTpen- 
Ka Kpaii JTb^ceHe ce OTflajienHJi ot rpynaTa ch h ocTaHaji caM. HaMepnn 
y6e)KHme npn cboh poahhhh, ho 6hji 3aji0BeH. ,flyKOB HManie onHT b 
KOJieKTHBHH)i 3aTBOpHHHecKH achbot h MopajiHO h MaTepHajiHO no^noMa- 
rame apyrapHTe ch. IlojiHTHHecKH h TeopeTHnecKH 6enie ^o6pe no^roTBeH 
h a3 o6nnax «a pa3roBapflM c Hero: toh 6enie npHOTeH h 6naroHaMepeH 
ci>6eceflHHK. 

noafltp^cax flo6pH B3aHMOOTHonieHHH h c KptcTbo 3apee, HJieH Ha 
3eMeflencKHH MJiaae^cKH cbk)3 (3MC), OTaK Ha napTH3aHHTe h, npe^H 
bchhko Ha CBOfl cbcejwHHH KptcTbo IleeB. Kpi>CTbo 3apeB 6enie cTyaeHT b 
CTonaHCKO- aaMHHHCTpaTHBHHH OT^en Ha K)pHflHHecKH^ (JmKyjrreT npn 
Co(J)hhckh^ yHHBepCHTeT. Ymch, HaneTeH h penoBHT, toh HManie ninpOKH 
jiHTepaTypHH no3HaHHfl. C Hero necTO o6cb)KflaxMe npoH3BeaeHH^Ta Ha E. 
3ojia, JI. Tojictoh, B. lOro, O. ^octocbckh h jsp. 

npe3 jiflTOTO 3anoHHaxMe aa H3,n;aBaMe jiHTepaTypHa Teipa^Ka, b koato 
Kpi>CTbo 3apeB noiviecTH hhkojiko CTaTHH noa nceB^OHHM "Mna,n Ahtch". 
Cjiea 1944 r. o6ane toh npeMHHa kt>m ono3HijHOHHHfl 3eMe,nejicKH Miia^eac- 
kh ct>k)3 h CTaHa HeroB opraHH3aTop ot HaitHOHajieH Mama6. CpenjHaxMe ce 
hakojiko n'bTH, pa3roBapaxMe npHHTencKH, nieryBaxMe ce Haa nonHTHHe- 

163 



CKHTe ch pa3JiHHHH. HaKpaa toh eMHrpHpa npe3 PbpijHfl bi>b OpamjHH. B 
IlapH5K HMan KHH5KapHHua 5 o^ceHHJi ce 3a (])paHijy30HKa n noHHHaji b 
HanajiOTO Ha cefleMflecerre to,hhhh. 

Kt>cho npe3 eceHTa 6hx b eflHa khjiha c HeKOjmHHa nenHHijH h 
naHariopijH: IleHico TeuieB ot HenHHO, kohto 6euie 3HaHHTejiHO no- 
BT>3pacTeH ot Hac (Ha ok. 50 r.) h CTpaaaine ot 5BBa. Ome noMHfl KaK ce 
H3]vrbHBame, KaK ce npeBHBame ot 6ojikh b CTOMaxa. IlpaBex bchhko 
bt>3MO)kho fla o6neKHa CTpaaaHHOTa My Ha 6aS IleTKO h ce CTapaex #a 
HaMHpaM 3a Hero ot flpynrre CTOJineTa mcr h Macjio. Ilpe3 npojierra Ha 
1944 r. toh 6eme ocBo6o,neH, a npe3 jiatoto Ha cbmaTa roflHHa, KoraTO 6hji 
3acTpaineH ot hob apecT, CTaHaji napTH3aHHH. HeroB Hepa3flejieH flpyrap b 
3aTBOpa 6eme KocTaaHH I1,okob, cnoKoeH hobck, apyacejiioGeH h flo6tp 
CT>6eceflHHK 5 kohto noapo6HO hh pa3Ka3Bauie 3a ynacTHeTO ch b 

CenTeMBpHHCKOTO BI>CTaHHe B Pa3JI02CK0. 

C mhoto OTBOpeH xapaKTep 6euie AceH Eo3aAXCHeB, Ha ok. 35-40 r., 
Ape6eH Ha ptcT, ho noflBHaceH KaTO acHBaK. 06nHauie MJiaaeacHTe, Tbpceuie 
TflXHaTa apy»c6a 5 oGnnanie merHTe. KaTO HJieH Ha BPI1 toh ynacTBaji b 
6oHHa rpyna. Eeuie pa6oTHJi b fli>CKOpe3Ha 4>a6pHKa b EaTaK, OTHaomie ce 

CbC CHMnaTHfl KBM MeH H nOHTH BCeKH fleH Ce BHtfCflaXMC 

CnjiHa apyacGa Me CBi>p3BaiHe h c Hjihh Majies. Toh 6euie thx h 
KpoTbK HOBeK, ho MHoro flo6i>p MacoBHK. PtKOBOflHJi 6oHHa rpyna h ce 
noji3Banie c tojihm aBTOpHTeT cpea nenHHijH h apyrHTe nojnrreaTBOpHHijH. 
3aflHO c Hero h c MaKCHM ToaopOB ot IlepHHK 6axMe onpeaejieHH ot 3aT- 
BOpHHHecKOTO napTHHHO pi>KOBOflCTBO 3a pT>KOBOflHTejiH Ha HauiaTa MJia- 
flOKKa opraHH3auHH. MecTO ce ci>6HpaxMe, o6ci>^cflaxMe pa3JiHHHH BtnpocH 
3a pa6oTaTa c MJiafleaorre (a Te 6axa okojio 70% ot nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe). 
Pa6oTexMe 3aeflHO c 6afi AHflpea IleHeB, TeHHO Ebthmob h Cnac TeoprneB 
ot napTHHHOTO ptKOBOflCTBo. IIo-KbCHO Hjiha CTaHa BoeHeH h ce 

neHCHOHHpa KaTO nOJIKOBHHK. 

C no-6yeH xapaKTep ce OTJinnaBauie XpncTO CTaTeB, kohto 6euie no- 
MJiaa ot Hac (Ha ok. 17-18 r.) h KaTO HJieH Ha PMC 6eme ynacTBan b 6oHHa 
rpyna. npHBi>p3ax ce kbm Hero h CTaHaxMe HaH-/i;o6pH npHATejiH. BjiH3KHTe 
My 3Haexa 3a MeH h a3 nojiynaBax hccthtkh h nncMa ot 6paTOBHeflHTe h 
6paTOBHeflKHTe My. ^OManiHHTe My He acajiexa cpeflCTBa aa noanoMaraT 
Hero h apynrre nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH. XpncTO oco6eHO chjiho o6HHame flHflO 
ch h necTO pa3Ka3Baiue 3a Hero: MaKap h OBHap, toh npHTOKaBan rojiflM 
^cHTeficKH onHT h Mi>flpocT. H cnefl no6eaaTa XpHCTO ch ocTaHa Bee TaKa 
6yeH, ho HeH3MeHHO npeaaH ocTaHa Ha napraaTa. Pa6oTenie b mhhhtc b 
ByxoBO h Kpan BejiHHipafl. He Tbpneme HecnpaBefljiHBOcrra, KaTO 

164 



pa6oTHHK h o6iu,ecTBeHHK toh BHHarH BOiOBauie 3a npaB/jaTa - TaKaBa, 
KaKBaTO a nyBCTBauie h BroKflame. 

He Mora #e hh ch cnoMHfl 3a ,3,hmhti>p TajiMJieeB. ^py^c6aTa hh 
npofl'BJi^cH hakojiko fleceTHJierafl, flo HeroBaTa CMtpT. MaKap %a, 3a6oji5i 
xe)KKO ot flHa6eT h noHTH ocjiena, /jo cboh Kpafi toh ch ocraHa ycMHXHaT, 
^o6po^cejiaTejieH h aKTHBeH o6mecTBeHHK. 

npe3 roflHHHTe necTO ctM ce BH>Kflaji c ome achbhtc nenHHijH-nojiHT- 
3aTBOpHHUH no yjiHijHTe Ha BejiHHrpa/j h b Co<])H5l IIpHnoMHflJiH CMe ch 
IIa3apfl^cHiHKHH 3aTBOp ? cnoMeHaBajiH CMe c Han-floGpH nyBCTBa Te3H, 
kohto Bene He 6axa MOK^y Hac... 

JlecHHHeHTe. B nocjie/jHHTe ahh Ha iojih (hjih HananoTO Ha aBrycr) 
1943 r. ot ^T>p^caBHa cnrypHOCT b IIjioBflHB 6axa flOBeaemi hakojiko 
o6BHH5ieMH no 3J\R: hh)k. jiecoBtfl CaBa IIlHBapoB, mDK.-jiecoBt/i; JIio6eH 
HayMOB, AceH AceHOB, To^op EonyKOB, HBaH XapH3aHOB, HBaH Tep3HeB. 
Te 6axa MHoro H3MtHeHH ot HHKBH3HijHHTe b nojiHijHflTa. Be^Hara ce abhx 
npH tax, 3a aa hm OKaaca noMom. Pa3nHTax rn KaKBH oGbkhchha ca 
noBflHraaTH cpemy tax, o6mhcjihxmc no/jroTOBKaTa Ha a/jBOKaTCKaTa hm 
3amHTa b ctfla. CaBa LllHBapoB h JIio6eH HayMOB Be/jHara ce CBtp3axa etc 
ceMeiicTBaTa ch, kohto acHBeexa b na3apflacHK. 

06BHHeHH 6axa, ne ca ynacTBajiH b opraHH3HpaHeTO Ha napTHHHH h 
^TauiKH rpynn, kohto ca pa3BHBajin aKTHBHa achhoct h ca no^noMarajiH 
napTH3aHHTe. Bchhkh oGbkhacmh 6axa /jocTa o6pa30BaHH, ho MOK^y tax ce 
oco6eHO chjiho ce OTKpoaBaxa CaBa IIlHBapoB, JIio6eH HayMOB h HBaH 
XapH3aHOB. 

CaeaTa HancTHHa npaBenie BnenaTJieHHe etc CBOOTa BHCOKa hhtcjih- 
reHTHOCT, 6enie cnoKoeH h TaKTHHeH b OTHOineHHOTa c ApyrapHTe ch. MecTo 
6eceflBaxMe ? a cjie/j npHCb^aTa H3Becrao BpeMe 3aeflHo H3ynaBaxMe 
nojiHTHnecKa hkohomhjl JIio6eH HayMOB 6euie no-HecnoKoeH, cbpitaT, c 
6i>p3H peaKijHH, 3afltn6oHeH b pa3Ct}KfleHH5rra ch. HeaH XapinaHOB m>K 
Bene HManie 6oraT nojiHTHHecKH onm, HaTpynaH npH npe/jHineH npecTOH b 
3aTBOpa. Benie epy/jHpaH h ckjiohch klm npocTOpHH pa3CT>2K,neHH5i no 
bchhkh Bi>npocH ? kohto H3ynaBaxMe h KOMeHTHpaxMe - Hemo xapaKTepHO 
3a npeMHHanHTe Bene npe3 3aTBOpHTe apyrapn. 

H etc niecTHMaTa ocTaHaxMe flo6pH npHtfrejiH h cjie# IIo6e,fl;aTa. Oco- 
6eHO ce capy^enxMe o6ane c paKHTOBeija HeaH Tep3HeB, kohto no OHOBa 
BpeMe 6enie Ha okojio 23-24 r., jno6o3HaTejieH, npHpo/jHO HHTejinreHTeH h 
o6mHTejieH. HepBeH h HecnoKoeH 6euie AceH AceHOB (cneTOBOflHTeji). Toh 
MHoro tokko npoKHBABauie 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ch ct/i;6a h H36flrBauie aa 
o6myBa c apyrapHTe ch no ynacT. Hne ce cTpeMAXMe /ja ro 3aroBapflMe h Aa 

165 



ce pa3xo>KAaMe c Hero Ha KOJiejicnro, 3a aa ro H3Ba#HM ot caMOTaTa My h #a 
o6jieKHHM TpeB05KHHTe My mhcjih, CTpaxyBaxMe ce aa He nojiynH 
ncHXHHecKO 3a6ojmBaHe. J\o6i>ip h cbc cnoKoeH xapaicrep 6eme Toflop 
BonyKOB ot ,U,eBHH. Ilyineine MHoro h 6eme flo6i>p cb6ece,zjHHK. 

IloflroTOBKaTa 3a npoijeca hm ce npoTOHH noBene ot o6HHafiHOTo 
(HaB^pHO nopa^H JiflTHaTa BaKaHUHfl Ha cb^a). Ilpe3 m. cenTeMBpH cjie^ 
hhkojiko ahh 3aceflaHH^ BoeHHononeBH^T cbR ocbflH 3a^oHHO ATaHac 
Kbhcb h Teopra IlaHHeB Ha CMi>pT Hpe3 o6ecBaHe, HBaH XapH3aHOB nojiynH 
floacHBOTHa npHCb/ja, CaBa lIlHBapOB h JIio6eH HayMOB 6axa ocvjeHH Ha 10 
ro/jHHH, a AceH AceHOB, HBaH Tep3HeB h To,zjop BonyKOB nojiynnxa no- 
jieKH npHCb^H. 

CaMyHJi Hhchmob (CaMH) h poflHTejiHTe My. Eax mhoto H3HeHa,zjaH, 
KoraTO e/jHH rqh b Kpaa Ha Man 1943 r. HauiaTa khjiha ce OTBOpH h 
Haa3HpaTeji5iT onoBecTH etc 3Jio6Ha HacMeuiKa: "npneMeTe ome e^HH Bam 
KOJiera". H33a/j Hero, o6jieneH b 3aTBOpHHnecKH flpexn, ce noflBH CaMH. 
Ckohhx ot Ta6ypeTKaTa: "CaMH, 3flpaBeH, ao6pe ,zjonn>ji! M npertpHaxMe ce. 
Ejix pa^ocTeH, ne h toh ce e OTbpBan ot TeacKHTe ycjiOBH* Ha H,zjpH30B0. 
Toh mh pa3Ka3a, ne e^Ha rpyna HaniH apyrapH ot H,zjpH30BO - >Khbko 
>Khbkob, 5Kejifl3KO KojieB, Ehbo ToineB, ^eno OrecjmHOB h pp. ca 6hjih 
H3npaTeHH b KOHijjiarepa Kpan XacKOBO, kohto 6euie nacT ot XacKOBCKM 
3aTBOp. 3ano3Hax ro c flpyrapHTe. Cjiea okojio ce/jMHua po^HTejiHTe Ha 
CaMH, HHHO Hjihh h Jiejia Po3a, 3aeflHO c ome .zjeceTKH eBpeficKH ceMencTBa, 
6axa H3cejieHH ot rp. Coc])Hfl h Bi^BopeHH Ha MecTO^KHTejicTBO b 
IIa3apA^KHK. 

CaMH 6eme mhoto aoG'bp momi>k, jiecHO ce cnpHOTejiflBanie, 6euie thx h 

CKpOMeH, 6e3KOpHCTeH, aJITpyHCT, rpH^CJIHB kbm HyayjHTe Ha bchhkh no3Ha- 
th. C Hero CTaHaxMe "bchhh" npMTejiH. B nocjie^HHTe to/jkhh ce cpemax- 
Me pswico, ho TOBa He HaMajiH CHJiaTa Ha npHjrrejicTBOTO hh. IIpe3 Meceun- 
Te, npeKapaHH b na3ap,zj)KHniKHfl 3aTBOp, necTO hh npeMecTBaxa ot khjiha 
Ha khjiha, h HHe cbc CaMH Ty ce pa3,a;ejiflXMe, xy naK ce ci>6HpaxMe. CnoM- 
ham ch, ne npe3 jmtoto Ha 1943 r. 6axMe H36pajiH CaMH 3a ^OMaKHH Ha 
HauieTO CTOJine. Toh ce CTapaeuie npaBHJiHO h paBHOMepHO aa pa3npeaejw 
xpaHaTa, kohto nojiynaBaxMe otbt>h b flonMHeHHe kbm 6e/jHHfl hh 3aTBOp- 
HHnecKH nopijHOH. Ta3H xpaHa nocTMBanie czjhh m>T ce^MKHHO (KaTO 
npaBHJio npH CBHayjaHe). B T03H j\qu HHe "yxaacBaxMe" CaMH, 3a ,zja hh 
OTnycHe noBene xpaHa. Toh o6ane a pa3npe,a;ejifluie Taica, ne #a HMaMe no 
MajiKO 3a BceKH /jeH ot ce^MHuaTa - h 3a 3aKycica, h 3a o6efl h 3a Benepfl. Ha 
HaniHTe moji6h toh OTroBapanie: 

- A yTpe, a b flpyrn rqh KaKBO?... Hhhjo! 

166 



B noBeneTO cjiynan toh hh ,n;o6aB5ime no (J)HJiHHKa xjia6, jitacHHica 
MapManafl, pe3eHHe flGtmca... Ho HMauie h ahh, KoraTO He hh ^aBauie hhiii;o 
- bchhko 3aBHceuie ot nojiyneHOTO h HajiHHHOCTra Ha npoayKTHTe. Toh 
npecM^Tauie h MHCJieme 3a cjie^BamHTe ahh... 

IIpH TaKHBa cjiynan apyrapHTe o6hkhobcho ce o6ptmaxa kt>m MeH 3a 
ctfleHCTBHe. CtGnpaxMe ce okojio CaMH h c Becejia rutHKa h niern ro 
yBemaBaxMe aa hh ^aae Hemo noBene. Toh Tpy^HO OTCTbnBame, KoraTO 
3anacHTe 6axa ManKH. MecTO ce 3a6aBJDraaxMe, KaTO o6^BHBaxMe ci>6paHHe 
h ocBoGoacflaBaxMe CaMH ot ^OMaKHHCKaTa My fljit^cHOCT. H3flac,naxMe nacT 
ot npo^yKTHTe h Be^Hara cnea TOBa othobo H36npaxMe CaMH 3a 
oTroBOpHHK Ha CTOJineTO. Toh othobo noeMame 3aflT>Ji2KeHHflTa ch, KaTO hh 
ynpeKBanie b jieKOMHCJine: 

- Bne aKtJi HMaTe jih?! 3amo hh e ^OMaKHH, hjom bchhko nonyneHO 
HCKaTe aa H3JianaTe ctmnfl ^eH? A3 me bh Hayna Bac, me ycraHOBH 
)Kenfl3Ha flncijHnjiHHa! 

Hne BeflHara ce ctrjiacnxMe c Hero. 

- Ex, - Ka3Banie hakoh, - flOKaTO e flOMaKHH CaMH, rjia^HH H3 KHJiHATa 
me xoflHTe, ho ot raafl HAMa aa yMpeTe. 

A CaMH npoTecTHpauie: 

- He 3JioynoTpe6^BaH c ayMHTe Ha CrpaHflacaTa! 

EaxMe MJia^H h Maxap xpohhhho aa He^ojDKflaxMe, H e o6ptmaxMe 
BHHMaHHe Ha TOBa, HieryBaxMe ce h He ce onuaKBaxMe. 

Mhho Hjiha h Jiejia Po3a, poflHTejiHTe Ha CaMH, ctiijo 6axa npeKpacHH 
xopa. Te noanoMaraxa h ocTaHajiHTe nojiHT3aTBOpHHn;H. C6jiH3KHxa ce c 
TaTe h MaMa h B3aHMHO ce noflKpenaxa. Hjiha Hhchmob 6hji po^eH h achbaji 
b >Im6oji, KtfleTO CTaHan HJieH Ha BPn npe3 TpHflecerre roaHHH. Bnocjiea- 
CTBHe ce npeMecTHJi Ha pa6oTa b Co(|)H5i KaTO cjiyacHTeji b rtproBCKa (J)HpMa 
h TyK npofltJDKHJi aa noanoMara napTHHTa h aHTH(J)aniHCTKOTO ABHaceHHe. 
PiMame mhoto no3HaTH. MecTO HflBame Ha CBroK^aHe h hh HH^opMHpame 3a 
no-BaacHHTe nojiHTHnecKH cbGhtha no CBeTa h b CTpaHaTa. 

npe3 k)hh hjih k)jih 1943 no BpeMe Ha CBHacaaHe c MeH h CaMH toh hh 
npepa3Ka3a ebo6meHHeTO Ha pa^no JTohaoh, ne Kom HHTepm>T ce e caivio- 
pa3nycHaji. npHHHHHTe 3a TOBa 6hjih, ne KOMyHHCTHHecKHTe h pa6oTHHHe- 
CKHTe napTHH HMajiH flocTartHHO onHT h caMH MO^KejiH aa onpeaejurr 

CBOflTa nOJIHTHKa H SaflaHH B 3aBHCHMOCT OT KOHKpeTHHTe HaUHOHaJIHH 
yCJIOBHH, C KOeTO Ce pa3IHHp£BaJIH BT>3M02CH0CTHTe 3a CT>3flaBaHe Ha HaiJHO- 

HajiHH 4>poHTOBe npOTHB (J)aniH3Ma. 

Be^Hara npefla^oxMe TOBa Ha apyrapHTe. 3anoHHaxa oacHBeHH KOMeH- 
TapH, H3Ka3Baxa ce pa3JiHHHH ou^hkh h MHeHH^i. EflHH Ka3Baxa 5 ne TOBa e 

167 



HeBi>3M0)KH0 h He ci>o6meHHeTO Ha pa/jHOTO HaB^pHO e npoBOKaijHfl Ha 
(JjaniHCTKaTa nponaraH^a. flpyra CMOTaxa, ne TOBa e TaKTHHecKH npaBHJiHo 
pemeroie, KoeTO aaBa bt>3mo)khoct aa ce ycraHOBH no-rojiflMO flOBepne 
Me^cay CTpaHHTe Ha aHTH(])aniHCTKaTa KoajnnjHfl h t. h. Bchhkh Ka3Baxa, ne 
aKO ci>o6meHHeTO e BapHO, to penieHHeTO e npaBHJiHo - He Moaceme .zja 
flonycHeM, ne jsp. OranHH h ap. ^hmhtpob me B3eMaT HenpaBHJiHO peine- 
HHe... ^HCKycHHTe npofli>Ji^cHxa hhkojiko ,hhh, ho TOBa ct6HTHe npofltJDKH #a 
Bi>jiHyBa nojiHT3aTBOpHHi|HTe npe3 cjie^BamHTe MeceiiH, tt>h KaTO flT>Jiro 
BpeMe flontJiHHTejiHa HH(J)opMai|Ha 3a no3HijHflTa Ha napraaTa no T03H Bi>npoc 
HHMauie. EflBa npe3 eceHTa napTHHHOTO p^koboactbo Ha 3aTBopa apryMeH- 
THpaHO o6ocHOBa npaBHJiHOCTra Ha TOBa penieHHe. B o6mn jihhhh Te ce 
CBeac#axa ao TOBa, KoeTO hh 6eine Ka3aji, MaKap h HaKparcco, hhho Hjiha. 

npe3 aeKeMBpH 1943 r. hhho Hjiha Ha cpema c MeH h CaMH pa3Bi>jiHy- 
BaHO h c npHnoBflHrHaTO HacTpoeHHe pa3Ka3a 3a cbCToajiaTa ce b TexepaH 
KOH(J)epeHitH5i Ha TpHMaTa BejiHKH MT>)Ke, KaKTO ce H3pa3H TOH - OranHH, 
Py3BejiT h H'BpHHJi. B3era 6hjih BaacHH pemeHHa: aa ce OTKpne BTopn 
4>pOHT 5 aa ce cbrjiacyBaT BoeHHHTe fleftcTBHfl no bchhkh (])poHTOBe, aa 6i>fla 
CbfleHH BHHOBHHIJHTe 3a BOHHaTa h BoeHHonpecTbnHHmrre. 

HaK flo HanajiOTO Ha cenTeMBpH 1944 r. hhho Hjiha npn bchko CBH^Kfla- 
He cbc CaMH, a necTO h c MeH, wpoj^bJiuKU aa hh npeaaBa KpaTKH, hchh h 
flocTOBepHH hobhhh 3a nojioaceHHeTO no (|)poHTOBeTe, 3a ycnexHTe h 
HeycnexHTe Ha GbBeTCKaTa apMHa h Ha Ci>K)3HHijHTe, 3a nojiHTHHecKHTe 
eb6HTHfl b Bi>jirapHa... 

IIpeKpacHH xopa 6axa ceMeficTBO Hjiha h Po3a Hhchmobh. B npofltn- 
aceHHe Ha noBene ot e^Ha roflHHa Te nocemaBaxa IIa3ap,n)KHinKHfl 3aTB0p - 
c xpaHa, hobhhh, onTHMH3i>M ? c Bflpa b yTpeniHM aeH. MopajiHaTa hm 
noflKpena 3a Hac 6enie no-Baaoia ot MaTepnajiHaTa. Gbc cbohtc cbBera Te 
noantpacaxa MopajiHO h ceMeftcTBara Ha nojiHT3aTBopHHijHTe ot IIa3ap- 
jWKWKiin 3aTBOp. B cbmoTO BpeMe Te Tbpnaxa peflHija HecroflH h MaTe- 
pnajiHH Tpy^HOCTH h KaTO npHHyflHTejiHO B'bflBopeHH b na3apfl^cHK. MaJIKO 
ca xopara, kohto TaKa 6e3KopHCTHO, pa3nojiaraftKH c TOJiKOBa ckpomhh 
floxoflH, c ijeHaTa Ha mhoto JiHineHM ca noflnoMarann eaceflHeBHO He caMO 
cboh chh, ho h HeroBHTe apyrapH. H cjiea IIo6eflaTa Ha 9. IX. 1944 r. Te 
npofli>n^cHxa aa ce TpyflOT h acHBeHT ckpomho h HanperaaTO, 6e3 aa 

nOJ13BaT HHKaKBH npHBHJierHH. 

IIpexBi>pjiHHeTO Ha rpyna iiojiiroarBopHHuii b jiarep Ei>JirapoBO 
npn 3aTBopa b Byprac. HHCJieHocrra Ha 3aTBOpmnjHTe npe3 m. iohh ce 
yBejiHHH. 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa aremjHfl "napTemca" pa3npocTpaHH HOBHHaTa, 
ne ce noflroTB^ ronpaujaHeTO na rpyna 3aTB0pHHijH Ha pa6oTa b Jiarep Kpafl 

168 



rp. Byprac. ToBa 6enie noTBtpaeHO h ot hhho Hjiha. CjiyxtT H3Jie3e Ben e 
EflHa cyTpHH Hafl3HpaTejiHTe ci>o6iu;Hxa HMeHaTa Ha 3aMHHaBaui;HTe, flan v 
hm eAHonacoB cpoK 3a ci>6HpaHe Ha Gara^ca ch h 3a H3,n;aBaHe ^ 
3aTBOpHHHecKHTe hm flpexH. H3Be^oxa ra ot 3aTBOpa, oGrpa^eHH ot roj^ 
6poH B'bop'bHceHH CTpa^capH. OcTaHaxMe caMO 30-40 nojiHTsaTBopi^ 
cb6paHH b e^HOTO KpHJio Ha 3aTBOpa. Othobo ce npeycTpOHXMe no khj^ ? 
hobh KOJieKTHBH h hobh CTOJineTa, 3anoHHa ono3HaBaHe Ha hobh xapaKTerm 
OcTaHax b cbmaTa khjiha, ho 3a Moe cb^cajieHHe kt>m Byprac 3aMHn ax 
IleTbp BpaHHeB (IIoneTo), /Jejito IIhckob (^acKana), 6paT5i Kopcn^Q 
6para rieuieBH h pp. ' 

3a macTHe, npe3 m. oktombph II. BpaHHeB, 3aeflHO c hakoh jspyru M na3 a 
jpkhhikh" 3aTBOpronjH, ce 3aBi>pHa h HHe othobo ce OKa3axMe b e^Ha khji^^ 

MojiHTBa h Kapuep. Bpi>maM ce Ha3aa bt>b BpeMeTO kbm m>pBaTa tu 
Benep b IIa3apfl)KHHiKHfl 3aTBOp. B 20 h. BenepTa ce abh Ha#3HpaTeji 
npoBepKa. HapeflHXMe ce b pe^Hija. Ton neTeuie HMeHaTa h 0T6ejia3 Ba 
npHCBCTBHeTO hh. IIocjieflBa rojMMa H3HeHa,a;a. Ha^SHpaTejiHT H3KOMaHnB 
,? 06i>pHeTe ce Ha h3tok! Hera MOJiHTBa!" E^hh ot CBKHJiHHHHijHTe npotj eT 
KpaTKa MOJiHTBa. ToBa chjiho Me niOKHpa. 

Ha^HpaTeiuiT H3Jie3e. 06i>pHax ce He^OBOJiHO kbm apyrapHTe ch: m v 
e bi>3mo^cho BHe, octfleHH 3a KOMyHHCTHnecKa aefiHOCT, aa ce noflHHn^ Ba 
Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa h rzl neTeTe mojihtbh?!" OGacHHxa mh 5 tj e T 
uapH Ka3apMeH peacHM h ne MOJiHTBaTa e 3a,nT>jDKHTejiHa cnopea IIpaBj* 
HHKa 3a BT>TpeniHHfl pea, a 3a HenoflHHHeHHe hh nana Kapijep, jiHiuaBane "" 
KopecnoHaeHUHH, xpaHa h CBroK^aHe. 

3anoHHa ancicycHfl. Hakoh H3Ka3Baxa MHemie, ne Tp5i6Ba aa ce OTKa^ e 
ot MOJiHTBaTa. Jlpym TBtp^xa, ne Tpfl6Ba aa ce no^HHHHM, tbh Kato cm 
MajiKO h ctnpoTHBaTa hh me Gt^e cjiOMeHa. 

-Hb Ka3apMaTa HMa HeBflpBamn, ho Te ce no#HHHABaT Ha npaBHJiax a 

- Ho b Ka3apMaTa e flpyro. Hne CMe npH3HaTH ot cbflHJinmaTa 3a komv 
hhcth h He Tpfl6Ba fla ce noflHHHABaMe h ^a neTeM MOJiHTBa. 

HaKpaa peuiHXMe, ne TOBa e e^HO (j)opMajiHO 3a,m>jDKeHHe, KoeTO 3ac e r 
m;e H3ni>jiHiiBaMe c HacMeuiKa. CMjrraxMe no-KtCHO othobo «a pa3rjie f q aM 
T03H Btnpoc. PeuiHXMe ei>mo MOJiHTBaTa #a ce neTe no-6i>p30 c HaH-Kp arK 
TeKCT h BHHarn ot e^HH h ci>m flpyrap. 3a TaKtB onpe^ejinxMe To^op {£ 



kohto CTaHa HauiH^T n non 



Cjiea Meceij-flBa ei>CTaBT>T Ha o6HTaBaiu;HTe HauiaTa khjiha nocTenenn 
ce npOMeHH. E^hh ot HaA3HpaTejiHTe (LfceTaHCKH, npocTOBaT hobck c nr> 
Kop "MytjrraTa", 3amoTO B3HMauie ot H3npaTeHaTa otbt>h 3a saTBOpaj^ 
xpaHa) 6euie 3a6ejifl3aji, ne h b KHJiHOTa, h b CTOJioBaTa MOJiHTBaTa ce tj eT 



169 



ot e^HH h ci>m 3aTBopHHK, h to c mhoto ctKpaTeH tckct. 3anoMHHJi 6eme 
ctmo, ne npH BeqepHaTa npOBepKa a3 3aeMaM jicbm $JiaHr h npH HeTeHeTo 
Ha MOJiHTBaTa ce noflCMHBaM. E/ma Benep toh ce o6tpHa kbm MeH h c rpyg 
toh sanoB^a: 

- TH, HeTH MOJiHTBaTa! 

A3 MtJinax h npofltJi^caBax ^a ro rjie^aM hpohhhho. 

- Hera MOJiHTBaTa! - npofltJi^caBanie fla noBTapa h j\a, yapa no no^a c 
no^KOBaHHTe ch 6oTyniH. 

A3 MtJinax. 

- HyBani jih, me Te KapimpaM! 

npHMHpeHHeCKH OTrOBOpHXI 

- HyBaM, ho He a 3HaM. 

ToraBa toh ce o6tpHa etc ctmaTa 3anoBea kt>m CTOflnma j\o MeH XpHCTo 
GraTeB ot c. /JopKOBO. B 3HaK Ha cojiH^apHocT toh cbiijo OTKa3a. LfceTaHCKH 
nocoHH TpeTH 3aTBOpHHK, kohto othobo OTKa3a. ATMOC(|)epaTa ce Haro- 
pemn. Ce6ejno6HeTO Ha Hafl3HpaTejm 6enie HaKtpHeHO. CTpaniHO jmocaH, 
toh CToeuie npea Hac h hh o6cHnBanie etc 3aKaHH. ilcHO 6enie, ne 3a nptB 
ntT ce c6jn>CKBaine c TaKOBa KOJieKTHBHO HenoflHHHeHHe, h Ha TOBa OTrope 
ro Bi>3npHeMaine KaTO JiHHHa oGn^a. nono^ceHHeTO cnacn HaniMT Ha6e,neH 
non Toflop KoeB. Toh BflHraa ptije Harope h no/mrpaBaTejiHO H3pene: 

- O, Eoace TocnoflH, kohto ch Ha He6eTO, npocTH rpexoBeTe Ha Hac h Ha 

HaniHTe BparoBe. Amhh! 

Hafl3HpaTejiOT o6abh ? ne Kapimpa MeH h XpHCTo 3a e^Ha hohj;. 
-TptrBafiTe npefl MeH - Ka3a toh. 

A3 My 3aHBHX, He H5IMa npaBO fla HaKa3Ba H m H3BOKfla 3aTBOpHHIJH OT 

KHJiHHTe cjiea BenepHaTa npOBepKa. 

- TptrBaHTe, ne me H3BHKaM bohhhiukh>i Kapayji! Ako He ce noflHHHH- 

Te ? me no^aM panopT h me HCKaM no-rojiaMo HaKa3aHHe. CyTpHHTa me bh 

OCB06ofl5L 

3a aa OBJia^eeM CKaH^ajia, HHe c XpHCTo H3Ji>i30XMe ot KHJiHflTa. Hafl3H- 
paTeji)iT hh OTBe/je b KapiiepHOTO oxnejieHHe, KoeTO ce HaMHpaine b no^3eM- 
hha eTaac h ce ctcToenie ot hakojiko khjihh c pa3Mepn e^HH Ha e#HH h no- 
jiOBHHa MeTpa. Te3H khjihh H^Maxa np030pijH, a otkbm KOpH^opa ce 3aTBa- 
pflxa c penieTbHHH BpaTH. rio^tT hm 6enie imMemroB h 3a npe3 HomTa aaBa- 
xa fltcKa, KOOTO cjiy^ceine 3a omaHe h 3a Jierjio. 3aTBOpnxa hh b rbq ctcefl- 

HH KHJIHH. 

B Kapiiepa HAManie flpyra 3aTBOpHHijH. KopH^optT 6eine cna6o ocBe- 
TeH. ^BaMaTa c XpHCTo pa3roBapaxMe noHTH iyuia Horn npe3 penieTKHTe Ha 
BpaTHTe. BpeMeTO 6enie Tonjio, ho BJiaacHO. CyTpHHTa o6ane CTaHa #ocTa 

170 



cTyfleHO h ce 3aTonjiHXMe KaTo npaBexMe raMHacTHKa. IIo e^Ho BpeMe 
noHfle flpyr Hafl3HpaTeji h hh nycHa ao ToajieTHaTa h MHBKaTa. B KopH^opa 
HMaine MajiKH np030pneTa c )Kejie3HH pemeTKH. IIpe3 tax BH^caaxMe KpaKa- 
xa Ha BOHHHKa, kohto oxpaHMBame crpa^aTa h ce pa3xo)K#anie npea npo- 
30pUHTe. H3BHKaxMe My, toh ce HaBe^e h ce OKa3a, ne TOBa e 6aTaHaHHHT>T 
TeoprH BejiKOB. IIo3HaBaxa ro ao6pe. BpaT My HHKOJia 6eme ceicpeTap Ha 
PMC b BaTaK h ome npe3 jiatoto Ha 1941 r. CTaHa napTH3aHHH. 

- ,3,o6po yTpo, 6aii reoprn, na3Hin jih hh? - nomrrax ro a3. 

Toh npofl'bjraHTejiHO ce B3Hpa b MeH. 5Ibho He Mo^ceuie /ja Me no3Hae b 
3aTBOpHHHecKHTe flpexH, m>K HaoKOJio 6euie nojiyMpaK. 

- Epe, AHrejie, th jih ch? npomaBafi, He Te no3Hax - Ka3a 6an Teoprn 
HaKpaa, KOJieHHHHJi npea npo3opneTO. 

- A3 cbm 3anac. C KaKBO Mora m bh noMorHa? HcxaTe jih LjnrapH? - h 
3anoHHa «a pOBH H3 ;pKo6oBeTe Ha KypTKaTa ch. 

OTKa3axMe - h ^BaMaTa He nyuiexMe. C6oryBaxMe ce c 6afi Teoprn h 
H3npaTHXMe no3«paBH Ha BOHHHijHTe-3anacHflijH ot BaTaK h /JopKOBo, 
kohto cjiyacexa b 27-mh ^enHHCKH nojiK. 

Hafl3HpaTejWT U,BeTaHCKH He hh ocbo6o#h. CMflHara My 3aBT>piiiHJia h 
toh ch 3aMHHaji ki>m EenoBO, 6e3 fla ocTaBH panopT 3a KapijHpaHeTO hh. 
ToBa 6eine bt>b btophhk. npecToaxMe e^HO aeHOHomne b Kapijepa 6e3 «a 
HMa 3anoBe« 3a KapijHpaHe h 6e3 TOBa «a e h3bcctho Ha niaBHHfl 
Hafl3HpaTeji. Eaxa hh "3a6paBHJiH". C XpHCTO necTO neexMe pa3JiHHHH 
necHH, MaKap ne 6axMe mhoto jiouih neBijH. Oco6eHO bhcoko h necTo 
neexMe "OaiiiH3M'bT ijapH, Tepopi>T ro Kpenn, ho 6opnecKHfl jjyx He me 
cjiomh". Cpwa 6euie aeH Ha CBHayjaHe. BpaT mh Bjiaron /jourbJi ot BaTaK, 
B3en pa3penieHHe 3a CBH^KflaHe ot npoKypaTypaTa h npHCTHraaji b 3aTBOpa. 
TyK My OTKa3ajiH CBH^KaaHe 6e3 «a My o6achht 3amo. Toh ce BtpHaji b 
npoKypaTypara, ct>o6iii;hji TOBa h noncKaji /ja y3Hae Kbjifi ce HaMHpaM. 
HanpaBHJiH cnpaBKa h ce OKa3ano, ne cbm b 3aTBOpa, ho cbm b Kapijepa h ne 
TOBa He e 6hjio h3bcctho Ha ynpaBaTa, 3a «a cbo6iu;^t b npoKypaTypaTa /ja 
He ce flaBa pa3peuiHTejiHO 3a CBH^c«aHe. 

HaKpaa CBH^/jaHeTO CTaHa. H3Kapaxa Me ot Kapijepa h a3 ce abhx b 
3ajiaTa 3a cBHayjaHe b OKbcaHH 3aTBOpHHHecKH flpexn. YcnoKonx 6paT mh, 
6ax 6ofli>p, pa3MeHHXMe npe3 peuieTKHTe hakoh hobhhh. B pe3yjiTaT Ha 
TOBa He#opa3yMeHHe o6ane 3aM.- ( zjHpeKTOp , bT Ha 3aTBopa 3anoHHa npo- 
BepKa. /jBaMara c XpHCTO 6axMe OTBe#eHH b Ka6nHeTa My. TyK 6euie h 
Hafl3HpaTejMT UBeTaHCKH. Toii aoKJiaflBa, ne hh e KapijHpaji 3a Heno«- 
HHHeHHe - He CMe H3m>jiHHJiH Hapeac/jaHeTO «a neTeM MOJiHTBaTa h CMe 
0Ka3ajiH cbnpoTHBa npH OTBOK^aHeTO b Kapijepa. 

171 



- 3amo CTe 0TKa3anH m neTeTe MOJiHTBaTa, 3amo CTe OKa3ajiH 
ctnpoTHBa Ha Ha,n3HpaTejiJi? - 3anHTa 3aMecTHHK-flHpeKTOpi>T. 

- He 3HaeM MOJiHTBaTa h o6acHHXMe TOBa Ha Hafl3HpaTejra - 
oiroBOpHXMe h flBaMaTa. Ton ce o6i>pHa ki>m MeH: 

- Bne CTe 3aBi>pniHJi raMHa3Ha (npea Hero Ha MacaTa Jieacenie jihhhoto 
mh aejio). Moace jih HHTejinreHTeH HOBeK aa He 3Hae eflHa MOJiHTBa? 

- HHTejiHreHTHOCTTa Ha hobck He ce onpeaejw ot 3HaeHeTO Ha 
mojihtbh. BauiH^T Hafl3HpaTeji 3Hae mojihtbh, ho 03HanaBa jih TOBa, ne e 
HHTejinreHTeH? 

3aMecTHHK-flHpeKTOpi>T ckohh KaTO yacnjieH h yaapH c K)MpyK no 

6lOpOTO CH. 

- rieT flHH b Kapijepa h 10 b e^HHOHKa! (t. e., b khjihh, H30JiHpaHH ot 
ApyrHTe 3aTBOpHHijH h npn no-CTpor peacHM), - o6abh toh peiueHHeTO ch. - 
OTBe^eTe ra! 

TaKa HHe c XpHCTO othobo noexMe kbm icapijepa, KbfleTO npo,m>JDKHXMe 
fla neeM "OaniH3Mi>T uapn". HaKa3aHHeTO ome noBene yKpenn HauiHH ayx. 

B^XMe flOBOJIHH OT OTTOBOpHTe, KOHTO flaflOXMe Ha 3aM.-flHpeKTOpa H KOHTO 

nocjie 6axa KOMeHTHpaHH HeBe^HMK cpea 3arBOpHHHecKHfl kojickthb. 

HcropHOTa c MOJiHTBaTa Me no#ceTH h 3a apyr e^HH cjiynafi. npe3 
jmtoto Ha 1943 r. b HOBaTa crpa/ja Ha na3ap,zpKHinKHfl 3aTBOp npHcraraa 
m>pBaTa rpyna nojiHT3aTBopHHUH ot CU,3. Hne He ycnaxMe BeflHara aa ra 
HH(J)opMHpaMe 3a neTeHeTO Ha MOJiHTBa b CTOJioBaTa h cjiea BenepHara 
npOBepKa. Ha HapeacaaHeTO aa ce neTe MOJiHTBa cjiea npoBepKaTa Te 
oTroBopHxa c peuiHTejieH OTKa3, 3amoTO b hhkoh flpyr 3aTBOp HflMaJIO TaKO- 
Ba H3HCKBaHe kt>m nojiHT3aTBOpHHUHTe. Cjiea npepeKaHH^ Ha hakojiko ay- 
ihh 6eine HaHeceH no6oft, a flpyra 6axa H3npaTeHH b Kapijepa. Ha apyraaT 
aeH othobo 3anoHHaxMe flHCKycHH n 3a" h "npOTHB" MOJiHTBaTa, ho Haicpafl 
naK ce npne HaiueTO m>pBOHaHajiHO CTaHOBHme, a e^HOBpeMeHHO c TOBa 
HHe npofli>ji5KHXMe #a HCKaMe OTMHHa Ha TOBa 3afli>Ji)KeHHe, KoeTO HancTHHa 
ce cjiynn no-ia>CHO. 

Othobo naHariopmi. npe3 iojih 1943 r. y3HaxMe 3a tojiam npOBan Ha 
PMC b naHariopHme h 3a apecTyBaHeTO Ha mhoto yneHHipi h pa6oTHHijH. 
no BpeMe Ha CBHacaaHHfl CTpejinaHH y3Haxa h HMeHaTa Ha apecTyBaHHTe. B 
HanajiOTO Ha aBiycT kt>m 30 jsyum ot naHanopCKara yneHHHecKa koh- 
cnnpaitHH 6flxa flOBeaeHH b HaniHfl 3aTBOp. 3anoHHaxa hobh 3ano3HaHCTBa. 
CKOpo CTaHax npHATeji c noHTH bchhkh, noMarax hmhb no^roTOBKaTa 3a 
npoueca. npe3 cenTeMBpn aejioTO hm 6e pa3rjieaaHO ot BoeHHonojieBM 
ci>fl ? kohto H3fla^e CTpora npHCbflH, no 10-15 roflHHH. 

npea ctfla naHariopuH ce a^pacaxa CMejio h ropao - Te aoctohho 

172 



3aiKHTHxa peBonioitHOHHHTe TpaflHi^HH Ha cboh pofleH rpa,n. Okojio e^Ha 
roflHHa 6flXMe 3ae#HO, c hakoh ot tax 6ax b e#Ha khjiha, ynacTBaxMe b Kpt- 
^coUHTe, 6ece#BaxMe, iueryBaxMe ce. OrroraBa ch ocTaHax npHATen c 
Ilertp ^eeHHHHH (no-KtcHO npoc|)ecop ? H3BecTeH XHpypr), HHKOna HaMOB 
(no-KbCHO 3aM.-MHHHcn>p h cneunajiHCT b o6nacrra Ha cencKOTo cronaH- 
ctbo h xpaHHTenHaTa npoMHiuneHOCT), Ctoah Bna^oB (julro Bnaa), Hefiico 
JJeJiHH, IlaHKO CanyHflaoieB, ^enno BecenHHOB, EfceTaH BtproB ? Ctohho 
Ctohhob, HBaH TpyeB h jxp. 

HefiKO ^,enHH nHiueuie cthxobc h mh ra neTeuie. Beine MHoro 
jno6o3HaTeneH ? neTenie MHoro h c yBneneHHe H3yHaBaiue hojihthkohomh)!- 
Ta. flo6pa flpy^c6a HMax h c Hefino BecenHHOB, pa6oTHHK b Ko^capcKa pa6o- 
rariHHua, cnaGHH'BK, ho >KH3HeH. ^enHO ce CTpeMeuie kbm caMoo6pa- 
30BaHHe, a3 My noMarax h toh LjeHeine TOBa. Cnea J\qbqtu ceirreMBpH ce 
HHTepecyBax 3a Hero, ho pa36pax, ne 3a6oji5m ot Ty6epKyno3a h noHHHaji. 

A^BOKaT Ha hakoh ot noflCb^HMHTe 6eiue ByiiHO OrecJmH. Te He 3Haexa, 
qe mh e po#HHHa h roBOpexa 3a Hero c rojWMO 3a#OBOJicTBO, h oco6eHO 3a 
pe^Ta My npea cb^a. CnoMH^M ch, ne floicaTO pi>KOBO,nex e^HH Kpt^coK 
hhkoh ot naHanopijH Me 3anHTa flann cbm po^HHHa c a^BOKaTa fl-p ^HeB. 

- 3amo? - 3anHTax a3. 

- Amh, rnacfcT th mhoix) npHUHHa Ha HeroBHfl. 

TojieMH apecTH b na3ap/r>KiiK h cejiaTa. IIpe3 iohh-iohh 1943 r. HHe 
nonynaBaxMe Bee no-TpeB02KHH hobhhh 3a apecTHTe h HHKBH3HijHHTe Ha,n 
aHTH(J)aiuHCTH b na3ap,zpKHiiiKaTa h nnoB^HBCKaTa HHcneicmw Ha ^p^caB- 
Ha cnrypHOCT. ^hhko BaHeHKHH e 6hji acecTOKO y6HT b khuhhtc Ha nnoB- 
AHBCKaTa nonHUHH. B 3aTBOpa flOKapaxa hakojiko ^eceTKH H3Tep3aHH, 
H3Mi>HeHH apyrapH. Te ce HaeraHHxa b khuhhtc c h3bcctho oGneKHemie, ne 
ca ce OTbpBajiH )khbh ot hhkbh3huhhtc. IIocpemHaxMe th KaTO 6para no 
6op6a. 3anoHHaxa 3ano3HaHCTBa h ycHJieHa no,nroTOBKa 3a ctfle6HHfl npoitec. 

C TflXHOTO HflBaHe 3aTBOptT OTHOBO Ce 02CHBH. B flHHTe 3a CBH^CflaHe 

npHCTHraxa MHoacecTBO noceraTejiH ot na3ap,zpKHK h okojihhtc cena. 
3anecTHxa cpemHTe c a^BoicaTHTe, ct3,na,noxa ce Bpt3KH c OKpT>)KHH5i komh- 
TeT Ha BPI1 h PMC h c na3ap#)KHiiiKaTa o6mecTBeHOCT. npe3 cenTeMBpH ce 
ctcTOfl rojiflM npoijec. BoeHHonojieBHAT eta H3fla,ne tokkh npHCb^H. 

TonaMO npHHTencTBO Me CBi>p3Ba c Ky30 ^eeHHHHH, TeoprH IIoiiob, 

6paTfl ^HMHTBp H TeHHO THUeBH, TeOprH KHJIHTaHOB, ATaHaC KaflHHCKH, 

Bjia^o TeoprHeB (HopGa/pKHHCKH), XpHCTO MapHHOB, HBaH ,3,hhkob, Gpara 
HBaH h Teoprn TocnoflOBH h MHoro flpyra. 

Ky30 ,ZJeeHHHHH, okojio 30-ro/jHiiieH, 6euie BHHarH 3acMAH, KpacHB h 
CTpoeH. C Hero npeicapaxMe H3BecTHO BpeMe b e#Ha khjihh. Bhji e ceKpeTap 

173 



Ha OK Ha napTHflxa, a npe3 1942 r. ro HHTepHHpanH. Ot KOHiyiarepa e 
H3npaTeH b mioB/jHBCKaTa ,3,HpeKijHfl Ha nojiHijHjrra, kb/jcto e o6BHHeH b 
HejierajiHa KOMyHHCTHHecKa /jchhoct. fltpacaji ce /joctohho h nojiynH 
MajiKa npHCT>aa. npe3 npojieira Ha 1944 r. 6enie ocBo6ofleH h CTaHa 
napTH3aHHH. B3e ynacrae b OTenecTBeHaTa BOHHa, a cjie/j BoiraaTa 6e 3aM.- 

KOMaHflHp Ha BTOpa apMHJI B IIjIOBflHB. 

TeoprH TlonoB (6aii TeoprH) 6enie no-BT>3pacTeH (okojio 50-roflHineH), 
ho CTaHa npHOTeji h jhoGhmci^ Ha MJia/jeacHTe, h oco6eHO Ha yneHHijHTe. 
HecTO ce CT>6HpaxMe okojio Hero. Toft ce pa/jBame Ha HainaTa MJia^ocT. 
IIoHJiKora hh nHTaine ineroBHTo: 

- Kofi ot Bac me mh CTaHe 3eT? HMaM xy6aBH mepKH. 

IIIeraTa My o6ane ce cGt/jHa! HBaH HeftKOB ot c. C6op, ToraBa yneHHK, 
ce o^ceHH 3a ,m>mepfl Ha 6aft reopra, kohto no-KBCHO ce H3#HrHa h 
pa6oTeine b U,C Ha OO h E)KC. 

HMaine h jspym npoijecn Ha/j MJia/jeacH ot na3ap/j)KHinKHTe cejia. Cpe/j 
tax npHOTeji 6%x c nerbp Ko3apeB h JIa3ap Bochcb ot IlaTajieHHija, h c 
MeTOflH EIonoB ot c. JIo3eH. 

MeTOflH IIonoB, okojio 40-roflHineH, 6eine bhcok, CTpoeH, aKTHBeH hjich 
Ha napTnjrra h o6mecTBeHHK b po/jHOTO ch cejio. MaKap h /ja 6eine flo6i>p 
HOBeK, toh HMaine Tpy/jeH xapaKTep, ho a3 ce pa36npax c Hero. Cjie/j 
fleBeTH cenTeMBpH 6enie KMeT Ha JIo3eH. 

Bee no TOBa BpeMe 6axa ocvjeHH h rpyna aHTH^aniHCTH ot rapa 
CapaHeBo: To/jop Xaft/jyniKH, chht>t My ATaHac h ome HeKOJmHHa acejie3- 
HHHapH. Bafi To,zi;op 6eine ynacTBaji b HflKoraniHHTe 6op6n Ha naprajrra h c 
Bi>3T0pr pa3Ka3Banie 3a CenTeMBpnftcKOTO BtcTaHHe. ATaHac ci>mo 6eine 
Bi>3npHeji nojiHTHHecKHTe y6e)K,zjeHHfl Ha 6ama ch h 6eine ocb^eH KaTO 
ceKpeTap Ha PK Ha PMC. 

Ey/jHH, HecnoKOHHH, ho h BecejiH 6axa MJia/jeacHTe ot 6jih3koto ro 
3aTBOpa c. Cto6. Bi>p30 ce ono3HaxMe h o6mcHaxMe c HeaH HeiiKOB h 
JIhko KypTaKOB. 

HBaH 6enie yneHHK, no xapaKTep TBtp/je ypaBHOBeceH h cnoKoeH, bhco- 
ko HHTejinreHTeH. ^hko 6eme c TpeTOKJiacHO npornMHa3HajiHO o6pa30Ba- 
HHe (cera VII kjl), ho 6y#HO cejiCKO momhc, pOMaHTHHeH, c rojwMa BJipa b 
H^eHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma. B nocn>nKHTe My o6ane HMaine Hemo aBaHTio- 
pHCTHHHO. MHoro ce npHTecHiiBanie npe/jn h no BpeMe Ha npoijeca, 
Ttpceine MoeTO npH>rrejicTBO. A3 ro ycnoKOHBax, /jaBax My ebBera KaK aa 
ce #i>p)KH npefl cb/ja, 3ae/jHO aHajiH3HpaxMe noKa3aHHjrra My, a h Ha 
noKa3aHH5iTa Ha ocTaHajiHTe, npHBJieneHH no /jejiom y ^hko npn apecTa 
6hji HaMepeH nncTOJieT. noHeace npe/jn TOBa 6hji y6HT HeroB cbcejnmHH, 

174 



kohto 0Ka3Ban ycjiyra Ha nojiHUMTa, cera o6BHHeHHeTO npaBeuie onnra m 
cBi>p^ e ^hko c TOBa y6HHCTBO. npoijectT o6ane npeMHHa flo6pe, c 
npHCbflH ot 5 flo 15 roflHHH. JIhko nHineme cthxobc h a3 CTaHax e^HH ot 
rrbpBHTe My HHTaTejiH h HeroB M peiieH3eHT M . IIoflapH mh hakojiko TeTpaAKH 
ci>c CTHXOBe, a cjie/j 9.IX.1944 r. mh H3npaTH cthxobc b BaTaK. 

IIpHCTHraHe Ha nojiHT3aTBopmmH ot Co^hhckhh ueHTpajieH 3aTBop 
(CU,3). IIpe3 aBrycT b HauiM 3aTBOp 3anoHHa npexBtpJiOT ron^Ma rpyna 
noJiHT3aTBOpHHijH ot CIJ3. 3a 2-3 Meceua npHCTHraaxa okojio 200-250 j\y- 
uih. TaKa ki>m aeKeMBpH 1943 r. nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe b hobha na3ap/pKHHi- 
kh 3aTBOp 6axMe CTaHajiH okojio 500 ayuiH. nocneABaxa hobh npepa3npe- 
fleneHHfl no eTaacn, OT/jejieHHfl h khjihh, hobh 3ano3HaHCTBa. H^Max no3Ha- 
th cpefl ntpBaTa rpyna, npexBtpJieHa ot CIJ3, Tbii KaTO TOBa 6axa cpaBHH- 
TejiHO no-HOBH 3aTBOpHHi^H 5 c npHctflH ot npojieira h jiatoto Ha 1943 r. 

B cpe/jaTa Ha aBrycT ot CU,3 npHCTHraaxa rpyna 3aTBOpHHijH, oci>fleHH 
Ha cmt>pt. Meacay tax no3HaBax HBaH ,3,ejieB, KpyM MnjiyineB, TyM6eB, 
AHflpe^ Ana/jacoB, HBaH BaHKOB, Ejie<J)Tep ApHay/joB, HnKona Bohcb, 
ATaHac ATaHacoB h pp., c kohto ce 6ax cpemaji b CIJ3. Bchhkh npoflBH- 
Baxa toji^mo BHHMaHHe h 3arpH)KeHOCT kt>m tax. HacTaHnxa rn b flpyro 
Kpnno Ha 3aTBOpa h BceKH 6enie b oxuejraa khjihh (e/jiraoHKa). 3a raxHa h 
nania pa^ocT pa3xo/jKHTe 6axa o6mn. 06niyBaHeTO HaMajijreame Hanpe- 
^ceHHeTO, KoeTO "cmt>pthhot" H3nHTBa BceKH nac, Bcjnca MHHyTa. Han-necTo 
ce cpeujax c HBaH ,3,ejieB, HBaH BaHKOB, MnjiymeB h HnKona Bohcb. Hemo 
noBene, okojio HBaH BaHKOB ce o6pa3yBa rpyna ot npHATejin: HBaH 
Tep3HeB, HnKOJia MaMOB, HBaH ropHHOB, a3 h flpyrn MJiaae^cn. Ta3H rpyna 
ce ci>6HpaxMe Ha npH^TejicKH cpemn h cjie/j ,3,eBeTH cenTeMBpn. TtpceHH 
ci>6eceflHHitH 6axa HnKOJia Bohcb h ATaHac ATaHacoB, bhcokohhtcjih- 

reHTHH MJiaflOKH, C flCHTeHCKH onHT. 

Cjiea HflBaHeTO Ha rojiflMaTa rpyna ot CLJ3 ce ccj)opMHpa h hobo 
KOJieKTHBHO pi>kobo/jctbo, npH3HaTO ot 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa KaTO 
npe/jcTaBHTeji Ha bchhkh 3aTB0pHHun. B ctcTaBa Ha TOBa pt>kobo,uctbo 
(KoeTO Hipaenie pojurra h Ha napTHHHo) BJiH3axa: AHflpea neHeB, Cnac 
TeoprneB, TeHHO Ebthmob, HBaH ^eneB, a no-KtcHO neTtp BpaHneB h Ap. 
GbCTaBtT My ce MeHeme nopa/jH nocTOHHHH npeMecTBaHHH no OT/jeneHHfl h 

KHJIHH, npHH5KflaHe Ha HOBH nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJH H T. H. 

B MJia/jeacKOTO pt>kobo,zjctbo othobo Bjuooxa MaKCHM To/jopOB (ot 
IlepHHK), Hjiha MajieB (^opKOBo) h a3. OGhkhobcho pa6oTexMe 3ae/jH0 c 
TeHHO Ebthmob, ho necTO ce cpemaxMe Ha 3ace/jaHH5i h c AHflpea neHeB h 
Cnac TeoprHeB. B 3aTBOpa npe3 eceHTa h 3HMaTa ce o(J)opMH e^HH tojiam h 
flo6pe opraHH3HpaH 3aTBOpHHHecKH KOJieKTHB, kohto ce ptKOBOfleilie OT 

175 



oGiujrre ijenH Ha aHTH(|)aniHCTKaTa 6op6a, KaTO ce cipeMeme ^a 3ana3H 
3flpaBeTO Ha 3aTBOpHHijHTe h Ra, rn noflroTBH no-flo6pe 3a 6i>fleiij;aTa hm 
nojiHTHnecKa h o6mecTBeHa aeftHocT. 

Hanejio Ha kojickthbhoto p'bkobo.hctbo 6eme Anjipen IleHeB (Bag 
Auppen), kohto 6eme onHTeH npo(J)ecHOHajieH peBOJUoijHOHep, 6hbih Hapo- 
nen npeflCTaBHTen Ha EPII b HanajiOTO Ha 30-Te ixwihh, HJieH Ha E[K Ha 
BPn. KaTO HejieraneH toh nojiynnji 3a,zjOHHO CMtpraa npHCbfla, a npe3 npo- 
jierra Ha 1943 r. 6hji 3ajiOBeH h 3aTBOpeH. Toh 6eme cnoKoeH, KOHCTpyKTH- 
BeH b noBeAeHHeTO ch hobck, npaBeme MHoro Tpe3BH h 32LjxbJi6oHeim oijeH- 
kh Ha nojiHTHnecKHTe ct>6hth5i. noam>p^caiHe Bpi>3KH c npeACTaBHTejiH Ha 
napTHHHH p'bKOBOflCTBa h3bi>h 3aTBopa. Oniacjmie ce c yBaacemie kt>m MeH, 
Tbpceme Me npn pemaBaHeTO Ha hakoh BMipocH, BT>3Jiarame mh 3a/i;aHH. 

/Jo6pH npHHTejiH CTaHaxMe ct>c Cnac TeoprHeB. MaKap h #a "KBapra- 
pyBaxMe" Ha pa3JiHHHH eTaacn, HHe ce cpemaxMe nonra eace/jHeBHO. Toh 
npHCTHrHa c ni>pBaTa rpyna ot CE[3 h a3 m>pBH ro 3ano3Hax etc 3aTBop- 
HHHecKHfl KOJieKTHB h CMfla^eHaTa opraHH3aijHfl. Be^Hara nonyBCTBax, ne 
HMaM Hacpema ch onHTeH KOHcnnpaTop h o6pa30BaH napTHeH aeaTeji. 
CnoMHHM ch, ne 6ax HanpaBHJi pe(|)epaT 3a XpHCTO Botcb no cjiynan 2 iohh, 
kohto 6eme neTeH h b flpynrre khjihh. Cnac nponen flOKJia^a h 3a moh 
H3HeHa/i;a mh ro Bi>pHa H3m>CTpeH c nncMeHH GejieacKH, a My HanpaBH h 
ycTHa oijeHKa. 

Cnac reopraeB mh pa3Ka3a 3a AHren Kano^HOB ot EaTaK, c KoroTO ce 
cpemaji b CCCP, a 3a nocjie/i;eH m>T ro bh^hji b chhh ot nepHOMOpcKHTe 
KypopTH, K'b.neTO 6hji Ha jieneHHe. rio3HaBanie h IleTBp At. BpaHneB. Ot pa3- 
roBOpHTe, kohto BO^exMe y3Hax 5 ne Cnac e ot KoereHeij, 6hji e nojiHTeMH- 
rpaHT b lOrocjiaBna, ctfleH e no 33/J h Jieacaji b 3aTBOpHTe, OTKbfleTO 
H36araji h ycnaji m eMHrpnpa b CCCP. TaM ynnji h CTaHaji HJieH Ha 
p'bKOBOflCTBOTO Ha KoMyHHCTHHeciow HHTepHaiiiHOHaji Ha MJiafleacra (KHM). 
npe3 1937 r. CTaHaji HHTep6pHra/i;HCT b HcnaHM, a ot TaM npe3 OpaHijHfl ce 
3aBtpHaji b EMrapira h othobo noen m>T5i Ha npocJDecHOHajimifl peBOJiio- 
i^HOHep. Ha 17 Man 1945 r. (aeHH Ha AnpHJiCKOTO BtcTaHHe) toh npHCTHraa 
b BaTaK, Bene KaTO nojiKOBHHK, h 6eme toct Ha HauieTO ceMeficTBO. 

CMtprra Ha IJap Bopnc III h IIocjieflHH. JleTmrre MeceijH iojih h 
aBrycT 1943r.6flxa HacHTeHH c rojieMH ci>6hthh no (j)poHTOBeTe. Pa^BaxMe 
ce Ha no6e/i;HTe Ha Ci>BeTCKaTa apMM b tokkhtc cpaaceHHfl uoj\ KypcK, npn 
ocBo6otfc,naBaHeTO Ha Open, Bejiropo/i; h XapKOB. C pa/i;ocT cjieaaxMe h 
HacrbnjieHHeTO Ha aHrjio-aMepHKaHCKaTa apMHH b CeBepHa A(])pHKa. Hne 
/i;o6pe ci>3HaBaxMe 5 ne ocBo6o5K/i;eHHeTO hh 3aBHCH ot H3xo.ua Ha BOHHaTa. 
rojwMO o^KHBJieHHe cpe,n Hac npe^H3BHKaxa hobkhhtc 3a #ecaHTa na 

176 



aHHio-aMepHKaHCKaTa apMHfl Ha o. Chu;hjih5I npe3 iojih, 3a CBajiHHeTo ot 
BJiacT Ha MycojiHHH h o6pa3yBaHeTO Ha npaBHTencTBOTO Ha BaaojiHO, 3a 
#ecaHTa b KhKHa HTajina npe3 cenTeMBpH h MHoro flpyrn ct>6htha. 

B EtJirapHfl npofltjraaBanie fla HapacTBa HapoflHOTO HeflOBOJicTBO, 
3acHJiBaxa ce penpecHHTe, 3acHJiBauie ce napiroaHCKOTO h aHTH^auiHCTKO 
flBHflceHHe. 

B Kpaa Ha aBrycT ce pa3npocTpaHH cjiyx, ne ijap Bopnc e tokko 6oneH. 
Ha 29.VIIL1943 r. (6euie xy6aB HeaeneH Ren) hh H3Be/i;oxa Ha pa3xoflKa Ha 
KOJienoTO. B 10 h. cyTpHHTa bohhhkbt ot Kynara hh flaae cnraaji c ptica, ne 
HCKa fla Kaace Hemo. Hne 3a6aBHXMe xo,n. IIpH noBTOpHOTO hh npeMH- 
HaBaHe Kpafi KynaTa toh MHoro npe,zuia3JiHBO, 3acTaBaftKH c paMO kbm Hac h 
orjie^KflafiKH ce, Ka3a: 

- IJapflT e yMpaji. 

3a ceKyHflH Ta3H HOBHHa ce npeaaae no Bepnrara Ha nojnrreaTBOp- 
HHiiHTe. Hafl3HpaTejiHT nonyBCTBa HanieTO BtJiHeHHe, pa36pa, ne Bene 
3HaeM HOBHHaTa h 3anoHHa HepBHO aa noflBHKBa: 

- no-6i>p30 5 6e3 pa3roBopn! 

no BpeMe Ha pa3xoflKaTa CTaHa civwHa Ha nacoBoa. KapayntT npeMHHa 
6jih30 flo Hac, a pa3BOflaHi>T ctmo hh noaxBtpJin: 

- LJapflT e yMpjui. 

Tp^6Ba ^a OT6ejieaca, ne CMjraaTa Ha nacoBHTe He CTaBauie no BpeMe Ha 
pa3xoflKHTe ? TOBa 6euie 3a6paHeHO, Tbii KaTO Te TpaGBauie aa npeMHHaT 
npe3 flBopa 6jih30 ro Hac. Eax 3a6ejifl3aji, ne TOBa npaBHJio necTO ce Hapy- 
maBauie. KapayjiHHTe npoflBABaxa HHTepec kt>m Hac, n>pcexa no3HarH, 3a 
M hm MaxHaT c ptica 3a no3flpaB. ToBa CTaBauie Han-HecTO KoraTO pa3BO- 
flanH Ha Kapayna 6axa c^ejifl(J)e6eji-uiKOJiHHiiH. Te rtpcexa fla 3tpHaT cboh 
6hbiiih cbyneHHiiH hjih 3eMJi>mH. 

npn6paxMe ce b khjihhtc h Bczmara 3anoHHaxa o6ci>^cflaHH^ me CTaHe 
jih u;ap HeBptcTHHiiT npecTOJioHacjie/jHHK Chmcoh, me HMa jih H36opH 3a 
BenHKO HapoflHO ci>6paHHe, KoeTO fla npoBT>3niacH hobha ijap h fla H36epe 
pereHTH, me HMa jih npoMeHH b nojiHTHKaTa Ha npaBHTejiCTBOTO, ijapnija 
HoaHHa h BoraaH Ohjiob HflMa jih /ja nocjie^BaT npHMepa Ha 6anjaTa Ha 
ijapHijaTa, HTajmaHCKHfl Kpaji Bhktop EMaHynji, fla cKbcar ci>io3a c 
XnTJiepHCTKa TepMaHH^ h aa npeKpaTAT "cHMBOJiHHHaTa" BOHHa c AHniHfl 
hCAIIJ... 

H3Ka3Baxa Ce HaH-pa3JIHHHH MHeHHfl. IlapTHHHOTO pfcKOBOflCTBO H3Jie3e 

ome ctmaTa Benep etc CTaHOBHme, ne 4>auiHCTKOTO ptKOBO^CTBO Ha atp- 
)KaBaTa me 3acHJiH Tepopa h CBTpyflHHHecTBOTO ch c TepMaHHfl. He 6nBa aa 
ce CT>3flaBaT Hanpa3HH Ha/jeac/jH h hjik>3hh 3a /i;eMOKpaTH3HpaHe Ha cTpaHa- 

177 



Ta H Ha nOJIHTHHeCKH^ pOKHM. 

Te3H oijerocH ce 0Ka3axa MHoro tohhh. B HapynieHHe Ha Kohcth- 
TyijHOTa, HapoflHOTO eb6paHHe H36pa PereHTCKH cbbct Hanejio c B. Ohjiob, 
floceranieH MHHHCTbp-npeflceflaTeji h otabjich repMaHO(J)HJi 5 KoeTO 6eme 
rapaHijHfl, ne aocerauiHara BT>TpeniHa h BtHuiHa nojiHTHKa me 6i>#e 
npofli>Ji)KeHa h 3aHanpefl. CberaBeHO 6eine h hobo npaBHTencTBO Hanejio c 
,ZJo6pH Bo5khjiob. 3a MHHHCTbp Ha Bi>TpeHiHHTe pa6oTH 6euie Ha3HaqeH 
,ZJoho Xphctob, kohto Bene ce 6euie npojiBHJi KaKTO c H3Bi>HpeflHaTa ch 
^cecTOKOCT npH npecjie^BaHeTO Ha napiraaHH h flpyra aHTH(|)aiHHCTH, TaKa 
h c rojraMara ch fleMarorna h c onHTHTe ch aa CM^a^e HOBaTa opraHH3aima 
ff 06mecTBeHa CHJia", kooto Tpfl6Banie aa yKpenn (j)auiHCTKaTa BJiaer. 
MnHHCTpH Ha npaBOCbflneTO h Ha BOHHaTa ocTaHaxa fl-p KoHCTaHTHH 
FlapTOB h reH. PyceB. 

B OTTOBOp Ha KJieTBHTe 3a BflpHOCT Ha PereHTCTBOTO H npaBHTejICTBOTO 

cnp^MO TepMaHHfl, npe3 HoeMBpH h ^eKeMBpH 1943 r. BoeHHOBi>3,ziyHiHHTe 
chjih Ha Ahtjiha h CAIH Ha hakojiko ni>TH 6oM6ap^Hpaxa Cocjma, cjiarafiKH 
Kpan Ha MHTa 3a "cHMBOJiHHHara" BOHHa. Eom6htc, kohto pyuiaxa h 
y6nBaxa, 6axa hcthhckh, a He chmbojihhhh. 

KopecnoHAeHuiiH h CBH^^aHHH flo Kpan Ha 1943 r. KopecnoH^Hpax c 
poflHHHHTe h npH5iTejiHTe 5 KaTo H3noji3Bax npaBOTO ch h nHinex nncMa 
BCflKa ce^MHija. npofltJDKaBaxa h CBHacaaHHjrra. 3a moa rojwMa pa^ocT, 
ycmix aa ce bh,u# c hakoh cbyneHHijH peMCHCTH: ^ko Mojixob, HBaH 
Hhkojiob, Hjiha Hjihcb, Teoprn KyHHeB. IIpe3 aBiycT nncax Ha HBaH c 
Mon6a aa mh H3npaTH khhth, ho bmccto ot Hero, nojiynnx OTroBOp ot 
MaiiKa My, CTpHHKa Opoca. B nncMOTO, nponHTO etc ctpfleHHOCT, ta mh 
ci>o6inaBaHie 5 ne HBaH e b 3aTBOpa, ho tji me H3m>JiHH Mon6aTa mh. 

B Kpaa Ha aBiycT Hjim ManeB ce pa36ojia h 6euie H3npaTeH b 
3aTBOpHHHecKaTa 6ojiHHija npH CU,3. H3noji3Bax cjiynafl h H3npanix nncMO 
Ha HBaH. CKopo nojiynnx OTroBOp, ot kohto c H3HeHaaa y3Hax, ne b 
3aTBOpa e h apyr Hani cbyneHHK - Mnxanji BejiBOB, ocb^eH 3a 
KOHcnnpaTHBHa aeHHOCT b cenaTa b paiiOHa Ha rp. Ejihh nejiHH. Eto TeKCTa 
Ha nncMOTO Ha HBaH h Mhhio: 

Co(pun, 9. IX. 1943 z. 

3dpaeeu Amene, 

TIonyHux nucMomo mu u ce nonyecmeax 3aceanam y He mu Me U3npeeapu 
c nucMomo cu. Ho eunazu uoeeK mtpcu onpaedauue, ma 3amoea u a,3 mu 
ctodufaeaM (paKma, ne eduo hucmo mu mnpamuxMe o6aue do Eypeac, e 
hhkou Jiazep, noneotce 6nxMe u3R r bzanu om eduu dotutji no denezai^un noeeK. 

178 



A3 ctM odeuueu nonmu e cbUfomo 3a Koemo mu 6eiue ocbden. B 
npotfeca KbM Koitmo ckm npuKcmen HXMaiue hukcik6u no3uamu u 6jiu3ku, 
oceen Tepo. Tou nocmtnu e dojiHuijama, c pa3KJiameHO 3dpaee y eeduaza 
cned Kamo doude e 3ameopa. A3 ckm oufe cjiedcmeeu u ne ckm nonyuun 
odeuHumejiHux axm. HadmaM ce, ne u\e Me onpaedae ctdhm. 

Toea e npununama, nopadu Konmo ne CbM mu ormoeopun ua nucMomo 
mu mnpameno do doMa. Uo3dpaeu Cclmu. 3aufo ne e dpacnan dea peda? 
Hem mu nuwe. Kaneo cmaua c 6pam My, o3dpaen nu? Hexa no3dpaeu 
podumejiume cu. TIpueMeme xunndu no3dpaeu om no3namume ua CaMu u 
om 6au Xpucmo Xumoe 3a Amen. 

C no3dpae: Mean Hukojiog 

3dpaeeu Anzene, 

Hemox nucMomo, Koemo cu mnpamun ua Mean u u3non3eaM cnyuan da 
mu dpacua dea- mpu peda. Omdaena uMax otcenanue da mu ce odadn, ho ne 
3uaex e kou 3ameop cu. Kozamo wbK ce uaynux, ne cu e Ua3apdoH:uK, 6hx 
eene ocbden ua 15 zodunu, u nuwa dea ntmu mccchho. KaKmo u da e y mu 
eene 3uaeiu, ne a3 CbM myK, ne Mootcewe u da 6tda na dpyzo Mncmo. 

Bue KaK cme maM? Hawume coipuxuifu Kaxeo npaexm? H3ZJiejtcda, ue 
npedu da nonynuiu nucMomo, life doude edun om moh npoijec myK no 
dejiezaifun. Hue nanaMe da nu eduznam om myK no senna eeponmnocm 3a 
Bapua unu Cmapa 3azopa, ho ne ce 3nae Huufo nojiootcumejiuo. /fpyzo HRMa 
da mu nuwa, 3au\omo Mean e ocmaeun mhozo ManKo Mxcmo, ntK u HHMa 
mo. M mana, xaude doeuotcdane! 

Uo3dpaeu scuhku nojium3ameopHut^u, cneijuajino Mux. AneKcandpoe, u 
npueMu dpyzapcKu no3dpaeu om Muuco. 

HMax KopecnoHflemjHfl c hhho Eopnc h c SpaTOBnea mh Teoprn 

CjiaBOB, kohto 6axa Mo6HJiH3HpaHH b eflHO h ci>mo noflejieHHe. KtM 
ABaMaTa, h oco6eHO kbu hhho Eopnc, He caMO H3nHTBax yBa^ceHHe, ho th 
oGnnax Karo po^HH 6pam 3ana3HJio ce e caMO e^HO ot nncMaTa: 

4 oKmoMepu, 1943 z. 

"EYK" 

/Jp. Anzene, 

UucMomo mu om 17 m.m. npumeotcaeaM, om cbu\omo euotcdaM MtKama, 
Komno U30n:u6fi6aw, Jiuuien cu om gcuhku 3eMnu u ceemcKU ydoeoncmeun. 
Eduucmeeuo pa3enenenue ca nucMama, Koumo nonyuaeatu om ceoume 
6jiu3ku, poduuHU u npuxmenu. Emo 3aufo a3 nan naMepux ManKo ceododno 

179 



epeMe da mu nutua hhkojiko peda c Koumo none 3a MOMewn da me omjitHa 
om edHoo6pa3uemo, Koemo ijapu okojio me6. 

Muoeo xydaeo cmana, ue ce npeMecmu e TIa3apdotcuK f 6nu3o do 
podumejiu u poduunu u maxa life uMam scuhku et3MODfCHocm da doudam da 
me eudnm u donecam hhkou neodxoduMocmu. 

Hue c huho mu Eopuc KaKmo euotcdaiu CMe oiye 3anac, Kamo ce yeoji- 
hum vu,e mu ce odaduju. flpyeo 3a ceea urnta. UootcejiaeaM mu docmamtHuo 
cujiu, enepeuH, Kypaotc 3a da U3Jfcueeetu moea He3acnyoiceHO ueu^acmue. 

Teou dpamoeued: reopeu 

KopecnoHflHpax h c Teopra A. HayuieB, yneHHK b riemepCKara 
rHMHa3H5i. Toh 6eiue HHrepHHpaH, ho npe3 ecenra ro ocBo6o,zjHxa, 3a #a 
npofl'bJiacH yneHHeTO ch. Toh mh mica, ne b TofleH, Kb/jeTO ro HHrepHHpanH, 
6nna BT>,zjBopeHa h KaTa HynyjieBa. HMax nncMO h ot 6paTOBHea mh AHren 
Tockob HayuieB, ci>mo yneHHK b Ilemepa. Be/jHO ot nncMara ch Teoprn mh 
Cbo6maBa, ne AHreji ce yBJinna no CTpaHHHHH Hema h mojih aa My nnuia /ja 
neTe noBene. 

IlojiyHHX nncMO h ot Hjihh T. Mhtkob (ot c. Pa^HjiOBo), yneHHK b 
IlemepCKaTa rHMHa3H5i, c kototo npe3 jiatoto Ha 1942 r. pa6oTexMe b TC 
"EerjiHKa", npaBexMe c6npKH, neraxMe no3HBH, BO^exMe pa3roBOpH Ha 

nOHHTHHeCKH TeMH C MapKO KapHIOKOB, HBaH ^OMyCHHeB, ^HMHTbp 

BjiaroeB h HaB/jap MnxaftjiOB (ot Co(J)h^). rio-KbCHO y3Hax, qe Hjiha e 
CTaHaji napTH3aHHH (c napTH3aHCKO HMe ff Ko6a n ) b OTpa/j ff Ahtoh HBaHOB" 
h e 3arHHaji cbc CMtprra Ha xpa6pHTe b cpaaceHHe c nojiHijHflTa Kpafi c. 
Pa^HJiOBO npe3 nponerra Ha 1944 r. 

IIpo.zj'bJDKaBax aa KopecnoH^HpaM h cbc ceMeftcTBOTO Ha hhho To/jop, h 
no-KOHKpeTHO c JIio6Ka. IIo TOBa BpeMe hhho To^op pa6oTenie b HenHHO, a 
AHreji 6enie bohhhk, H3Kapaji 6enie I1I30 h cnyaceuie Karo 4)ena4>e6en- 
hikojihhk b H^KaKBO no/iejieHHe b BejioMopcKa TpaKH^. 3ana3HJi cbm czjho 
nncMO Ha JIio6Ka h naHa MHKa. 

23. X. 1943 a. 

Co(pUM 

Amene, 

IIojiyHUX KapmuuKama mu. Ejiaaodapn 3a dodpume u xydaeu 
djiaaonootcejianuH. H36unxeaM ce, He ne mu ce odadux doceea. IJpe3 nnmomo 
Mucnex, Koeamo ntmyeax 3a Cocpun da ce omdun npe3 IJa3apdcHCUK f 3a da 
ce euduju. 06aue npunmenKama mu cbo6u{u, ne mnumume noueam no-om- 
paHo u 03 mp-bznax edun den npedu mnuma. C-bztcajineaM mhobo, ue maKa 

180 



ce CJiyvu, ho 3dpaee da e, me ce euduM e uau-CKopo epeMe. IJpe3 nnmomo 
Bjiasouno om ceujfcdanemo c me6 doude e Henuno 3a hrkojiko duu. IJumax 
zo KaK cu cbc 3dpaeemo. Kcoa mu, He cu dodpe, 3a Koemo cepadeaM. 

JJpyzo Amene, om myK Kamo da mu nuiua. Hoeu ynenuu^u om EamaK 
HXMaMe, caMO dea cmydenma - Tocko Bannee u Mjiuh CmouMenoe. Tocko 
ce e 3anucan azponoMcmeo, a CmouMenoe Meduu^una. Hatuunm Amen om 
edun MeceVf e e EenoMopuemo. IJutue mu, ne e dodpe u e mhozo doeonen, ue 
My ce omdajio cnynau da o6ukojiu Hoeooceododenume 3eMu. IJutue mu, ue e 
uMan nucMO om huho Eopuc u 6ame Teopzu, me 6unu 6nu30 do nezo. 

IJpedu hrkojiko duu nonynux hucmo u om eyimo mu. Onucea KaK xydaeo 
npeKapeam, 3aujomo MeoKdy max uMa u dodpu apmucmu, Koumo zu 
3a6aejiHeam. IJpaeu nu um mhozo cMeiuKu u maxa epeMemo Munaeano e 
pa3hoo6pa3ue. Amene, dnec ce eujfcdax c Eopuc. Oceododu ce om 
eounuKJi-bKa u ce 3anuca (punancu. M3npauja mu mhozo 3dpaee. 

Xunxdu no3dpaeu JIw6a 

Amene, neKa u a3 da mu nuvua dea mpu peda, c Koumo da me nonumaM 
KaK cu cbc 3dpaeemo. Hue cMe dodpe, no mu e mwho, ue Amen e daneu om 
nac, a huho mu e e Henuno. Hue c JIwdKa CMe caMu u e CKynno, ho Kamo e 
3dpaee naK u^e ce cbdepeM. HnMa one3u CMexoee, Kozamo 6nxMe cbdpanu 
ecuHKu naedno. Ho maKbe e Dfcueom-bm, doxootcda gcuhko u noeeK mpndea 
da 6hde Kopae Kamo KaM-bK, 3a da nocpemne gcuhko. 

Mhozo no3dpaeu - nana mu 

CBJDK#aHH)iTa ctmo npofltjraaBaxa, KoeTO ce 6jiaronpH^TCTBanie ot 
6jiH30CTTa j\o EaraK. HMax CBH}KAaHe c eyiiHO Hhko, c 6paTOBHe# mh 
IleTBp, no TOBa BpeMe bohhhk. C Byfino CTec|>aH ce BH2K#axMe b aflBO- 
KaTCKaTa CTaa, Kbflero, Maicap h b npHCtCTBHeTO Ha HaA3HpaTeji 5 MoacexMe 
m ch roBopHM ceflHajiH npefl Maca. OGhkhobcho b CTa#ra HMame h Apyra 
cpeujH Ha a/i;BOKaTH c noflctflHMH h nojnrreaTBopHHijH. TyK ce 3ano3Hax c 
/Jo6pH Epa^HCTHJiOB h MnxaHJi MaHeB, kohto 6axa aflBOKaTH, a b HanajioTO 
Ha 1944 r. CTaHaxa noflct/mMH KaTo HJieHOBe Ha OK Ha EPII. Ha e^HO ot 
Te3H CBH)KaaHHa ce 3ano3Hax h c nojiHT3aTBOpHHHKaTa AHHa KjiHcypcKa 
(cera TaHOBa). 

3anoMHHJi cbm BtJiHyBaujoTO CBH^caaHe c Tojop Hb. Baimee (Hemm). 
Toh cjiyaceme b IlIyMeH h ce noflBH b yHH^opMa Ha (J3ejifl(|)e6eji-HiKOJiHHK. 
Ehji b OTnycKa b EaTaic h cera ce 3aBpi>maHie b no^ejieHHeTO ch. Eeuie 
MHoro BT>o,nymeBeH h mh BHKanie npe3 peuieTKHTe: 

- HeHHH, neHHH, BHfl^x ce c ohm, c HauiHTe! (ncKanie ^a Kaace - c 

181 



napTH3aHHTe). 
H ao6aBH: 

- HcKax aa ocTaHa npn tax, ho OTKa3axa. 3HMa H#Ba. Ka3axa aa cbm 
totob 3a nponerra. HeHHH, rojiflMa pa6oTa me CTaBa! 

Ilpeaaae mh h hakoh hobhhh 3a npHOTenH ot BaTaK h Co(|)Hfl. Pa3- 
aenHXMe ce c noacejiaHHe aa ce bh/jhm b CKopo BpeMe Ha CBo6oaa. 

Kt>m Kpaa Ha ro^HHaTa 6axMe H3BHKaHH c riertp BpaHneB (noneTo) Ha 
CBH^caaHe c HeKOJiiiHHa GaTanaroi. 3a« pemeTKHTe hh nocpeujHaxa Teopra 
IIIyTeB, riertp ^acypKOB, TeoprH Thhob, AHreji Eoackob, o6jieneHH bt>b 

BOHHHIHKH yHH(|)OpMH. Mo6HJIH3HpaJIH TH, o6jieKJIH TH B 27-MH HenHHCKH 

nojiK h hm aajiH e^HH aeH OTnycK. Be^Hara aoihjih npH Hac - 6eme Ren 3a 
CBH)KflaHe. Te 6axa MHoro 6jih3kh c riertp BpaHneB h 6axa HJieHyBajiH b 
e^Ha napTHHHa opraHH3aijHfl. IIocjieflBaxa no3£paBJieHHfl, MaKap h npe3 ^Ba 
pe^a penieTKH OTflajieneHH Ha MexLp pa3CTOAHHe h npe^ pa3xo^caamHH ce 
UQUKsy Hac Haa3HpaTeji. Beine #ocTa uiyMHO, HManie h apyrn cBH)K,naHH5L 
Teopra IIIyTeB HHOCKa3aTejiHO ci>o6mH, ne e xo/jhji Ha rocra M npH Hauime" 
(T.e. npH napiroaHHTe), ne hm npe/yiarajiH aa ")KHBeflT M npH tax, ho ce 
peniHJio, ne H^Ma ycjioBHfl. 

- CKopo me ce bh,hhm, ObBeTCKaTa apMHfl e Bene Ha pyMtHCKaTa 
rpaHHija - Ka3axa Te h ch 3aMHHaxa, a HHe c riertp BpaHneB ii^ji aeH 
KOMeHTHpaxMe nojiyneHHTe hobhhh. 

Han-paaocTHH, pa36npa ce, 6axa cpemHTe mh c Ma\ia, TaTe h 
BjiaroiiHO. Te ecTecTBeHO Han-Te^cKO npe)KHBflBaxa MoeTO 3aTBOpHH- 
necTBO. Ejiaroa mh cbo6mn ? ne 3aeflHO c HBaH T. Kjihmchtob, c KoroTO 
pa6oTexa KaTO ropcKH pa6oTHHijH, no^noMaraT napTH3aHHTe h ne flopH e 
yciuui aa ype^H cpema Ha TaTe c HnKOJia HojiaKOB h IleTLp IlejieB. Mhoto 
no-KtcHO Haynnx cjie^HOTo: HnKOJia HojiaKOB (MaflKa My m>pBa 6paTOB- 
ne^Ka Ha 6ama mh) h rieTtp BejieB IlejieB (3eT Ha HBaH Kjihmchtob, aceHeH 
3a cecTpa My) npeano^HJiH Ha Ejiarofino aa aoBe^e 6aui;a mh Ha cpema c 
Tax. Ton hm Ka3an ? ne TaTe HAMa aa ce ctrjiacn. Te My aajin cbbct: 

- Ka)KH ? ne £i>pBaTa, kohto me Kapam, ca Ha Tpy/mo macto h He Modern 
caM aa ce cnpaBHin. 

B He^ejieH aeH TaTe h Bjiaroflno otheijih fltpBa Ha ypeneHOTO macto. 
Eauja mh hhujo He no«03Hpaji. HaTOBapHJiH KOJiaTa. Ot xpacTHTe H3Jie3JiH 
HnKOJia HojiaKOB h rieTtp BejieB. Eama mh MHoro ce ynjianiHJi. rio3apaBHJi 
ce c H. HojiaKOB h Ka3aji: 

- Kojibo, norpe6axMe Jiejw HeTpa (MafticaTa Ha H. HojiatcoB). Bor aa a 
npocTn! - h ce npeKptcTHJi. 

- Ban IleTpe, juia Ty*c, ce^HH aa nonpHKa3BaMe - Ka3aji HojiaKOB h aaji 

182 



3HaK Ha BjiarofiHO fla Kapa KOJiaTa kbm BaTaK. 

- Eanja th me Te HacTHrHe. 

IIapTH3aHHTe npe^JioKHJiH Ha 6ama mh aa npeaafle Ha AHreji ilHeB 
(aceHeH 3a cecTpa Ha 6ain;a mh), ne HCKaT aa rn noanoMorae etc 3HaHHTenHa 
cyMa napH, koato o6ane 6HJia Ham>jiHO b HeroBHTe (|)HHaHC0BH bt>3- 
mohchocth. Tpa6Ba m OTGeneaca, ne chht>t Ha AHreji ilHeB, ,H,hmhtt>p (c 
napTH3aHCKO HMe HaB^ap) 6hji napTH3aHHH b cbiijHfl OTpa/j, Maicap h e/jBa 
17-roflHineH. Eanja mh OTKa3aji nocpe/jHHHecKaTa pojia h th yGeayjaBaji, qe 
ilHeB HflMa aa aa^e napn h ne Tpa6Ba no Apyr, no-flo6i>p HaHHH ^a ce 
pa36epaT c Hero. OnpeaejiHJiH ch HOBa cpenja 3a cjie^BamaTa He/jejifl. 

Eama mh ce BtpHaji b cejiOTO h pa3Ka3an 3a cpemaTa caMo Ha MaMa, 
jieJiHTe Mapra h Bamca, kohto 3ana3Hxa Ta3H TafiHa ro 9. IX. 1944 r. Ha 
cjieflBanjaTa cpenja TaTe 3aHeci>ji h hm npe^aji moa oGbkhhtcjich aicr, kt>m 
kohto 6njia npHJio)KeHa nporpaMaTa Ha OreqecTBeHHfl (j)poHT h no3HB, 
HanncaH ot mch. ,H,a npefla^e HCKaHHOTa Ha napTH3aHHTe kt>m AHreji ilHeB 
6hjio Bi>3JioHceHO Ha riertp TaHeB, kocto He e aajio pe3yjrraT (no CBe^eHKH 
ot caMM Hero). 

TpoeH pa3CTpeji. npe3 cenTeMBpn BoeHHonojieBHAT clr H3fla^e CTporn 
npHCb^H no hakojiko aejia cpemy aHTHC^aniHCTH. B HanajiOTO Ha oktombph 
ce nojiynnxa nenajiHH hobhhh 3a H3m>jiHeHH cmt>pthh npHCb^H Ha 

nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJH B XaCKOBCKHfl H HjIOBflHBCKJDI 3aTBOp. 

Ha 14.X. 1943 r. cyTpHHTa KOJieKTHBi>T Ha 3aTBOpa oci>MHa b rojMMa 
TpeBora. Khjihhtc Ha TpHMa ocb/jeHH Ha CMtpT 6axa npa3HH. npe3 HonjTa 
4>aiHHCTKHTe najiann OTBejin Ha CTpeji6HiijeTO Ha 27-mh HenHHCKH nonK b 
m. Bana Kpan p. Mapnija octfleHHTe Ha CMtpT Ejie(|)Tep ApHayaoB, Hnicojia 
BoHeB h ATaHac ATaHacoB h th pa3CTpejiajiH. B HauiaTa khjiha HanpaBHXMe 
TpaypHO cb6paHHe ? Ha kocto roBopn nncaTejiHT Kpi>CTi>o BejieB. 

ATMOC(|)epaTa ce Haace^aBame. no KopH^opHTe Ha 3aTBOpa ce 3acnjiH 
npncbCTBHeTO Ha Hafl3HpaTejiHTe. Benie peuieHO npoTecn>T cpemy pa3- 
CTpejia aa CTaHe npe3 aeMOHCTpaiiHfl b khjihhtc, icopH,zjopHTe h Ha KonejiOTO 
no BpeMe Ha pa3xo#KaTa. Bchhkh nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH H3Jifl30xa Ha #Bopa 

MfcJIHaJIHBO, TB5KHH H THeBHH. OxpaHaTa Ce 3aCHJIH H BMeCTO 1-2, B flBopa 

okojio KOJiejiOTO ce noflBHxa 5-6 Hafl3HpaTejiH. BoHHHijHTe ot Kapayjia ei>- 
mo 6axa BflHraaTH no TpeBora. He 6hx BH)K,zjaji TOJiKOBa MHoro 3aTBopHHijH 
Ha KOJiejiOTO. BtpBflXMe thxo b n>CTH pe/jHiiH, HanpaBHXMe hakojiko 
o6hkojikh b ntJiHO MtJinaHHe c HaBe^eHH rjiaBH b naMeT Ha 3arHHajiHTe 
ApyrapH h thxo 3anaxMe TpaypHHH Mapni "Bhh )KepTBH na/jHaxTe". 
Ti>p5KecTBeHO-Ti>HCHaTa Mejio^Hfl na neceHTa H3m>jiHH flBopa. Hhkojikocto- 
thh ayniH c HaBe^eHH rnaBH neexMe h ct>ji3h o6jiHBaxa JiHijaTa hh. Hafl3H- 

183 



paTejiHTe He onaicBaxa TaKbB npoTecT - thx, ho chjich h ropfl. OxH^oxa ch 
TpHMa npeKpacHH komyhhcth, oxnajiH acHBOTa ch 3a CBo6o,zjaTa Ha Hapo#a h 
3a poflHHaTa. IIohth bcckh /jeH b npo/jtjmeHHe Ha /jBa Meceija ce BHayjax c 
tax, necTO pa3roBap5ixMe 5 pa3xo>K,naxMe ce, MeHTaexMe 3a no-aoGtp, 

CB060fleH 5KHBOT... 

IIpe3 cjie^BamHTe hoiu;h h #hh TpeBoraTa /jajiH me HMa hobh eraeKyijHH 
upojxbJiyKU #a noTHCKa ayuiHTe hh. 3a macrae, ao 9.IX.1944 r. b 
IIa3apa5KHiHKHa 3aTBOp He 6axa H3m>jiHeHH flpyrn cmt>pthh npHCb/jH. Ha 
.Hpyrafl aeH BenepTa Ilerbp BpaHneB nponeTe H3,na#eHHfl ot pi>kobo,hctboto 
TpaypeH jihct. IIpaBH HHe H3CJiyinaxMe TbacHHTe h npeKpacHH mhcjih, 
nocBeTeHH Ha TpHMaTa pa3CTpejraHH apyrapn. Hakoh thxo no^xBaHa h 
bchhkh 3an^xMe BoTeBaTa neceH "To3, kohto na^He b 6oh 3a CBo6ofla". 
OTHfloxa ch ot Hac: 

Ejie<I>Tep ApHayaoB, HeHaBtpiHHJi 40 ro^KHH. Ton 6eine cneflBaji 
ejieKTpoHH^KeHepCTBO b TepMaHHfl h HeMCKa (Jmnojiorafl b Co^hhckha 
yHHBepCHTeT, BJiaaeeine Tpn Hyac#H e3HKa: hcmckh, pycKH h aHrjiHHCKH. 
HjieH Ha BPII b HananoTO Ha TpHflecerre ro^HHH; pa6oTHJi KaTO npe/j- 
CTaBHTeji Ha (JwpMaTa "Chmchc". Cjich Hana/jeHHeTO Ha repMaHHA cpemy 
CtBeTCKHfl cbK)3 CTaHan pa^HCT b pa3y3HaBaTejiHaTa rpyna Ha IlaBeji 
LQaTeB. Pa3KpHJiH ro h 6hji octaeH Ha CMtpT 3ae#HO c apyrHTe aBaMa 
pa3CTpeji^HH apyrapH. 

HiiKOJia Bohcb ot c. EyxoBO, Co^hhcko, okojio 25-ro.nHineH, 3aBtp- 
hihji jiecoBtflCTBO b TexHHHecKOTO yHHJinme "XpHCTO Eotcb". Cjiy^KHJI BtB 
BoeHHOBi>3flyiHHHTe chjih h CTaHaji jieTeij-H3Tpe6HTeji. IIpe3 1942 r. 6hji 
npHBJieneH b rpynaTa Ha Ene^Tep ApHay#OB. 

ATaHac ATaHacoB ot Eajinmc, CTyzjeHT, noeT. 3aBtpiHHJi rHMHa3M b 
Co(])Hfl, cjiyacnn b aBHaijHATa, CTaHan ptKOBO^HTeji Ha 6oftHa rpyna. 

Othobo c iracaTejiH Kpi>CTbo BejieB. CpeAHOiiwa cpema c 
AHpeKTopa Ha 3aTBopa. Kbcho npe3 eceHTa ce cpemHaxMe othobo KaTO 
CTapH no3HaTH c KptcTto BejieB. Toh 6eine npexBtpjieH ot Co^hhckha 
3aTBOp h Be^Hara CTaHa ijeHrbp Ha BHHMaHHe Ha MJia,ne}KHTe h oco6eHo Ha 
rHMHa3HCTHTe ? kohto 6axa nejiH HeroBHTe poMaHH h pa3Ka3H, 3Haexa ro 
KaTO nponeTapcKH nncaTeji h aHTH(])ainHCT. KptcTto BejieB e po^eH b 

H3TOHHOMaKeflOHCKOTO C. TopHH EpOflH. Cjiefl MOKflyCbK)3HHHeCKaTa boh- 

Ha npe3 1913 r. ceMeiicTBOTO My h ronjiMa rpyna HeroBH cbcejraHH ce 
npecejiHJin b Ei>jirapHfl. IlbpBOHaHajiHO acHBejiH e^Ha-flBe ro^KHH EaTaK, a 

CJiefl TOBa HflKOH OT THX Ce yCTaHOBHJIH B XaCKOBO H IIjIOBflHB. 

Ome KaTO K)HOina KptcTto BejieB B3en ynacrae b KOMyHHCTHHecKOTO 
ABH5KeHHe 5 MaKap h MajioneTeH, 6hji octaeH Ha CMtpT, ho nojiynnji 

184 



noMHUBaHe, npeicapaji hhkojiko to^hhh b 3aTBopa h 6hji aMHHCTHpaH. Kaxo 
nHcaTeji ynacTBaji b aHTHBoeHHHH KOHipec b AMCTep^aM, b Meayjy.. 
Hapo^HHTe KOHrpecH 3a 3amHTa Ha MHpa b HcnaHM h Opamma, noceraii H 
CCCP. Cne/j Hana/jeHHeTO Ha TepMaHHH cpemy CbBeTCKH* ct>k)3 3ae/mo c 
AjieKcaHfltp rieeB h Ahtoh npy^KHH ce bkjiiohhji b 6ofiHa pa3y3HaBaTejm a 
rpyna, 3a KoeTO 6eiue h octfleH. 

Cjiqr npHCTHraHeTO ch b 3aTBOpa KptcTbo BejieB H3noji3Ba CBoexo 
BJiHHHHe cpe/j 3aTBopHHitHTe h cpea ynpaBaTa Ha 3aTBopa h eraHa HHHitHa- 
Top 3a opraHH3HpaHe Ha aKTHBHa KyjnypHO-npocBeTHa, a no ctmecTBo -. 
nonHTHHecKa aeHHOCT. 3ae,nHO c HJieHOBeTe Ha kojickthbhoto p^koboactbo 
toh noceTH flHpeKTOpa HHKOJia rionoB h nojiynn pa3peiueHHe aa npoBe/jeM 
KOHitepraa 3a6aBa c ynacraeTO Ha 3aTBOpfflmH-caMo,aeHim. Toh jihhhq 

ype^H H pT>KOBO/m T.H. "rOBOpflm XOp", KOHTO peiJHTHpaHie CTHXOTBOpeHHa 

IIpaBexMe peneTHiym, kocto 3a Hac 6eiue hcthhcko pa3BjieneHHe h bi>3~ 
mo^khoct 3a pa3roBopH. EflHO ot CTHXOTBOpeHHOTa, f? BoHHaTa H/te", 6ein e 
flocTa fli>Jiro, ho MHoro BT>3fleficTBamo. HeroB aBTOp 6eiue caMHOT KptCTto 
BeneB, kohto ro 6eme nocBeraji Ha aHTHBoeHHOTO #BH)KeHHe, Ha Gopimxe 
3a MHp. C Hero OTKpHXMe ni>pBaTa KyjiTypHa 3a6aBa, kohto ce npoBe#e b 
cTOJiOBaTa. 

IIoBefleHHeTO Ha KptcTbo BejieB o6ane He flona^Ha Ha napTHiraoTo 
P^kobo^ctbo. HH(J)opMHpaxa hh, He toh Bene He e HjieH Ha napraaTa h He 
MJia#e5KHTe He Tpa6Ba #a ce yBJinnaT no HeroBM aBTopHTeT. Taica h n e 
Moacax aa pa36epa Ha KaKBO ce flT>jraenie TOBa OTHonieHne kbm Hero. 

IIpH e^HO ot necTHTe pa3MecTBaHHH Ha 3aTBOpHHijHTe nona/max b e^Ha 
khjiha c KptcTBO BejieB. Th 6eme Ha Han-ropHHfl eTa^c, b k»khoto kphjio, c 
npo3opijH Ha h3tok. Ctmhjih Ha Ta6ypeTKH ? oiryK MO)KexMe #a Ha6jiK),aaBa- 
Me flBOpa c KOJiejioTO, nacT ot na3apflacHniKOTO none b nocoKa kbm Hjiobahb 

KOHCepBHaTa (|)a6pHKa "EpaTfl HeMCKH", a,HMHHHCTpaTHBHOTO KpHJIO Ha 

3aTBOpa h noKpHBa Ha KapayjiHOTO h nopTana. B KHJiMTa 6axMe npe#HMHo 
MJiafleacH, noBeneTO ot kohto 6axa 6hbuih yneHrajH ot IlaHanopcKaTa 
rHMHa3HH. IIo-BT>3pacTHH 6axa KptcTto BejieB h nen>p BpaHneB (IloneTo). 

- Ban IleTpe, kojiko ch roflHHH? - nHTa hhkoh. 
IleTbp BpaHneB OTroBapaine: 

-Ha 33. 
^pyr nHTa: 

- Ban Kpi>CTbo, Ha kojiko ch ro#HHH? 
KptcTto BejieB OTroBapa: 

-Ha 35. 

- A flanH h HHe me 5KHBeeM TOJiKOBa roflHHH, - Ka3Ba hhkoh. Ta3H 

185 



Bi>3pacT hh ce BH^cflaine .nocTa HanpeflHana. Cnea BpeMe, KoraTO npeMHHax 
TpHflecerre, necTO ch otomhax Te3H pa3roBOpH h ch MHCJiex kojiko MJia^H 
BCbmHOCT ca 6hjih Te ToraBa... 

Kpi>CTi>o BeneB nHiueuie h HHe Ha6jno,naBaxMe KaK nporana TBOp- 
necKHflT My npouec. 06HKHOBeHO pa6oTeuie kt>cho BenepTa hjih npe3 
HomTa. Gnefl npOBepKaTa h cne/i; 22 h., KoraTO H3racBauie ocBeTJieHHeio 
(ocBeH cna6o CBeTeujaTa KpyniKa nan BpaTaTa, koato no3BOJi5reaine Ha 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe ,na hh HaGmoflaBaT npe3 uinnoHKaTa) h bchhkh no 
npaBHJiHHKa Tpfl6Baine j\& cMe JieraajiH, Ha e/i;HHCTBeHaTa Maca b CTa#ra ce 
nocTaB5iHie CBem. Ban Kpi>CTi>o ca^ame, Ba^eine jihctobc h nHHieuie no 
ABa-TpH naca. IIoHflKora toh npaBeuie TOBa h cjich nonyHom, KoraTO noHTH 
bchhkh 6axa 3acnanH. nnuienie noHTH 6e3 npeicbCBaHe, pa,mco ce 
3aMHCJi5iHie ? pi>KonHCHTe My 6axa hhcth, pa,meo HMauie 3a,zjpacKBaHHfl. Ho 
KaTO onHTeH KOHcnnpaTOp, CTpaxyBaflKH ce, ne npn o6hck MoraT #a 
H33eMaT h yHHHio^caT pT>KonHCHTe, toh noMOJiH hakoh ot MJiaaeacHTe onje 
Ha cjieflBamna ,neH fla CHeMa npennc ot HanncaHOTO npe3 HonjTa. HMame 
mhoto acejiaemn, ho toh onpe/tejin HnKOJia HaMOB, kohto nnuieuie otho- 
CHTejiHO KpacHBo h hhcto, 6eiue ycbp^eH h flHcimmiHHHpaH. 

- Ban Kpi>CTi>o, KaKBO nHiueni? - 3anHTax ro ome b m>pBHTe .hhh. 

- Ejiaro/tapa 3a Bi>npoca, a3 mhcjih, ne Tpa6Ba %& cno/tejiH c Bac KaKBO 
nnina, KaKBH H/jen h HaMepeHHfl HMaM, KaK me rn ocbmecTBfl, aKO HMaM 

BT>3MO)KHOCT H BpeMe. 

Ome CBHiaTa Benep toh hh pa3Ka3a Bi>pxy KaKBO pa6ora: 

- Bne CTe nejra MOHTe flBa poMaHa "IIpoGHB'bT" h "Mnp'bT". Te me 

6T>,zjaT nacT ot e/jHH aeceT tomch poMaH. LU,e 3anoHHa ot HflBaHeTO Ha 

AcnapyxoBHTe 6i>JirapH h ro HauiH ahh. 

HaTaTLK toh hh onnca hakoh ct>6htha h HCTOpHHecKH enoxn, kohto 

CMjrra fla npecb3fla/i;e b /tecerre TOMa. 

- A KaK h Kora oGmhcjiaui TOBa, KoeTO nHuieui? - 3anHTa Han-MJia/tH^T 
h CHMnaTHHeH yneHHK MaBpo^H MaBpo/tneB. 

- KaK h Kora jih? Bne BH^c^aTe, ne KoraTO npe3 ,ueHfl neaca Ha nernoTO, 
noKpHBaM jiHijeTO ch c KacKeTa, ho He cna, He ApeMfl, a o6mhcjdim cioaceTa. 
Ha6jnoflaBaM b K03HpKaTa h KaTO Ha (|)HJiMOBa neHTa npeMHHaBa oHOBa, 
KoeTO CM^TaM aa Hannnia. BnacflaM HanpHMep KaK AcnapyxoBaTa KOHHHija 
npeMHHaBa p. flyHaB. BnacflaM npeflCTaBHTen Ha HauiHflT poa KaK nnyBa b 
peKaTa. TaKa, ne bchhko e b K03HpKaTa Ha KacKeTa mh. 

Bchhkh ce 3acM^XMe Ha HeroBaTa mera. 

- Bchhko, ecTecTBeHO, MHHaBa npe3 raaBaTa h cbpijeTO - ,uo6aBH toh. 
npn apyr cjiynaH, no-KbCHO, Kpi>CTi>o BeneB pa3Ka3a Ha MeH h IIoneTO, 

186 



qe cera nnine 3a npeMHHaBaHeTO Ha ceMeftcTBOTO My npe3 BaTaK b 1913 r. 
cjiefl BanKaHCKHTe bohhh. TyK ceMeftcTBOTO My achbajio noBene ot ro^HHa, 
a nocne 3aMHHajiH 3a XacKOBo, 3a m ce ycTaHOBAT HaKpaa b njioB^HB. 
HMaine MHoro xy6aBH actckh cnoMeHH ot BaTaK. Hakoh ot MaKe/jOHCKHTe 
ceMeftcTBa, kohto acHBeexa b BaTaK, 6axa HeroBH poflHHHH. IIoHflKora Toft 
hh neTeme HanncaHOTO h HCKaine HaiueTO MHemie. 

- Tp^6Ba aa 3aBi>pina 3anoHHarafl tom Ha poMaHa. BpeMeTO e ManKO. 
CKOpo me 6i>fleM cbo6oahh. 

To3H poMaH Tp«6Banie #a npHKJiiOHH etc ci>6HTHflTa, c kohto 
3anoHBauie H3flaaeHH«T Bene pOMaH M npo6HBi>T M . HeTeine hh h otkt>ch ot 
miaHHpaHHfl ni>pBH tom 3a npeMHHaBaHeTO Ha ^yHaBa ot AcnapyxoBHTe 
6i>JirapH. Baft Kpi>CTLO 6enie ,uocTa caHTHMeHTaneH - mhoto roBOpenie 3a 
jno6oBTa ch kt>m CBOOTa ctnpyra h CHHa ch Mhtko (HapHnaine ro Mhta), 
necTO cnoMeHaBauie h 6ama ch ,Hhmhti>p. HeTenie h craxoBe, nocBeTeHH Ha 
ceMeftcTBOTO My. 

,ZJo6pe ct>m 3anoMHHn TpH enH30fla ot noBe^eHHeTO Ha KptcTbo EejieB, 
kohto flo6pe npeflCTaB^T HeroBHfl xapaKTep h npe^H bchhko CMenocrra My 
h yMeHHeTO aa H3noji3Ba CHTyaijHATa h bjihahhcto, KoeTO HMaine. 

EflHa KbCHa Benep, KoraTO ocBeTJieHHeTO yracHa h Ha« BpaTaTa MbTKjjy- 
Kame caMO cjia6aTa KpyniKa, 6aft KptcTbo KaKTO o6hkhobcho 3anajiH CBem 
h ce^Ha fla nnnie. B nojiyHoin; ot flBOpa ce ny H3CTpeji, a cjiea TOBa TponoT 
Ha 6oTyniH H BHKOBe: 

- Koft CTpejia, 3an;o CTpejw, no koto CTpena? 

3aracHXMe CBenjTa. Pa36paxMe, ne H3CTpejn>T e flaaeH ot nacoBoa, 
koAto BHflHJi MHramaTa CBeTJiHHa b Hamara khjiha h noMHCJiHJi, ne ci>3Hpa 
c^HKaTa Ha flBH5Kem ce 3arBOpHHK. Cnea 10-15 MHHyTH ot KopH^opa ce 
nyxa CTbracH. Ha BpaTaTa Ha KHJiHATa 3acTaHaxa rnaBHHflT Hafl3HpaTeji h 
e^HH noflO(J)Hiiep - HanajiHHKbT Ha Kapayna. TnaBHH^T Ha^HpaTen 3ananH 
ocBeTJieHHeTO, orneaa KHJiMTa, npoBepn hh no Jierna, orjie^a BHHMaTejiHO 
pemeTKHTe Ha npo30pneTara h Ka3a: 

- HflMa hhiijo nofl03pHTenHO. HaBapHO nacoBOAT e bkwjdi CBeTJiHHHHTe 
3Han;H ot np030piprre Ha BauiaTa khjiha. ^a He 6h hakoH aa HMa (JjeHepne 
hjih CBem? H^Koft fla e nanHJi ijnrapa c kh6pht? - nonHTa Hafl3HpaTeji«T h 
norjie^Ha kt>m 6aft Kpi>CTbo. 

- Bchhko e HopMajiHO. HaB^pHO Hemo ce e CTOpHJio Ha BoftHHKa, a mo- 
ace 6h HAKofi m ch e 3anajiH ijnrapa - Ka3a Toft Ha HanajiHHKa Ha Kapayna. 

- Ac Bac yTpe me HMaMe cepH03eH pa3roBop, me HMa h HaKa3aHM 3a 
BceKH b KHJiH^Ta, - o6i>pHa ce Ha,zj3HpaTejiOT k'bm Hac ot BpaTaTa. 

Toft cnrypHO 6euie yceTHJi MHpH3Mara Ha CBeujTa, koato 6aft KptcTbo 

187 



6enie 3aracHJi h CKpHJi no,zi; Bi>3rnaBHimaTa, ho He HanpaBH o6hck. 

Bi>npeKH TOBa, npe3 cjieflBanjHTe ahh HHe CKpHXMe bchhkh KOMnpo- 
MeTHpamn MarepHajiH, a hakoh H3HecoxMe b Apyra khjihh. 06hck Taxa h He 
noarceflBa, hhto n cepH03eH pa3roBOp n . ABTOpHTerbT Ha KptcTbo BeneB 
H3Hipa CBOflTa pojM. 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa ynpaBa ce OTHacauie c noanepTaHo 
BHHMaHHe kt>m Hero, HeroBaTa 6Horpa(j)Hfl 6enie ao6pe H3BecTHa. 3Haeme 
ce ci>mo TaKa, ne KptcTto BeneB nnme h H3non3Ba CBem npe3 HomTa. Toh 
o6ane ch B3e noyKa h CTaHa no-npe,zjna3JiHB: cjiaranie KHHra, xapraa hjih 
H^KaKtB npeflMeT npe/j CBemTa ot CTpaHaTa Ha np030piprre. 

Cjiea BpeMe (MO)«e 6h cjie/i; Meceij-flBa) e/jHa KbCHa Benep 6axMe ci>6y- 
fleHH ot myM npefl BpaxaTa Ha KHJiHflTa. HaflHraaxMe rjiaBH b onaKBaHe #a 
pa36epeM KaKBO CTaBa. BpaTaTa ce OTBopH h Bjie3e ^HpeKTOptT Ha 3aTBopa 
HHKonafi IIonoB. HanpaBH Kpanica h orne/ja KHJiMTa KaTO rocno^ap. 

- ,H,o6i>p Benep, cnrypHO CTe H3HeHa,zjaHH ot nocemeHHeTO mh. H/jBaM 
ot rpa^a h ot (JmfiTOHa ch BH)KflaM ? ne np030piiHTe Ha BaniaTa khjihh ca no- 
flo6pe ocBeTeHH b cpaBHeHHe c apyrHTe, 3aTOBa peninx aa bh Harjie^aM. E, 
KaaceTe, HMaTe jih Bi>npocH KbM MeH? 

Hne jieacaxMe c HaflHraaTH rjiaBH h MtnnaxMe. ToBa o6ane Tpaa caMO 
HAKOJiKO ceKyHflH. KptCTto BejieB CTaHa h ce npH6jiH5KH kt>m flHpeKropa. 

- ,H,o6i>p Benep, rocno^HH IIonoB. npHflrao mh e aa Bh bh,u# cpe« Hac, 
njieHHHiiHTe Ha 4>aniH3Ma. 

Te ce ptKyBaxa. Bchhkh CTaHaxMe, HaMeTHaxMe 3aTBOpHHHecKHTe 
HiHHejiH h 3acTaHaxMe b nonyKptr cpemy H. IIonoB, a 6an KptCTbo ocTaHa 
b iieHTbpa. OnaKBaxMe o6hck, ho BMecTO TOBa 3anoHHa thx cpe/jHOiijeH 
pa3roBOp etc crporHfl flHpeKrop. IIocTeneHHO ce omycHaxMe h noncKaxMe 
aa ce yBejiHHH BpeMeTO 3a pa3xoflKa ? KHJiHHTe /ja He ce 3aKJii0HBaT npe3 
nen% h /ja ce pa3peniH /jBHaceHHe npe3 TOBa BpeMe no KopHflopme h noce- 
meHHe Ha khjihhtc, aa ce no,zjo6pH xpaHaTa ht.h. 

- Mhoto HCKaTe! - OTcene flHpeKTOptT. - HMa npaBHJiHHK h toh Hafi- 
CTporo me ce cna3Ba. 

B OTroBop KptCTto BejieB Ka3a: 

- Tp#6Ba aa CBHKBaMe Ha noBeneTO cbo6oaho BpeMe, rocnoflHH 
^HpeKTOpe. CKopo me 6vjeM cboGo^hh. ObBeTCKaTa apMM Hanpe^Ba. 
AHrno-aMepHKaHCKHTe bohckh ce cpaacaBaT ycneniHO b HTajiHa. 

3a Hania H3HeHa.ua flBaMaTa 3anoHHaxa pa3roBop no hhcto nojiHTHHecKH 
Bi>npocH. Hne caMO ra cjiyuiaxMe. flnpeKTOp'bT MHoro ,a;o6pe 3Haeme koh e 
KptCTto BejieB, toh cb3HaBanie h flopH HaBflpHO Ha/meHflBauie KaKTO 
ceraniHaTa, TaKa h 6i>flemaTa My pojia b nojiHTHHecKH^ )khbot, 3aTOBa 
fleMarorcTBanie, TbpceHKH HeroBOTO npHHTencTBO h eBeHTyajiHa 3aKpHJia 



(Hemo, KoeTO toh HaHCTHHa HanpaBH cneA ,H,eBeTH cenTeMBpn, H3noji- 
3BaHKH no3HaHCTBOTO ch c ,H,o6pH TepneuieB). 

- Bne CTe npOTHB KanHTajiH3Ma h HMnepHajiH3Ma, npoTHB njiyTOKpaima- 
T a, a 3amo noflKpeiurre Ahtjiha h CADJ,? A3 npe^JiaraM m HanpaBHM e#HH 

OTpHfl OT nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJH ? OT 6l>JirapCKH KOMyHHCTH H UOJ\ M05I KOMaHfla 

#a oTHfleM aa ce 6neM b HTajiHfl c aHrao-aMepHKaHCKHTe HMnepnajiHCTH. 

Tpa6Ba aa yTOHHfl, ne H. IlonoB 6euie 3anaceH oc|)Hijep h CKOpo ce 6enie 
B'bpHaji ot BoeHHa cjiyacGa b t. Hap. HOBOOCBo6o#eHH 3eMH. 

Kpi>CTi>o BejieB My OTroBOpH noflo6aBamo: 

- Hne me Bh npe^JioacHM Hemo no-peajiHCTHHHO. B Ei>jirapH5i h b 
IIa3apfl^cHHiKH5i Kpafi HMa aHTH^aniHCTKH OTpa/m. 3amo #a He ce npncbe- 
#hhhm 3ae#HO c Bac kbm tax h #a ce 6opHM npOTHB 6i>JirapCKH5i (J)aiHH3'bM? 

^BaMaTa 3anoHHaxa aa ce CMeaT h HHe ce npHci>e,HHHHXMe kbm tax, 
qyBCTBafiKH a6cypflHOcrra Ha pa3MeHeHHTe npeflJioaceHHa. Pa3roBopi>T 
npo#T>jraH c Bi>npocH ki>m flHpeKTOpa 3a cpaaceHHOTa, kohto ce Bo^exa 
Me»my apMHHTe Ha H3tok h 3ana,n, c KOMeHTapH ot HeroBa h Hama CTpaHa. 
IlonoB roBopeme BHHMaTejrao, H3CJiyniBame h HameTO MHeHHe, ne BOHHaTa 

CKOpO me CBfcpHIH B nOJI3a Ha AHTH^aiHHCTKaTa KOaJIHim* Ha BejIHKHTe 
UHBHJIH30BaHH HaitHH. TOH flo6pe CXBaHa, He H HHe CMe OCBeflOMeHH 3a 

rojieMHTe nopaaceHH* Ha HeMCKaTa apMH*, a ci>mo h 3a H30CTpaHeTO Ha 
nonHTHHecKHTe h HKOHOMHHecKHTe Tpy^HOCTH b Ei>jirapHfl. 

HaKpaa ,HHpeKTOpT>T na 3aTBOpa no^a^e ptica Ha 6an Kpi>CTbo c flyMHTe 
"^OBH^cflaHe, jieKa hoiij", h ch OTH#e. )Keji5i3HaTa BpaTa ce 3arB0pn 5 
pe3eTaTa h kjiiohbt mpaKHaxa. 3anoHHaxMe thxh KOMeHTapH h 3a Ta3H 

"HOHJHa BH3HTa ?? . 

- Toh BH^cfla, ne BOHHaTa e kt>m cbo* Kpaft, ci>3HaBa npoBajia Ha 
XnTJiepHCTKa TepMaHM h Ha aHTHHapoflHaTa nojiHTHKa Ha 6tJirapcKOTO 
npaBHTejiCTBO. HcKanie #a hh HanpaBH ao6po BnenaTJieHHe c #i>p)KaHHeTO 
ch Ta3H Benep - 6eme o6iijoto MHeHHe. 

^pyrapHTe ot cbce^HaTa khjiha ecTecTBeHO 6axa yceTHJiH npe3 HomTa, 
ne npH Hac CTaBa Hemo h Ha cyTpHHTa BeflHara Haxnyxa b KHJinaTa, 3a #a 
H3CJiymaT c HHTepec HaniHTe pa3Ka3H. 

E,hhh Ren npe3 OKTOMBpH #OMaKHHT>T Ha KHJiH^Ta cjich BptmaHeTO HH 
ot CTOJiOBaTa pa3flaae no e#Ha fl6i>JiKa 3a aecepT. Eaxivie Kynnnn fl6i>jiKHTe 
ot 3aTBOpHHHecKaTa jiaBKa, kooto 6eme #o6pe CHa6fleHa c mioflOBe, KOMno- 

TH H KOHCepBH OT 6jIH3KaTa (J)a6pHKa "EpaTfl HeMCKH M ? HHHTO C06cTBeHHI^H 

6axa nona^HajiH b 3aTBopa 3a cneKyna. Ci>6paxMe ce okojio MacaTa, 
xpycKaflKH c y^oBOJicTBHe njioflOBeTe, 6jiarocjiaBaxMe flOMaKHHa 3a Hero- 
BaTa me^pocT h o6cb^cflaxMe kojiko none3HH ca fl6i>jiKHTe, kojiko BHTaMHHH 

189 



me hh ocHrypflT npe3 3hmhhtc MeceijH. CTaHa ay Ma kojiko ^6i>jikh hobck 
KaTO Hac MO)Ke #a H3*me cnefl T03H o6^fl. E^hh Ka3a: ^Ba-TpH KHJiorpaMa, 
flpyr flo6aBH ? ne Mo^ce h noBene. Kpi>CTi>o BejieB ce yBJiene h o6abh, ne 
Mo^ceji fla H3Jme 5 ki\ H Taica, y)K Ha mera, ce CTHrHa ao 6ac. Ban Kpi>CTbo 
npne fla H3fl,ne 5 kt. aGmkh, CTHra aa HMa TaKHBa, a aKO He ycnee ce 
3afli>n^caBaine aa Kynn 5 kt. 3a KoneKTHBa Ha KHJiMTa. PeneHO - CTopeHo. 
A3 B3ex e^HH KacKeT h bcckh ot Hac nycHa ot napme, c kohto pa3no- 
jiaraine 3a jihhhh uyyKjxu. Obc ci>6paHaTa cyMa KynHXMe neTTe KHJiorpaMa. 
riocTaBHXMe th Ha MacaTa npe,n 6afi Kpi>CTi>o h 3anaKaxMe. Toh ch 
noynjiauiH, KaTO rjieaauie KynnHHaTa npe,n ce6e ch, ho KaTO npeMHraa, 
noKJiaTH rjiaBa ynyneHO h 6aBHO 3anoHHa. H3Jme flBe-Tpn aG-bjikh h 3aaBH: 

- lU,e rn 6ejw. 

Ci>rjiacHXMe ce. H3Jme 6aBHO h HacHJia ome flBe ^6i>jikh cjiea KoeTo 
o6abh hobo ycjiOBHe: 

- ll],e npaBfl hohhbkh, He CMe ce yroBopnjiH 3a BpeMeTO. 
Ci>rjiacHXMe ce, ho 3a He noBene ot nac. 3Bi>Hem>T 6h, BpaTHTe Ha kh- 

JIHHTe Ce OTBOpHXa H HHe BCHHKH B KynOM Ce OTnpaBHXMe KT>M yMHBaJIHOTa H 

Ha pa3xo/i;Ka Ha kojictioto, ocTaB^HKH ro npefl KynHHHaTa hG'bjikh, y6eflemi, 
ne me 3ary6n 6aca. 5Ibho 6eme, ne He MO^ce ^a H3^fle TaKOBa KOJinnecTBO. 

Cjiqji nac ce Bi>pHaxMe ot pa3xo/i;Ka h 3aBapHXMe 6afi Kpi>CTi>o fla jiokh 
6jiea h H3Mi>HeH, a okojio Hero CToaxa hhkojiko apyrapH ot apyrn khjihh. 

- KaKBH rjiynocTH CTe HanpaBHJiH. 3aBapHXMe 6afi KptcTBO b 
yMHBajiHATa fla noBptma, me ch CKtca nepBaTa. Tpa6Ba aa BmcaMe Jieicap. 

Bjiea h ntuiKam toh hh norjie^Ha, bhaa, ne CMe H3njiauieHH noBene ot 
Hero, nocjie norjie^Ha flGtJiKHTe, JieKo ce ycMHXHa h Ka3a: 

- 3ary6nx 6aca. 

- He ce TpeBO)KH, OTKa3BaMe ce ot 6aca. Th aa ch 3flpaB h )khb. IU,e 
KynHM ome aGmkh 3a kojickthbho nojmaHe, - Ka3a flOMaKHKbT h ro 
npertpHa. 

Cjiea hakojiko naca 6afi Kpi>CTi>o ce onpaBH, 3anoHHaxa hobh merH, 
BecejiH pa3roBOpH c o6iimfl h3bo,h, ne CMe HanpaBHJiH rontfMa rjiynocT h ne 
TOBa He 6nBa ^a ce noBTapa, 3amoTO hakoh uiern MoraT aa flOBeaaT #o 
He^cejiaHH pe3yjrraTH. 

Tpa6Ba aa OT6ejie^ca, ne Kpi>CTi>o BejieB HMauie e^HH "HeaocTaTbK": 
o6HHauie xy6aBOTO flfleHe, h oco6eHO - MacjioTO h Me,na. ^OMaKHHtT hh ce 
CTapaeuie #a My npeaocTaB^ ,zj;o6poKaHecTBeHH npo^yKTH, .hokojikoto 
nojiynaBaxMe TaKHBa. TpH^CHTe 3a xpaHaTa My ce yBejinnnxa, KoraTO 
HaynnxMe, ne e 6ojie,ayBaji ot Ty6epKyno3a. 

TaKHBa mh ca MOHTe cnoMeHH 3a e^HH 3HaHHM no OHOBa BpeMe 

190 



AHcaTeji, kohto oSane He Moaca /ja ce peanH3Hpa cjie^ fleBera ceirreMBpH. 
riy6jiHKyBa caMO OTflejiHH pa3Ka3H h ntTenHCH. He 3HaM #a e HanHcan 
HeillO nO-CTOHHOCTHO ot npeflBoeHHHTe My pOMaHH H pa3Ka3H, HO H flO flHec 

ce oraacflM c yBaaceHHe kt>m jiHHHOcrra h peBOJiioitfioHHHTe aejia Ha 
Kp^ctbo BejieB. 

IIJiaAHeHUH. Cpefl npHCTHrHajiHTe ot C1J3 6enie h rpyna 3eMeflejmH ot 
"ELjiaflHe", j&cho KpHJio Ha B3HC. Te 6axa ocvjeHH npe3 1941 r. b HiyMHO 
0Tpa3eHH^ ot npecaTa npoiiec cpemy H3BecTHHfl T. M. ^hmhtpob (reMeTo) 
h MHHaBaxa 3a aHrjio(j)HJiH. KaTO yneHHK c HHTepec cjie^ix HH^opMauHHTe 
3a xofla Ha ci>fle6HOTO aejio cpemy tax. B ntpBHTe ahh cnefl npHcraraHeTO 
hm nnaflHeHiiH ce flBH^Kexa HaBCflKbfle 3aeflHO, eroaxa HacTpaHa ot apyniTe 
nonHT3aTBOpHHiiH 3 ho CKopo Ta3H OTHyayjeHOCT 6eine npeoflOJiflHa h Te ce 
BKJiiOHHxa b HaniH5i kojickthb. 3ano3Hax ce etc CeprH 3naTaHOB, eflHH 
npH^TeH h ynerHaji hobck, c HHKona PtpHeB, CnaBH IlyiHKapoB, Hjiha 
MeHKOB, 6paT^Ta ^hmhtbp h CnaBH HraaTOBH. 

C 6aii HHKona PtpHeB HeyceTHO ce cnpMTejiHXMe. OKa3a ce, ne e ot 
rinoBflHB, no3HaBame h Byfino Gre<j)aH. HecTO ce pa3xo^KflaxMe Ha KOJieno- 
to h BO^exMe pa3roBOpH no nonHTHHecKH h flpyra 3no6oflHeBHH BtnpocH. 
Pa3Ka3Banie mh 3a MaiceflOHCKOTO flBHHceHHe, c tojiamo yBaaceHHe ce 
oTHac^nie kbm fleHHOcrra Ha reHepan AjieKcaHfltp npoTorepoB - eflHH ot 
BoeHHHTe pi>KOBOflHTejiH Ha BMPO, noflnncaji npe3 1924 r. 3aeflHO c Toflop 
AjieKcaHflpOB "MancKHH MaHH(|)ecT f? 3a ctTpyflHHHecTBO c jieBHTe chjih, 
3apaflH KoeTO 6hji y6m b Cocjdha ot MHxanjioBHCTHTe. Cjiea ^eBeTH cen- 
TeMBpH HnKOJia PtpHeB 6enie o6jiacTeH flHpeicrop b IIjiob,hhb, BHHCflaxMe ce 
hakojiko ni>TH ? Genie onje no-BHHMaTeneH h ctpfleneH. 

EpaTOTa ^HMHTtp h CnaBH HrHaTOBH 6axa BecejiH h ctpflenHH, 6tp30 
ce enpHOTejuraaxa. Hum Mchkob ot c. Eara, e^HH HHTennreHTeH CTyaeHT, 
6eine mhoto npHATeH ci>6eceflHHK. Meacay Hac HflicaK ecTecTBeHO ce 
ycTaHOBH B3aHMHO yBaacemie - 6axMe 3QMimu}i h HMaxMe o6hj;h no3HaTH. 

Othobo b Kapnepa. B Kapijepa nonaflHax 3a BTOpH m>T npe3 KtcHaTa 
eceH Ha 1943 r. C ITerbp BpaHneB 6axMe b eflHa khjim c hakoh naHanopiiH 
h nenHHiiH. Benep cnefl npoBepKa racaxa ochobhoto ocBeTJieHHe h He mo- 
>KexMe aa neTeM, 3aTOBa pa3roBapaxMe noMeacay ch. 06hkhobcho roBOpex- 
Me thxo, 3a aa He npHBjiHHaMe BHHMaHHeTO Ha Hafl3HpaTejiHTe. EflHa Benep 
o6ane ce 6axMe yBJieKJin b inyMHH pa3roBopH, ctnpoBOfleHH c inern h cmax. 
06eKT Ha 3aKaHKHTe 6axa naHariopn;H. CejumHTe ot cejiaTa okojio IlaHario- 
pnme npH^TejicKH ce 3aKanaxa c rpaacflaHHTe-naHariopiiH Hpe3 bhijobc, a Te 
hm OTBpi>maxa c flpyra iuern. Eto e^HH npHMep. KoraTO apyroceneii 
noceTH naHariopCKa Kpi>HMa ? MecTHHTe ro nHTaT: "KaKBO me nneiH, aa hh 

191 



nonepinnii". H ome: "^afi ch Top6aTa m Te HarocraM". 

Ky30 ^eeHHHHH OTpHHame TOBa h flOKa3Bame kojiko rocTonpHeMHH ca 
xopaTa ot rp. IlaHariopHme. 3anoHHaxa B3aHMHH 3aKaHKH h cmcxobc Ky3o 
hh Hanaaanie, Ka-ro ijHTHpame hhkoh 6aTaniKH flnajieKTHH ,nyMH. IIIyMtT h 
CMextT 6axa bhcokh h He nyxMe, ne BpaTaTa ce e oTBOpHJia. IIoflBH ce 
Hafl3HpaTenOT AceH, kohto oGhkhobcho He ce 3a5DKflame c Hac, ho 6eme 
MHoro CTpor. Bchhkh HacKanaxa ot nernaTa. Hne c Ky30 6flXMe b iieHTbpa 
Ha pa3roBopa h He ycnaxMe «a ce HaflHraeM HaBpeMe (na ce jiokhm h ce/m 
Ha nernaTa npeflH 22 h. 6enie CTporo 3a6paHeHo), 3amoTO 6axMe ceflHanH 
no "TypcKH". 

- Bne flBaMaTa - b Kapijepa! - 3anoB«fla Ha^HpaTejiflT. 

3anoHHaxMe cnopOBe HMa jih npaBO, ho toh He otctmh h HHe noexMe 
npefl Hero. OTBeae hh b KapijepHOTO noMememie, KbfleTO ce noaBHxa ome 
flBaMa Hafl3HpaTenH. B npe^BepHeTO Ha noMemeHHeTO hh flaaoxa CTapn 
3aTBOpHHnecKH apexn. A3 ce npeo6jiflKox nptB. Ky30 Me noorneaa h 
npHXHa «a ce CMee - apexHTe 6axa MHoro CKtcaHH. KoraTO caMHOT Ky3o 
3ao6yBa naHTajioHa, OKa3a ce, ne e caMO c eflHH Kpanon. H flBaMaTa 
3anoHHaxMe «a ce CMeeM c rnac, BtnpeKH TeacKOTO npe>KHBflBaHe, KoeTO hh 
onaKBaine. ToBa aaoca Hafl3HpaTenHTe h Te hh nenHaxa 3 aeHa b Kapijepa. 
3a pa3HHKa ot npeflHHa ni>T o6ane, cera TeMnepaTypHTe 6axa MHoro hhckh, 
HaBi>H HMauie chat, ayxame CTyzjeH na3apfl^cHHiKH B5m>p, kohto He caMO ce 
nyBanie, ho h npoHHKBanie npe3 3apeuieTeHHTe np030pijH Ha KapijepHOTO 
noMemeHHe. Ho... HHe 6axMe MJiaflH. To3H apecT b Kapijepa ome noBene 

3aCHJIH npHOTeJICTBOTO hh c Ky30. 

IIojiHTHHecKa npoceeTa h caMoo6pa30BaHHe. IIpe3 1943-1944 r. 

E[a3apfl5KHUIKH^T 3aTBOp Ce npeBT>pHa B HCTHHCKH nOJIHTHHeCKH yHHBepCH- 

TeT ? b eflHa CBoeo6pa3Ha imcojia 3a naTpHOTHHHO h aHTH(|)aniHCTKO Bi>3nHTa- 
HHe Ha nonHT3aTBOpHHiiHTe. OGyneHHeTO hh nporaname noa pa3JiHHHH 
4>opMH, Hafi-Bene KaTO HHflHBHflyajma pa6oTa Btpxy jnrrepaTypa, a ci>mo h 
b paMKHTe Ha Kpi>)KoijH, ceMHHapH h flHCKycHH. Pa36npa ce, H3nHTBaxMe 
roneMH Tpy^HOCTH, 3aiu;oTO pokhmt>t 6eme TeaebK, nnncBaxa hh KHHrn, 
kohto ce flocTaBJixa no KOHcnnpaTHBeH ni>T, a h nerajiHO c pa3pemeHHe Ha 
npoKypaTypaTa h ynpaBaTa Ha 3aTBopa. IIpeo,zi;ojiflBaxMe bchhko TOBa npe3 
«o6pa opraHH3aijHfl: MJia/jHTe nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH H3nHTBaxMe CHjraa acaacfla 
3a 3HaHH5i h 6axMe peuieHH MaKCHMajiHO ao6pe aa H3non3BaMe BpeMeTO en 
TyK. fla He ry6nM hhto nac - TOBa 6eme TBtpflHflT CTpeMe>K Ha noBeneTO ot 
Hac. Pa36npa ce, bcckh npeijeHflBame KaK aa pa6oTH ci>o6pa3HO 
o6pa30BaHHeTO h o6m;aTa ch KyjiTypa. 

IIojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe ot Co^hhckha ijeHTpajieH 3aTBOp flOHecoxa MHOTO 

192 



ueHHa pa3peuieHa h KOHcnnpaTHBHa JiHTepaTypa. Ct>iu;oto CTopnxa h npH- 
cTHrHanHTe ot Cjihbchckhh 3aTBOp. Pa3nojiaraxMe c h3bcctho kojihhcctbo 
noJiHTHHecKa jiHTepaTypa b pi>Koniic: "KpanKa Hanpea - flBe Ha3a,a n , 
"KaKBO m ce npaBH M ot B. H. JlemiH, "BwipocHTe Ha JieHHHH3Ma M h 
"KparbK Kypc no HCTOpna Ha BKII (6) ,T ot CTajiHH h ap. BceKH ot Hac 
Tp^6Bauie aa npaBH nocrc>nKH 3a /jocTaBKa Ha khhth ot 6jih3kh h ot 
npHHTejiH. Taica ce o(])opMH e/jHa cpaBHHTejiHO 6oraTa 6H6jiHOTeKa c 
HayHHa, xy/joacecTBeHa, HayHHO-nonyjiapHa JiHTepaTypa, H36paHH 6axa h 
6H6jiHOTeKapH. Khhthtc ce HaMHpaxa b nocTOAHHO /jBHaceHHe. 3a6pa- 
HeHaTa JiHTepaTypa yicpHBaxMe CTapaTenHO - o6hkhobcho TaKHBa khhth 
6axa HaBHTH Ha pyno h th m>xaxMe b flioiiieijHTe h cjiaMeHHijHTe. 

Ci>3AafleHH 6axa Han-pa3Hoo6pa3HH Kpi>>KoijH h ceMHHapn. Ochobhhtc 
6axa: no H3ynaBaHe HcropHHTa Ha BKII (6), Ha BKTI h MeayiyHapo/jHOTO 
pa6oTHHHecKO flBH^KeHHe, no nojiHTHnecKa hkohomhh, no (Jmjioco^hh, 
KHHraTa Ha CTajiHH "Bwipocn Ha jieHHHH3Ma" h jsp. HMame jieKTOpn h 
pi>KOBOflHTejiH Ha Kpi>5K0ijHTe. Kpi>^coHHH)iT cbCTaB necTO ce MeHeme, 
3amoTO 3aTBOpHHi(HTe necTO 6axa pa3MecTBaHH. A3 pi>KOBOflex Kpt^coK no 

nOJIHTHKOHOMHfl, H3yHaBaX CbUIO (J3HJIOCO(|)Hfl h KHHraTa "BtnpocHTe Ha 



neHHHH3Ma ,f . 



HauiaTa KyjnypHo-MacoBara pa6oTa ce 3acnjiH oco6eHO npe3 3HMaTa h 
npojierra Ha 1944 r., KoraTO cbCTaBtT Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKHH kojickthb CTaHa 
no-nocTO^HeH, a crpa^aTa Ha 3aTB0pa ce npem>jiHH. OrpeMflXMe ce kbm 
opraHH3HpaHe Ha CMHCJieH, nojie3eH ot/jhx: OT6eim3BaxMe no khjihh h b 

OTfleJieHHeTO Ha HCTOpHHeCKH flaTH H npa3HHL(H KaTO OKTOMBpHHCKara 

peBOJiioijHfl, 3-Te "JI" (roflHHiHHHa ot CMtpTra Ha JleHHH, K. JIh6kxhcxt h 
P. JlK)KceM6ypr), m>pBH Man, BTOpH iohh h flpyra, opraHH3HpaxMe h 
nocpemaHe Ha HOBaTa 1944 r. YnacTBax h b opraHH3HpaHH5i ot Kpi>CTbo 
BeneB "roBOpam xop", kohto H3Hac>mie KOHijepra h peijHTajin b CTOJiOBaTa. 
Ilpe3 npojieira Ha 1944 r. ce noflBHxa h rHMHacraijH, rjiaBHO ot HOBonpH- 

CTHTHaJIHTe 3aTBOpHHIJH OT ILlOBflHBCKHfl 3aTBOp, pbKOBOfleHH OT TeHBO 

Ka3aKa. 

lU,o ce OTHacfl ro HejieranHaTa JiHTepaTypa, me OT6ejieaca cjie/jHHH cny- 
Han. OKpT>5KHMT npOKypop HfiaHHeB 6eiue npe/uipneji o6nKOJiKa b 3aTBopa. 

TOH BJIfl31>JI BHe3anHO B KHJIHHTa Ha eflHH OCbfleH Ha CJVTbpT, kohto n>p6oM 

klm BpaTaTa neraji nacT ot ff Bi>npocHTe Ha JieHHHH3Ma" (no-KOHKperao, 
raaBara 3a "CejiCKHfl BMipoc"). KaTO nyji OTBapflHeTO Ha BpaTaTa, toh 
ntxHaji KHHtfacara b pH3aTa ch h 3aKonnaji 3arBOpHHHecKara ch KypTKa. npo- 
Kypopi>T h npH/jpyacaBamHOT ro Hafl3HpaTeji o6ane 3a6ejiH3ajra TOBa HeroBO 
ABH^ceHHe. IIpoKypoptT flaji 3HaK Ha Ha/j3HparejM m H3ne3e ot KHJiHOTa. 

193 



- flaft TOBa, KoeTO CKpH, - Hape^HJi HBaHHeB. 

3aTBOpHHKi>T npe^aji KHJDKKaTa. Ton norne^Haji, nponen 3aniaBHeT0, 
IIpeJIHCTHJI HflKOJIKO CTpaHHI^H H fl ITBXHaJI b a)Ko6a ch. Ka3aji ",D(oBH5K,naHe" 
h H3Ji^3i>n. Haa3HpaTejWT ce Bi>pHaji cnefl aeceT MHHyra, h 3anHTaji 
3aTBOpHHKa KaKBO e B3en ot Hero npoKypopT>T. "Hnmo", 6hji ottobop'lt. 
OnaKBaxMe, ne me nocjie^Ba o6hck. EfajiaTa HeneranHa JiHTepaTypa 6eme 
CKpHTa h hakojiko flHH 3aHHMaHHHTa 6axa npeycTaHOBeHH. 3a Hama 
H3HeHaaa o6ane npoieypopT>T HBaHHeB CKpH ot ynpaBaTa KaKBO e nonyHHJi h 
He nocjie^Baxa hhto o6hckh, hhto caHKijHH. no-KbCHO HaynnxMe, ne 
HBaHHeB e ot rp. neujepa, npe3 MJia^eacKHTe ch ro#HHH HMaji JieBH 
y6e5KfleHH)i h #a)Ke 6hji hjich Ha KoMCOMOJia. Ton ce OTHacmie MHoro 
BHHMaTenHO kt>m 3aTBOpHHijHTe, CTapaenie ce aa o6neKHaBa tcxhha peacHM. 

floGpe 6enie opraHH3HpaHa h HamaTa BT>TpeniHa CHCTeMa 3a iiojihtii- 
necKa HH^opiviamifl. nepHOflHHHO ce pa3npocTpaHABaxa pa3JiHHHH ct>o6- 
meHH5i ? nonyqeHH npn CBH)KflaHHfl, ot npecaTa hjih ot napTHHHHTe opraHH. 
BecTHHijHTe ce nperjieayjaxa ot onpe^ejieHH xopa, kohto ctCTaBflxa 
KOMioHHKeTa. flBaMa Mo6HJiH3HpaHH Bt3pacTHH Hafl3HpaTenH-neHCHOHepH 
floeraBflxa TaHHO h cpemy aocTa npHJiHHHO B^HarpaacfleHHe BecTHHijHTe 
"Yipo", "3opa" h "3apa". 

C oco6eH HHTepec cjiea^xMe BoeHHHTe fleftcTBHfl Ha CLBeTCKaTa apMM 
h Ha aHnio-aMepHKaHCKHTe bohckh b A(^pHKa h HTajiM. Te 6axa o6eKT Ha 
eaceflHeBHH HH(|)opMaijHH h pa3roBOpH. J\o6pe noMHa KaK ce BtJiHyBaxMe h 
c KaKBa pa^ocT nocpeupiaxMe hobhhhtc 3a ocBoGoayjeHHeTO Ha rpa^OBeTe 
XapKOB, Open, Eenropofl, KneB, EpflHCK, c KaKBO HanpeaceHHe onaicBaxMe 
cbo6meHH>iTa 3a 6htkhtc Ha KypcKaTa fl'bra, 3a HoBOpocHHCK, ^Henpo- 
neTpOBCK, a npe3 1944 r. - 6htkhtc 3a ocBo6oflyjaBaHe Ha JleHHHrpafl, 
Ofleca, KpHMCKH5i nonyocTpoB, 6oeBeTe Kpafi .flin h Khihhhcb h mhoto 
jxpyru. C HHTepec cjieaaxMe BoeHHHTe fleficTBHfl b K))KHa HrajiHfl, 
npeB3eMaHeTO Ha Chijhjiha, Ha Heanoji, npeB3eMaHeTO Ha Phm npe3 jiatoto 
Ha 1944 r. h jsp. Hne 6axMe y6e;jeHH, ne ot no6eflHTe Ha C^BeTCKaTa apMHH 
h Ha ebio3HHijHTe 3aBHCH ocBoGoayjeHHeTO Ha Bi>nrapH5i OT MOHapXO- 

(|)aiIIHCTKHfl CTpOH H HaiHeTO H3JIH3aBe Ha CBo6o^a. 

HMeHaTa Ha rpa^OBe, peKH h mccthocth, Kb^eTO ce BO#exa oacecToneHH 
6oeBe npe3 Te3H hakojiko :to,zi;hhh at>ji6oko ce Bpfl3axa b naMerra mh; Te 6%- 
xa Hemo noBene ot HaHMeHOBamifl, Te 6axa MecTa Ha repOHHHH h hcto- 
pHHecKH 6htkh MOKfly flBa CBjrra, flBe o6in;ecTBa: ot e^HaTa cTpaHa CToaxa 
4)aiHH3Mi>T h Mpaico6ecHeTO, a ot apyraTa - ^eMOKpaijHflTa h CBoGo^aTa. 

AKTiiBii3iipaHe Ha napTinaiiCKaxa 6op6a. npe3 OKTOMBpH-HoeMBpH 
1943 r. y3HaxMe 3a pe^Hija hobh B'Bop'baceHH aicijHH Ha napTH3aHHTe b 

194 



CpeflHoropHeTO h Vojiouutq. Cjiqji e^HO CBH^c^aHe Ctohji c BT>3TOpr 
pa3Ka3a ? ne napTH3aHHTe 6hjih 3aB3ejiH poflHOTO My cejio KptcTeBHH h 
HanpaBHJiH MHTHHr c HacejieHHeTO. He no-MajiKO BMTOpaceHH 6axa nomiT- 

3aTBOpHHIIHTe OT C. CTpeJIHa, KOHTO pa3Ka3Baxa 3a BfcOpttfCeHH aKIJHH Ha 

napTH3aHHTe ? cnoMeHaBaxa HMeHaTa Ha hakoh ot tax, kohto Te ao6pe 
no3HaBaxa h 6axa noanoMarajiH. 

HayHHXMe h 3a peflHija aeficTBHH Ha napTH3aHHTe b EpaimroBO h 
HenHHCKOTO KOpHTO. LLlHpoKO ce KOMeHTHpaxa HanaaeHHeTo h npeB3e- 
MaHeTO Ha rapa EpaijHroBO, rapa LJenHHa h Ha hakoh ropCKH CTonaHCTBa. 
Ot pa3Ka3HTe mh CTaHaxa H3BecTH HMeHaTa Ha cmcjih napTH3aHH, ,n;o6pe 

n03HaTH Ha HflKOH OT nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJHTe: 6HBHIHTe CTy^eHTH KoCTaflHH 

CTaBpeB h ^HMHTtp KapaHBaHOB (h aBaMaTa ot c. Majio KoHape), 3a kohto 
Bene 3Haex ot pa3Ka3HTe Ha MajiOKOHapijH ome npe3 m. Mag, JIio6eH 
IllKOflpoB ot IIa3apfl^cHK (ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha PMC), JIio6eH Hobhcb, 
KptcTto HojiaKOB, Ctoah IIonoB, JIio6eH TyMHepOB, Bjia^o TaHOB h pp. 

Bee no-necTO 3anoHHa fla ce roBOpH 3a 6aTaniKHTe naprroaHH 6paTfl 
HHKOJia h Teoprn HojiaKOBH, 6paT^ AHreji h Hjihh HaymeBH, Toflop 
KonapOB, Ilerbp nejieB, ATaHac KbHeB, Teoprn BaHneB h pp. IIoHBHxa ce 
hobh 3a MeH HMeHa Ha napTH3aHH ot HenHHCKOTO kophto: ATaHac 
CeMepfl^cneB, KocTaflHH DiypOB, HHKOJia EoacaHOB, cecTpHTe Bejia h Tepa 
rieeBH h flp. 3a tax pa3Ka3Baxa nenHHCKHTe nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH, kohto ra 
6nxa cpemajiH h noanoMarajiH. 

Hne ce Bi>3XHmaBaxMe ot uojxBU3wre Ha napTroaHHTe, ot TexHHfl 
repOH3i>M. npe3 cryaeHHTe 3hmhh MeceijH Ha 1943-1944 r., Mpt3HeHKH bi>b 
BJia^cHHTe khjihh, eaceflHeBHO cnoflejwxMe TpeBoraTa ch: m A KaK jih ^chbc^t 
napTH3aHHTe b to3h cryji h npn hoctoahhh npecjieflBaHM ot ao 3t>6h 
Bi>opi>^ceHH nonHijaH h acaH^apMepHCTH?!" Te hh onyacexa 3a npHMep h 

Bfl'bXHOBeHHe. 

HoBaTa 1944 r. IIoMiijiBaHiiH. 3anoHHa BTOpaTa ro^HHa Ha 3aTBOpHH- 
necKM mh }khbot. 3a e^Ha roflHHa 6ax npeMHHaji npe3 ,/jHpeKijHfl Ha 
nommHOTa h TpH 3aTBOpa, KopeHHO ce H3MeHH HacoKaTa He caMo Ha moh 
echbot, ho h Ha MoeTO ceMeficTBO. IIojiHTHHecKOTO h coimajiHOTo Hanpeace- 
HHe b CTpaHaTa ce ycHJiBanie 3aeflHO c pa3pacTBaHeTO Ha aHTH(j)aiiiHCTKOTo 
ABH^ceHHe. B OTroBop npe3 eceHTa Ha 1943 r. npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha J\o6pu 
Eoachjiob npe^npHe penpecHBHH MepKH, ptKOBOfleHH ot MHHHCTbpa Ha 
BtTpeiHHHTe pa6oTH TJoho Xphctob h ot BoeHHM MHHHCTbp reH. PyceB. Ha 
(J)OHa Ha ycnexHTe Ha aHTHXHTJiepHCTKaTa Koammnn h Ha 3acHjiBamoTo ce 
He^oBOJiCTBO ot ynpaBJieHHeTO cpea 6tJirapcKaTa o6mecTBeHocT, bkjiiohh- 
TejiHO h cpefl npe^cTaBHTejiHTe Ha HHKoraniHHTe 6ypacoa3HH napTHH, b 

195 



npecaTa 3anoHHaxa fleMarorcKH H3HBJieHHH Ha mhhhctph h Aenyrara, ne 
npaBHTejicTBOTO me npoBeayja nojiHTHKa Ha yMHpoTBOpeHHe Ha CTpaHara h 
ne e totobo aa M npocTH M Ha napTH3aHHTe, aico Te ce 3aBi>pHaT no po/jHHTe 
ch MecTa h ce npe/ja/jaT Ha nojiHijHHTa. B ebmoTO BpeMe ce aaBaT yKa3aHHH 
3a HaH-acecTOKO npecjie/jBaHe h H36HBaHe Ha napiraaHHTe h Ha HTaijHTe hm 
6e3 cbR h npHCb^a. 

IIoflroTOBKa 3a 3hmhhtc MeceijH. KaTO OTHHTame onHTa ot npe/jHiHHH 

rO/JHHH, 3aTBOpHHHeCKOTO napTHHHO ptKOBOflCTBO nocTaBH 3a o6cb^cflaHe 

Btnpoca 3a ci>6HpaHeTO Ha napHHHH cpe/jcTBa bt>b BpT>3Ka c o6e3nenaBaHe 
Ha npexpaHaTa Ha nojnrreaTBOpHHijHTe npe3 TeacKHTe 3hmhh Meceija. 
PeKOJiTaTa 6eme cpaBHHTejiHO ao6pa h b na3ap/pKHiHKHTe cejia OTHOCHTen- 
ho jiecHO Mo^cexa #a ce HaMepHT pa3JiHHHH xpaHH. 3aicyneHHTe npo/jyKTH ce 
ocTaBHxa Ha ctxpaHeHHe y 6jih3kh Ha nojnroaTBOpHHim h ce /jocTaBHxa 
nepHOflHHHO b 3aTBOpa npe3 3HMaTa. TaKa HanpHMep, XpHCTO CTaTeB h 
Apyra flopKOBijH ocnrypflBaxa Hpe3 po/jHHHHTe ch ca3,m>pMa. IIo,uo6hh 
npnroTOBJieHH^ Ha MapMajia,u, cynieHH mio,uoBe h ap. ce H3BT>piHBaxa b 
IlaHariopcKO h IIa3ap,ipKHiHK0. C HaGjinacaBaHe Ha HOBoro/jHiHHHTe npa3- 
hhijh HHe H3npam;axMe nncMa h KapTHHKH /jo po^hhhh h npHHTejiH, b 
kohto ra no3,npaBflBaxMe: "Hecrara HOBa ro/jHHa, npaTH MajiKO cnaHHHa". 

Cjiyxoee 3a noMHJieaHHH. B Kpan Ha ro^HHaTa ce noflBH cnyx, ne 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHi^HTe c no-MajiKH npHCb^H me 6T>,uaT noMHJiBaHH, ho me 
Tp5i6Ba «a noAnHinaT /jeKJiapaijHH. OijeHHBaxMe T03H cnyx KaTO npoflBa Ha 
fleMarorHH h npOBOKaima, kohto Tpa6Ba m ycnoKOH o6mecTBeHOTO He^o- 
bojictbo h #a ci>3flafle jrbaoiHBaTa hjik)3hh 3a e^Ha HOBa nojiHTHKa Ha 
npaBHTencTBOTO. 

Hhho Hjiha CaMyHJiOB, 6amaTa Ha CaMH, noTB^p^H, ne b MHHHerep- 
ctboto Ha npaBOCb/jHeTO ce no/jroTBAJi npoeKT 3a noMHUBaHe Ha nonHT- 

3aTBOpHHI^H C nO-JieKH npHCbflH H C nO-He3HaHHTeJIHH nOJIHTHHeCKH 

fle^HHa. Byfino OrecJmH cbmo mh ci>o6iitH 3a orpaHHHeHOTO noMHUBaHe h 
ne man m npoyHH Btnpoca Hpe3 no3HaTH cb/jhh h npOKypopn. Ha e/mo 
CBH^cflaHe b a/jBOKaTCKara CTaa toh mh Ka3a, ne b IIa3apfl5KHK HMa komhcha, 
kohto me npaBH npe/jjioaceHHfl 3a KOHKperaH noMHJiBaHH^, ho e Heo6xo- 
flHMO fla ce H3TOTBHT moji6h. 

H apyrn a/jBOKara pa3roBapaxa c nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH no cbiima BT>npoc. 
IloMHH npn e/jHa ot cpemHTe mh c Bynno Orec^aH npncbCTBanie J]|o6pH 
Epa^HCTHJiOB, kohto HMauie CBH^ytaHe. PeniHXMe #a noflnnuia Mon6a cbc 
cbfl'bp^KaHHe, KoeTO m OTpa3HBa noKa3aHHOTa mh h nocneflHara /jyMa npefl 
ctfla: ne He ct>m ynacTBaji b /jefiHOCT, kohto ce npecjie/jBa ot 33/],. 
riapTHHHOTo pT>KOBOflCTBO 6eme #ajio cbrjiacne mojiGhtc hh m HMaT 

196 



TaKOBa ei>,zn>p5KaHHe. 

B HanajiOTO Ha jmyapH HancTHHa 6axa ocBoGo/jemi hakoh nonHT- 
3aTBOpHHijH, H3Me5K,ny kohto ch cnoMHHM IleHKO TeuieB OT HenHHO H Ky30 
^eeHHHHH. H ABaMaTa no-KtCHO CTaHaxa napTH3aHH. A3, CaMH h ppyru 
nojiHT3aTBOpHHiiH nojiynnxMe HaManeHHe Ha npHcvjHTe hh c 5 toahhh. 
OcTaBame mh #a H3JieHca ome caMO 7 Meceija - ro iojih 1944 r. Apyrn 
nojnrreaTBOpHHijH ctmo nonynHxa pa3HHHHO HaMajieHHe Ha npHCvuiTe. 
ToBa He hh BtJiHyBauie oco6eHO, 3amoTO 6axMe y6e,neHH 5 ne ObBeTCKaTa 
apMH^ Hanpe/jBa h ro jiatoto me CTHrae ro EajiKaHHTe. 

Tana HHe nocpenjHaxMe HoBaTa 1944 r. c no-rojwM ohthmh3t>m, c 
no^cejiaHHe cjie/jBamaTa HOBa ro^HHa #a nocpemHeM Ha CBo6o,na. Okojio 

KOJie^HHTe H HOBOrOflHIHHHTe npa3HHIJH nOHTH BCHHKH HMaXMe CBH)KflaHHfl 5 

nojiyHHXMe MHoro xpaHa h no;japT>ijH. 3aTBOpHHHecicaTa ynpaBa pa3penin h 
hhkoh o6iu;h KOJieKTHBHH HOBoro^HinHH npa3HHHHH npo^BH - b Tpane- 
3apHHTa na 3aTBOpHHHecKHAT xop, HMame 3a6aBH c /jeKJiaMaijHH, xyMop h 
6narono5KenaHHH. 

B KHJiHHTe 6eme MHoro eryaeHO, OTonjieHHeTO noHTH He pa6oTeme. 
BtnpeKH TOBa npe3 ^eiceMBpH, AHyapH, 4>eBpyapH HHe npofltJDKHXMe ko- 

JieKTHBHO H HHflHBH^yaJIHO CBOHTe npOCBeTHH H nOJIHTHHeCKH 3aHHMaHHfl. 

He ce OTKa3BaxMe ot pa3X0AKHTe Ha KOJienoTO Ropu h b HaH-CTyaemrre Rim. 

TpeBO'VKHII HOBHHH OT IIa3apA'vKHlIIKO. IIOJIHIjeHCKHTe GjIOKaflH, 

noanoMorHaTH ot BoeHHH Hacra, npOA^jraaBaxa h npe3 3HMHHTe MeceijH. 
PenpecHHTe Ha nojiHijeficKHTe BJiacra h )KecTOKOCTHTe hm ce 3acHJiBaxa. 
Chjiho ce pa3Bi>JiHyBaxMe ot ci>o6meHHflTa, ne b 3apa/jHa Cpe^Ha ropa, 
6jih30 ro Ejiea^cHK, ca nona^HajiH b 3aca#a h )KecTOKO ca 6hjih h36hth 
noBene ot 20 napTH3aHH. Te 6axa npHOTenH h ApyrapH Ha MH03HHa ot 
3aTBOpHHijHTe ot na3ap;j)KHHiKHTe h naHariopcKHTe cena. 3a hhkoh ot tax 
mh 6axa pa3Ka3BanH h a3 ra nyBCTBax KaTO no3HaTH. Mqtkry tax 6axa 
JIio6eH UlKO^poB (6paT My ^hmhtbp 6enie b 3aTBopa h 6axMe Ro6pu 
npHHTejin), J\. KapaHBaHOB, K. OaBpeB h pp. Ono)KapeHH 6axa MHoro 

KhUJJd H CTOnaHCKH nOCTpOHKH Ha napTH3aHCKH H flTaiHKH ceMencTBa B 

Orpejina, JlecnneBO, Kapa6yHap, BejiHHKOBO h Rp. cennma. 

Ot BaTaK ct>iu;o nonynaBaxMe TpeBO)KHH BecTH. Ot CBHac,a;aHHflTa c 
BnarofiHO h ^hmhtbp BpaHneB y3Hax, ne b cejioTO e npHCTHrHanH noBHa 
poTa 3aeflHO c MHoro nojiHijaH h areHTH. YcTaHOBeH 6hji nojiHijeficKH nac, 
3anoHHajiH apecra, a crpa/jaTa Ha nporHMHa3Hjrra 6HJia npeBtpHaTa b 
nonHijeHCKH ynacTbK. Hakoh ot apecTyBaHHTe 6hjih OTKapaHH b EpaijH- 
roBO, Kt^eTO ce 6njia ycTaHOBHJia no-rojiflMa BoeHHa nacT, koato H3Btp- 
niBajia apecTH Ha 3ano#03peHH OTaijH Ha napTH3aHHTe h aHTH(|)aiHHCTH b 

197 



cejiara Ha IlemepcKa okojiha h yerpoHBajia 6ji0Ka,uH. 

BceKH aeH c rierbp BpaHneB KOMeHTHpaxMe .uocrarHajiHTe ao Hac 
ocKtflHH hobhhh. "3a,uaHaTa Ha Ta3H roji^Ma BoeHHa aKijHfl e aa pa3KpH5rr 
HTauiKaTa Mpeaca Ha napiraaHHTe, KaKTO h 3eMJi)iHKHTe, b kohto ce yKpHBar 
napTH3aHHTe 5 kohto Moace 6h ca b BaTauiKHH 6ajiKaH ?? , Ka3Bauie nextp 
BpaHneB. H flencTBHTejiHO, b Kpaa Ha (J>eBpyapH 1944 r. 6e pa3KpHT 
jiarepi>T Ha napnoamiTe ot OTpufl "Ahtoh HeaHOB". 3anoHHajiH 
repoHHHH 6htkh Ha napiraaHHTe c MHoro6poHHHTe bochhh h nojiHijencKH 
nacTH. B 3aTBOpa ce pa3npocTpaH)iBaxa cjiyxoBe 3a aeceTKH y6HTH, 3a 
roneMHTe 5kcctokocth Ha (jmuiHCTKHTe BJiacTH. IIohth u^ji Meceij flBaMaTa c 
n. BpaHHeB HHMaxMe CBH5K,naHe. 3a H3JiH3aHe ot BaTaK no TOBa BpeMe ce e 
H3HCKBano pa3peiueHHe (otkpht jihct) ot KOMeHflaHTa Ha cenoTo c 
yKa3aHHe 3a ijejrra Ha ntTyBaHem 

Me^cayBpeMeHHO Bee naK y3HaxMe, ne e 6hji y6HT 3aM.-KOMaH r nHpi>T Ha 
OTp^aa Teoprn HonaicoB, a cbmo h 3a ra6ejrra Ha MH03HHa napTH3aHH h 
ATaijH ot BaTaK, EpaijHroBO, Ko3apcKO, Eara h jxpyru cena. EflBa b Kpaa Ha 
MapT 6axMe noceTeHH ot 6paTa Ha rierbp, ^hmhtbp BpaHHeB. KoraTO ce 
^BHXMe b noMemeHHeTO 3a CBHagjaHe h 3aeraHaxMe npea peuieTKHTe cpenjy 
Hero, toh 3annaKa. "YGhjih ca TpeH,uacf)HJi EajiHHOB, mo* no6paraM, h ome 
hakojiko ayniH ATaijH b m. ,H,i>ji6ok flon. H TBOHTe poflHHHH, AHrene, IleTbp 
ilHeB, Toflop HaynieB, ^HMHTbp Kjihhhcb". rioTBi>pflH ce h cnyxtT 3a 
y6HHCTBOTO Ha AjieKca Kjihmchtob h Ha ome aeceraHa jrraijH ot cenaTa 
Ko3apcKo 5 Eara h 3Kpe6HHKO b m. ,H,pyMa. HMano 3anoBeHH napra3aHH, H3 
cejioTO ce HocenH oTpjoaroi rnaBH Ha napTH3ami 5 6hjih onoacapeHH Kbwji h 

njieBHH. "CtlllMHCKH afl", 3aBl>pHIH CBOfl pa3Ka3 CT>C CBJI3H Ha OHH /jHMHTtp. 

EflXMe noTpeceHH h cno,uejiHXMe bchhko c flpyrapme. Te cbmo nonynaBaxa 
no,no6HH CBe#eHHa 3a yGnficTBa Ha napTH3aHH h jrraijH b CpeflHoropneTO, b 

M. Ejiefl^CHK. 

Hob nposaji Ha OK b IIa3apaHCHK. Ilpe3 npojierra Ha 1944 r. eraHa 
hob npOBan Ha HJieHOBeTe Ha OK Ha EPI1 b Ila3apfl5KHK. B 3aTBOpa 
npHCTHTHaxa ,H,o6pH Epa#HCTHJiOB h Mnxanji MaHeB, c kohto ce 6ax 
cpeman npH CBHacaaHHOTa mh c Byfino Ore(j)aH. Te 6axa BHCOKOo6pa30BaHH 

K)pHCTH 5 aKTHBHH o6mecTBeHHijH H HJieHOBe Ha EPI1. C UIHpOKaTa CH 

KyjiTypa, c BHHMaTenHOTO ch OTHOineHHe kbm 3aTBOpHHijHTe, Te BeflHara 
CTaHaxa Bceo6mH jiio6hmijh. 06nnax #a 6eceflBaM c tax Ha pa3JiHHHH tcmh 
- (Jmnococfrnfl, JiHTepaTypa, HCTOpHfl, KaKTO h 3a TeKymHTe nojiHranecKH 
ci>6hth)i. CTaHaxMe ao6pn npHATejin h flpy5K6aTa hh npofltiDKH npe3 
cjie^BamHTe roflHHH. ,H,o6pH EpaflHCTHJiOB 6eme o6nacTeH flHpeKTOp Ha 
IljiOBflHB, a cnefl TOBa CTaHa kmct Ha Co^u^l h npoc|)ecop b Hkohomkhcckhh 

198 



HHCTHTyT Ha BAH. MnxaHJi MaHeB 6euie Ha pi>KOBO^Ha o6mecTBeHa 
pa6oTa b na3ap;pKHK, a BnocjieacTBHe jxbjirn toahhh 6eme 3aM.- 
npe^ceflaTeji Ha 06moHapoflHH* komhtct 3a Ei>Jirapo- ctBeTCKaTa ApyacGa. 
riJiOB^HBHaHii. npe3 Mail 1944 r. npHCTHrHa rpyna nojnroaTBOpHHiyi 

OT ILlOBflHBCKHfl 3aTBOp. Cpefl TAX HMaX n03HaTH OT 3aTBOpa B HflpH30B0 

(IjBflTKO TaroB, 5KejDi3KO AHrejiOB, JIio6eH HajrbKOB). rLioBflHBHaHH 
Be^Hara HanpaBHxa chjiho BnenaTJieHHe - 6axa BecejiH h inyMHH. IIo BpeMe 
Ha pa3xoflKHTe Te npaBexa rHMHacTHHecKH ynpaHCHeHira, KoeTO Apa3Heine 
Hafl3HpaTejiHTe. Cpea rax ce OTKpoaBame TeHto Ka3aKa (Ctohhob) c 
BecejiHfl ch, ho 6yHTOBeH xapaKTep. no npo(j)ecHfl tfcejie3HHHap, KaTO aKTH- 
BeH napTHeH 4>yHKijHOHep toh MHoroKpaTHO 6hji apecTyBaH h Jieacaji b 
3aTBOpHTe 3apaflH nojiHTHHecicaTa ch aefiHOCT. npe3 aBrycT 1944 r. TeHto 
H36ara ot 3aTBOpa. TIo kbcho, b roflHHHTe Ha Kyjrra, TeHto 6eine 
penpecHpaH. BnocjieflCTBHe toh pa6oTH KaTO khhokphthk, peacHctop, 
cueHapHCT, Hannca MHoro craTHH, cijeHapHH h MeMoapH. 

Hobh 3aTBopHiiun ot BaTaK h IlemepcKO. npefl Man 1944 r. b 
3aTBOpa flOKapaxa hakojiko rpynn aHTH^auiHCTH, o6bhhchh KaTO noMaraHH 
h srraijH Ha napTH3aHHTe. HaH-MHoro6pofiHH 6axa GaTanami: IleTtp TaHeB, 
Teoprn HemepOB, TeoprH TaHeB, Toflop Eoackob, Teopra BeneB IlejieB, 
6paTH HnKOJia h OrecjmH Kjihmchtobh, TeoprH Kjihhhcb, riaBen CaMyHeB, 
Hjihh BjiacoB, ynHTejiKaTa EjincaBeTa K)pyKOBa (BeTKa), Teonn PeKOBa 
(3t6ojieKapKa) h jjp. Ot rp. Ilemepa 6flxa Cbhjich PaHeB (E3HC), Tojjop 
JlexapcKH, KHpHJi TnpoB, KocTa Apa6afl^cneB; ot Ko3apCKo: HopaaH 
IIonoB; ot EpaijHroBo: Ahtcji Eohhob h pp. 

Bchhkh 6axa H3Mi>HeHH, HHKBH3HpaHH ? fltpacaHH b nojiHijencKHTe ynac- 
TbU}i no HHKOJiKO Meceija. Te pa3Ka3Baxa 3a npeacHBAHOTO b nojraimaTa, 3a 
HHKBH3HijHHTe, 3a yGnftcTBa Ha hhkoh ot apecTyBaHHTe. npeACToeine ^a hm 
BptnaT o6BHHHTejiHHTe aKTOBe h m 3anoHHaT npoijecHTe hm bt>b bochho- 
nojieBHH ci>fl. 

A3 ce cpemHax c BceKH 6aTanaHHH nooTflejmo, pa3nHTax rn 3a KOHKpeT- 
HHTe o6BHHeHHH Ha npoKypaTypaTa h 3a npH3HaHH5rra npea nojnmraTa, 
AoroBap^xMe ce KaK aa ce fltpacaT b ctfla, KaK aa OTpnnaT noica3aHHOTa, 
H3TptrHaTH HacHJia, KaKBH CBHfleTejiH fla noconaT, koh aflBOKara m HaeMaT 
h t. h. YcTaHOBHX, He Te He 6axa cBi>p3aHH noMe^ay ch b e^Ha o6ma 

KOHCnHpaiJHfl. 

npoijecbT ce cbCTOfl b Ka3apMaTa Ha 27-mh HenHHCKH nojiK h npo- 
flMacH HHKOJiKO flHH. Benep, cjiea 3aBpi>maHeTO hm, npaBexMe pa36op Ha 
3aaafleHHTe ot npoKypopa h cb^HHTe BMpocn h Ha TexHHTe OTroBOpH. 
HaKpan Te nojiynnxa tokkh npHCbAH ot no 15 roflHHH, ho HacTpoeHHeTO 

199 



hm 6enie 6o/jpo, 3anjOTO h 3a tax, h flopn 3a caMHTe cb^hh 6enie acho, ne 
flo pa3rpOMa Ha (J)aniH3Ma b EtnrapHfl ocTaBaT 6poeHH MeceijH. 

Ot pa3roBopHTe mh c 6aTanaHH y3Hax hakoh noapo6HOCTH 3a KtpBa- 
BaTa #paMa, koato ce pa3Hrpajia b EaTaK npe3 <J)eBpyapH-MapT 1944 r. 
CTecJmH Kjihmchtob, c KoroTO ^o6pe ce no3HaBaxMe ot jxqtckutq ro^HHH, 
mh pa3Ka3a KaK npe3 eceHTa Ha 1943 r. 3ae/tHO c 6paT My HHKOJia 

AOCTaBHJIH C KaMHOHa CH XpaHH 3a OTpflfla "AhTOH HBaHOB". Ton HMajI 

MHoro cpemH c napTH3aHHTe h mh pa3Ka3a no^po6HO BnenaTJieHHflTa ch ot 
thx. OrecJraH 6enie Haft-MJiaflHAT ot #oicapaHHTe b 3aTBOpa 6aTanaHH, 24- 
ro^HHieH. HaH-Bi>3pacTHH b rpynaTa 6axa Teoprn Kjikhhcb h To/top 
Eo^kkob, kohto 6axa Ha okojio 60-65. H kt>m ^BaMaTa HMax oco6eHo 
yBaacHTenHO OTHonieHHe. 

Toaop BOyKKOB 6eHie Mtfltp HOBCK, C ACMOKpaTHHeH, aHTH(J)aniHCTKH 

ayx, c rojwM aBTOpHTeT, aKTHBeH o6mecTBeHHK, Bi>o6me 6enie nnqeH 
6aTanaHHH ? yBaacaBaH ot bchhkh. 

JJjiro TeoprH Kjihhhcb, THnnneH GaTanaHHH, ome xo^eme etc cejicKH 
noTypH (neniKpH). Kbm Hero ce oraacax c oco6eHa noHHT, 3amoTO 6enie 
moh kpi>cthhk. Toft 6euie H36paji He caMO MoeTO HMe, a h Ha MH03HHa 
Apyrn ot rojieMHfl poa Ha HaynieBH. H He caMO KptmaBaine, ho h 
KyMyBaine. A KyMOBeTe b EaTaK 6axa Ha rojMMa noHHT. ITomha KaK no 
BpeMe Ha npa3mmn b rojieMH* cajiOH h b flBOpa My ce cbGnpaxMe ^eceTKH 
/i;eija, flOHecnH noflaptijH Ha #5mo Teoprn h ctnpyraTa My, c KaKBO 
BHHMaHHe ce OTHacaxa Te kbm Hac. YnyflBax ce KaK ca CMoraajiH c 
pa3xoflHTe no ranKOBa CBaT6n h KptmeHeTa. Cera Ta3H Kbma 6HJia 
onoacapeHa ot nojnnjaHTe, a MHoro6pofiHOTO My ceMeficTBO - npnioTeHO ot 

pOflHHHH H npHflTeJIH. 

Rkro Teopra 6enie floGpo/jyineH, ny)K# Ha nojiHTHHecKHTe yBJieHeHHfl, 
ho /jeMOKpaT no aynia, KpaftHO necTeH, totob Ha caMoacepTBa 3a Gjihachhtc 
ch. HManie neTHMa CHHa h ^Be fltmepn. B 3aTBOpa npHcraraa cbKpynieH ot 
MtKa, koato He ro HanycHa ^o Kpaa Ha acHBOTa My. npe3 <J)eBpyapH-MapT 
1944 r. 6axa y6nTH ^BaMa ot chhobctc My: CTaHKO, kohto Genie OTHim>Ji ^a 
acHBee b Ilemepa - KaTO napTH3aHHH, h ^hmhtbp - KaTO *TaK (pa3CTpen^H b 
m. "LJhtob napK M c ome niecTHMa flpyra noMommnjH Ha napTH3aHHTe). 
BceKH nen xo^ex npn ,n#uo Teoprn h cjiymax pa3Ka3HTe My 3a Tpy^HHfl 
)khbot Ha ropCKHH pa6oTHHK h 3a ynacTHeTO My bt>b Boftmrre. 

Tpa6Ba aa OTGeneaca, qe 6aTaniKHTe nojiHT3aTBopHHijH ce noji3Baxa c 
yBaaceHHe KaTO ATaijH Ha OTpa/ja "Ahtoh HBaHOB". Te o6ane He npoaBHxa 
HHTepec kbm nojiHTHnecKHTe ci>6HTHfl h kbm HamaTa o6pa30BaTejiHa 
/teHHOCT. TaKa h He bh^x hakoh ot tax c KHHra b ptKa. HMax nyBCTBOTO, 

200 



qe nOJIHTHHeCKOTO HM Cb3HaHHe Ce e 0(|)OpMHJIO cthxhhho, ne to e 

H3npeBapHJio nojiHTHnecKaTa hm KyjiTypa. Bchhkh HMaxa ceMeficTBa h 
MHCJiHTe hm, flOKaTO onaKBaxa CKoponiHaTa no6eaa, 6axa HacoHemi kt>m 
xpy^HOCTHTe Ha fleitaTa h ctnpyrHTe hm, ocTaHajin 6e3 MaTepnajiHaTa hm 
noflKpena. CeMeftcTBara hm th nocemaBaxa pe^OBHO. 

Ilpe3 npojieTra h jiatoto Ha 1944 r. BaTaK 6eine ocbo6oach ot 
npoTOHHJiHTe ce BoeHHO-nojnmeiicKH GjioKaflH. HacejieHHeTO o6ane 
npofl'bJi^caBauie aa acHBee c MticaTa no y6nTHTe 3 1 naprasaHH h ATaim, ci>c 
cnoMeHa 3a yacacHTe Ha npeacHBeHHfl (jmuiHCTKH Tepop. Ta3H MtKa 
nyBCTBax h npeacHBABax h a3. Ilpefl MeH Heero H3HHKBaxa o6pa3HTe Ha 
y6HTHTe, npe3 naMerra mh MHHaBaxa cnoMeHH 3a HaH-pa3JiHHHH cjiyHKH, 
cpeniH h pa3roBopn c hakoh ot tax, oco6eHO c MJiaaeacHTe. CnoMHHx ch 
fleTCKHTe nrpH c MapKO KapjnoKOB h Teoprn ^acypKOB, a cjiea TOBa KaTO 
MJia^e^KH - pa3roBopHTe hh 3a coitnajiHCTHHecKHTe HfleajiH, 3a nponeTeHHTe 
khhth, 3a cbBeTCKHTe 4>hjimh, kohto ce npo^ceKTHpaxa b KHHOcajioHa Ha 

HHTaJIHIIieTO. 

E[pe3 anpnji Ejiaroftno mh ci>o6mH, ne b HenerajiHOCT ca npeMHHajin h 
Tocko BaHneB, Ore^aH BacnjieB, Ebthm IlyHHeB h Bacnji Cepa(|)HMOB. 
IltpBHTe TpHMa 6axa CTy^eHTH, a Cepac])HMOB 6enie jiecoBtfl. ToBa 6axa 
ntpBHTe HHTejieKTyajmn ot BaTaK, bkjiiohhjih ce bi>b Btop'b^ceHaTa 6op6a. 
Te ^ocTOHHO ynacTBaxa b 6htkhtc Ha napTH3aHCKHA OTpaa Ha CnaBHO 

TptHCKH. 

MHoro ,no6pH cnoMeHH HMaM h ot apyrHTe nojiHT3aTBopHHitH - 
napTH3aHCKH OTau;H ot EpaiyiroBO, Ko3apcxo h Ilemepa. ,H,o6pH npn^Tejin 
CTaHaxMe ci>c ckpomhhh h flo6poflyuieH 6paijHroBen; /ymo AHreji Eohhob, 
okojio 60-roflHHieH. Hbncora toh aKTHBHO ynacTBaji b BpaijHroBCKaTa 
KOMyHa h b CenTeMBpHHCKOTO Bi>CTaHHe npe3 1923 r., HJieH Ha napTHATa 
6hji ome ot 1903 r. (npHCbeflHHHJi ce klm rpynaTa Ha EPQZJII b Ilemepa). 
Maxap ,na 6euie 6efleH TpyaceHHK, toh npneMaji b flOMa ch napTH3aHH 5 
AOCTaB^ji hm xpaHa c MarapemjeTO ch h H3ni>jiHflBaji HaH-pa3JiHHHH onacHH 
nopi>HeHHH. 

Rnno AHreji ci>mo npeacHBABanie rojuiMa Mi>Ka: chhi>t My HBaH 6euie 
y6nT KaTO napTH3aHHH. Cjiea ,H,eBeTH cemreMBpH, KoraTo 6xx ceKpeTap Ha 
Okojihhckha KOMHTeT Ha PMC h Ha BPn (k), ce cpemHaxMe c Hero b 
BpaitnroBO. YcaMoraBaxMe ce Ha h^roa Maca b napTHHHHa KJiy6 h 
pa3roBapaxMe no Han-pa3JiHHHH Btnpocn ot mccthoto e^KeAHeBHe. Toh 
HMauie Tpe3BO h kphthhho OTHomeHHe ki>m aeficTBH^Ta h npo^BHTe Ha 
hhkoh MecTHH pi>KOBOAHTejiH. He oflo6paBauie CTpeMeaca hm kt>m BJiacrra c 
ijeji H3BJiHnaHe Ha o6jiarn, He oflo6p^Bauie jiohihtc B3aHMOOTHomeHHfl 

201 



MeyKjiy KOMyHHCTHTe n B3aHMHHTe koh(|)jihkth b napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl. 
OcBoSo'/KviaBaHe h iiobtopho 3a/u>pacaHe. CeHOKOC. ITpe3 paHHOTo 
jioto Ha 1944 r. HasapnyKmiiKHz 3aTBOp 6euie npeHacejieH. B HamaTa khjihh 
BMecTO 12-15 ayinn, KaKTO 6axMe npe3 3HMaTa, ce 6axMe Cb6pajin 20-25 
HOBeKa. MaKap n nocTOHHHO ^a hh pa3MecTBaxa, e^Ha rpyna npHjrrejiH ce 
CTpeM^XMe aa 6i>fleM 3aeflHO, 3a m HMaMe no-flo6pa 6HTOBa n KyjiTypHa 
cpe#a. IlapTHHHOTO p^kobo^ctbo npo,m>JDKaBaHie ^a Cb6npa h pa3- 

npOCTpaHMBa C 6lOJieTHHH (|)pOHTOBHTe HOBHHH. HMaXMe KapTH, H3pfl3aHH 

ot BecTHHijHTe, h OT6eji5i3BaxMe Btpxy tax no6eflHTe Ha GbBeTCKara h 
CT>K>3HHHecKHTe apMHH. CaMO OTMBJieHHTe 4>ainHCTH He BHHC/taxa, ne Bene 
Ha6jiH^caBa KpaaT Ha TpeTM Paiix h HeroBHTe ci>k)3hhijh. CjieaaxMe KaK b 
CTpaHaTa ce aKTHBH3Hpaxa bchhkh aHTH^aniHCTKH chjih, 3anoHHaxa aa ce 
npo^BMBaT h jiHflepHTe Ha CTapHTe ^eMOKpaTHnecKH napTHH. ^enyTara ot 
jieranHa ono3HijH5i npaBexa H3Ka3BaHHH h otkphto npH30BaBaxa 3a ocraBKa 
Ha npaBHTencTBOTo h 3a npoMAHa Ha Bi>TpeniHaTa h Bi>HiiiHa nonHTHKa: 
4>auiHCTKaTa BJiacT aroHH3Hpame. PereHTHTe npaBexa bchhko bi>3mo2kho ,n;a 
H36erHaT KaracTpotJmTa Ha npaBHTejicTBeHara nporepMaHCKa nonHTHKa h ,n;a 
3ana3MT MOHapxnHecKara BJiacT. 

line npaBexMe aHanH3H h nporH03H Ha nojinraHecKHTe ci>6hthm Ha 
ocHOBaTa Ha 0(|)HiiHajiHHfl nenar, kohto npofltJiHcaBaxMe ^a nojiynaBaMe no 
pasjiHHHH KaHajiH. Pa3npocTpaHMBaxa ce n cnyxoBe 3a cbCTaBAHe Ha hobo 
npaBHTencTBO. CnoMeHaBaxa ce HMeHaTa Ha Teoprn KtocenBaHOB, Ha 
XpHCTO Kan^OB, Ha HBaH EarpflHOB. Ha 1.VI.1944 r. KaSimeT ctcraBH 
BarpHHoe. HeTOXMe penTa Ha MHHHcrbp-npeflceflaTejifl, npon3HeceHa no 
pa/tnoTo n OTnenaTaHa bi>b BeerHnijHTe. 3a Hac 6eme ohcbh,hho, ne ijejrra 
Ha EarpflHOB e #a 3a6jiynn Hapo^a, #a cKyjaae jii>5kjihbh hjik)3hh 3a noBpaT 
bi>b BtHniHaTa h BtTpeniHaTa nojiHTHKa. Ton o6emaBanie, ne me ce CTpeivra 
KbM yMHpOTBOpeHne n me cjiohch Kpan Ha 6paToy6nncTBeHaTa BOHHa, me 
paspenin eBpencKHfl BMpoc, me BO/tn nonHTHKa Ha MHp h pa36npaTejiCTBO 
c BOioBamnTe CTpaHH 3a c6jin^caBaHe Ha bchhkh Hapo/m n np. KoHKpeTHa 
nporpaMa KaK me nocrarHe TOBa o6ane HflMame. 

C'bCTaB'bT Ha npaBHTencTBOTo ctmo noflCKa3Bauie aeMarorcKM xapaK- 
Tep Ha EarpflHOBara nonHTHKa. MnHHCTpHTe My 6axa otmbjichh c|)auiHCTH h 
repMaHO(|)HJiH: MHHHCTbpi>T Ha BT>TpeniHHTe pa6oTH npo(|). GraHHineB, 

MHHHCTbp'bT Ha npaBOCb^HCTO AjieKCaHfl'bp CTaJIHHCKH, MHHHCTT>pT>T Ha 

BOHHaTa reH. PyceB, mhhhcti>pt>t Ha o6ni;ecTBeHHTe crpa/m CjiaBenKO 
BacnjieB n #p. CKOpo npaKTHnecKHTe flencTBna Ha npaBHTencTBOTo nofl- 
CKa3axa hcthhckhtc My HaMepeHM. PenpecnnTe cpemy aHTH(j)aHiHCTH h 
oco6eHO cpemy napTH3aHHTe ce 3acHJinxa, HHTepHHpaHHOTa npo,ni>jDKHxa. 

202 



CraHHineB 6enie H3^aji 3anoBe^i 3a 6e3noma,n;HO npecjiejjBaHe Ha napra- 
3aHHTe h OTaijHTe. IIpo,m>Ji2caBaxa H3/jeBaTejicTBaTa Ha/j eBpejrre. CaMO b 
rp. IIa3apfl^cHK 6axa Bt/jBOpeHH hakojiko xhji^h eBpen ot Coc|)H5l rio oco- 
6eHO acecTOK HaHHH 6axa y6HTH hakojiko /jeceTKH iohouih b c. Ilepymima. 

A3 h npHMTejiHTe mh ot KHJiHOTa 6poaxMe /jHHTe, kohto mh ocTaBaxa m 
H3Jie)KaBaM cjie/j HaMajieHHe Ha npHCL/jaTa mh c 5 roflHHH. IIo pa3neTHTe, 
kohto npaBex, Tpfl6Bame aa 6T>/ja ocBo6oaeH npe3 iojih 1944 r. He 6ax 
Ha^cHO o6ane KaK me ce penin BtnpocbT c HenjiaTeHaTa rjio6a ot 175 000 
jib., kooto noflJiOKeine Ha 3aM5ma c uiecTMeceneH 3aTBop. B icpafl Ha k>hh h 
HanajiOTO Ha iojih a3 3a bcckh cjiynaii 3anoHHax m ce no/jroTBAM 3a 
H3JiH3aHe ot 3aTBOpa. IIoflpeflHX nncMaTa, kohto 6nx 3ana3HJi, npn6pax 
hjikoh TeTpa^KH etc 3anHCKH no 4mJioco(j)Hfl H nojiHTHHecKa hkohomhsl 
riojiynnx mhoto nopi>HeHH)i 3a 6jiH3KHTe Ha npHOTejiHTe mh b OpejiHa, 
IlaHanopHme, ,3,K)JieBO, ^,opKOBO h ap. 

HMax fli>jn>r pa3roBop etc Cnac TeoprneB h Bacnji rieeB, kohto mh 
flOBepHxa, ne e bi>3mo^cho aa ce opraHH3Hpa Gatctbo Ha hakoh ot 3aTBop- 
HHitHTe h aa noTBpcOT MoeTO cbfleficTBHe. ^oroBOpHXMe ce KaK /ja 
ycTaHOBHM Bpi>3Ka: max aa nonyna nonjeHCKa KapTHHKa c no3flpaBH ot 
Pa^Ka, a cnefl TOBa Tpfl6Baine aa ce kbk b m. "KoHCKa nojraia" (hjih "^tjira 
nojMHa") caM hjih c apyrapH, Ha kohto Mora /ja ce /joBepa. Ka3ax, ne He 
no3HaBaM TaKaBa mccthoct. EpaimroBem>T Bacnn IleeB mh o6achh, ne 
MecTHOcrra e Ha lor ot Ilemepa, 6jih3o /jo EpaimroBO h BaTaK. "Tboa 3aaana 
e m npoyHHin MecTHOcira BeflHara cnefl npHCTHraHeTO ch b BaTaK h aa 
no^roTBHin aHTH(|)auiHCTH ot cenoTO #a OKa5KaT cbfleficTBHe Ha H36arajiHTe 
apyrapH. ToBa 6htctbo e caMO eflHa bt>3mo)khoct, koato TentpBa me ce 
o6mhcjia m , Ka3a Bacnn. 

OnpeaennxMe h naponaTa: /ja 3anea thxo hjih /ja 3acBHpa c ycTa neceHTa 
"Mnna Poahho". A3 npe^Jiarax aa H36epeM 3a "Thx 6aji ^yHaB". Cnac 
TeoprHeB Bi>3pa3H, ne Ta3H neceH He e noflxo;wma, 3amoTO e npeKajieHo 
pa3npocTpaHeHa. CTHCHaxMe en ptijeTe c 6an Cnac h c Bacnn n noBene He 
roBOpHXMe no T03H Btnpoc. Pa36pax, ne Bacnn npaBH onnTH aa ce CBi>p^ce c 
apyrapn ot EpaijHroBO n yroBOpeHOTO c MeH e caMO e/jHH Bt3MO>KeH 
BapnaHT. 

IIpe3 iojih 6ax noBHKaH ot 3aM.-/mpeKTOpa Ha 3aTBopa, kohto mh 
ct>o6iipi, ne me 6i>fla ocBo6o/jeH n Tp>i6Ba aa ch noaroTBfl 6ara^ca. Ct6pax 
B eflHH BI>p30n 3aTBOpHHHeCKOTO ch HMymecTBo (rnaBHO nncMaTa H 
TeTpa^KHTe, MajiKO 6eni>o), a H3JiHiHHHTe Bemn npeaa/jox Ha ct>khjihhhhijh- 
Te ch. C6oryBax ce HaH-ctp/jeHHO c /jeceTKH 3aTBOpHHijH h ch no^cenaxMe 
aa ce BHflHM CKOpo Ha CBo6ofla. Cjie/j nac KHnn^Ta ce otboph h Hafl3H- 

203 



paTenflT mh aafle 3HaK aa H3JiH3aM. nperbpHaxMe ce c n. BpaHHeB 
(TIoneTo), XpHCTO OraTeB, Hjiha MajieB, CaMH, 5Ihko KypTaKOB, HHKOJia 
HaMOB, MaBpyzjH, Ctoah BjiaflOB... 

Hafl3HpaTeji)iT Me noBe^e b nofl3eMHHfl eTa>K, Kb/jeTO ce HaMHpame 

CKJiaflI>T. IlpeflaflOX 3aTBOpHHHeCKHTe flpeXH. IIOJiyHHX IJHBHJIHHTe CH 

flpexH - KypTKa h naHTajioH, a ei>mo o^eano to h hakoh Bemn, kohto mh 
6axa OTHeTH npH npHcraraHeTO b na3apfl>KHniKHfl 3aTBOp. Gb6pax bchhko b 
aeHK 5 HapaMHX ro h noTerjinx c Ha,zj3HpaTejifl kbm KapayjiHOTO noMememie, 
K'bfleTO Tpa6Bame aa nonyna CBOTBeTHHTe floicyMeHTH... 

BMecTO TaM o6ane, a3 ce 030Bax b noMemeHHeTO Ha 3aTBOpHHHecKOTo 
eronaHCTBO, KoeTO ce HaMHpame HenocpeflCTBeHO ao 3aTBOpa. 

- He ch 3annaTHJi rjio6aTa ot 175 000 JieBa, koato ce 33Menn etc mecT 
Meceija 3aTBOp. Ako 6ama th BHece cyMaTa, npOKypaTypaTa me Te 

OCB06oflH, - OTrOBOpH Hafl3HpaTeJDIT Ha MOHTe BMIpOCH KbRQ Me BOflH H 
KaKBO 3HaHH TOBa. 

- npH npHCbflH 3a H3Jie}KaBaHe Ha tjioGh no pemeHHe Ha ynpaBaTa h 
npOKypopa Moace aa Te H3npaTOT Ha pa6oTa, hjih #a Te Bi>pHaT othobo b 
3aTBOpa. 3acera ocTaBam TyK. H36epn ch macto 3a cnaHe, - ao6aBH 
Hafl3HpaTejDiT h mh nocoHH HapOBeTe. 

B noMemeHHeTO HMame hakojiko 3aTBOpHHKa, kohto pa6oTexa b 

CTOnaHCTBOTO. 

Bene ce CBenepflBame. Ce^Hax Ha aeHKa. 3aTBOpHHijHTe Me Hao6HKO- 
jiHxa h 3apa3nHTBaxa. Onpe^ejinxa mh macto 3a cnaHe Ha e^HH ot HapOBeTe 
h Me 3ano3Haxa c ycTaHOBeroifl pea: npe3 neun pa6oTexa b 3eneHHyKOBaTa 
rpa^HHa Ha CTonaHCTBOTO, a Benep cnefl npoBepKa th 3aKJiK>HBaxa. OcTaBHX 
aeHKa He pa3onaKOBaH, Jieraax Ha Hapa h jxbJiro mhcjihx Bi>pxy hoboto ch 
nonoaceHHe. CyTpHHTa noMemeHHeTO ce otboph, H3Jifl30XMe h ce H3MHXMe 
Ha neuiMaTa. HyBax myMa Ha 3aTBopa, TponaHeTO Ha HajrbMHTe. HaSjiio- 
aaBax np030pi^HTe h onaKBax hakoh j\a, ce noicaace. HaKpaa Me BHflaxa, 
MHoro npHATejiH ce noaBHxa h mh Maxaxa c pi>ije. A3 hm OTroBapax. Bpax 
flOMaTH c apyrHTe 3aTBOpHHijH. Beme mh ti>>kho, ne cbm OTfleneH ot apy- 
rapHTe mh, ot ecTecTBeHaTa 3a MeH cpe#a Ha nojnrreaTBOpHHijHTe. Beme mh 
HenpHBHHHO, ne cbm b 3ejieHHyKOBa rpa#HHa, flHinaM cbo6oaho hhct 
B r b3jxyx cpefl jiexH ot ^OMara, nyniKH h KpacTaBHijH, npHnnnaM ce Ha 
cjibHije. OnHTe mh 6axa Bee b np030pijHTe Ha khjihhtc 

Ha flpyrnfl aeH e^HH ot Ha,o;3HpaTejiHTe Me OTBe/je h npefla,ne no 
CBOTBeTeH pea b CTapna 3aTBOp (HAKorauieH TypCKH 3aH,naH, pa3pymeH 
cjiea 1944 r.), KbfleTO npecToax e^HO fleHOHomne. HaKpaa Me H3BHKaxa b 
KamjejiapHATa Ha 3aTBOpa h rjiaBHMT Hafl3HpaTeji mh cboGiiih, ne no 

204 



peuieHHe Ha ^npeKTOpa Tpa6Ba m H3n>pna oqe uiecT Meceija jiHinaBaHe ot 
CBo6ofla 3apa^H HennaTeHa rno6a h ne Me H3npanjaT b ceHOKOCHaTa 
6pHraaa Ha 3aTBOpa. TyK 6enie h BMpacTeH mt>)k, ana6, bhcok, hhtcjih- 
reHTeH Ha bh,zj. Iloflafle mh ptKa: 

- A3 ctM JIio6eH IlejieB ot PaKHTOBO, ot 6araiHKH po,u, no3HaBaM 6ama 
th, a Byflno th Cre(j)aH mh e aflBOKar. Eax 6npHHK b PaKHTOBCKaTa o6iu;HHa, 
H3Jie^caBaM JieKa npnctfla h paGora b KaHijejiapHflTa Ha 3arB0pa, onpaBAM 
cMeTKHTe My. IU,e th noMaraM. HMaM npaBa Ha hhhobhhk, cbo6o#ho BJiH3aM 
h H3JiH3aM ot 3aTBOpa. Ct6HTHHTa ce pa3BHBar MHoro 6tp30 3 CKOpo me 
6tflem na CBo6o#a. B ceHOKOCHaTa 6pnra.ua pa6oT#r #o6pn 3aTBOpHHu;H c 
jieKH npHctflH no rpaayjaHCKH aena. LU,e ci>o6mfl Ha 6anja th h Bynno th 
Cre(])aH. 

H3JW30X ot CTapHA 3aTBOp h c fleHK Ha paMO noex no yjinijHTe Ha 
Ila3apfl5KHK ? BOfleH ot Hafl3Hpareji b Hen3BecTHa 3a MeH nocoKa. CTnraaxMe 
30 MOCTa Ha p. Mapnija, Kt^eTo MHHaBame nioceTo 3a rapaTa, 3a Ilenjepa n 
EaraK, 3a Co(j)Hfl. IloexMe Kpafi jicbha 6par Ha peKaTa. IlonoTHxa 
Hafl3HpaTemi Ktfle OTHBaMe, a toh mh o6achh, ne OTHBaMe kbm 6nBaKa Ha 
ceHOKOCHaTa 6pnrafla. Cjie# 15-20 MHHyra 3acTaHaxMe npe# 6nBaKa, kohto 
ce CBCToeuie ot hakojiko kojih6h, hjih no-CKOpo HaBecn c ocxbp noKpHB, ho 
6e3 CTpaHHHHn CTeHH. Kojin6nTe ce HaMHpaxa noa e#HH Tonojin Me)K#y p. 
Mapnija h BOflHHA KaHan, kohto MHHaBa npe3 hakoh KBapTajin Ha 
IIa3apfl^cHK. Ha Heroji^MO pa3CToaHne ot TyK p. Tonojimma ce BJiHBanie b 
Mapnija h aaBanie BO#a 3a KaHana Hpe3 cneiinajiHO nocTpoeH 6eHT. B 
6jih30ct flo KaHana ce HaMHpame BOflHaTa MejiHHn;a Ha 6para KtpaceBH. 
MecTHOcira ce HapHnanie "IlHCKOBeii". 

B 6nBaKa HflMame hhkoh, ho Jinneine, ne e o6nTaBaH. Hafl3HpaTejiOT mh 
nocoHH m ce HacTaHfl b ntpBaTa KOJin6a otkbm rpafla, b kohto HManie flBa 
MajiKH Hapa. E#hhhat 6enie 3aeT, HManie nocTejia h 6ara)K. OcTaBHx flemca 
en Ha CBo6oflHHH Hap, ho 6i>p3o ro CBajinx n nocTaBHX bi>h ot KOJin6aTa. 
HcKax aa npOBepa h nonncTH oaejuio to h apexnTe ch ot npax. HcKax #a ce 
H3Ki>nH ? ho Hafl3HpaTejiOT HacTOH aa Me npe^afle Ha fle)KypHHfl, kohto 6hji 
Ha6jiH30. H HancTHHa, ocjiyniBanKn ce, a3 nyx cbhctchcto Ha koch ot 
ApyraTa CTpaHa Ha KaHana. B3ex hhctoto 6enbo ot aemca n npeMHHaxMe 
KaHana no CTeHaTa Ha 6emra. Ha6jin3o ce Tpyaexa 7-8 aynin Kocann. 
npeaaaeH 6ax Ha ae^cypHHH Hafl3HpaTeji, kohto ce H3T^ranie no# e^HH ot 
KaBai^HTe. Ton no^nnca ^OKyMeHTa h TaKa 6ax 3anncjieH b KocanecKaTa 
3aTBOpHHnecKa 6pnrafla. ^OBejin^T Me Ha#3npaTeji Ka3a Ha Konerara en: 

- IlycHH aacKana (ome Me CHHTaxa 3a yneHHK 3apa^n yneHnnecKaTa mh 
KypTKa) aa ce H3Ki>ne h onepe Ha peKaTa. 

205 



- H/jh, - o6i>pHa ce ki>m MeH Ha,a,3HpaTejiflT - eTO a p. ToriojiH*ma, ho #0 
12 naca. LU,e Te Ha6jno/jaBaM ot TyK. Bne nojiHTHnecKHTe Bee HaBtH 
norjieac/jaTe. 

H3Ki>nax ce b cpaBHHTejiHO TonjiHTe bo^h Ha peKaTa, kohto TyK ce 
pa3JiHBaxa HaniHpOKO, H3npax 6ejibOTO ch c flOManiHO HanpaBeHM ot MaMa 
canyH. Onpax ci>mo KypTKaTa h naHTanoHa. OcTaBHx ra aa ctxHaT h ce 
H3TerHax c Hafi-rojiflMO y/joBOJicTBHe Ha TpeBaTa, npenHnaftKH ce Ha 
cjitHije. He 6ax ce Kbnaji b cbo6o/i;ho Tenama BOfla, He 6ax ce npennnaji Ha 
cjitHite h Jieaeaji Ha TpeBa 22 Meceija, nyBax aeyaceHeTO Ha Haft-pa3JiHHHH 
HaceKOMH, okojio MeH CKanaxa CKaKajmn h jieT^xa eapn KOMapH. 

IJhjioto mh BHHMaHHe 6euie 3aeTO ot npHpoaaTa, koato Me oSKptaeaBaiiie 
- achoto h chhbo TpaKHHCKO He6e, acHBonHCHaTa MecraocT, npes KOflTO 
MHHaBauie p. TonojiHHija, hhhto uiHpOKO pa3JieHH bo/jh ce BJiHBaxa b p. 
MapHiia h 6eHTa, a Kpaft 6peroBeTe ft ce H3BHCABaxa bt>p6h c uiHpOKO pa3- 
npocTpeHH KOpOHH, h MomHH, bhcokh TonojiH. /JoKaTO Jieacax, norjieac^ax 
BtpxoBeTe Ha fltpBeTaTa, kohto c^Kaui ce cjiHBaxa etc chhboto He6e. 
TononHTe no 6peroBeTe Ha p. MapHita 6axa noapeaeHH b npaBa peflHija, 
c^Kaui 6axa bohhhiih, oxpamiBamH TpaKHftcKOTO none ot nyac^H Ha- 
HiecTBeHHiiH. HyBaxa ce h aca6eiHKH KpflKaHHfl, HaB^pHO ot 6jih3koto Gjiaro, 
Ha 3ana,n ot p. TonojiHHiia. npejiHTaxa noftHH nraHKH, kohto Me OMaftBaxa c 
necHHTe ch. Ycemax ce KaTO nacTHita ot CBo6oflHaTa npeKpacHa npHpoaa, 
MaKap h fla He 6ax HantJiHO CKtcaji etc 3aTBOpHHHecKOTO ch MHHajio. 

Pa3MHUiJMBax 3a apyrapHTe ch ot 3aTBOpa, 3a poflHTenHTe h 6jih3khtc 
ch. 3uaxr jih Te Ktfle ct>m? TpaGBame aa HaMepa HaHHH 6tp30 aa hm ce 
o6aA« ? 3a aa He ce 6e3noKO)n\ Hafljreax ce, ne 6aft Jlio6eH rieneB e yBeflOMHn 
6ama mh, a 3aTBOpHHnecKaTa "napTeffiea" me CT>o6mH b Hobha 3aTBOp. 

3anoMHHX 3aBHHarn npeacHBeHHTe TyK nacoBe. Cjiea mhoto roflHHH 
max aa bhah KaKBH jih He KpacHBH npHpoflHH neft3a^cn b BtJirapna h b 
pa3JiHHHH flpyrn Kpannja Ha CBeTa, ho He Mora aa 3a6paB5i Ta3H npeKpacHa 
KapTHHa, Te3H flBa naca, H3m>JiHeHH c TOJiKOBa chjihh npoKHBABaHHfl. 

B 6pHraflaTa. Ha 50-60 m. ot MeH BHae/jax hobhtc mh "KonerH" aa 
BtpTHT KOCHTe, kohto jrbiiyixa Ha cjn>HiieTO. Brne^cflax ce b tax h ce Mtnex 
aa pa36epa mo 3a xopa ca, KaK jih me Me npneMaT. A3 6ax KOcaH-jno6HTeji, 
6e3 onHT, a h (J)H3HHecKH 6ax cna6. 

Hyx CBHpKaTa Ha Ha^HpaTejw. Toft aaBauie CHraaji 3a o6eflHara 
noHHBKa. Haxjiy3Hx rameTaTa, rpa6Hax apyroTO 6ejibo h nojiyrocbXHajiHTe 
naHTajioHH h KypTKa h 6tp3o ce abhx npea "cTaHa" Ha Hafl3HpaTejw. "Eto bh 
eflHH hob Kocan h 6epaH n , npeacraBH Me Toft. PtKyBax ce c hobhtc mh 
ApyrapH no ctfl6a. Cpea tkx ce 0Ka3a h GaTanaHKHtT AHren HeHOB. Toft 

206 



Bene 6enie pa3Ka3aji Ha KOcanHTe hakoh Heuja 3a MeH h Te Me nocpeujHaxa c 
flOBepHe h Jiio6onHTCTBO. ToBa 6nxa 3arBopHHijH c JieKH npncvjH no rpaac- 
flaHCKH flena h ce OKa3axa nopzKbmm TpyzjoBH xopa, bchhkhtc ot na3ap- 
^cHinKHTe cena. AHren HeHOB no3HaBax ot aeTCKHTe ch ro^HHH, toh 6enie 
6e#eH ropCKH pa6oraHK, octfleH 3a He3HaHHTejiHH HapymeHHfl b ropaTa. 

Bchhkh OTHfloxMe b 6nBaKa, KbfleTO Ha e^Ha CKOBaHa ot jxbCKU Maca hh 
onaKBanie o6a,m>T: #Be 6aKH nop6a ot thkbh. E#hh ot 3aTBopHHijHTe 6enie 
He(J)opMajieH 6pnraflHp. Toh mh 3aHncjiH Koca h BHJia 3a CT>6HpaHe Ha ceHo. 
Toh 6enie cejiamra ot nnmnroBO c nop6a;pKHHCKa ocamea, m>JiHHHT>K, ho 
noflBHflceH. Toh pa3npeaejmne pa6oTaTa MOK^y 3aTBOpHHijHTe noa koh- 
Tpona Ha Ha#3HpaTejiHTe h 6enie TexHO ^OBepeHO unite. Kbm MeH ce 
oTHacraie mhoto BHHMaTejiHO h ^BaMaTa necTO BO^exMe nojiHTHnecKH 
pa3roBOpH. HManie ^eMOKpaTHHHH pa36Hpamifl, ho He BKmpneMame MOHTe 
cxBamaHH^ 3a coijnajiHCTHHecKOTO npeycTponcTBO Ha o6mecTBOTO. 

- H 3amo ce 6opHTe, 3amo ry6HTe MJiaflHHHTe ch, 3amo 3arHBaT 
TonKOBa MJia^H h yMHH xopa? - nHTauie Me necTO toh. - ,3,acKajie, h th, h 
KOMyHHCTHTe ot HanieTO ceno roBOpHTe xy6aBO, ho pa3Ka3BaTe Hema, 
kohto H^Ma aa CTaHaT. IIomhh mh ayMHTe. A3 no3HaBaM cencKaTa aynia. 

HecTO b pa3roBOpHTe B3eMaxa ynacrae h flpyrHTe 3aTBOpmmn. Bchhkh 
cbnyBCTBaxa Ha aHTH(j)aiHHCTKaTa 6op6a, oci>)Kflaxa (JmniHCTKna Tepop. 

CT>KBapTHpaHTbT mh b KOJin6aTa ce OKa3a MJia#e2c ot 6jih3koto c. 
BenHHKOBO, okojio 28-30 roflnnieH, ceMeeH. Ono3HaxMe ce 6i>p3o. J\?lj\q mh 
aa pa36epa, ne e ynacTBan b aHTH(j)aiHHCTKOTO flBH^ceHHe h HMa 6paT 
napTH3aHHH. CnpnjrrejiHXMe ce h ycTaHOBHXMe m>JiHO B3aHMHO flOBepne. 

3anoHHa hob nepnofl ot 3aTBOpHHHecKH« mh )khbot, kohto npo^'bJDKH 
noBene ot 30 ahh. Ilpe3 BTOpaTa nonoBHHa Ha kxjih h npe3 aBiycT a3 BHHMa- 
TejiHO cjiea^x HOBHHHTe 3a no6eflHTe Ha CbBeTCKaTa apMHfl, koato Bene Ha- 
6nH5KaBanie rpaHHijHTe Ha Bi>jirapH5i. MaKap h Hepe^OBHO, HMax bt>3mo)k- 
hoct #a neTa bccthhijh, a h CBHacflaHHOTa CTaHaxa floera cbo6oahh. YcTa- 
hobhx Bpi>3Ka c nojiHT3aTBOpHHijHTe HjiHfl ManeB, CaMH, HaMOB, MaBpy- 
#HeB, HemcoB, Ctoah BnaaoB (J\%ro Bnafl), H. KnjiHTaHOB, A. Ka^HHCKH h 
flp., KOpecnoHflHpax c tax no nonjaTa n Hpe3 6jih3kh, kohto HflBaxa Ha 
CBH^c^aHe h npn MeH, h npn tax. Ilocrapax ce #a H3m>JiHfl hakoh ot 
nopT>HeHHOTa, kohto mh 6axa Rami. 3ana3HJio ce e ntpBOTO nncMO Ha Hjiha 
ManeB #o MeH, kocto noKa3Bame HauiHTe flpyrapcKH B3aHMOOTHomeHHfl. 



207 



28. VII 1944 s. 

Munu Anno, 

Hydno kuk ce pewu da mu nuiueiu. H3eneofcda, ue cu mhoso 3aem c 
dmoncKomo ceno, ma ne ocmaea ceododno epeftte. Ho Kaiano u da e, 3dpae 
da cu npedu scuhko. H mu Kaotcu, cnu nu ce xydaeo na nojiemo? Cympun 
6ydnm nu me nounume nmuuKu? npunmna nu um e cepenadama? Amu 
eodume na Mapuija ododpneam nu me? TMypnu ce eednaotc u 3a Men. Pu6a 
UMa jiu, eKycna nu e, nena mu e cnadKa? He Moea da cu me npedcmaen 
KaKbe cu nouepnwi, kokso nu cu dmonne, uepno cmanano. Ena3H mu, new 
ce ceza, ma npe3 3UMama da ue mu omuuam p-btfeme. 

Anno, 03 cu KapaM noeama neceu na noe znac. HaK cbM cu e cbitfama 
kujiuh, npu cmpatuHUH 3a me6e nozned. C 3dpaeemo CMe dodpe gcuhku, 
pacmeM nonexa Jiexa. W[o da npaeuM, manaea e Hoeeujunama; ujom Kamo 
HoeeK otcueee, mou ue e ednaKbe, u ue Mootce da 6-bde maKbe, a nocmenenno 
naedpnea, pa3euea ce (pu3uuecKU, no nododue ceama Cmoun. 

JIhko ee3den Me numa: zde cu, mo e cmanano c me6? Mnozo cmpada 3a 
me6, ede jiu e, ufo nu padomu, ex, da CbM u a3 npu nezo - caMO myu 
6-bnnyea. Mnozo ce 6e3noKonx n^peume dnu, Kozamo U3ue3na om 
cmonancmeomo. 

3a napume ne ce Kax-bpu, nonyuux zu omdaena. Ka3an e CaMU na mamno 
cu 3a nop-bHKama mu. TeMenxoe me n donece om cenomo My u men npedade 
na CaMeeu. fado Bnad Ka3a da mnpamuiu HHKaKbe Kycpap cu 63en om myK, 
ue ude nu mpndea eene. 

Xa doeuDtcdane, uckom da ce npeMemneiu npe3 znaea e cenomo 3apadu 
Maepydno u HaMnemo. Hapouno Mnozo 3dpaee om CaMU u Moume 
cbKunuunuUfU, zopuM om macmue, ne u^e ce padeaMe 3aedno eyn. 

HnuH Manee 

Hjocojiko rnbTH 6ax noceTeH ot hhho Hjihh h jicjih Po3a, pcwrrejiHTe 
Ha CaMH, kohto Bee ome 6axa B'bflBopeHH b IIa3apfl^cHK 3aeflHO ct>c 
ctothijh eBpeftcKH ceMeficTBa, Bi>npeKH o6emaHH5rra Ha EarpflHOB. Hhho 
Hjim, KaKTo h no-paHO, mh ^aBauie ijeHHH cbchchha, 3amoTO cjiynianie 

paflHO JIOHflOH H MoCKBa H HMaHie Bpi>3Ka C fl06pe HH(|)OpMHpaHH fleHIJH Ha 

eBpencKaTa CMpOTHBa. Ton HaMHpame, ne EarpjraoB e flByjinneH h XHTbp 
fleMaror, kohto acenae «a cnacn MOHapxHOTa, ,na opneHTHpa E^jirapM kbm 
BejiHKo6pHTaHHfl h CAIU, h Taica aa cna3H 6yp>Koa3HHfl CTpon h 6oraT- 
CTBaTa Ha e^pHTe KanHTanHCTH. Ton He ce HHTepecyBa ot Ge^CTBeHOTO 
nojio^ceHHe Ha TpynoBHa Hapofl, BKJiiOHHTejiHO h Ha cejiamrre, 3a hhhto 
npe^cTaBHTeji ce caMoo6flBABa. BvrpeiHHara My nojiHTHKa e penpecHBHa. 

208 



Hhho Hum aaBauie MHoro npHMepH 3a yGnficTBa h npecjie^BaHHH Ha 
aHTH(|)aiiiHCTH h Ha eBpen. npH m>pBOTO hh CBH^cflaHe a3 My Ka3ax, ne 

HMaM MHOrO floGpH BT>3M0flCH0CTH 3a GflTCTBO. 

- HMaiH JIH Bpl>3Ka CBC CBOTBeTHHTe JIHIja, kohto MoraT aa th OKa^caT 

noMom h Te npexBtpiwT b hhkoh napTH3aHCKa rpyna? - nonHTa Me toh. 

- EbiMaM - OTBT>pHaX a3. 

- H a3 HHMaM h He Mora #a th noMorHa. 3aTOBa BHHMaBaii, He Te ctBeT- 
naM fla npeflnpneMaui npH6i>p3aHH /jeHCTBHfl. Ome noBene, ne ctGHTHATa ce 
pa3BHBaT c uieMeTHa 6i>p3HHa. B IIa3ap,zpKHK HMa Bi>,zjBopeHH, kohto acenajrr 
#a npeMHHaT ki>m napTH3aHHTe, ho HHMaT CBpt3KH. He 6nBa ^a ce pHCKyBa. 

OKOJIO na3apfl^CHK HMa MHOTO BOHCKa H ACaH/japMepHfl, KOHTO H3BT>pIHBaT 

6jioKaflH ? npaBjrr 3aca/jH h npoBepKH. Ako pa36epa Henjo ot HauiHTe xopa 
me th Kaaca. 

noBene no T03H BMipoc Ha apyrHTe CBWKjiamiz He CMe bo/jhjih pa3roBopH. 

CboGo^hh h npHHTHH 6nxa CBHHCAaHiurra c HauiHTe - TaTe, MaMa, 
BjiaroHHO, nenfl BaHKa. Beuie ce3om>T Ha ycnjiHaTa noncKa pa6oTa. B BaTaK 
Kocaxa, npnGnpaxa ceHOTO, acBHexa h Btpmeexa, 6epaxa, nyKaxa h Tonaxa 
jieHa. H Bi>npeKH TOBa, Te HaMHpaxa BpeMe h bi>3mo)khocth /ja Me 
nocemaBaT. Homhh eflHO CBHacaaHe c MaMa h jiqjul BaHKa. Te flon/joxa Ha 
jiHBaaaTa. Hafl3HpaTejurr pa3peuin CBHac/jaHeTO, KoeTO npo/jMacH hakojiko 
naca. TocTHxa Me c jik>6hmoto mh flfleHe - GaTaimca m>p)KeHHija (/{OMara, 

HyiHKH H H3Bapa, H3ni>p>KeHH B OJIHO HJIH CJiaHHHa), KOOTO MaMa npHTOT- 

B^uie MHoro BKycHO. Ha Ta3H cpema MaMa, noanoMaraHa h /jontJiBaHa ot 
nejifl BaHKa, mh pa3Ka3a 3a TparHHHHTe ct>6hthh b BaTaK npe3 ntpBHTe 
Mecei^H Ha 1944 r., 3a MacoBHTe apecra, noGonnja h yGnncTBa. 

y Hac npaBHUH o6hck flBa m>TH. HtpBHa m>T /johijih #BaMa bohhhijh h 
eflHH noflO(|)Hijep. HaMepHJiH Ha TaBaHa rbq Ham>jiHO Hero/jHH nyuiKH, 
kohto ca 6hjih /joHeceroi ot 6paTa Ha jwro AHreji, Ejiaroa, h ce na3exa y 
Hac KaTO pejiHKBa ot BofmaTa cbc Ci>p6Hfl npe3 1885 r. E^HaTa nyuiKa 
6euie c BTbKHaT TpHpi>6ecT hjhk. KaTO MajiKH a3 h BnaroHHO ch nrpaexMe c 
tax... BoHHHiprre H3HecjiH nyuiKHTe Ha flBopa. 

- EaBa He npnnaflHax. ,fl,OH,zje h TaTKO th ot oGnjHHaTa. npe6jie,zjH5Di 
toh oGachh, ne TOBa ca Hero/jHH nyuiKH, c kohto ch nrpa^T /jeijaTa. 

- TaKa e - Ka3aji noao$HitepT>T ? - ho Bee naK e opi>)KHe. Ome /jHec /ja th 
yHHiijo^KHTe. npeMaxHeTe th no HflKaKBB HaHHH. HflMa rzl flOKJia/jBaM. 

- Mhoto MHCJiHXMe KaK aa rn yHHmoacHM, Kt^e aa ra CKpneM. 
3anajiHXMe on>H b jiaraaTa Kyxmi h th H3ropnxMe. H3ropa jXbpBeuara, nacr, 
a BenepTa kt>cho cjio)khx b npecTHJiKaTa )Kejie3aTa h th h3xbt>pjihx b 
peKaTa. Cne/j aeceTHHa ahh floflfloxa TpHMa flpyrn bochhh. 

209 



- Koro KpneTe Ha TaBaHa? - nonHTaxa tc 

HanpaBHxa o6hck h ch OTH^oxa. ,0,o6pe, ne yHHmoacHXMe nyniKHTe - 
3aBi>pinH pa3Ka3a ch MaMa. 

no-HaTarbK ta ct>c ct>ji3h Ha ohh onnca KaK npe3 jihtoto Ha 1943 r. Ha 
njioma^a 6jih3o ao HaniaTa Ki>ma 6hjio H3Jio>KeHO Ha noKa3 tjdioto Ha 
y6nTHH napTH3aHHH ot ^opKOBO Kpi>CTBO IleeB. EflHa Hania cbceflKa 
cpeujHajia MaMa h h Ka3ana: 

- Bhahhi jih KaKBO npaBAT c Te3H ? kohto ce 6opflT npoTHB ijapmHHara. 
H tboh chh ro onaKBa cmijoto. 

- Pi #a ch npH3Haa noMHCJinx ch: ,3,o6pe, ne AHreji e b 3aTBOpa! 
Hafi-peflOBeH noceTHTeji Ha CBHacflaHHjrra ch ocTaBame moat 6paTOBHe# 

reoprH, chh Ha Bynno Cretan, kohto 6eme ynemiK b X kji. Toiho 6euie 
yMHO ? nojiHTHHecKH opneHTHpaHO MOMHe ? aHTH^aniHCT. Ton 6enie MHoro 
KOHTaKTeH, o6HHame poflHHHHTe ch h nocemaBanie 6jih3khtc ceMeiicTBa b 
BaTaK. HflBanie c KOJiejio h HMame jiocrbu ro 6nBaKa. Hafl3HpaTenHTe ro 
no3HaBaxa. Hocenie mh KHHrn ot GnGjiHOTeKara Ha Byfino. Tana nponeTox 
ci>6paHHTe cbHHHeHHH Ha CTe(|)aH U,Banr. Herax npn BCflKa CBo6o/ma 
MHHyTa, Hocex khhth BHHarn cbc ce6e ch. Benep Herax Ha CBem. HecTO 
o6ci>>Kflax nponeTeHOTO c Tohio, kohto Ha TOBa OTrope 6eme h h3kjiio- 
HHTenHO 6oraT h3tohhhk Ha HH(|)opMaijHfl, tbh KaTO neTenie bccthhijh h 
cjiymame hobhhhtc no pa^HOTO. 

Bi>JiHyBama 6enie h cpemaTa mh c HaHa Muica, kohto n^TyBanie ot 
Co(J)hh 3a HenHHO. ^OBeae a Tohio. ^jito roBOpHXMe. He ce 6axMe bhec- 
flanH noBene ot eflHa ro^HHa (ot MapT 1943 r.). Pa3Ka3a mh 3a hhho To^op, 
JIio6Ka ? AHren, 3a yHHTena MoireaHOB, 3a 6oM6apflHpOBKHTe npe3 3HMaTa. 

- J\& He H36flram, «a He HanpaBHHi Ta3H rnynocT. CKOpo BOHHaTa me 

CBT>piHH - nOpi>Ha MH C MHOTO CepH03eH BHfl naHa. 

Ha pa3flfljia ch noacenaxMe CKoponiHa cpema Ha CBo6o,aa, kohto 
HancTHHa CTaHa cjiqr MajiKO noBene ot Meceu; b khthoto c. HenHHO (ah. 
KBapTan Ha BenHHipa/i;). 

Ha CBH^cflaHe npn MeH H/jBame h hhho Cnac ot PaflHJioBO, kohto no 
TOBa BpeMe acHBeeme b na3apa»cHK. Ton 6eme okojio 60-roflHHieH. 
no3HaBax ro ome ot aeTCKHTe ch roflHHH. Hohth BCAKa eceH toh HflBame b 
BaTaK h rocTyBanie y Hac h npn apyrHTe ceMeficTBa ot HaynieBHH pofl. 
Beme hh poflHHHa h HapHHame f? 6paTOBHe/i; n bchhkh Bi>3pacTHH ot 
HaynieBiiH. 06hkhobcho npecTOABame no ^eceTHHa ahh h ch TptrBame c 
Kapyija, m>jiHa c KapTO(J)H ? j^ckh h rpe^H. Ha CBHayjaHeTO H/jBaine etc 
CbnpyraTa h c fltmepa ch, kooto 6enie yneHHHKa b nporHMHa3Hjrra. Benie 
mhoto cnaflKoayMeH, roBopenie 6aBHO h ce OTHacmie kbm MeH mhoto 

210 



BHHMaTejiHO h c toji^mo yBaaceHHe. Beine bhcok, c uiHpoKH paMeHe h e^pH 
Ma30JiecTH ptije, bi>hiiiho rpy6oBaT, ho MHoro CBpfleneH. C flo6poTO ch 
oTHOineHHe kbm MeH toh HCKaine aa 3acBHfleTejiCTByBa CBOflTa 6jiaroaap- 
hoct h jik)6ob kbm HaymeBH* pofl. Cjiea MHoro roflHHH, KoraTO 6ax Ha pa- 
6oTa b CeKpeTapnaTa Ha CHB b MocKBa, no Tejie(J)OHa mh ce o6aflH ^me- 
pHTa Ha hhho Cnac h noMOJiH 3a ctfleHCTBHe no 2CH3HeH0 BaaceH 3a hchhoto 
ceMencTBO Btnpoc, KoeTO CTOpnx Be/mara c ynoBOJiCTBHe n pa/jocT. 

IIpaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha MypaBHee: AMHHCTHHTa h ocBoGo/KAaeaHe. 
TaKa aeH cjiea rqk npeMHHaBaxa nocjieflHHTe mh 3aTBOpHHHecKH ahh h 
nocjieflHHTe ahh Ha MOHapxo<J)auiH3Ma b EtJirapH*. IlojiHTHHecKHTe 
cb6HTHa ce pa3BHBaxa MHoro 6i>p30. npe3 aBiycT CbBeTcicaTa apMHH 
HaBJie3e b PyMtHH*. Boanxa ce 0)KecTOHeHH cpaaceHHfl okojio rp. ilm h 
npe3 BTOpaTa nojiOBHHa Ha Meceija pyMtHijHTe KannTyjinpaxa. EarpaHOBOTo 
npaBHTejicTBO Bene He MO^ceme aa cnacn MOHapxo(J)aniH3Ma. HeroBHTe 
nperoBOpn c npeflCTaBHTejin Ha OreHecTBeHH* (J)pOHT h JierajraaTa ono- 
3Hiihh He aafloxa pe3yjrraTa. Ha e^HO ot cBHacflaHHjrra TaTe mh pa3Ka3a, ne 
Ha nocemeHHe b BaTaK 6hji neTBp KtoceHBaHOB, noflnpeaceflaTeji Ha 
HapoflHOTO ci>6paHHe. 

- IleTpe, - Ka3aji My toh, - tboat chh CKOpo me 6i>fle CBo6oaeH. 

TaTe My 6jiaroaapHJi ome eflHH m>T 3a TOBa, ne CBH/jeTejicTBa 3a Hero h 
MeH npefl BoeHHonojieBH* cba npe3 fleiceMBpH 1942 r. 

B CTpaHara ce ci>3flaBaxa 6jiaronpHOTHH ycjiOBM 3a no6eaaTa Ha 
aHTH(|)aniHCTKHTe chjih. TpyaoBHTe xopa MacoBO ce Haanraxa npoTHB 
AHKTaTypaTa. B ria3apfl5KHniKHii Kpafi ce npoBe)K,zi;axa BtoptflceHH aiciiHH Ha 
napTH3aHHTe, 3aB3eMaxa ce cejia, nporoHBaxa ce (JmniHCTKHTe ynpaBmnm. 

Ha 3. IX. 1944 r. npe/jH 0651/1; Tomo npHCTHraa etc CBoeTO KOJiejio Ha 
o6eKTa h OTflajiene pa^ocTHO 3apa3MaxBa ptica. Bchhkh cnpaxMe pa6oTa b 
onaKBaHe Ha BaacHH hobhhh. 

- Cc^opMHpaHO e hobo npaBHTejicTBO Hanejio c KoHcraHTHH MypaBneB 
h c MHHHCTpn fl.HMHTbp Thhcb, ATaHac EypOB, AjieKcaHfli>p TeprHHOB. 
Mhhhctlp Ha Bi>TpeuiHHTe pa6oTH e Beprnji Rumob, a Ha npaBOCBflneTO - 
Bopnc naBJiOB. 

Pa3^CHHX Ha 3aTBOpHHijHTe h Ha Haa3HpaTejia koh e MypaBHeB. Ka3ax 
hm, ne Beprnji fl,HMOB e 6hji a^BOKaT b Hamnn npoijec, ne hh e 3am;HTaBaji 
npefl CBfla. Ha Apyrafl rqk npHBe^ep Tomo othobo flofifle h flOHece 
bccthhijh, b kohto 6eme ny6nHKyBaHa AeKJiapaijHOTa Ha hoboto 
npaBHTejicTBO. To o6flBflBame, ne me cna3Ba HeyTpajiHTeT, m;e aa^e m>jiHa 

aMHHCTHH Ha nOJIHTHHeCKHTe 3aTBOpmmH H me pa30pl>^CH HeMCKHTe 

bohckh, npeMHHaBamH npe3 EtJirapHH. 

211 



Bene ce npnroTBax m &i>,na ocBo6ofleH h aa 3aMHHa klm poflHHM EaTaic. 
Ot HauiHTe nojiynnx KycfmpHe c 6eni>o h caKO. 3axBT>pjiHX H36ejiajiaTa h 
npoK'LcaHa Bene yneHHHecica KypTKa. 

PenpecHHTe o6ane npofltnacaBaxa. npHcraraaxa ci>o6meHHfl 3a npe- 
cjieasaHe h y6HHCTBa Ha napTH3aHH, 3a cpaaceHHeTo Ha 4. IX. Ha Bp. 
Mhjicbh CKajiH, b KoeTO HMano noBene ot 10 y6HTH h MHoro paHeHH. ToBa 
HaMajiH eHTycHa3Ma h pa36n Hafleac^aTa, ne npaBHTencTBOTo Ha MypaBHeB 
HaHCTHHa me npOBeac^a o6jreeHaTa ot Hero nojiHTHKa. Ha 6. IX., cp>ma, 
CtBeTCKHHT cbK)3 o6jibh, ne He e y^oBJieTBOpeH ot HeyTpajnrreTa Ha 
BtJirapHH h ne ot to3h momcht ce HaMHpa b nojioacemie Ha BOHHa c Hea. 

CBo6oaaTa. B na3apflacHiiiKHfl 3aTBOp 3anoHHa no^roTOBKaTa Ha aoicy- 
MeHTHTe 3a ocBo6oacflaBaHe Ha nojiHT3aTBOpHHii;HTe. Ha 8. IX., nen>K, npe- 

flH o6flfl npHCTHrHa TOUIO H CL06mH, He nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJHTe H3JIH3aT Ha 

CBo6o#a, a npea 3aTBOpa HMa ctothijh nocpemann, pa3BABaT ce nepBeHH 
3HaMeHa h ce npOBeagja MHTHHr. M B3eMafi 6araaca h TptrBaMe", Ka3a toh. 
A3 ci>6pax noBeneTO ch Bemn b aemc, a b Ky^apneTO ocTaBHX caMo 
jiHHHHTe ch Bemn: nHCMa, TeTpa^KH, 6ejn>o. 

- Cjiyuiaii, - o6tpHa ce kt>m MeH Hafl3HpaTejiOT, - 3HaM, ne HMa 
aMHHCTHA h ne Ruec 3anoHBa ocBo6oac,naBaHeTO bh, ho He e jiohio aa ch 
B3eMeui ^OKyMeHT 3a TOBa. 

CtrjiacHx ce. Toiho ora^e «o npoKypaTypaTa h ce BtpHa etc cbotbct- 
hha flOKyMeHT cjiea okojio flBa naca, kohto mh ce CTOpnxa KaTO iwna Ben- 
hoct. Pa3roBap^xMe c KOJierHTe ch. Te ce Hafljreaxa, ne me nocjie^Ba HaMa- 
jieHHe Ha npHctflHTe hm h me 6tflaT ocBo6oaeHH. C6oryBaxMe ce. Ejiaro^a- 

pHX HM 3a fl06p0T0 OTHOUieHHe H HM nOECeJiaX CKOpOHIHO 0CB0605KfleHHe. 

TptraaxMe c Touio. Toh B3e Ky^apneTO Ha KOJiejioTO, a a3 noHecox 
#effica. Cnefl CTOTHHa MeTpa cpenmaxMe hhho Cnac, kohto 6tp3aji kbm Hac. 
no3flpaBHXMe ce CLpaenHO. Toh B3e fleHKa, 3a aa ro ronpara b BaTaK no 
6paT ch. C6oryBaxMe ce. 

- HaKafi, - BHe3anHO Ka3a hhho Cnac. EpT>KHa b ,zpKo6a ch, H3Ba,zm 
6aHKHOTa ot 20 JieBa h mh a no^a^e. - He ce o6roK#aH. Moace aa th 
noTpa6Ba npH ntTyBaHeTO. 

^o6pH^T hhho Cnac, toh 6eme TOJiKOBa 6eaeH, ho me^po cno^ejiH c 
MeH ocKb#HHTe ch cpe^cTBa! TporHa Me. nocne Tohio mh Ka3a: 

- ^o6pe nocTbnn, ne B3e 20 JieBa ot hhho Cnac. Eoax ce, ne me My 
OTKaaceui h Taica me ro o6hahhi. 

MnHaxMe npe3 rpa^a h oth^oxmc Ha ocTpOBa, Kt^eTO HMauie mhthht. 
RnaMeHHa pen np0H3Hacfline KoHCTaHTHH nonpycHHOB - HepBeHHAT non. 
TyK cpemnax MHoro nojiHT3aTBOpmmH, rnaBHO na3ap;pKHKJiHH. Jipyru Bene 

212 



6#xa 3aMHHanH no po^HHTe ch MecTa. EaTanaHH 6nxa oratTyBajiH c KaMHOH 
3a BaTaK. Pa/jocTHH nperptflKH, nos/jpaBnemifl, no)KejiaHHfl... YnacTHHiiHTe 
b MHTHHra Bi>3Top)KeHO npHBeTCTBaxa peHTa h necHHTe Ha HepBeHM non. 
H3flHraxa ce Ji03yHrH. IIoflBHxa ce nepBeHH 3HaMeHa. IIojiHijHflTa OTCtcTBa- 
ine. HyBCTBauie ce, ne (JmniHCTKaTa BJiacT h npaBHTencTBOTO Ha MypaBHeB 
ch oTHBaxa. PeBOJiioijHflTa noGeac/jaBaiHe. CtBeTCKaTa apMM 6enie Be^e Ha 
TepHTOpHOTa Ha EtJirapHa. 

C Toino OTH/i;oxMe y po/jhhhhtc ByfiHa BacHJiKa, 6a6a ^eniKa h Ha/jica 
Me nocpemHaxa pa^ocTHO. Byfino GrecjjaH ro HflMame - 6euie b 3anac. Bene 
ce MptKBauie. IloHCKax /ja 3aMHHa c BJiaK npe3 rapa KpHHHM 3a riemepa h 
ot TaM 3a BaTaK. /Jpyrn npeB03HH cpe/jcTBa ToraBa miMaine. ByHHa mh 
o6ane He Me nycHa. 

- 3aMHHaBaui yTpe. Ta3H hohj me npeKapani TyK h me ch Tptraem 
cyTpHHTa, - Ka3a noBejiHTejiHO tji. 

BenepaxMe. HyBCTBax ce KaTO y /joMa ch. CBo6ofleH. Pa3roBapaxMe 
jXbJiro. CnoMeHH, cnoMeHH... 

Kbcho okojio nonyHom c Tohio ce HacTamixMe b TaBaHCKaTa craa. IIo 
TOBa BpeMe b Co^ha Bene e 3anoHBano 3aB3eMaHeTO Ha BJiacrra ot 
OrenecTBeHHfl 4>poHT. 




IIocpemane Ha napTinami ot napTinaHCka ^pyaemia "Baciui IleTJieinKOB". 
B ueHTbpa irbpen - Cjiaeno Thjihh (c ueeTHTa), nojiHTKOMHcap 



( 




Pen Ha KoHCTaHTHH 
IIoiipycHHOB - HepeeHiiH non 
npe/j MHTHHr b Ilaiap^iiK - 
ocBo6o>KAaBaHe Ha 

nOJ!HT3aTBOpHHI^HTe, 

8 cenTeMBpn 1944. 
Ot ahcho Ha opaTopa - 

XpHCTO AnOCTOJIOB, B ^eCHIIH 

AOJieH i>n>Ji - K,aHKO TaroB 



Tepa Ileesa npn nocpenjaHeTO 

Ha napTH3aHHTe ot 6pnra^a 

"HenHHeij" b c. JIbHceHe 

(tin. BejiHHrpaA), 

10 cenTeMBpn 1944 r. 




214 




Cpenja na Giibiiiii nojiiroaTBopHimii ot Ckoiickhh 3aTBop, 
4>HJinaji "HupmoBo", Co4>hh 9 17. X. 1987 r. 




C Giibiiiii noJiiiT3aTBopHiiun: npocj). AHreji HayineB, npocj). reH. 2KejiH3K0 
Kojiee, Teoprn CanyH^cneB h EJbhtko TaroB. CocJhih, 1994. 



215 



TJIABA III 

nOEE^ATA HA ^EBETOCEMnTEMBPHHCKOTO BBCTAHHE 

(B BATAK H nEIIJEPA, 1944 - 1948) 

^eeeTH cenTeMBpn 1944 r. b BaTaK 

ria3apflyKHK. IlbTyBaHe 3a BaTaK. Benie raxa, Toima, npHATHa hoiij. 
n^pBaTa mh CBo6oflHa hoid; cjiea 6jih30 flBeroflHineH 3aTBopHHHecKH 
)khbot. Jleacax h ce ocjiyniBax. rpaflCKHAT niyM 6eine 3aTHXHan. 3acnHBax, 
ho c^Kani 6nx 6yaeH. MncjiHTe mh 6axa b BaTaK, npn HaniHTe - MaMa, TaTe, 
EjiaroiiHO, poflHHHHTe, apyrapHTe, npn^TejiHTe. KaK jih nocpemaxa 
HflBamaTa CBo6oaa, no6e)K,aaBamaTa peBomoima, no6eaaTa Haa 4)aniH3Ma b 
EtJirapHfl... CtGyflHX ce. 3anoHBame aa ce pa3BHflejMBa. HflMame ro 

n03HaTHH 3aTBOpHHHeCKH UtyM. Ax, fla... CB060fleH. y ByHHOBH CbM. Tomo 

cnn Ha CT>ceflHOTO nerjio. K)HoniecKa ycMHBKa cmpflBanie jinijeTO My. Ci>MHa 
ce. B cbceflHHTe ^BopoBe ce nyBaxa CTbmeH, rjiacoBe, Tenaxa neniMH, neeme 
ce BO,zja. XopaTa ce eraraxa 3a pa6oTa. Ba6a ,IJe)KKa ctmo ce pa3ineTa H3 
KyxEWTa h flBopa. B cbceflHHfl ABop CBHpenie paano. To ^o6pe ce qyBame 
npe3 OTBOpeHHH np030peit. CTaHa mh npHjrrao, Maxap h HenpHBHHHO. 
OTflaBHa, ot flBe roflHHH, He ct>m nyBaji paano. HactT 6enie mecT. H3BeflHi>)K 
BHHMaHHeTO mh 6eme npHBJieneHO ot npHATHHfl TBtpa rnac Ha flHKropa, 
kohto ct>o6hih ? ne e yeraHOBeHa BJiacT Ha OTenecTBeHHH (j)poHT, ne e 
o6pa3yBaHO npaBHTencTBO Ha OTenecTBeHo^poHTOBCKHTe napTHH, KoeTO 
noeMa ci>fl6HHHTe Ha erpaHaTa b cboh pi>ite ot hmcto Ha Hapoaa. 

Ckohhx h OTHaox ro np030peija. ^HKTOptT ci>o6mH cbCTaBa Ha npa- 
BHTencTBOTO, Hanejio c Khmoh TeoprHeB, jiHflep Ha "3bcho", opraHH3aTop 
Ha npeBpaTa npe3 1934 r., npeMHHan no-KtCHO Ha aHTH^aniHCTKH no3HimH. 
Hyx no3HaTH HMeHa: ^o6pn TepnenieB, Ahtoh K)roB, JXauxn BeireeB, 
TpHrop HeiHMefl^cneB. HManie h Heno3HaTH 3a MeH mhhhctph, ho bchhkh 
6axa npeflCTaBHTenH Ha napTHHTe, kohto ynacTBaxa b OTeHecTBeHHa 
4)pOHT. Ci>6yflHX Tohio h H3THnax flojiy b KyxHHTa. PaflocTra 6enie Bceo6m;a 
- ByfiHa BacHHKa h 6a6a ^eaaca cnaexa ot macrae. Tpa6Hax Ky^apneTO ch 
h noHennx aa Tptraa 3a BaTaK. Ho Bypraa Me 3aai>p^ca: 

- ritpBO 3aKycH h ToraBa TptrBafi. 

H TaKa, cjiea KaTO 3aKycnx, B3ex qepHOTO Ky^apne, a Toiho Tptraa c 
MeH m Me H3npaTH flo Kpaa Ha rpa#a. 

npHCTHrHax Ha rapaTa. ripeMHHax npe3 ac. n. jiHHHjrra h 3acTaHax Ha 
nioceTO 3a riemepa npea e^Ha Kpi>HMa, koato cny^ceine 3a cnnpKa Ha aBTO- 
6ycHTe kbm riemepa h BaTaK. 3anaKax cnynafiHO TpaHcnopTHo cpe^CTBO. 

216 



Ilo iiioceTO ot c. BaniHKapOBO (ah. TjiaBHHHija) kt>m na3ap,zi;^cHK 3anpn- 
H)K,aaxa bohhhijh - OTHBaxa Ha Jiarep, kohto ce Bnayjanie ot cnnpKaTa. 
HaB^pHO ce Bpi>maxa ot hoiijho yneHne hjih ot aKijnn cpemy napTH3aHHTe. 
C HHTepec rn HaSjno/jaBax, nyBax TexHHTe rjrbHKH, uiern n cmjix. 3Ha^T jih, 
ne HMa npaBHTejicTBO Ha OTenecTBeHHfl $poHT, ne (JmnincTKaTa BJiacT e 
CBajieHa, ne Tpa6Ba #a ce no/jHHHflBaT Ha HOBaTa BJiacT, Ha BJiacira Ha 
Hapofla? B T03H momcht kt>m MeH ce npnSjinflcn BOHHHK-3anacH5iK, c Top6a 
Ha paMO. Ton paaocrao ce yxHJiH h ToraBa no3Hax moh CT>cejniHHH AHreji 

EOflCKOB. 

- 3apacTH AHrejie! - H3BHKa toh. 

IlperbpHaxMe ce h ce no3apaBHXMe c noGeaaTa. Ilo3HaBaxMe ce /joGpe. 
Toh 6enie HiHBauiKH paSoramc, amTKjmmncT. Ilpe3 3HMaTa Ha 1943-1944 r. 
HflBa b 3aTBopa Ha CBnac/jaHe c hakojiko /jyinn GaranaHn. npncTnraa ome 
eflHH ni>THHK. Ka3a, ne e ot EpaijnroBO h hh no3ApaBH c HOBaTa BJiacT. Toh 
HaMepH Kapyija, kohto Seine Ha HflKaKbB 6paijnroBeij. HerapHMara noexMe 
no nioceTo 3a riemepa. IToBene xo^exMe neuiKOM - acajiexMe kohhcto. 

Beuie flceH cjibHHeB aeH. Ilpefl Hac h ot flBeTe hh CTpaHH ce npocTHpaxa 
hhbh, TyK-TaM Bene npeopami, h Heo6paHa ijapeBnija. Jlnneine, ne peKOjrra- 
Ta e /i;o6pa. Cnea okojio nac cnpaxMe npea ckpomhha naMeTHHK Ha AjieKO 
KoHCTaHTHHOB, H3flHrHaT Ha jio6hoto My MflCTO, 3a aa HanoMmi Ha 
noKOJieHHATa 3a BejiHKna nncaTen h HOBeic, a h 3a acecTOKHTe HpaBH b icpaa 
Ha MHHajiHH BeK. H3MHXMe ce Ha 6jiH3KaTa neniMHHKa, nonnHaxMe h 
noexMe no 6anpa kbm 6jih3koto PaflHJioBO. MnHaxMe npe3 cenoTO h 
3aH3KaHBaxMe nocneaHaTa BncoHHHa Haa Hero. HacbT MHHaBanie aBa. Ot 
BHCOHHHaTa ce OTKpn nyaeH H3rjieA. Bnacflaine ce roiwMa nacT ot na3ap- 
fl)KHniKOTO none c BecnapcKHTe pn/joBe, cenaTa KanHTaH ^HMHTpneBO, 
Eara, Ko3apcKO, a b no/jHoacneTO Ha Po/tonnTe - 3Kpe6nHKO, EpaijnroBO h 
Po30bo. H jio3^ ? jio3h... Ha tor ce pa3CTHJianie innpoKHAT MacHB Ha 
Po/jonHTe. KannxMe ce Ha KapyijaTa h npenycHaxMe Ha/jojiy kbm riemepa. 

B rpa/ja cbp/jenHO ce pa3aejinxMe c 6paijnroBijH. Te 6i>p3axa aa cno/je- 
jiht paaocrra ch cbc CBOHTe 6jih3kh, cbc 3eMJi5mHTe ch. B Ilemepa HaMepnx 
6paTOBHea mh Bopnc HaynieB (TpoijKn) h nnxMe nan b e^HO Ka(J)eHe. 

3aeaHO c Bopnc h c Eoackob kbm niecT naca noexMe neniKOM 3a BaTaK. 
CTapa pexa Beceno KJioKonenie n pa3Hac5inie npoxna/ja. Hne He nyBCTBaxMe 
yMopa, Maxap ne 6axMe yTOJiHJin rnaaa ch caMO c naniKa nan. Bene 6enie 
tbmho, KoraTO npn6jin^cnxMe ceJiOTO. CnpaxMe b m. TIonoB nynypeK. 
H3MHXMe ce, nocTemaxMe ce h npoflT>Ji)KHXMe HaTaTbK. Ha okojio khjio- 
Men>p npea MeH 6eine BaTaK, orpaH ot nyHaTa n xHjra/jHTe 3Be3fln Ha 
3a3flpaHaBamoTO ce He6e. Ha jwbo ot Hac ce H3AHra BejinnecTBeHHOT Bpi>x 

217 



BaTauiKH KapjrbK, a oxhhcho ce npocTHpaxa pHAOBere Ha B^pnoBHija, 
Cbcth TeoprH h IJapeB komhh. BtJiHeHHeTO mh ce ycHJiBame. rioBene ot 
jjfiQ roflHHH He 6ax CTtnBaji b poflHOTO ch ceno. 
AHren Eo5kkob ctmo ce BtJiHyBaine. 

- Xeft, aflam, - npOBHKBa ce toh h 3anoHBa fla /jeKJiaMHpa - Ot EaTaK 
ctM hhho, 3Haem jih BaTaK. Xefi TaM 3a,n ropHTe, mhoto e flajien... - H 
flo6aBH - Ho He e flajien, a,nain, eTo ro npefl Hac. 

MHHaxMe Kpafi CTOHMeHOBaTa, TaniKOBaTa h EejioKanoBara BO^eHHim. 
Ho MOCTa otkbm BejioKanoBaTa BOfleHHija icyne ce BTypHa cjie,n Hac h 3ajiaa. 
A3 My ce 3apaflBax. HaBJi*30XMe b cenoTO. Beme okojio 21 h. Bi>pBflXMe no 
ijeHTpajmara yjnma. Beme MHoro thxo. He cpemHaxMe HHKoro. np030p- 
iwre Ha KtmHTe CBeTexa. MHHaxMe KanHHHOB moct. Otkt>m Be3eBa neniMa 
nyxMe TponoT Ha 6oTynra - no cpe^aTa Ha yjiHijaTa ce BtpBeine yHH- 
(|)0pMeH. Pa3no3HaxMe CTapmn nojiHijaa AHreji JIaTeB. npHKpnxMe ce b 
c^HKaTa Ha e/jHH cajiKtM. Toh OTMHHa 6e3 ^a hh 3a6ejieaeH. B pi>ijeTe My 
cBeTeme ijnrapa. He My ce o6a,nHXMe. npo,m>jraHXMe... 

Bene 6axMe Ha HamaTa yjinija. Eto h HamaTa Ki>ma. MnjiaTa. . . A3 ci>m y 
flOMa. Otbophx Bi>HniHaTa BpaTa h BJiJBOXMe c Bopnc. MnHax no Kopmtopa 
h 3acTaHax npefl KyxHjrra, kooto cjiyaeeine 3a BceiamHeBHa. Ot CTajrra 
flOJiHTame Becejia nn>HKa Ha aeeHH. Pa3BtJiHyBax ce. ^BOHHa pa/jocr - 
po^eH ,zi;om h CBo6o^a. Otbophx BpaTaTa Ha CTajrra. CTa*nra m>JiHa c xopa - 
HaniHTe h cbce^KH. BnacflaM MaMa, TaTe, Bjiarofino, 6a6a Bi>p6a, naHa 
MapM, naHa HopflaHKa, naHa neTpa ^aymeBa, 6a6a EjieHa Bi>JiHHHOBa n 
flp. H3HeHaaaTa hm 6eme rojwMa, Bi>npeKH ne Me 6axa onaKBajiH BceKH nac, 
Bonea MHHyTa. HacTbnn ntJiHa THniHHa. MaMa ckohh h m>pBa Me nperbpHa 
h ijejiyHa. Ba6a njianeine. 3anoHHaxa nperpi>flKH ? ijejiyBKH, pT>KOCTHCKaHHa. 
/Jafloxa mh ctoji ^a ce/jHa, a bchhkh ocTaHaxa npaBH, paflocran h hokhh. 
3anoHHaxa pa3roBOpn. Ba6a ckohh. 

- MapH JleHa, /jeTeTo (3a 6a6a Bee ome 6ax /jeTe) e rjia^HO. 

Ha MacaTa Be/jHara nocTaBHxa xjia6, H3Bapa h npacHO Macjio. 
JIio6hmoto mh jmeHe. Obce/jKHTe ce c6oryBaxa. 

B nojinueflcKHH ynacrbic. Ha Bi>HniHaTa BpaTa ce noTpona chjiho. 
BjiaroHHO h TaTe H3JiH30xa. Hyx rjiaca Ha TpeH,a;a(J)HJi KepejioB h oth^ox b 
KOpHflopa. nperbpHaxMe ce. /I,a(|)HO mh Ka3a, ne npe3 /jemi aHTH(|)aniHCTH ca 
3aB3ejiH o6m;HHaTa h nomaTa 6e3 rzl hm 6i>fle OKa3aHa CMporaBa, a cera 
e^Ha rpyna HCKana #a BJie3e b nojiHijeHCKHa ynacTLK, kohto e cpeiny Hac, h 
hm TpaGBajia Gpa^Ba, 3a ^a pa36naT BpaTaTa My. TaTe My nofla^e 6pa,n;Ba. 
TpeHflat^HJi npeKOCH ynnijaTa, 3a6n 6pa,n;BaTa Meayty flBeTe bxo/jhh Bpara 
Ha ynacTbKa, Ham>Ha h th OTBOpH. rpynara 6i>p30 Haxny Bi>Tpe. Cjiefl 

218 



MaJiKO np030pii:HTe CBeTHaxa. npeB3eTa 6euie nocne/jHaTa KpenocT Ha 
dapaTa BJiacT b BaTaK. 

B nojiyHOiu; oth/jox b ynacrbKa. TaM 3aBapnx rpyna aHTHcJmuiHCTH: 
Ilerbp T. BpaHHeB (TIoneTo), TpeH/tacjMJi KepenoB, Ebthm IlyHHeB, TeoprH 
KonapoB (yHHTeji), nertp LjBeTaHOB (nojiHT3aTBOpHHK) h #p. BpaHHeB mh 
pa3Ka3a 3a nocjie/jHHTe ahh b 3aTBOpa h 3a thxhoto ocBo6o^cflaBaHe. 
HHTepeceH 6enie pa3Ka3T>T Ha Ebthm nyHHeB, kohto KaTO napTH3aHHH ot 
oTpHfla Ha CnaBHO TptHCKH 6hji 3anoBeH b 3ana,zjHHTe Po#onH. B 
okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe b Ilemepa toh 6hji no/yioflceH Ha hhkbh3hiihh b 
npofltJDKeHHe Ha noBene ot Meceij. Bene onaKBaji #a 6i>fle pa3CTpejmi, ho 
ro ocbo6oahjih Ha 8 cenTeMBpH. 

^OKaTO pa3roBapHXMe ? b ynacrtKa 6euie yeraHOBeHa Tejie(])OHHa BpT>3Ka c 
Ilemepa, kb/jcto Bnacrra Bene 6eine b ptiteTe Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OTenecTBeHHA 
4)poHT. H^Maine o6ane BpT>3Ka c PaKHTOBO. PeniHXMe j\& 6 r bjxai: H3npaTeHH 

HJIKOJIKO flyiUH, KOHTO JSJX CQ CBT>p)KaT C paKHTOBCKHTe aHTH(J)aiHHCTH. 

MajiKO cjie/j nojiyHom; ce nyxa rtpMeara. Hakojiko ayiiiH xyKHaxa 
HaTaM. rio-KtcHO CTaHa acho, ne Ahtcji KaBJiaKOB OKa3aji ci>npoTHBa npH 
onHT aa 6i>Ae apeeryBaH, cTpejum h paHHJi Bopnc IlayHOB. 

OGcbAHXMe CHTyauHHTa h peuiHXMe aa Gt/je CB3flaaeH o6mocejicKH 
KOMHTeT Ha OTenecTBeHHH (j)poHT c npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha pa3JiHHHH 
nojiHTHHecKH napTHH. Ta3H 3a,a;aHa 6euie Bi>3Jio^ceHa Ha Ilerbp BpaHneB h 
TpeHAac^HJi KepejiOB. 

ITocpemaHe Ha napTinami h nojnmaTBopmiim Ha 10.IX. Mhthh™ 
h MaHH^ecTaunH. Kbm TpH naca cyTpHHTa ce npn6pax y Hac. Hanaxa Me. 
Othobo pa3roBOpH. He mh ce cneiue. HcKaine mh ce ujuioto ceMeficTBO #a 
CMe 3aeaHO. 06HKajiax CTaHTe, oth^ox b ABOpa, jho6ohhtho Ha#HHKHax b 
jmTHaTa KyxH^ h b flxi>pa (3HMHHKa), K'bfleTO 6axa ABaTa BOJia, kohto ao6pe 
no3HaBax, KpaBaTa h e^HO TejieHije. 3a30pHBauie ce. Jleraax Ha hhcto 
npy^cHHeHO Jierjio, c 6jdi Hapina(|). Beuie mh HenpHBHHHO, ho 6tp30 3acnax. 

B 8 naca MaMa Me eb6y,a;H: "OraBaH, me nocpemaMe napTH3aHHTe Tocko 
BaHneB h GretJjaH BacnjieB". Ha ABOpa Me naKaxa ^hmhtbp T. J\yKyipKOB, 
AHren KojiapOB, Bopnc n. HayineB h flpyrn MJia/joKH. H3JW30XMe h 
Tpi>rHaxMe no rjiaBHaTa yjiima. CejiOTO ce 6eine pa3flBH)KHJio. OmpaBHXMe 
ce KbM ropHHH Kpafi. noereneHHO ce ci>6pa mhoto Hapo/j - rjiaBHO 
Mnaae^KH. Ha rniomaa "4-th Man" nocpemHaxMe TpHMaTa napTH3aHH Tocko 
BaHHeB, CTe(J)aH BacnjieB h /Jhmhtbp Xa/pKHeB. nperpviKH, ypa, necHH... 

OnyK bchhkh Tp^raaxMe ki>m o6mHHaTa, kb/jcto CTaHa rojiflM mhthht. 
YnnijaTa 6euie m>jiHa c xopa. CflKam i^jioto HacejieHHe 6euie H3Ji5i3Jio - 
Mttfce, 5KeHH ? aeBOHKH h MJia,a;e)KH. neexa ce peBOJiioitHOHHH necHH, 

219 



H3aHraxa ce nepBeHH 3HaMeHa h jiosyHrn: "Cmt>pt Ha (J>aniH3Ma - cBoGo^a 
Ha Hapofla!" Ha GajiKOHa Ha o6mHHaTa 3acTaHaxa napTH3aHHTe Orec^aH, 
Ebthm, Tocko h ^hmht^p Xafl^cneB. H nerapHMaTa 6axa ctpohhh, 
KpacHBH. npoH3Hecoxa KpaTKH, ho BT>oaynieBeHH penH. 

Cjiea MHTHHra 3anoHHa MaHH(])ecTaiiHfl, kooto npeMHHa npe3 cenoTo, 
KaTO cnnpame npefl KtmnTe Ha y6nTHTe napTH3aHH h jrraijH. Cjiefl KaTo 
crania flo Ki>maTa Ha HafineBH (Ilerbp HafineB h chh My AHflpea), th 
othobo ce Bi>pHa h 3aBT>puiH npefl ono^KapeHaTa Ki>ma Ha Ilerbp h ^hmhtbp 
^HeBH. npefl BceKH aom ce npoH3Hacaxa penn. 3anoMHHJi ct>m KaTO 
opaTopH Tocko BaHneB, TeoprH KojiapOB, Ebthm IlyHHeB. Ilpea Ki>maTa Ha 
TeoprH h AjieKca BaHHCBH roBopHXMe a3 h ^hmhtbp KbHeB. 3a TpH6yHa hh 
cjiyaceme e^Ha KOJia c fltpBa. He noMH* noflpo6HO KaKBO ct>m Ka3aji, ho 
roBOpHx 3a HeoGxoflHMOcrra aa ce yKpenBa h pa3HiHp^Ba BJiacrra Ha 
OTenecTBeHH^ (J)poHT. Cnea TOBa kt>m MeH ce npnGjinacHxa hakojiko 
MJiaae^KH h noBepHTejiHO Me 3anHTaxa: 

- AHrene, 3a KaKBa BJiacT Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT roBopnin, Ta HajiH 
HHe, KOMyHHCTHTe, H3BOK)BaxMe BJiacrra?! 

To3H Bi>npoc HCKpeHO Me ynyflH. HnMa He bchhkh 6axa pa36pajiH 
CbmHocrra Ha HOBaTa BJiacT? Tpfl6Bame aa hm o6acHflBaM 3amo e cbSflaaeH 
OTenecTBeHH5iT (j)poHT, 3amo Tpa6Ba aa ce yKpenBaT aeMOKpaTHHHHTe 
chjih, kohto BJiH3aT b Hero h np. 

Kbcho cjiea oGjw c Tocko BaHneB ce pa3xoflHXMe H3 cejioTO. Cpem- 
HaxMe apyrapH, 6jih3kh h poahhhh h HaKpaa ce CT>6paxMe rojraMa rpyna. 
npa3HHHHOTO peBOJiioijHOHHO HacrpoeHHe npofli>ji5KaBaiHe. Cnoflen^xMe 
cnoMemi, H3Ka3BaxMe mhcjih h npczuiojioaceroifl KaK me ce pa3BHAT 
nojiHTHnecKHTe cbGhtha b CTpaHaTa, 3a BoeHHHTe aeftcTBHa, 3a npeKpa- 
THBaHeTO Ha BOHHaTa, o6kbqh2l ot CCCP Ha ET>jirapHfl, 3a o6e30pT>»caBaHeTO 
Ha HeMCKHTe bohhhiih Ha Hama TepHTOpna h 3a 3anoHBaHeTO Ha Boemra 
AeflcTBH^ cpemy HeMCKHTe bohckh Ha 3anaflHaTa hh rpaHHija. 

nojiyHH ce CT>o6meHHe 5 ne ot nemepa kbm BaTaK e TptrHaji Bopnc 
BajiHHOB, kohto ce 3aBpT>maine ot Cuhbchckhji BoeHeH 3aTBOp. Toft 6euie 
nojiynHJi CMi>pTHa npncbfla 3a KOHcnnparaBHa aHra^auiHCTKa fleHHoer b 
nojnca, b kohto cjiyaceme. Toji^Ma rpyna MJiaaeacn oth^oxmc aa ro 
nocpemHeM h3bt>h cenoTo, npea CTOHMeHOBaTa BOfleHHija. Toft m>TyBaine c 
Kapyija. C Hero ce 3aBi>pHa h flpyr nojiHT3aTBOpHHK ot BpanaHCKHa 3aTBop 
AjieKca KojiyHHeB. Cjiea npHBeTCTBHATa roBOpnxa AjieKca h BopHC. 
Bopnc ce Kann Ha KapyijaTa h njiaMeHHO H3fleKJiaMHpa craxoTBOpeHHeTO Ha 
BanijapOB "Eop6aTa e 6e3MHJiocTHO acecTOKa"... 

B JTbaceiie h IIa3apA2KHK. Ha 11. IX. (noHeaejiHHK) rojiflMa rpyna 

220 



aHTH(^aniHCTH c KaMHOH 3aMHHaxMe 3a JTtaceHe, 3a ^a ce cpeiimeM c 
neriHHCKHTe napTH3aHH. Pa3npocTpaHHBame ce cjiyx, ne hakoh 6aTauiKH 
napTH3aHH ca ocTaHajiH )khbh, kocto aaBaine HaflOK/ja Ha TexHHTe 6jih3kh. 
C peBOJiioijHOHHH necHH HanycHaxMe BaTaK. CTHrHaxMe m. npeBajia. 
OrryK ce OTKpH Hy/jecHa rueflKa kt>m Bee ome 3ejieHOTo 6aTauiKO none, 
npopH3aHO ot rojiflMOTO 6jiaTO, b kocto ce BJiHBaxa hakojiko peKHHKH h 
flaBaxa HanajioTO Ha p. M-bTmnja. BH>K,aaxa ce CTa/ja OBije h roGwtlk. 
IlojieTO, KoeTO o6xBanjanie noBene ot 20 000 #eKapa JiHBaflH, 6eme 
o6rpaaeHO ot BT>3BHineHHfl, o6pacjiH c 6opOBH h enxoBH ropn. npaBO npea 
Hac, flajiene Ha 3anaa ? ce BH^flaine nacT ot Bp. EenMeiceH, Phjickhht h 
IlHpHHCKHH MacHB, Ha ioro3ana,a ropao ce H3flHrame Ciotr^, a ome no Ha 
K)r - BaTauiKH KapjrbK, Kajn>H 6opyH (Ca6jieH Bptx) h CeMepanaH. 
KpacHBH 6flxa okojihocthtc Ha BaTaK. Pa/jBax ce h ce Hacna^KaaBax Ha 
KpacoTHTe Ha noneTO h OKOJimrre njiaHHHH. 

npeKOCHXMe 6aTaniKOTO none, OTMHHaxMe m. IJnroB napK h ce 
cnycHaxivie no moceTO, o6rpa,zjeHO c rbera 6opOBa ropa. Cnefl 10-15 
MHHyTH 6nxMe Ha BHCOHHHaTa Haa c. PaKHTOBO. npefl Hac ce OTKpn 
KpacHBOTO HennHCKO KopHTO. B aajieHHHaTa ce BH}Kflanie Bt3BHuieHneTO 
HyicaTa, a 3aa Hero - Bp. Mhjicbh CKajra, pHflOBeTe KapKapna h Ana6aK, 
cenaTa KoeraHflOBO, ^opKOBO h KaivieHHiia. Bjw30XMe b PaKHTOBO c necmi, 
pa3BHTO HaijHOHajiHO 3Haivie h CTpeji6a. CnpaxMe Ha njioniaaa. PaKHTOBijH 
6axa H3Jie3Jin no yjinijHTe. CTaHa mhthht. Ot Ka6HHaTa Ha KaMHOHa 
roBopnxa aHTH(J)auiHCTH ot PaKHTOBO h BaTaK. Bt3pacTHH)iT AHreji 
Ka3aKHH npH30BaBa fla noneTeivi naMexra Ha repoficKH 3arHHajiHa 
napTH3aHHH HHKOJia EoacaHOB h Ha bchhkh )KepTBH Ha aHTH(J)auiHCTKaTa 
6op6a ot PaKHTOBO h BaTaK. npHCbCTBanjHTe hhkojikoctothh ayuiH 
na^Haxa Ha kojichc CaMO nacoBHTe 6ohijh ot OreHecTBeHHa 4>poHT npe« 
o6m;HHaTa h nonjaTa oxaa/joxa noHHT npaBH c nyuiKH 3a nonecT. 

npHCTHTHaxMe b JIbHceHe. Ha rnioma/ja CTaHa HeonaKBaHa cpenja c 
6araniKHfl napTH3aHHH Bacnji Cepa(J)HMOB (Bt>jii>o), kohto H^Bauie otkbm c. 
HenHHO. Bhcok, CTpoeH h KpacHB, toh 6euie o6jieneH b xy6aBa JiecHH- 
nencKa yHH(|)opMa, npenacaH c naTpoHflam h c uiMafi3ep b pi>Ka. EaTanaHH 
ro noHecoxa Ha pT>iie h toh npoH3Hece pen. 

B flBopa Ha yHHJinmeTO, Kt^eTO BpeivieHHO ce 6e HaeraHHna 
napTH3aHCKa GpHra/ja "Henimeu", CTaHa TporaTejiHaTa cpema Ha KOMaH- 
flHpa Ha 6pHraaaTa ATaHac CeMep,zpKHeB (IjBeTaH) etc ctnpyrnTe h aei^aTa 
Ha hakoh ot y6nTHTe 6aTauiKH napTH3aHH h >rraijH (HeBeHa HojiaKOBa, 
HeBeHa HaymeBa, KaTepHHa HynyjieBa, Teoprn HayuieB, HeBeHKa BaHneBa, 
cecTpHTe BaHneBH h pp.). Toh 6euie e^Ba 20-roflHuieH MJiaae^c, ho HMauie 

221 



noBene ot ^Be ro/tHHH napTH3aHCKH "cTa>K" h 6eiue ynacTBaji b MHoro 
6htkh. 3ae,HHO c Koho TflypOB, MaHOJi BeneB, Tepa neeBa h flpyrn 6hbhih 
u aHTOHHBaHOBijH ,5 5 toh 6euie BOiOBaji cbBMecTHO c 6aTauiKHTe napTH3aHH h 
6eine ce cpemaji c MHoro TexHH aTaijH. CnoMeHHTe 3a 3araHajiHTe 
noMpanaBaxa paflocrra ot no6e,naTa. Ct>ji3h ot CKpi>6 h pa,nocT o6jiHBaxa 
jiHijaTa hm. 

HaGmoflaBax napTH3aHHTe - MJia/tH, KpacHBH, c o/tyxoTBopeHH Jinija - h 
3a nope/teH m>T ce Bi>3XHmaBax Ha TexHM repOH3i>M b 6op6aTa npOTHB 
4>auiH3Ma. Btopt^ceHH 6axa c pa3Hoo6pa3HO optaaie. Pa3npi>CHaTH Ha 
rpynHHKH, Te BOflexa o^chbchh pa3roBopH ct>c cbohtc cbrpaacflaHH. ^yBaxa 
ce paflocTHH BHKOBe npHHTenH h apyrapH, cpemHajiH ce cnefl ,m>jira 
pa3AHJia. Ha Bxo.ua Ha ynHJinmeTO CToeuie nacoBH. 

- AHrene! - nyx no3HaT rnac. 

Orne^ax ce. Ilpefl MeH CToeuie Hko Mojixob. Pa^ocTHO ce 3anpe« 
rpi>maxMe - He 6axMe ce BHac^ajiH ot 31. XII. 1942 r., KoraTO toh HanycHa 
KHJiHHTe Ha Cocjmhckha ijeHTpajieH 3aTB0p. YeflHHHXMe ce h Ha6tp3o 
cnoflenHXMe npe^KHBAHOTO npe3 H3MHHajiHTe #Be roflHHH. Toh mh pa3Ka3a 
3a ebyHemmHTe hh b rHMHa3H5rra, 3a pa6oTaTa Ha rHMHa3HajiHaTa peMCOBa 
opraHH3aijH5i npe3 yne6HaTa 1943)1944 r. 

B poflHaTa KaMeHHija ^ko ycTaHOBHJi Bpi>3Ka c peMCHCTH h napTH3aHH. 
C rpyna KaMeHCKH MJiafleacH npe3 npojierra Ha 1943 r. no^cenajiH #a ce 

npHCbeflKH^T KbM napTH3aHCKHfl OTpflfl, HO HM 0TKa3aJIH, 3aiII0T0 HflMaJIH 

opi>}KHe h BoeHHa noflroTOBKa, a h mejiH #a 6i>flaT no-nojie3HH c pa6oTaTa 
ch cpefl ocTaHajiHTe MJia^e^KH b KaMeHHija h KaTO OTaijH. Eahh aeH b 
cpe^aTa Ha iojih 1943 r. hhho My IlaBeji npHCTHinaji y tax h TpeBoaoio ro 
npeaynpeflHJi, He b o6mHHaTa ca aoihjih acaHflapMepHcra h ro TbpcaT, 3a aa 
ro apecTyBaT. 

ilico Be^Hara HanycHaji #OMa ch, npe3 aeH5i ce yicpHBaji h3bt>h, a 
BenepTa othhtbh b #OMa Ha npHflTejia ch Hjiha KapOB, kohto My ^OHecbJi ot 
tax flpexn, o6yBKH h paHHija. Kbcho BenepTa ce cpemHaji c napTH3aHKaTa 
Tepa TleeBa b ropn^KaTa Meac^y KaMeHHija h ,3,parHH0B0 (cpemaTa 6njia 
yroBOpeHa ome hakojiko ahh npe^H TOBa). Tepa My no^apHJia eflHH ot 
nncTOJieTHTe ch "3ayep", KajiH6i>p 7.65 mm. Taica ilico, e^Ba HaBtpuiHJi 17 
roflHHH, CTaHaji napTH3aHHH h ynacTBaji b aeficTBHOTa Ha OTp>ma 
"^enHHeij", BKJiioHHTejiHO h b cpa^ceHH^Ta Ha Bp. Mhjicbh cKajiH b 
HanajiOTO Ha cemeMBpH 1944 r. Toh Me noBe/je H3 flBOpa h miomafla h Me 
3ano3Ha c hakoh napTH3aHH h aHTH^auiHCTH ot KaMeHHija. IIpeflCTaBfl Me h 
Ha Tepa IleeBa. 

B IIa3apAHCHK. IIapTH3aHCKaTa Gpnraaa ce noaroTBjmie m 3aMHHe 

222 



cbiuaTa Benep 3a rp. na3ap,n>KHK h j\a npeMHHe no,n KOMaH^BaHeTo Ha ma6a 
Ha TpeTa BtCTaHHHecKa 3cma. Tocko BaHneB h Orec^aH BacHJieB peninxa 
ctino fla OTH^ar b IIa3apfl5KHK h aa ce abat b ma6a Ha 30HaTa. Ilerbp 
BpaHneB npefljioacn aa 3aMHHa c tax h #a ce CBtpaca c OK Ha EPn, 3a j\a 
nojiyna yKa3aHHfl 3a pa6oTara Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aitHH h OTenecTBeHHA 
(|)poHT b BaTaK. Ha 12.IX. Gpnra/jaTa OTntTyBa 3a Ila3apfl^cHK c TecHO- 
jiHHeHKaTa. B e/jHO ot KyneTaTa Ha BJiaKa ce HacTaHHXMe h mie, TpHMaTa 
6aTanaHH. Ha rapaTa napTH3aHHTe 6axa H3npaTeHa c MHoro ubqt^l h necHH. 
HaBCflKbfle no rapHTe Ha m>Tfl hh HacejieHHeTO paflocrao npHBeTCTBanie 
napTH3aHHTe ? craBaxa KpaTKH MHTHHrH. B na3apfl}KHK npHCTHraaxMe 
npHBenep. H TyK nenHHitH nocpemHara c paaocT. EpHra/jara noa erpoH 
npeMHHa no rjiaBHaTa yjinita, npHBeTCTByBaHa ot rpaayjaHHTe. HyBaxa ce 
npHBeTCTBHfl, BHKaxa ce HMeHa Ha no3HarH, neexa ce BMpoacfleHCKH n 
napTH3aHCKH necHH. napTH3aHHTe ce ycTaHOBnxa b ynnjinme "Ajicko 
KoHCTaHTHHOB". C Tocko h CTe(J)aH cnaxMe Ha no/ja b e/jHa KJiacHa craa. 
IIpe3 HomTa HMax TeMnepaTypa h Me Tpeceiue (6ax XBaHaji Majiapna). 

CyTpHHTa Ha 13. IX. (cpfl/ja) othaox b Okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe. 
CpemHax ce c JIio6eH HayMOB h c flpyra /jpyrapH ot 3aTBOpa. Te Me 3aBe,no- 
xa b op^aceHHara h a3 ch H36pax e/jHa HeMCKa Kapa6HHa ot 1916 r. no TOBa 
BpeMe b nasapa^cHK Bene (})yHKijHOHHpaiiie HOBaTa BJiacT Ha OTenecTBeHra 
(^pOHT h b Okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe, b kmctctboto h b /jpyraTe /j'bpacaBHH 
ynpe^yi;eHH5i aencTBaxa hobh ptKOBOflHTejiH-aHTH(J)aHiHCTH. no yjiHijHTe Ha 
rpa/ja itapeuie tojihmo oacHBJieHHe. HacejieHHeTO npa3HyBauie. Pe^tT ce 
nojuxbpyKame ot Btopi>5KeHH napTH3aHH h aHTH(j)aiiiHCTH. 

Ci>mHH aeH npeflH o6)ia ce hbhx b Okojihhckha komhtct Ha EPn, kohto 
ce noMemaBame b crpa/ja b iteHTtpa Ha rpa^a. Mnxanji TyMHepOB, KoroTO 
Ao6pe no3HaBax ot 3aTBOpa, h Ctohh nonoB, nojiHTKOMHcap Ha BtCTaHH- 
necKara 30Ha, mh ^afloxa yKa3aHHfl 3a Bi>3CTaHOBflBaHe Ha napTHHHaTa 
opraHH3ai#Di h Ha PMC b BaTaK, 3a Ha3HanaBaHe Ha kmct h o6mHHCKa 
ynpaBa, 3a c(j)opMHpaHe Ha komhtct Ha OTenecTBeHM (J)poHT, 3a ycraHO- 
BjreaHe Ha npHATejiCKH B3aHMOOTHonieHM c B3HC h ApyrHTe napran, 
kohto BJiH3axa b OTenecTBeHHH (J)poHT ? 3a OKa3BaHe ctfleScTBHe Ha 
o6mHHaTa no Mo6njiH3HpaHe Ha BoeHHHTe HHHOBe h ap. B crpa/jara 6eiue 
o^KHBeHO, nocTOAHHO BJiH3axa h H3JiH3axa xopa, aaBaxa ce HHCTpyKitHH Ha 
npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha pa3JiHHHH opraHH3aitHH. 

Pa3AennxMe ce c Tocko h OrecjmH. Te ocTaHaxa npn Ctoah nonoB, Ha 
pa3nojioaceHHe Ha ma6a Ha B^CTaHKHecKara oneparaBHa 30Ha (B03), a 
nocjie 6hjih H3npaTeHH b Hjiob^hb, Kb/jeTO rn Ha3HaHHJiH 3a noMomHHK- 
KOMaH^HpH Ha BoeHHH nofleneHHfl h th H3npaTHJiH Ha (J)poHTa. A3 

223 



Tpfl6Bame ^a ce BtpHa BaTaK. 

IIpeflH aa HanycHa Ila3apfl^KHK HMax paflocraa cpema c moh 6jih3i>k 
npHflTen h flpyrap ot actckh ro^HHH MHJiyni U,BeTaHOB. Ton 6eine blb 
BoeHHa yHH(|)opMa ? OKa3a ce, ne cjiyacn b ILiobahb h e nio(J)i>op Ha 
KOMaHflHpa Ha H*ncaKBO noflejiemie. C BoeHHa Kona "Onen" toh OTHim>ji #o 
BaTaK, Kb^eTO pa36paji, ne ci>m b IIa3apfl)KHK h nowbii ^a Me bh^h cnefl 
ABeroaHiHHa pa3^Jia. 

- KonaTa e Ha Hauie pa3nojioaceHHe. IU,e Te OTKapaM b BaTaK - Ka3a 
MHJiym. 

Bi>3pa3HX h My HanoMHHx, ne e bohhhk h ne hoch OTroBopHOCT. Toh 
o6ane 6euie HenpeKJioHeH. 

npHCTHTHaxMe b BaTaK h OTHfloxMe npaBO b o6njHHaTa. Bene 6eme 
TbMHO. CTaaTa Ha KMeTa o6ane CBeTenie. TyK 3aBapHXMe Ebthm IlyHHeB, 
TpeHfla(J)HJi KepejioB, Ilerbp BpaHHeB, kohto 6enie H36paH 3a ceKpeTap Ha 
napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijH5i, h flpyrn apyrapH, kohto (|)aKTHHecKH 6axa noejin 
ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha o6njHHaTa ot hmcto Ha OTenecTBeHHfl $poHT. npe^aflox 
hm noapo6HO HHCTpyKitHHTe Ha Mnxanji TyMHepOB. PeniHXMe ^a HanpaBHM 
napTHHHO ci>6paHHe h Ha Hero m ch aoH3^CHHM npczjCToamHTe 3a^aHH. 

Ci>6paHHeTO Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl ce cbctoa Ha cjieflBamna ^eH 
b e^Ha ot CTaHTe Ha HHTannmeTO noa npe^ceflaTejicTBOTO Ha IlerBp 
BpaHHeB. npHCbCTBame h napTH3aHHHi>T Bacnji Cepa^HMOB, kohto ce 
roTBenie fla 3aMHHe 3a Coc])Hfl, tbh KaTO no pa^noTO ro 6axa noBHKajin ^a 
3aeMe /yn>)KHOCTTa "niaBeH ^HpeKTOp Ha ropHTe". A3 othobo npepa3Ka3ax 
HHCTpyKitHHTe Ha Mnxanji TyMHepOB h Ctoah IIonoB. B3e ce pemeHHe Ha 
17.IX. (Heaeim) aa ce npOBe^e TpaypeH MHTHHr b m. U,nroB napK b naMeT Ha 
y6nTHTe napTH3aHH h flTaijH. Ha TpeHfla(|)HJi KepenoB h Teoprn KojiapOB 
6eme Bt3Jio5KeHO aa CBCTaBAT rio3HB-5KajieHKa kbm HacejieHHeTO Ha BaTaK. 
no3HBi>T 6eme HanncaH MHoro eMoitHOHajiHO h 6eiue H3flaaeH h 
pa3npocTpaHeH b HaBenepneTO Ha MHTHHra. 

Bi>3CTaHOBHBaHe Ha PMC. BenepTa Ha 14.IX. (neTB^prbK) rpyna 
npHATejiH-peMCHCTH ce ci>6paxMe b flOMa Ha #hko n. CTaHKOB h Bi>3CTa- 
HOBHXMe peMCOBaTa opraHH3aijHfl b BaTaK. Ta 6eme ocTaHana 6e3 ptKOBOfl- 
ctbo cjiea MacoBHTe apecTH h y6HHCTBa npe3 m>pBHTe MeceitH Ha 1944 r., 
KoraTO 6e3 ct>a h npHCVja 6axa h36hth no Haft-acecTOK HaHHH 14 peMCHCTH, 
12 ot kohto 6axa napTH3aHH: TpeHaa^HJi BanHHOB - ceKpeTap Ha 
opraHH3aijHflTa, AneKca BaHneB (Pa^n), Kara BaHHeBa QKHBKa), MapKO 
KapjnoKOB (MaKCHM), HnKOJia BejiKOB (Cmhjiah), IlerBp BpaHHeB (Eohh), 
CTe^aH BpaHHeB (Tomo), OrecJmH TameB (,3,aMflH), AHflpen HafineB 
(CTpaHfl^caTa), Teoprn ^5KypKOB (Camo), JIio6eH TaHeB (Panno), IlerBp 

224 



KbHeB (Bhho), Toflop HojiaKOB (CnapTaK), Hjihh ^hcb (aTaK). Hhkoh ot 
peMCHCTHTe 6)ixa HHTeproipaHH, flpyrH 6)ixa H3npaTeHH b JiarepH h 3aTBopH, 
a TpeTH - b Ka3apMaTa KaTO bohhhiih. 

A3 6hx H36paH 3a ceicpeTap, a b pt>kobo,hctboto Bimoxa Eopnc EajiHHOB 
(anrmpon), ^hmhtbp T. ^acypKOB, AHreji Ctohhcb h IIJepK) LLJepeB. 
B3exMe peineHHe aa npOBe/jeM ct6paHHe Ha 17.IX. cnefl o6jia b cajioHa Ha 

qHTaJIHmeTO, Ha KOeTO nOKaHHXMe BCHHKH peMCHCTH H aHTH(|)aiHHCTH, 

kohto ce HaMHpaxa b cenoTO. Ha MeH Bi>3Ji05KHxa aa noaroTBA flOKJia/t Ha 
TeMa "CtmHOCT, ijejin h 3a#aHH Ha PMC". BnponeM, noflo6HH flOKJiaflH a3 
6ax H3Hac)iJi Ha peMCOBH yneHMHecKH c6npKH b Co^ha, a b 3aTBOpHTe 

flOni>JIHHTeJIHO pa3HIHpHX 3HaHH5ITa CH no HCTOpHfl Ha pa60THHHeCKOTO 

^BH^ceHHe, BPII h PMC. 

E^ceflHeBHO b paMKHTe Ha hakojiko naca HMax npHCTtmi Ha MajiapHHHa 
TpecKa. B cenoTO HflMame jieKap, HflMame h JiexapcTBa. B TaKHBa cjiynaH 
jioKax b Kyxmrra noxpHT c HHKOJiKO ofleajia h TpaKax ct>c 3t>6h. Cnefl nac- 
flBa CTaBax h H3JiH3ax ot kbehh, 3a aa ynacTBaM b pa3JiHHHH o6mecTBeHH 
npo^BH h m cnoflenHM o6mara pa^ocT Ha cbcejMHirre ch ot no6eaaTa Ha^ 
4>aiuH3Ma. 

MnTHHn>T h ci>6paHHeTO Ha 16. IX. 1944 r. IIpe3 Te3H #hh b BaTaK ce 
3aBi>pHa ot KOHijJiarep Byfino fiuKO T. fines. Toh 6enie ce 3a,m>p)Kaji 3a 2-3 
Ahh b Cotjma saeflHO c apyrapHTe ch ot jiarepa, 3a ^a ynacTBa b 
MaHH(J)ecTaiiHHTe h mhthhthtc Ha cocJmahijh h b nocpemaHeTO Ha nacTHTe 
Ha Ci>BeTCKaTa apMH*. EaTaiiiKHTe aHTH^aniHCTH ro onaKBaxa c toji^mo 
HeTtpneHHe, 3a aa H3noji3BaT peBOJiioijHOHHHfl My onHT, 3HaHH*Ta h 
yMeHHeTO My aa pa6oTH c xopaTa. 

B BaTaK HeonaKBaHO npHCTHraaxa h napTH3aHHTe Hjiha Kpi>CTeB 
(/Johhhh), MnxaHJi Mhhicb (Koho) h HaHKa CepKe/pKHeBa (BHTKa), 3a #a 
OTfla^aT noHHT KtM y6nTHTe 6aTaniKH napTH3aHH h jrraijH, kt>m 
HacejieHHeTO Ha BaTaK. Tpa6Ba aa OT6ejie^ca ? ne #OToraBa BflpBaxMe Ha pa3- 
npocTpaHeHHH cnyx, ne bchhkh napTH3aHH ot jiereHflapHM OTpflfl "Ahtoh 
HBaHOB" ca 3arHHajiH. HflBaHeTO Ha TpHMaTa oijejiejiH CTaHa tojiamo 
ci>6HTHe ? KoeTO pa3Bi>jiHyBa 6aTanaHH. Te 6axa BoiOBajiH paMO j\o paMo etc 
3arHHajiHTe 22 6aTaniKH napTraaHH, 6axa npeaoiBejiH HepaBHHTe cpa^ceHHH 
c 4)aniHCTKaTa )KaHflapMepH5i npe3 4>eBpyapH-MapT 1944 r. 

KoMHTeTbT Ha OTenecTBemifl (J)pOHT CBHKa b 17 h. b cajioHa Ha HHTa- 
nnmeTO o6mocejiCKO cb6paHHe - cpeuja c TpHMaTa napTH3aHH. Te noceraxa 
Ki>maTa Ha 6paT5i Teoprn h HHKOJia HonaKOBH, cpeujHaxa ce c HeBeHa h 
HnKOJiHHa HojiaKOBH, c .neija h CMpyra Ha yGnra napTH3aHH h jrraijH. 

Ilpe/j KtmaTa Ha HojiaKOBH CTaHa cnoHTaHeH mhthht. YjiHijaTa ce 

225 



H3ITBJIHH C HapOfl - MTOKe, 5KCHH, fleija, BCeKH HCKaiHe fla BH£H 

jiereHflapHHTe napTH3aHH, aa hm cracHe ptije h TaKa /ja H3pa3H cbocto 
yBa^ceHHe h npeKJioHeHHe kt>m no^BHra Ha napTH3aHHTe ot OTpjma "Ahtoh 
HBaHOB", kohto GaTanaHH ToraBa HapHHaxa "namux OTpaa". 

,H,ohhhh, cTbiran Ha KaMapa KaMtHH, npoH3Hece pen. ILnaMeHHa pen 
npoH3Hece h HacKopo 3aBi>pHajiH)iT ce ot KOHijJiarep #hko #HeB, kohto 
roBopn 3a repoH3Ma Ha CbBeTCKaTa apMHfl bt>b BOHHaTa cpemy 
XHTJiepo(|)aniH3Ma ? 3a no^BHra Ha napTH3aHHTe, 3a repoH3Ma Ha 6aTaniKHTe 
napTH3aHH h OTaijH. Toh cpaBHH TAXHaTa 6op6a c 6yHTOBeTe Ha phmckhtc 
po6n h CnapTaK, c 6op6HTe Ha ynacTHHiiHTe bt>b BejiHKara (|)peHCKa 
peBOJiioiiHH h BejiHKaTa OKTOMBpHHCKa peBomoijHfl. ITpH30Ba GaTaniKaTa 
MJiaaeac aa ce bkjiiohh aKTHBHO b 6op6aTa 3a OKOHnaTejiHaTa noGeaa Haa 
TepMaHHfl, 3a yKpenBaHe BJiacrra Ha OreHecTBeHHa (j)poHT. 

Cjiea Te3H penH MJiafleaarre noexa Ha ptije TpHMaTa napTH3aHH h c 
naTpHOTHHHH necHH ra noHecoxa kbm canoHa Ha HHTajinmeTO, Kbflero ce 
cbctoh cpemaTa hm c HacejieHHeTO Ha BaTaK. CajioHtT, kohto ctGHpame 
noBene ot 400 /jyniH, 6enie npem>jiHeH, KOpH,zi;opHTe - ctmo, a MH03HHa 
ocTaHaxa Ha rniomaaa npea HHTajrameTO. Ha cijeHaTa 3acTaHa ^ohhhh. 
Mjiaa, eflBa 20-roflHHieH, CTpoeH, KpacHB, o6jieneH b napTH3aHCKa 
nojiyBoeHHa yHH(|)opMa, c niMainep b ptKa, toh 6enie 6ypHO anjio#HpaH ot 
npnctcTBamHTe. B npofltJiaceHHe Ha flBa naca toh yBJieKaTejiHO pa3Ka3a 3a 
nojBH3HTe Ha OTpaaa "Ahtoh HBaHOB", 3a narepHTe "TexepaH" h "PaBHo", 
3a 3jioko6hh)i 21.11.1944 r., KoraTO cjie3HH b BaTaK, 3a aa nonynaT xpaHa, 3a 
npcuaTencTBOTO, 3a npecTpejiKara h npecneflBaHHaTa, 3a y6HHCTBOTO Ha 
3aM.-KOMaHflHpa Ha OTpaaa Teoprn ^onaKOB (AceH), 3a nocneflBajiHTe 
cpaaceHHfl c XHJMflH bohhhijh, 3a TeacKHTe noxoflH npe3 noBene ot 1 m chat, 
3a MHoro6pOHHHTe acepTBH, 3a npeMHHaBaHeTO Ha p. Btna, 3a TOBa KaK 
oi^ejienH caMO 14 napTH3aHH, a 138 6hjih h36hth, 3a cb3flaBaHeTO Ha hobhh 
napTH3aHCKH OTpaa 'Teopra ,H,hmhtpob", hhhto nonHTKOMHcap CTaHan 
,H,ohhhh, kohto npofltJi^caBa 6op6aTa h cneflBa npHMepa Ha aHTOHHBaHOBijH 
b 6op6aTa npoTHB 4>auiH3Ma ? 3a CBoGoaara Ha Hapo^a. 3a aejiara Ha 
6aTaniKHTe napTH3aHH h HTaijH toh roBopH c tojihmo yBaaceHHe h noanepTa 
taxhoto BOflemo 3HaneHHe b 6op6nTe Ha OTpjma, onnca TexHHTe 6ohhh, 
ApyrapCKH h flynieBHH KanecTBa, pa3KpHHH ce b ycjioBMTa Ha HeHMOBepHH 
Tpy^HOCTH. BjiaroaapeHHe Ha HeroBHTe pa3Ka3H, o6pa3HTe Ha 22-MaTa 
6aTaiiiKH napTH3aHH BMKptCBaxa npe^ Hac b HOBa, repoHHHa CBeTJiHHa. 

B npofltjraeHHe Ha flBa naca 6aTanaHH MtJinajiHBO cnyniaxa pa3Ka3a Ha 
^ohhhh. Ha6jnoflaBax npHCbCTBamHTe - b ohhtc Ha mhoto ot tax HMauie 
ci>ji3h. HflMame ptKonjuicKaHH)i ? HAManie BT&niacH, xapaKTepHH 3a 

226 



xoraBauiHHTe et6paHHfl h mhthhth. CflKain 6axMe b ijtpKBa. ^ohhhh 
saB'bpuiH pa3Ka3a ch c npeKJioHeHHe kt>m 6aTaniKHTe napTH3aHH h OTaijH. 
Bchhkh ce H3npaBHxa Ha KpaKa h ome fltJiro CToaxa CMtJinaHH, oxnaBaHKH 
nowr Ha napTH3aHHTe ? Ha bchhkh, kohto 3arHHaxa b 6op6aTa npoTHB 
(J)auiH3Ma, 3a CBo6oAHa h He3aBHCHMa B^nrapH^. 

Ha 17.IX. (HeAejDi) cyTpHHTa ce cbctoa MHTHHr-noKJioHemie npe# 
3eepcKH ySHTHTe Ha 17 cpemy 18.111.1944 r. srrauH b m. LJuroB napK: 
rieTtp #HeB, TpeHfla4)HJi EajiHHOB, Tocko TaHeB, ^hmhtbp Kjihhhcb, 
Tocko HaymeB, HBaH 3a(J)HpKOB 5 Hjiha J\. Ruqb. ToBa no ctmecTBO 6eine 
e#HO noKJioHeHHe npea bchhkh y6HTH naTpHOTH-aHTH(j)aiHHCTH ot BaTaK h 
oKOJiHHTe cejinma, hhhto jio6hh MecTa h kocth 6axa oceajiH EaTaniKHa 
6ajiKaH. 

A3 o6ane He Moacax aa ora^a Ha MHTHHra. Jleacax b Kyxmrra OTCJia6Haji 
h c TeMnepaTypa b onaKBaHe Ha cjieflBamHa "ceaHc" Ha MajiapHHHaTa 
TpecKa. C^maTa cyTpHH b Moe otcbctbhc ce npoBejio 3ace,naHHe Ha hobo- 
H36paHOTO pi>KOBOflCTBO Ha PMC, Ha KoeTO HaHKa CepKea^cHeBa (BHTKa) 
KaTO npeflCTaBHTen Ha 06jiacTHHfl komhtct Ha PMC nocTaBHJia 3a,naHH 
npefl peMCOBaTa hh opraHH3aijHfl. Cnea TOBa BHTKa, Bopnc BajiHHOB h 
^HMHTbp ^^cypKOB floiifloxa npH MeH bkmiih, a nocne 3aMHHaxa 3a 
MHTHHra b m. LJhtob napK. 

Jleacax b jierjioTO h nnmex flOKJiaaa ch 3a ctmHocrra h 3a,zi;aHHTe Ha 
PMC b eflHa TeTpa^Ka. Ilo pa^HOTO npe^aBaxa MHTHHra, kohto ce npoBOK- 
aanie b Ci>fle6HaTa najiaTa b Cocj)Hfl. MHHHcrbp-npeflceflaTejDiT Khmoh 
TeoprneB nponeTe npoipaMaTa Ha OTenecTBeHO(j)pOHTOBCKOTO npaBHTeji- 
ctboto. ToBopHxa h Apyra opaTopH. ToBa mh noMoraa fla pa3BHfl b aoKJiaaa 
Btnpoca 3a nojiHTHHeciarre ijejiH Ha OTenecTBemifl (|)poHT h fla KOHKpe- 
TH3HpaM 3aaaHHTe Ha HauiaTa peMCOBa opraHH3aijHfl h Ha aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 
MJiaae^c. 

Cjiea o6^fl 6ax othobo noceTeH ot BHTKa. Ot hmcto Ha 06jiacTHHH 
KOMHTeT Ha PMC to nocTaBH hakoh 3aaaHH: fla npHBJieneM noBene 
nporpecHBHH MJiaaeacH b PMC, aa ycTaHOBHM CKipyflHHHecTBO c flpyrn 
MnafleacKH opraHH3aijHH b cejioTO, aa BJie3eM bt>b Bpi>3Ka c Okojihhckha 
KOMHTeT Ha PMC b EpaijnroBO, aa no/uioMaraMe fleHHOcrra Ha KOMHTeTa Ha 
OreqecTBeHHfl 4>pOHT h Ha o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa bi>b Bpi>3Ka c mo6hjih- 
3aijHOTa, aa pa3flCHABaMe HCTOpHHecKOTO 3HaneHHe Ha yHacraeTO Ha 
BtJirapH^ bt>b BoiiHaTa npoTHB TepMaHHH h jip. Ha BpaTaTa Ha HauiHA aom 
BHTKa cpemHa ^hmhtbp #hcb (HaBflap), kohto 6hji 3aji0BeH Kpafi c. 
PaBHorop 3aeflHO c rpyna napTH3aHH, ho ocTaHa )khb. Ta paaocrao ro 
npen>pHa. 3aeflHO etc ctnpyra ch Teoprn CepKe/pcHeB (HauiKaTa), BHTKa 

227 



3ana3H npHOTencKH oTHomeHM c HaB^ap, (HapHHaH ot 6aTanaHH IIIyM- 
KapneTo) h ro noanoMaraine ao nocjie^HHTe jinn Ha ^CHBOTa My. 

KoraTO ^hmhtbp ^^cypKOB ce BtpHa ot LJhtob napK, a3 My npe^aaox 
/joKJia/ja "Cbiijhoct h 3a/i;aHH Ha PMC" h toh ro nponeTe npe/j MJia/joKKOTo 
ci>6paHHe ? KoeTO ce npOBe^e kt>cho cneflo6ea b HHTajiHiijHHfl canoH. 

IlapTHeH h peMCOB KJiyS. EflHa ot 3a,naHHTe hh npe3 Te3H ntpBH 
flHH 6enie /ja ce HaMepH noMememie 3a KJiy6 Ha MJiaae^cHTe. Komhtctbt Ha 
OTenecTBeHH^ (|)poHT ce CT>6Hpame h 3ace,naBame b e#Ha ot CTaHTe Ha 
o6mHHaTa h TOBa ce BT>3npHeManie KaTO Hemo Ham>jiHO ecrecTBeHo. 
IlapTHHHOTO pi>KOBO/i;cTBO npOBOKflauie 3aceflaHH^Ta ch h napTHHHnre 
ci>6paHH)i b e^Ha ot CTaHTe Ha HHTajiHmeTO. PMC - ctmo. C Bopnc 
BanHHOB h AHren At. KonapoB 3anoHHaxMe m o6mhcjmmc BMpoca 3a 
ci>3flaBaHe Ha Kny6 Ha PMC h MJia/jeaera. Cno/tejiHXMe Hauime HaMepeHH* 
etc ceKpeTapa Ha BPI1 (k) ITerbp BpaHneB. Toh o/i;o6pH HainaTa H^ea h 
aa/te cbrjiacne m TbpcHM 6e3 OTJiaraHe no,zi;xoAflmo noMememie. IloMorHa 
hh cjiynaHHOCTTa. IIpe,n crpa^aTa Ha KoonepaijHfl "Po,noncKH CKOTOBi>,neij" 
cpemHaxMe AHpeKTOpKaTa Ha CTonaHCKOTO #eBHHecKO yHHJinme CnMeo- 
HOBa. Ta Ka3a, ne npe3 MHHanaTa yne6Ha ro/tHHa yHHJiHiijeTO e npoBe^caajio 
3aH)iTHHTa ch b crpa^aTa Ha KoonepaijHATa, a cera ocBo6oflc,naBajiH Te3H 
noMememui h ce npeMecTHJin b crpa#aTa Ha CronapcKOTO yHHJiHiije. 

Be^Hara mh xpyMHa #a pa3rneflaMe ocBo6o/i;eHH5i ot yHHJiHmeTO eTaac 
ot crpa/taTa Ha KoonepaijHOTa. TyK HMauie nerapH CTan, e/jHa ot tax ce 
H3noji3Banie 3a KamjenapHfl, a apyrHTe Tpn 6axa cbo6oahh. EaxMe 
HaMepHJiH TOBa, KoeTO TbpcexMe. BeflHara TpHMaTa oraaoxMe npn 
npe/i;ce/i;aTejM Ha KOonepaijHOTa 6afi IleTbp TaHeB, aHTH(|)aiHHCT, snraK Ha 
napTH3aHHTe h aKTHBeH ,neeij Ha BPI1. Toh paGoTeme KaTO npeflce/taTeji Ha 
o6mecTBeHH Hanajia. Pa3Ka3axMe My 3a HanieTO npefljioaceHHe. Toh ce 
ycMHXHa o/i;o6pHTejiHO h Ka3a, ne me cBHica ynpaBHTejiHHA CBBeT, kohto me 
ce ctrnacH c HanieTO HCKaHe. 

- CnHTaiiTe BMipoca 3a pemeH, - 3aKinoHH toh. 

3anoHHaxMe #a aencTBaMe 6e3 OTJiaraHe. Ome cbiijHOT fleH c rpyna 
peMCHCTH 3anoHHaxMe nonncTBaHeTO Ha noMenjeHHATa. J\bq ot CTaHTe 6axa 
onpefleneHH 3a BPI1 (k) h PMC, a TpeTaTa, koato 6enie no-rojiflMa - 3a 
cbGpaHHJi. B CTaHTe nocTaBHXMe, a b 3anaTa no/tpeflHXMe hakojiko aeceTKH 
cmrca, ocTaBeHH TyK ot ynnjinmeTO. HaKpaa o6flBHXMe KJiyGa 3a OTKpHT. 
Cnopo no HHHi^naTHBa Ha AHren KojiapoB h rpyna MJiaae^cH noMenjeHHATa 
Ha KJiy6a 6axa o63aBeaeHH c Me6ejin h c flBa GhGjihotchhh niKa(|)a, b kohto 
caMO 3a hakojiko Meceija ce Cb6paxa noBene ot 400 TOMa JiHTepaTypa. 

B npo#i>jraeHHe Ha noBene ot 30 toahhh, to3h KJiyS cjiyaceuie Ha 

228 



napTHHTa h PMC (CHM, flKMC), a h Ha apyrn KyjnypHo-MacoBH 
opraHH3aitHH. TyK CTaBaxa MHoro ci>6paHHfl n 3aceflaHHH. O^khbcho ce 

oSCB^flaxa pa3JIHHHH BMIpOCH Ha o6meCTBeHO-HKOHOMHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe 

Ha BaTaK. TyK ce pa3BHBauie h npoflBABame, a b OTflejmn cjiynan h 
noTHCKauie, BT>TpeniHonapTHHHaTa ,o;eMOKpaijHfl. TyK ce 3amnTaBanie npaB- 
flara, ho noHAKora HecnpaBe^nHBO ce o6BHHABaxa h HaKa3Baxa HJieHOBe Ha 
napTHHTa. Ho Han-BaacHOTO - Kny6i>T CTaHa cpe^nmHo macto Ha uiKOJia 3a 
fleMOKparaHecKO Bi>3nHTaHHe 5 3a TonepaHTHO OTHonieHHe Me^c^y xopaTa, 3a 
cKyjaBaHe Ha aeMOKparaHHH Tpaflmjnn, xyMaHH3i>M, cthhhoct, HenpH- 

MHpHMOCT KbM HeCnpaBeflJIHBOCTTa, Ha BT>3nHTaHHe B JIK)6oB KbM pOflHOTO 

cennme h kbm poflHHaTa. TyK ce nyBaxa Bi>3T0p^ceHH eMOijnoHajiHH penn, 

peBOJIIOIJHOHHH, BI>3pO)K,H;eHCKH H naTpHOTHHHH necHH, a noHAKora H 

cTporn h 0CKi>p6HTejiHH jxyMU. H cnefl ro^HHH, KoraTO Bene 5KHBeex 
jjpyraae, npH bcako H^BaHe b po^HM mh ^om b BaTaK, m>pBO OTHBax b 
KJiy6a, a cjie^ TOBa y poammnTe. Eax ch Cb3flaji TaKbB HaBHK. B KJiy6a 
cHKaui ce 3ape^cflax c poMaHTHKaTa Ha CBOsrra Mna^ocT ot m>pBHTe ro^KHH 
cnea /JeBera cenTeMBpn. 

H36op Ha KMeT h oSiniiHCKa ynpaBa. IlbpBH cn>nKH 
Ha HoeaTa BJiacT 

E^Ha ot n'bpBHTe 3aaaHH Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OTenecTBeHHa $pOHT 6enie aa 
npeycTpoH o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa. Ha e#Ho ot 3ace^aHHHTa Ha KOMHTeTa 
IleTbp BpaHHeB ot hmcto Ha napTHHHOTO p^kobo^ctbo npe,o;jio)KH ^a ce 
H36epe h Ha3HaHH ot okojihhckhh ynpaBHTen KMeT, kohto m p^kobo^h 
oGiuhhckoto ynpaBJieHne, m ocnrypn aeMOKpaTHHHHTe nopswKH, 3aKOH- 
hoct h cnpaBe^JiHBOCT, e^eKTHBHOTo h CBoeBpeMeHHO B3eMaHe Ha penieHna 

Ha BCHHKH BMIpOCH, CBT>p3aHH C HKOHOMHHeCKOTO H flyXOBHO pa3BHTHe Ha 

BaTaK b HOBHTe ycnoBHH b cbOTBeTCTBHe c nporpaMaTa Ha OrenecTBeHnfl 

4>pOHT. 

- 3a#aHHTe npea o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa - Ka3a BpaHHeB - ca cjioachh h 
Tpy^HH. 3anoHHa BOHHaTa, H3Bi>pniBa ce Mo6HJin3aijHfl, peKBH3HpaT ce 
(cTaBa jxyudL 3a 3aflT>JDKHTejiHO H3KynyBaHe) hakoh xpaHHTenHH npo^yKTH h 
4>ypa)KH 3a Hy5K,mrre Ha (J)poHTa; CHa6fl^BaHeTO Ha HacejieHHeTO cbc ctokh 
ot m>pBa Heo6xo^HMOCT e mhoto jioiuo, npe^cTon #a ce peniaBaT pe^nija 
HKOHOMHHecKH h npoH3BOflCTBeHH npo6jieMH. HacejieHHeTO Tpa6Ba ^a 
yceTH rpH^KHTe Ha HOBaTa aeMOKparaHHa BJiacT 3a 3aflOBOJWBaHe Ha 
HeroBHTe noTpe6HOCTH. PenieHHeTO Ha Te3H 3aflaHH j\o roji^Ma CTeneH 
3aBHCH ot KMeTa h ot flpyrHTe HJieHOBe Ha o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa. npe^jiaraM 
#a ce o6ct>#h h npeAJiomi 3a KMeT Hhko T. JhieB, e#HH MJiaa, CMeji, 

229 



necTeH, HHiimiaTiiBeH h aBTopwnreTeH apyrap. Toft HMa BHCine lopH/m- 
necKO o6pa30BaHHe ? ynacTBaji e b o6iu;ecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKHfl >khbot b 
BaTaK h no3HaBa mhoix) ao6pe MecTHHTe ycjiOBHfl. EaTanaHH ro yBaacaBaT h 
My HMaT flOBepHe. 

Bchhkh HJieHOBe Ha KOMHTeTa c pa,a;ocT npnexa npeano^ceHHeTo Ha 
BpaHHeB h noTBi>paHxa bhcokhtc jihhhh KanecTBa Ha ^hko ^hcb. Cjiyiuax 
h ce pa^Bax Ha o6HHTa, kooto Te H3pa3Hxa kt>m Hero. Penin ce 
npeflceaaTejraT Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OreHecTBeHM (|)poHT HnKona K)pyKOB, II. 
BpaHneB h TpeHfla(|)HJi KepenoB, ceKpeTap Ha KOMHTeTa, ,zja npOBe#aT 
pa3roBOp c R. Ruqb no T03H BMpoc. Ha Ta3H cpema, koato CTaBa BenepTa 
Ha ci>mH)i ,zjeH, npHCbCTBax h a3. 

- ^Ihko, npH^TenK) h apyrapio, me HMaMe BaaceH pa3roBOp c Te6e. 
AHTH(j)aiHHCTKOTO Bi>CTaHHe no6e,zjH. C6i>AHaxa ce MHoro ot mchthtc hh, 3a 
kohto 3arHHaxa MHoro 6aTanaHH. Cera Tpa6Ba aa ynpaBJiflBaMe. E...e... - 
3aeKHa no HaBHK BpaHHeB - HaniaTa 3aaana e CKpoMHa. Hne Tpa6Ba aa 
ocnrypHM e^HO AeMOKpaTHHHO h ycneniHO ynpaBJieHHe Ha BaTaK npH 
cjio^cHHTe ycjioBHH h TpyaHocTHTe, kohto H3nHTBaMe. Ho m ne ro ycyKBaM 
- Ka3a BpaHneB h HaMecTH OHHJiaTa ch KaKTO npaBenie, KoraTO Tpa6Ba aa 
B3eMe penieHHe hjih aa HanpaBH npeflJio^ceHHe. 

- KoMHTeTbT Ha OTenecTBeHHH (|)pOHT npe^Jiara #a Te H36epeM 3a KMeT. 
3HaM, ne me th e Tpy^HO aa npneMem, ho HAMa flpyr H3xofl. Tpa6Ba m ce 
cbraacHui. 

^hko ce pa3Bi>jiHyBa ? jinijeTO My npe6jie;jH)i, ho Toft 6i>p30 ce OBJia#fl h 
OTroBOpH c ycMHBKa: 

- neTpe, Ta BHe c KepenoB MHoro ao6pe 3HaeTe, ne Tpa6Ba «a 3aBT>pHia 
OKOHHaTenHO ct>c cbae6HHH CTa^c h aa nojiyna pa3penieHHe aa ynpa^cH^BaM 
npaBaTa ch Ha iopHCT h aflBOKar. TpHTe roflHHH b Tpy^OBHTe poth h KOHijna- 
repa npeKbCHaxa cra^ca mh. B BaTaK HMa MHoro flpyrn cnocoGHH h MJia^H 
o6pa30BaHH 6aTanaHH. HeKa aa ce o6ct>,zjh h^ko^ flpyra KaHflH^aTypa. 

- ^Ihko, Tpa6Ba aa ce cbraacHin - o6a^H ce TpeHfla(J)HJi KepenoB. - 
DKepTBan ch TpH roflHHH. Cera e mhoto Ba^cHO Hanejio Ha mccthoto ynpaB- 
JieHHe aa 3acTaHe KMeT c lopHflnnecKO o6pa30BaHHe, koAto yMee aa pa6oTH 
c xopaTa h no3HaBa Hy)K,zjHTe Ha HaceneHHeTO. 

Pa3roBOpi>T npoa'bJi^cH b flo6poflcejiaTejieH ayx, MaKap nepHO^HHHO ^a 
CTaBaine floera myMeH h pa3ropemeH. HnKona K)pyKOB ce HaMecBauie ot 
BpeMe Ha BpeMe c KpaTKH pernimcH. A3 MT>JiHax h cnyniax. Ham>jiHO pa36n- 
pax nojioaceHHeTo Ha ^hko. BpaHneB cjio^ch TOHKa c nocneflHHH mothb, 
koiito He HCKaine #a H3noji3Ba: 

- ^Ihko, Tp^6Ba aa 3aBi>piHHM /tejioTO, 3a KoeTo 3arHHaxa 6aTaniKHTe 

230 



napTH3ami h OTaim. Bchhkh Te 6axa tboh npH5rrejiH. rioMHHin jih icaic ce 
6opexMe c (JmuracTHTe Ha cb6pamiOTa Ha HHTajinmeTO, KaK pa6oTexMe b 

ynpaBHTeJIHHH CbBeT Ha CT>mOTO?! 

ToBa Haxapa #hko aa ce npeaafle: 

- J\di, npaB ch, ho aa npHeMa KMeTCKaTa fljitacHocT BpeMeHHO. 

- Xafifle, #hko, - #o6aBH 6afi Kojiio K)pyKOB - j\o Kpaa Ha BOHHaTa. 
Bchhkh me th noMaraMe. 

- ,3,o6pe, flo nocjieflHHH aeH Ha BOHHaTa - 3aKJiK)HH BpaHHeB. 

H Taica, T03H BMpoc 6euie peuieH h npeMHHaxMe klm o6cbac,aaHe Ha 
HenocpeflCTBeHHTe 3aaaHH Ha oGupiHCKaTa ynpaBa. 

HoBHHaTa 3a Ha3HanaBaHeTO Ha 5Ihko #HeB 3a kmct ce pa3npocTpaHH 
6tp30. Komhtctlt Ha OTenecTBeHH^ (j)pOHT onpeaejiH h HJieHOBeTe Ha 
o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa, kohto 6axa npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha pa3JiHHHH cbcjiobhh h 
noKOJieHHH: HHKOJia Cepa(J)HMOB ? HBaH TopaHOB, ^hmhtbp TopaHOB, 
Toflop Bo^ckob h flp. A3 cbiijo CTaHax HJieH Ha ynpaBaTa KaTO npe/jCTaBHTeji 
Ha MJiaae^cTa. B xo^a Ha HaniHTe 3ace/i;aHHfl, Ha kohto o6cb^cflaxMe h 
peuiaBaxMe Haii-pa3JiHHHH o6mocejiCKH BMpocH, a3 othctjihbo nyBCTBax 
Mtflpocrra Ha 6aTanaHHTe ot no-CTapHTe noKOJieHM. Hakoh ot BMpocHTe 
6axa ^HCKyTHpaHH h Ha o6mocejicKH ci>6paHHfl. 

Tana npe3 BTOpaTa nonoBHHa Ha cenTeMBpH h npe3 oktombph 1944 r. ce 
o^opMH e^HH Hy^eceH pi>KOBOAeH eKHn, b kohto BJiH3axa napTHHHO 
aHra^cnpaHH xopa h oGmecTBeHHijH, 3arpHaceHH 3a o6mHHCKHTe /jena: 
Teoprn KojiapOB, Bopnc ^hmob, AjieKcaHfl'bp ,3,0MycHHeB, Bopnc EajiHHOB, 
EjieHa ilHeBa, HHKOJia K)pyKOB, BeTKa K)pyKOBa, BacHJi ,ZJhmob, To/jop 
KojiapOB, ATaHac Xa,zpKHeB (Xapn), Ilerbp A. ^acypOB, Teoprn TaHeB, 
HaflKa KojiapoBa, Ilen>p TaHeB, HeBeHa ^ojiaKOBa, HeBeHa ^aymeBa, a-p 
AHreji Ctohmchob, hh)k. Hjihh IIpacKOB (E3HC), HBaH TopaHOB (B3HC) 3 
CTe^aH HemepeB (E3HC), TeoprH KaBJiaKOB (E3HC), BacHJi IlejieB, 
TeoprH IlIyTeB, ^HMHTbp II. ilHeB, HBaH J\. TopaHOB, ^hmhtbp T. 
BpaHneB, AHreji Xp. Ctohhcb h ap. 

Hanejio Ha Ta3H rpyna, kohto nocTeneHHO ce pa3iHHpflBame, 3acTaHaxa 
ceKpeTap^T Ha BPn (k) b BaTaK neTbp BpaHneB, kmctbt #hko ilHeB, 
ceKpeTap^T Ha OO komhtct TpeHfla(J)HJi KepenoB, ^HpeKTop'bT Ha CpeflHO- 
to TexHHnecKO yHHJinme TeoprH KonapoB. noflKpeneHH ot nonHTHHecKHTe 
h MacoBHTe opraHH3aitHH 5 Te npHCTbnHxa kbm pa6oTa c tojmm eHTycHa3 , bM. ) 
6e3KopncTHOCT h BceoT^aHHOCT. 3a moh pa/jocT, raxHaTa fleiiHocT ce OKa3a 
ycneuiHa - Te peninxa He e^HH ot MHoro6poHHHTe npo6jieMH Ha Hacene- 
HHeTO, OTCTO^xa aeMOKpaitH^Ta h peuiHTejiHO ce npoTHBonocTaBHxa Ha 
onHTHTe Ha hakoh jraija /ja HapyuiaT 3aK0HHTe b TbpceHe Ha OTMi>meHHe 3a 

231 



noHeceHH CTpa,naHHfl npH npcuHUiHHfl peacHM hjih Ha jihhho oGjiaro^e- 
TencTBaHe ot hobhjl H no-KtcHO Te ocraHaxa BepHH Ha cbohtc npHHijHnH, 
Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKHTe H^eajiH h Ha mo6oBTa ch kbm po/jhha BaTaK, 
He3aBHCHMO ot npeBpaTHOCTHTe Ha ct,a;6aTa. 

IlocpemaHe Ha bohhiiuh ot CteeTCKaTa apMHH. Eaxa H3MHHajiH ^Be 
ce^MHiiH ot 9.IX., a BaTaK ome He 6euie noceTeH ot npeflCTaBHTenn Ha 
CbBeTcicaTa apMM. 3aBH5K,qaxMe Ha HaniH ctcenaHH, kohto 6axa cpemajiH 
cbBeTCKH bohhhijh b Ilemepa, IIa3ap,n5KHK, ITjiobahb. B Ilemepa 6eme 
OTce^Haji MajiKa ctBeTCKa BoeHHa nacT h HHe HanpaBHXMe nocrbnKH Hpe3 
Okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe hchhh npe^cTaBHTenH /ja hh noceT#r. E^hh /jeH 
b Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpH Haft-noone ce nojiynn cto6m;eHHe, npe3 BaTaK Ha m>T 
3a jierameTO Kpaii c. IIIa6aHJiHH (ah. c. CtpHHija) me npeMHHaT ctBeTCKH 

BOHHHIJH. IlapTHHHOTO ptKOBO/JCTBO, KOMHTeTtT Ha OTCHeCTBeHHfl (J)pOHT H 

PMC o6eb,uHXMe nporpaMa 3a nocpemaHeTO hm. 3a nac HacejieHHeTO Ha 
BaTaK MacoBo ce crene b /jojihha Kpafl Ha cejiOTO. CpeujaTa CTaHa b /jBOpa 
Ha yHHJiHiu;e "Cb. HHKOJia". Pa3BABaxa ce 3HaMeHa, H3^Hraxa ce njiaKara c 
Ha^nHCH: "^o6pe aohijih", "EpaTCKH npHBeT Ha CtBeTCKaTa apMHfl - 
ocBo6o^HTenKa" h nopTpeTHTe Ha JleHHH h OrajiHH, HapncyBaHH ot HaniH 

MeCTHH XyflOflCHHIJH. 

Beuie xy6aB cjitHneB Ren. Okojio 12 h. 6eine no^aaeH CHraaji, ne 
BOHHHiiHTe Ha6jiHflcaBaT. Tpyna Mtace, aceHH, MJia/jeacH ce BTypHaxa no 
nioceTO h cnpflxa Boemfflji KaMHOH Ha MOCTa npe/j BajioKanoBaTa h 
TouiKOBaTa Bo^eHHiia. Ot KaMHOHa cjie3e MJiaa o(|)Hijep, nocjieflBaH ot 
ABaivia cep>KaHTH. 3anoHHaxa ptKoeracKaHHfl, nperpt^KH h ijejiyBKH. TpH- 
MaTa 6ohu;h 6axa noHeceHH Ha ptu;e. B flBopa Ha ynnjiHiijeTO ce ctcToa mh- 
THHr. Pen npoH3Hece Ore^aH r. #HeB, kohto 6enie b yHH(J)opMa Ha mo6h- 
jiH3HpaH o(J)Hitep h roBopH Ha 6i>jirapcKH h pycKH. Bt3TopaceHO "Ypa" npn- 
BeTCTBa ctBeTCKHTe bohhhijh. CtJi3H ce CTHHaxa OT OHHTe Ha TpHMaTa Gon- 
ial, npeMHHajiH npe3 ovbnn Ha BOHHaTa, npe3 noacapnma h KptB, cpemanH 
ce MHoro ntTH ohh b ohh etc CMtpira. Cera Te 6axa b 6paTCKHTe nperptfl- 
kh Ha 6aTanaHH 5 kohto b taxho jiHu;e BHacflaxa npe^cTaBHTejin Ha Cbbct- 
CKaTa apMHfl, kooto rpoMenie XHTJiepoBa TepMaHH^ h CTaHa ocBo6o,uHTejiKa 
Ha MHoro Hapo^H Ha EajncaHHTe h b EBpona ot (JmniHCTKO po6ctbo. 

Cnea MHTHHra mho5kcctboto ce OTnpaBH no rnaBHaTa yjiHu;a npe3 
cejiOTO h enpa npefl o6mHHaTa. B e/jHa ot craHTe Ha o6mHHaTa ce ctcToa 
cpema Ha HJieHOBeTe Ha o6m;HHCKaTa ynpaBa h KOMHTeTa Ha OTenecTBeHHfl 

(J)pOHT CtC CtBeTCKHTe 60HU;H. KMeTtT ^HKO ftUQB HM pa3Ka3a 3a HCTOpHflTa 

Ha BaTaK, 3a AnpHJiCKOTO BtCTaHHe h TypCKHTe KJiaHeTa, 3a 6op6aTa Ha 
6aTanaHH npoTHB (j)ainH3Ma, 3a 6aTaniKHTe napTH3aHH h ATaijH. Te 6axa 

232 



TporaaTH h BHflHMO pa3BT>nHyBaHH. JXyuara "SpaiyuiKH" npe3 Te3H 
hhkohko naca 6eine HaH-ynoTpe6flBaHaTa flyMa b BaTaK. 3a CMKajieHHe 
BpeMeTO hm 6eine MHoro orpamiHeHO h BtnpeKH Mon6HTe aa ocTaHaT, Te 
3aMHHaxa kt>m c. CtpHHija. 

Ilpe3 Te3H hakojiko naca a3 ce B3Hpax b 3aropenHTe mma Ha TpHMaTa 
bohhh Ha CtBeTCKaTa apMHfl, Ha6nioflaBax Bi>JiHeHHeTO hm, BHHMaTejiHOTo 
h ckpomhoto hm noBe,zi;eHHe. H a3, h MOHTe cbcejunra 3a m>pBH ni>T ce 
cpemaxMe c cbbctckh xopa. B Te3H nacoBe 6aTanaHH ce npeKJiaHaxa npe# 
noflBHra Ha OHe3H, kohto b npofl'bJDKeHHe Ha TpH roflHHH BoiOBaxa He caMo 
b 3amHTa Ha CBOOTa po#HHa, ho h 3a ocBo6o)K,neHHeTO Ha eBponeiicKHTe 

HapOflH OT XHTJiepO(|)aiHH3Ma. 

CnoMHAM ch Bi>nHyBamoTO cjiobo Ha JJfiMO Ka3acoB, npOH3HeceHo no 
pa^HOTO "Co(|)hh" npe3 oktombph 1944 r.: 

"BuyKTe toa CKpoMeH, noTBHan b cnaB^HCKa cbchjihboct bohhhk. 
BH)KTe ro c u#jioto cbfltp^KaHHe Ha HeroBaTa npeH3m>JiHeHa c Haft- 
TparHHHH npeacHBABaHHfl ayuia. Bn^cTe ro h ce onHTaifre aa npeijemrre no 

flOCTOHHCTBO HerOBOTO noBeflemie. 

TpH ro^HHH, #eH h Hom, cpe/j CTpaxoTHH BHenHijH h 6ypn, noTi>Haji Ty 
b npecnn, Ty b Kan h BOfla, toh OTCTOABa CBemeHaTa 3eMJi Ha cbohtc fle^H. . . 

E, flo6pe, MT>nHajiHBH^T 5 CKpoMeH, 6e3HMeHeH, cbht b cboa hikhcji 
repoii Ha Taa 6e3CMi>pTHa enonea, e aonrbJi cpe^ Hac. ,H,oiht>ji e, cjiea KaTo 
ot CTanHHrpafl ro Co(J)H5i e MHHan npe3 nenennmaTa Ha cbohtc hhbh, 
flOMOBe, cena h rpa^OBe. ,3,oim>Ji e, cne# KaTo Bene e y3Haji, a Moace 6h h 
caM BHfl^n, ne aom^t My e nenejiHme, ne 6jih3khtc My ca pa3KT>cami ot 
xHTJiepHCTKM 3B^p. H ,zjoim>Ji TyK, ce BH^cfla BHe3anHO cb6y,n;eH ot e^HH 
KouiMapeH ct>h h npeHeceH b e^HH MeHTaH ot Hero cnoKoeH Kpafi ". 

Bi>npeKH TeacKHTe H3nHTaHHfl Ha BOHHara, Te3H TpHMa 6ohijh ce 
OTHecoxa c tojiamo yBa5KeHHe kt>m )KepTBHTe Ha BaTaK npe3 AnpnjicKOTo 
Bi>CTaHHe h b 6op6aTa npoTHB 4>auiH3Ma 5 npeKJioHHxa ce npe# TaxHara 
naMeT, H3Ka3axa 6parcKO cbnyBCTBHe Ha 6jiH3KHTe Ha 3araHajiHTe napTH3aHH 

H ATaiJH. 

IIocemeHHe Ha rpyna /n>pHcaBHH h napTHHHH ptKOBOAHTejin b 
BaTaK. E^hh aeH b Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpH 1944 r. b BaTaK npHCTHrHa rpyna 
nojiHTHijH h o6^ecTBeHHu;H: Ahtoh IOtob, mhhhctt>p Ha Bi>TpeniHHTe 
pa6oTH h HJieH Ha IIojiht6k)po Ha BPIT (k); rpnrop HeuiMeflaoieB, 
mhhhctt>p Ha coijHajiHHTe nojiHTHKa h HJieH Ha U,K Ha EPQZJII; reH. rieTtp 
At. BpaHneB, HJieH Ha TnaBHH^ ma6 Ha HOBA, poflOM ot BaTaK; TpaaHa 
HeHOBa, HHKoraniHa HHTep6pHra,zjHCTKa b ncnaHCKaTa rpa^caaHCKa BOHHa; 
e^HH Maflop ot C'bBeTCKaTa apMHfl, kohto 6enie 6i>JirapHH ot YKpaHHa h ap. 

233 



TpynaTa noce™ o6iu;HHaTa, cpeujHa ce h pa3roBapa c KMexa h c 
HJieHOBe Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OrenecTBeHHa (j)poHT. MeayjyBpeMeHHO 6eme 
CBHKaHO ci>6paHHe- MHTHHr b HHTajiHmeTO. Cnefl nac cajioHtT 6eme 
npentJiHeH. nptB Ha Tpn6yHaTa sacTaHa Ahtoh K)roB. Ha6jnoflaBax ro - 
6eme MJiaa, okojio 35-ixwmieH, c KbflpaBa nepHa Koca, npeflCTaBHTejieH h 
flo6pe o6jieneH. ToBopeuie BtJiHyBaujo, ho h MHoro jiothhho, c MeK 3aBJia- 
flHBam mac. HanpaBH MHoro ^o6po BnenaTJieHHe. Cue;* Hero, nocpeumaT 
6ypHO ot npHCbCTBamHTe, roBopH reH. BpaHneB, mo6HMeu; Ha 6araHaHH, 
kohto ce rop^eexa c HeroBaTa aKTHBHa aHTH(j)amHCTKa aefiHOCT. ToBOpHxa 
ome Tpa^Ha HeHOBa h cbBeTCKHAT Mafiop (Ha xy6aB 6tnrapCKH e3HK). 
MafioptT noceTH KJiy6a, npOBe^oxMe pa3roBOp. Ha TptraaHe OTBOpn 
naHTaTa ch, H3BaflH KHHra, koato Haflnnca h mh Bpi>HH c noptneHHe aa a 
flo6aBHM ki>m HauiaTa 6n6jiHOTeKa. Otbophx h HCKpeHO ce 3apa^Bax: 6eiue 
KpaTKH^T Kypc no HcropHfl Ha BKQ (6), kohto Taica CTapaTenHO H3ynaBaxMe 
b 3aTBOpa. IIocBemeHHeTO rnaceuie: "Ha aHTHcJmuiHCTHTe ot c. EaTaK. 3a 
cnoMeH h c noacejiaHHe 3a mhoto ycnexn". H3noji3BaxMe Ta3H KHHra 
hakojiko roflHHH, ho HaKpaa ta H3He3Ha ot 6H6jiHOTeKaTa Ha KJiy6a. 

BeflHara cjiea MHTHHra rpynaTa Ha Ahtoh IOtob 3aMHHa c aBTOMoGnnn 
ki>m nemepa. Kt>m rpa^a c KaMHOH noTeranxMe h rpyna 6aTanaHH, 
npe^BO>KflaHH ot neTbp T. BpaHHeB. Ha iteHTpajiHH^ miomafl b nemepa, 
HapeneH Bene "HepBeHHfl mioma,n", ce npOBe^e mhthht, kohto 6enie 

OTKpHT OT HopflaH HaJIHKapOB, aflBOKaT, H3BeCTeH MeCTeH KOMyHHCTHHeCKH 

fleeu. nptB roBopH rpnrop HeuiMeaacHeB, kohto 6eme po,zjoM ot nemepa, 
H3BecTeH coijHajifleMOKpaT, CHMnaTHneH Bt3pacTeH Mtac c 6pa#HHKa. OKa3a 
ce h mhoto flo6tp opaTop. Eax Hen HeroBH CTaTHH Ha aHTHBoeHHa h 
aHTH(|)aHiHCTKa TeMaTHKa, a ctmo h poMaHa My "Hjibo 6ojimeBHKa". Cnea 
Hero roBopHxa Ahtoh IOtob h ctBeTCKHAT Mafiop. 

Ct>iu;h5i aeH ce ct>ctoa mhthht h b Bpauiiroeo MecHOTO HacejieHHe 
OKa3a cneijHajieH npHeM Ha Ahtoh IOtob h Ha TpaaHa HeHOBa, ctnpyra Ha 
6paitHroBeita ATaHac HeHOB, H3BecTeH KOMyHHCT h 6hbui Hapo^eH 
npeflCTaBHTen ot BPn, e^HH ot ntpBHTe napTH3aHH h ocHOBaTen Ha OTpa^a 
"Ahtoh HBaHOB", y6m npe3 MapT 1944 r. CaMaTa HeHOBa ctmo 6enie 
aKTHBeH HJieH Ha BPn h 6eme npeKapana nocjie^HHTe roflHHH b BpaunroBO. 

TyK nertp T. BpaHHeB, BopHC BajiHHOB h a3 ynacTBaxMe b cpema Ha 
aKTHBHCTHTe Ha BPn h PMC ot OKOJiHATa. Ha TOBa ctBemaHHe CTaHaxa 
npepeKaHH^ Me»my npe^CTaBHTejin Ha nemepa h EpaijnroBo no B-bnpoca 
Ktfle Tp^6Ba aa 6i>fle ceaajinmeTO Ha panoHHHTe komhtcth Ha BPn (k) h 
PMC. no TOBa BpeMe ce 6eme ci>3flajio e^HO HancTHHa a6cypflHO nono- 
)KeHHe: okojihhckoto ynpaBJieHHe h bchhkh aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH cjiy^c6n ce 

234 



HaMHpaxa b Ilemepa, a okojihhckhtc (HapHHami ome pafioHHH) komhtcth 
Ha BPII h Ha PMC - b rp. EpaijnroBO. 

EpaijnroBijH npefljiaraxa okojihhckh ijeHrbp fla CTaHe TexHMT rpaji; h 
TyK fla ce npexBi>pJiflT bchhkh okojihhckh a#MHHHCTpaTHBHH cjiyacGn. ToBa 
Hepa3yMHO npeflJi05KeHHe He 6euie npnera, ho cnopOBeTe no Bi>npoca 
npofl'bJi^KHxa ome hakojiko Meceija. Hmchho Ha TOBa 3ace#aHHe a3 ce 
3ano3Hax etc ceKpeTapa Ha PK Ha BPII (k) Teoprn >Ihkob, KaKTO h c 
odaHajiHTe HJieHOBe Ha PK: 6paipiroBeiia HnKOJia TpaaHOB h nemepmrre 
HHKOJia Ctohjiob, To,u;op KoacyxapOB, Toflop ApHaynoB h Hop^aH 
riajiHKapOB, c kohto no-KtcHO m^xMe rzl pa6oTHM 3ae/i;Ho h aa CTaHeM 
#o6pH npHATejiH. 

B KoMHTeTa Ha OreHecTBeHHH $poHT. B npofltJDKeHHe Ha flBe 
roflHHH ynacTBax b fleHHOcrra Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OrenecTBeHHfl (J)pOHT b 
BaTaK. Eax HeroB HJieH ot ci>3#aBaHeTO My npe3 cenTeMBpH 1944 r. KaTO 
npeACTaBHTeji Ha PMC h aHTH(|)aiiiHCTKaTa MJiafle5K ? a npe3 1945-1946 r. 
KaTO ceKpeTap h npeflCTaBHTeji Ha BPII (k). B ctcTaBa Ha KOMHTeTa cjiea 
^eBeTH cenTeMBpH HMauie KOMyHHCTH, 3eMe,nejmH h 6e3napTHHHH 
npeflCTaBHTejiH Ha hakoh o6mecTBeHH opraHH3aijHH. B Kpaa Ha 1945 hjih b 
HanajioTO Ha 1946 r. b BaTaK 6euie cb3,na,zi;eHa h opraHH3ai#Di Ha "3BeHo". 

B Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpH 1944 r. 3a npe^ceflaTeji Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OO 6euie 
H36paH HnKOJia K)pyKOB, a 3a ceKpeTap - TpeHfla(|)HJi T. KepejiOB. 
C'bCTaBtT Ha T03H komhtct 6euie oflo6peH Ha o6mocejicKO ci>6paHHe. Ha 
3ace,z];aHH5iTa My ce o6ei>5K,naxa h pemaBaxa noHTH bchhkh no-Ba5KHH 

MeCTHH nOJIHTHHeCKH, CTOnaHCKH H aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH BMIpOCH. Ot HeTOBO 

HMe ce orapaBflxa HCKaHHa ro pa3JiHHHH HHCTHTyijHH, H3npamaxa ce h 
AeneraijHH. Komhtctbt h o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa pa6oTexa 3a,npy5KHO, b m>jieH 
chhxpoh. Te ctBMecTHO npOBe^cflaxa o6mocejicKH ci>6paHH5i, kohto MacoBO 
6axa nocemaBaHH ot 6aTanaHH. 

KoMHTextT Ha OTenecTBeHH^ (|)poHT nrpaeuie pojiflTa Ha e^HH MajitK 
MecTeH napjiaivieHT. A Hacjie,o,CTBOTO, KoeTO hh 6euie 3aBemajia npeflHin- 
HaTa BJiacT, 6euie HancTHHa Te^cKO. He flocraraxa Haft-ejieMeHTapHH ctokh: 
Ma3HHHH ? 6pauiHO ? flpexH, o6yBKH ? iitpByjiH, 4>ypa^c 3a ao6HTbKa ? cenHBa 3a 
Ai>pBOflo6HBa h zi;p. Hoboto npaBHTejicTBO npaBeuie KaKBOTO M05Ke ? 3a aa 
noflo6pH CHa6flHBaHeTO h aa opraHH3Hpa npoH3BO,u;cTBOTo b ycnoBHOTa Ha 
3anoHBamHTe bochhh flencTBH^ cpemy TepMaHM. HauiHOT komhtct Ha OO 
ce CTapaeine zi;a ctfleHCTBa 3a no-m>JiHOTO H3noji3BaHe Ha MecTHHTe pecyp- 
ch, KoeTO ce H3pa3H b yBejinnaBaHe Ha fli>p5KaBHHTe /jocTaBKH (HapaflH); 
opraHH3Hpa ce pa3M5ma Ha np0H3Be,neHH ot 6aTanaHH KapTO(|)H, ,m>pBa h 
fli>pBeH MaTepnaji cpemy 5khto ? npoH3Be#eHO b jxpyru pafioHH Ha CTpaHaTa; 

235 



CTpeMflXMe ce klm cnpaBefljiHBO pa3npe,nejieHHe Ha Hap^flHTe cpe^ Hace- 
jieHHeTO b ycnoBHOTa Ha npofltjraaBamaTa KynoHHa CHCTeMa; BOflexMe 
6op6a npoTHB cneKyjiaTa h nepHaTa 6opca; noanoMaraxMe ceMeiicTBaTa Ha 

(j)pOHTOBaiJHTe H T. H. 

npeflceflaTeiwT Ha OTenecTBeHO(|)pOHTOBCKHfl komhtct HiiKO.ua lOpy- 
kob pi>KOBOfleiHe h MecTHaTa J\pym6ei Ha B3HC. Toh 6eme H3BecTeH 
3eMeaejicKH fleeij h o6mecTBeHHK, 6hbih kmct Ha EaTaK npe3 ynpaBJieHHeTo 
Ha HapoflHM 6jiok (1931-1934). Ilo npo^ecHH 6euie TbproBeij. Ilo3HaBaiue 
flo6pe xopaTa h cejiCKHTe npo6jieMH h ce nojmame etc 3acjiy)KeH aBTo- 
pHTeT cpefl 6aTanaHH. HMauie cnoKoeH, ypaBHOBeceH xapaicrep. HHKOjia 
K)pyKOB (6afi Kojibo, KaKTO ro HapHHaxMe hhthmho HHe) 6euie 6jih3i>k 
CBpaTHHK h npMTeji Ha ^HMHTbp THHeB, nopaflH KoeTO no-KbCHO (npe3 
1946-1947 r.) toh npoflBH H3BecTH0 Kone6aHHe npn pa3ijenjieHHeT0 Ha 
E3HC, a TOBa ce 0Tpa3H Ha HeroBaTa OTenecTBeHo^poHTOBCKa aeiiHOCT. 

He Mora #a He 0T6ejie^ca h Ba^cHaTa pojia Ha TpeHAa<J)HJi Kepejioe. 
KaTO ceKpeTap Ha KOMHTeTa #o anpHJi 1945 r. toh HanpaBH mhoto 3a 
pa3peuiaBaHe Ha HKOHOMHHeciarre npo6jieMH Ha cejioTO. PoaeH npe3 1917 
r., toh H3pacTBa h e Bi>3nHTaH b naTpnapxajieH h BT>3po)KfleHCKH pyx. npe3 
1876 r. fl^flo My AHreji KepejioB e BoeHeH ptKOBOflHTeji Ha BtcTaHHeTO b 
EaTaK, a npaflflflo My TpeH#a(])HJi, HJieH Ha peBOJiioijHOHHHfl komhtct h 
ffbJiroroflHHieH KMeT Ha cejioTO, e raropeH echb no 3anoBe,u Ha AxMea ara 
BapyTaHJiHHTa. Ome ot paHHHTe ch MJiaae^cKH ro^KHH TpeHfla^HJi bt>3- 
npneMa HfleHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma. KaTO rHMHa3HCT toh ynacTBa b 

MapKCHCTKO-JieHHHCKH KpT>)KOIJH H CTaBa HJieH Ha PMC. 3a nOJIHTHHeCKa 

fleftHOCT e H3KJHOHBaH ot rHMHa3HHTe b neujepa h na3ap,u5KHK. CTaBa HJieH 
Ha HejierajiHaTa EPn, B3eMa aKTHBHO ynacrae b aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a h 
noflnoMara napTH3aHCK0T0 flBroKemie. 

KaTO ceKpeTap Ha KOMHTeTa ao anpHJi 1945 r. TpeHfla(f)HJi 6eme e^Ha ot 
Haft-aKTHBHHTe h 6e3K0pHCTHH jihhhocth b EaTaK no TOBa BpeMe. no-KbCHO 
toh CTaHa cjiy)KHTeji b MnHHCTepcTBo Ha HapoflHaTa 0T6paHa, pa6oTH h b 
6i>jirapcK0T0 nocojiCTBO b napn^c. ^tJiro BpeMe 6eme ^cypHajiHCT bt>b b. 
"BenepHH hobhhh", KBfleTO OTroBapanie 3a 0Tpa3flBaHe Ha CBeTOBHaTa 
nojiHTHKa. Hannca ctothijh CTaTHH h KHHraTa "EaTaK rjiaBa He CKJiaHa", b 
koato TajiaHTJiHBO h yBJieKaTejiHO npefleraBH BT>3po)KfleHCKHTe 6op6n Ha 
6aTanaHH. Oraacflx ce kt>m Hero c amGoko yBa^ceHHe KaKTO 3apaflH 

HeTOBHfl HeCTeH H OTKpHT XapaKTep, TaKa H 3apaflH OTpHI^aTeJIHOTO My 

OTHonieHHe kt>m TOTajiHTapHaTa CHCTeMa Ha ynpaBJieHHe h BapaTa My b 
HfleajiHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma, kooto 3ana3H ro Kpaa Ha cboa echbot (1972). 
Mo6iiJiH3aunH. BaranaHH Ha 4>poHra. npe3 BTOpaTa nojioBHHa Ha 

236 



cerrreMBpH rojiflM 6pofi 6aTanaHH 6axa Mo6iuiH3HpaHH h 3aMHHaxa kbm 
noaejieHHa b IIa3apfl^cHK ? Ilemepa, Hjiobahb h jxpym rpa^OBe. B apMMTa 
6#xa npH30BaHH h nacT ot Hafi-aKTHBHHTe HneHcme Ha PMC b BaTaK: AHreji 
Ctohhcb, AHren KonapOB, ATaHac TopaHOB, .JIhko flyHeB, /Jhmhtbp 
KoJiapOB, Aimpefl TameB, ,H,hmhtt>p KbHeB, ^HMHTtp Tep3HHCKH, nertp 
KonyHHeB 5 Hjihh A. TaHeB, ^HMHTbp H. Be3eB, JIio6eH ,H,hmob, nerap 

Tepa^KHKOB H flp. 

ynacTHeTO Ha EtJirapHH b 3aKJnoHHTenHHa eTan Ha BxopaTa CBeTOBHa 
BOHHa cpeiuy xHTJiepHCTKa TepMaHHH TpaGBaine aa yKpenn HefiHHTe no3H- 
ijhh npH noflnHCBaHeTO Ha mhphhh floroBOp etc CTpaHHTe-no6eflHTejiKH 9 
kohto TpyflHO Moacexa aa 3a6paBflT, ne npaBHTencTBO Ha Eor^aH Ohjiob 
o6abh CHMBOUHHHa BOHHa Ha CAIU, h AHrjina, a nacra Ha EtnrapcKaTa 
apMHH ynacTBaxa b HeMCKaTa OKynaijHfl Ha lOrocjiaBM h PtpijHfl. 

B BaTaK no Te3H Btnpocn 6axa npOBe^eHH hhkojiko ci>6paHHH c 
opaTOpH ot IIjiOBflHB h IIa3apfl5KHK. HaceneHHeTO flo6pe pa36Hpaine, ne 
HaMecara hh bt>b BOHHaTa e HeH36e)KHO h HanoacHTejiHO h c naTpnoraHHo 
BtoaynieBJieHHe noflKpenn fleftcTBHOTa Ha npaBHTencTBOTO h 6ohhhtc 
^eHCTBHH Ha EtnrapCKara apMM 3a ocBo6o)KfleHHeTO Ha MaiceflOHHfl h 
lOrocnaBHH ot repMaHCKH bohckh. OGmHHCKara ynpaBa b BaTaK npoBe^e 
Mo6HHH3aiiHHTa Ha okojio 400 bochhh HHHa (okojio 250 ot tax ynacTBaxa 
npHKO bt>b BoeHHHTe fleftcTBHfl) h ce CTapaeine ,zja no^noMara ceMeficTBaTa 
Ha (|)pOHTOBaiiHTe. Komhtctbt Ha OTenecTBeHM (J)pOHT, 5kchckoto jipy- 
acecTBO h PMC no/wtpacaxa Bpt3Ka c Mo6HJiH3HpaHHTe 6aTanaHH h nopn 
noceraxa hakoh bochhh noflejiemifl Ha 4>poHTa, H3npamaxa kojicth h 
nHCMa, no^noMaraxa h 4>poHTOBaiHKHTe ceMeftcTBa. 

npH3HBtT Ha npaBHTencTBOTO "Bchhko 3a 4>poHTa, bchhko 3a no6e- 
#aTa" HaMHpanie uinpOK OT3ByK cpea GaranaHH. Ha 22. IX. 1944 r. (neir>K) 
H3npaTHXMe rpyna MJia^OKH ot okojio 30 MJia^oKH h ^cbohkh, kohto ce 
6axa 3anncajiH KaTO flo6pOBOJiijH b nnoB^HBCKaTa Hapo^Ha reap^M, kohto 
noflroTB^nie 6ohijh 3a ynacrae b OrenecTBeHaTa BOHHa. Ha npeflBapHTejiHo 
3aceaaHHe Ha pt>kobo,actboto Ha PMC HHe pa3rneflaxMe cnnctKa Ha 
AoGpoBOjmHTe h flafloxMe CBrjiacne aa 3aMHHaT okojio 15 ayniH, KaTO 
OTKnoHHXMe ynacTHeTO Ha ^cbohkh h Ha MJia^eacH Ha Bi>3pacT no# 17-18 
roflHHH. npH 3aMHHaBaHeTO hm o6ane ce jranxa noBene ot 30 MJia/tOKH. Ha 
iuiomaaa npea CrojiapCKOTO yHHJiHme b 11 h. CTaHa HMnpOBH3HpaH mh- 
thht, Ha kohto npnctcTBaxa hakojikoctothh jsyum. OpraHH3aijH5iTa no 
H3npamaHeTO 6enie Bi>3Jio5KeHO Ha Bopnc BajiHHOB h ^hmhtbp /JacypKOB. 
A3 He M05Kax «a B3eMa ynacrae b MHTHHra 3apa^H TpecKaTa h ro Ha6jno- 
AaBax oTflajiene, ce^Haji npea BpaTaTa Ha KtnjaTa Ha hhho Bopnc h 3aBHT b 

237 



oflejuio. 

Cpefl H3npamaHHTe 6axa 6jiH3KHTe Ha flo6pOBOjmHTe, ptKOBOflHTejiHTe 
Ha OTenecTBeHo^poHTOBCKHTe napTHH Hanejio c npeflceflaTejia Ha KOMHTeTa 
HHKOJia K)pyKOB. C necHH h pa3BOTO HaijHOHajiHO 3HaMe flo6pOBOjmHTe ce 
KaHHxa Ha KaMHOHa. Ot noKpHBa Ha Ka6HHaTa Ha KaMHOHa roBopHxa 
hakojiko ayniH - Ruko 5lHeB, Ebthm IlyHHeB, Mapna HynyjieBa (ot hmcto 
Ha PMC) h flp. Ot hmcto Ha ao6pOBOjmHTe cjiobo npoH3Hece HHKOJia 
BacHJieB (KocTaflHHHHH), cTyaeHT no MeflHijHHa. Cpea ao6poBOjmHTe 6axa 
^hmhtbp KtHeB, reopra Be3eB ? ^ejino TepOB, riertp KojiapOB, BacHJi 
^OMycHHeB, reopra IJoijeB, AHreji HbnaHOB h jsp. Hakoh ot tax BOiOBaxa b 
m>pBaTa h BTOpaTa 4>a3a Ha OTenecTBeHaTa BOHHa. 

BpaTOBHea mh BopHC ("TpoijKH"), kohto H^Mauie 17 roflHHH, ctmo 
3aMHHa c flo6poBOJiL(HTe. Ba6a Btp6a, MaMa, naHa MnTpa h ctceflKH CToaxa 
Kpaft MeH h ce BtJiHyBaxa h npeacHBABaxa 3a Hero. Ton flofifle fla ce c6oryBa 
h ijejiyHa pi>Ka Ha 6a6a. Ta TporaTejiHO ro npertpHa h toh 3aTHHa, Kara ce 
Ha KaMHOHa h 3aMaxa c pi>Ka. 

- AHrejie, h^h ro BtpHH, Ta toh e rqtq - o6tpHa ce kbm MeH 6a6a. 

- He nocjiyma MeH, KaKTO h Te6e - OTroBOpnx a3. 

KaMHOHtT noTerjiH h 3a ceKymjH ce 3ary6n ot HauiHTe ohh. npe3 
cjie^BamHTe ^Be roflHHH Bopnc cjiyacn KaTO flo6pOBOJieij b TBapfleHCKa 
poTa b rp. rijIOB^HB. 

Ilpe3 ctmH^i aeH no pa^HOTO 6eme nponeTeH MaHH(j)ecT Ha npaBHTeji- 
ctboto kbm Hapofla h apMHOTa, c kohto ce o6flBflBame Mo6HJiH3aijHfl Ha 
CHJiHTe 3a BOHHa cpemy TepMaHH^. Bene 6eme h3bcctho, ne Ha 3ana^HaTa 
hh rpaHHija ce bo^t cpaaceHHA c repMaHCKH nacTH. B Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpn 
1944 r. 27-mh HenHHCKH nojiK (TIa3ap,ipKHK), 9-th nojiK (Hjiobahb) h apyra 
BoeHHH nacTH ot rijioBflHBCKa o6jiacT, b koato cjiy)Kexa MHoro 6aTanaHH ? 
6axa H3npaTeHH Ha (j)poHTa. npe3 oktombph h HoeMBpH 3anoHHaxMe aa 
nojiynaBaMe CBeaeHHfl 3a Ghtkhtc h rep0H3Ma Ha 6tJirapcKaTa apMHfl, 3a 
npo^BH Ha xpa6pocT ot CTpaHa Ha 6aTaHaHH-(j)poHTOBaijH b xo^a Ha 
ocBo6o^cfleHHeTO Ha MaKe^oHH^ ot HeMCKHTe bohckh. Mhoto ot tax 6axa 
OTJiHHeHH c opaeHH h Me^ajiH. Btpxy KapTaTa b KJiy6a OT6ejiH3BaxMe Mec- 
TaTa Ha cpaaceHHtfra h oco6eHo Te3H, KbfleTO BOiOBaxa 6aTanaHH: Kncejieij, 
KpHBa IlajiaHKa, Ilepoc, OrpaimH, KyMaHOBO, CKonne h ap. B Kpaa Ha 
oktombph ctBeTCKHTe bohckh ocBo6oflHxa h Eejirpa,zj. 

Ho Bcjnca BOHHa e ^cecTOKa - ta H3HCKBa acepTBH, a c tax HflBa h Mi>KaTa 
no 3arHHanHTe. 3anoHHaxa #a npHCTHraT ckpi>6hh bccth 3a y6HTH 6aTanaHH. 
B MaKeflOHM lanmaxa oceivt npeKpacHii CHHOBe Ha BaTaK: Kan. reopra 
Hji. ^HHeB (6hbui kmct), ^hmhtbp H. KojiapoB, reopra TpeHOB, HBaH 

238 



BaH^eB, TeoprH Xa,zpKHeB, Hjihh Pa^eB, Kaiero h TBap,neHiiHTe-,ii;o6poBOjmH 
AHreji Bi>6apoB (JT^bhcto) h BacHJi n. ,H,OMycHHeB. Hhkoh ot tax 6axa 
norpe6aHH b BaTaK. B Te3H ahh cejioTO CHKani 3aMHpanie h Mtica oSxBama- 
ine i^jioto HaceneHHe. rioMHH rojieMHTe npoijecHH ot nepKBaTa ro rpo6n- 
meTO, TporaTejiHH5i njian Ha MafiKHTe h CMpyrHTe. 

Cnefl npHKJiioHBaHeTO Ha m>pBaTa (^a3a Ha BOHHaTa, npe3 aeiceMBpH h 
HHyapH 1945 r. HHe c pa^ocT nocpemaxMe aeMo6HJiH3HpaHHTe bohhhijh, 
kohto ce 3aBpT>maxa cjiefl aoctohho ronbJiHeHHfl ch fltjir KaTo hcthhckh 
no6eflHTejiH. MHoro ot 3aBi>pHajiHTe ce 6>ixa peMCHCTH. Kny6i>T othobo ce 

0)KHBH. BHBHIHTe (])pOHTOBaiJH Ce BKJIIOHHXa aKTHBHO B CTOnaHCKM 5KHBOT 

Ha cejioTO h npe^H bchhko b jxbpBORo6nBa Ha BaTaniKaTa o6mHHCKa ropa. 

3apa60THXa H 3aHaflTHHHCKHTe pa60THJIHHIJH. AKTHBH3Hpa Ce fleHHOCTTa Ha 

KOMHTeTa Ha OTenecTBeHM 4>poHT h Ha napTHHTe, Ha HHTajinnjeTO h 
icoonepaijHHTe. npoflT>ji)KaBaxa o6ane TpyzjHOCTHTe npn CHa6,a#BaHeTO c 
xpaHHTejiHH npoayKTH, o6jieKJio, cenHBa 3a flT>pBOflo6HBa h pp. 

Tpa6Ba aa OTGeneaca, ne HauiaTa (jmMHJiHfl ci>mo HMauie 6jih3kh Ha 
4>poHTa. ^hho BopHC 6euie Mo6HJiH3HpaH 3aeflHO c KaMHOHa ch h pa6oTenie 
KaTO Hiot^bop no CHaGflHBaHeTO Ha nacTHTe Ha npeflHaTa ^poHTOBa jihhhjl 
BpaTOBHe^ mh IleTLp 6eiue 3aBT>pniHJi BoeHHa caHHTapHa niKona h 3ae^HO 
cbc cboa 9-th nonK 3aMHHa Ha 4>poHTa h ynacTBa bt>b BoeHHHTe fleiicTBHfl b 
MaKeaoHH5i. BpaTOBHea mh AHreji, kohto 6enie npH30BaH 3a pe^OBHa 
BoeHHa cjiyacGa h 6euie 3aBT>pniHJi III30, 3aMHHa Ha (^poHTa h BoiOBa b 
30HaTa Ha rp. Hhhi. 

Elerbp He nnuieuie h TOBa mhoto TpeBoaceme poflHTenHTe My naHa 

MapHfl H HHHO TOCKO, a H BCHHKH pOflHHHH. ^aHa MapHfl nOHTH BCflKa 

Benep H^Bauie y Hac. 3aBapBax rn c MaMa h naHa lOp^aHKa «a nneTaT hjih 
npe,a;aT h na, pa3roBapflT. 

- AHrejie, - o6pT>manie ce naHa kt>m mch - y3Hafi Heujo 3a Ilerbp. 

A3 % yBepflBax, ne e ,no6pe, ne e caHHTap h HflMa BpeMe 3a nncaHe, a h 
nHCMaTa npHCTHraT ct>c 3aKi>CHeHHe. 

Hhho BopHC d>mo He nnuieuie. Okojio Kpaa Ha oktombph hjih HanajioTO 
Ha HoeMBpn b e,o;Ha KtcHa Mpa30BHTa Benep ce nonyica Ha BtHuraaTa BpaTa. 
Otbophx. npefl MeH 3acTaHa hhho Bopnc bi>b BoeHHa yHH(j)opMa, c 
BOHHHHiKa Top6a h Kapa6HHa Ha paMO. 

- Xaflfle, nocpemairre (J)poHTOBaKa - Ka3a toh ycMHXHaTO. 

TaTe h MaMa CKonnxa, nocjieaBaxa cbp^enHH no3£paBJieHHfl h bchhkh 
npeKOCHXMe HaniM flBop h ce 030BaxMe y hhhobh. Ea6a, naHa Mmpa, 
neTHpHTe My aeija (/JeacKa, AHreji, CnaBKa h Tohio) ce HaxBtpjinxa 
paflocTHO Bi>pxy Hero. H 3apa3Ka3Ba hhho 3a (|)poHTOBHTe ch naTHJia. Beuie 

239 



nojiyHHJi OTnycKa caMo 3a 24 h. h TpaSBame fla ce Kann Ha BoeHeH emenoH 
Ha rapa na3ap;pKHK. Ha ppymn fleH, b 12 h. toh ch Tptraa, a a3 ro 
npHflpyaoix. BtpBAXMe nenia, a ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe ce KaHBaxMe 3a Manico 
Ha hhkoh cnynaHHO npeMHHaBama KOHCKa Kapyija hjih BOJicna Kojia. 
npHCTHrHaxMe Ha rapaTa kt>cho BenepTa, a b 4 h. cyTpHHTa npHCTHrHa 
euienoHT>T h hhho 3aMHHa othobo 3a (|)pOHTa. 

B Kpaa Ha ro^HHaTa hhho BopHC h nerbp ce 3aBi>pHaxa cjie# 
npHKniOHBaHe Ha BoeHHHTe fleiicTBHfl b MaKeflOHH^ h K)rocjiaBHfl. AHreji 
ce yBOJiHH npe3 npojierra Ha 1945 r. h ce 3annca ^a cjie^Ba MeflHijHHa. 
BopHC wpoR-bJiyKH cjiy^c6aTa ch b Hapo#HaTa reap^M b Hjiobahb. 

Ct>c ceMeiicTBOTO h po/jHHHHTe. Ha ,3,eBeTH cenTeMBpn 1944 r. 
3aBi>pniH flBeroflHiHHaTa mh pa3,n5uia c po^HTejiHTe, 6paT mh h 6jiH3KHTe 
poflHHHH. Eax Bene y #OMa. Bi>p30 h HeyceTHO ce a^anrapax. B ntpBHTe mm 
cyTpHH ce ci>6yayi;ax h onaKBax #a nya 3aTB0pHHHecKHfl 3Bi>Heij, TponoTa Ha 
CTpaacapCKHTe 6oTyniH h 3aTBOpHHHecKHTe Hajn>MH. BMecTO TOBa Moacex ^a 
ce HacjiaayjaBaM Ha 6na^ceHaTa cyTpeuiHa THiHHHa, Ha hhctha h CTy^eH 
cenTeMBpHHCKH Bttjjyx, Ha nTHnaTa neceH. OraBax, norjieayjax npe3 
npo30peu;a, o6i>pHaT Ha ior kt>m KpacHBHTe BT>3BHineHHfl c o6rpa,n;eHHfl ot 
6opneTa napaKJinc Cb. Hjiha, a HaTan>K ce H3flHrame BejiHHecTBeHHHT 
Kapjii>K. Ha 3anaa ot Hero ce no^aBaxa TpHTe ocTpn Btpxa Ha Kajn>H 6opyH, 
a Ha H3TOK ce npOTOHBauie njiaHHHCKa Bepnra. BnayiaHie ce h m. KaneTO h 
pa3nojio>KeHHaT b hchhoto noflHoacne napaKJinc Cb. ,3,hmhtt>p. A ome no Ha 
h3tok ce 6ejieeme ctceflHOTO TypcKO cejio HoBa Maxajia. 

HbpBHTe jtbhh Ha eceHHOTO cjitHi^e orpflBaxa HaniHfl aom. HyBax 
CTbnKHTe Ha po^HTejiHTe mh, kohto CTaBaxa ome b 30pH. MaMa ce 
3aHHMaBauie c ^OMaKHHCKaTa ch pa6oTa b KyxHOTa, ho CKOpo H3JiH3ame h 
norjieayjanie kt>m npo3opeija Ha cra^Ta mh, pa^ocTHO ce ycMHXBauie h Me 
no3flpaB5iBaHie ? nocjie npeKOCABaine MajiKHA hh flBop h BJiH3anie b o6opa ^a 
H3flOH KpaBaTa h ^a Harne#a rajibOBHO TejieTO. TaTe noHHCTBauie Ha 
BOJioBeTe h rn xpaHenie. Bjiarofino cmijo H3JiH3auie Ha flBopa h oGcbayjaine 
c TaTe pa6oTaTa 3a jj/sbr. Cjie^Bauie "pHTyan", kohto 6ax Ha6jnoflaBan b 
npofli>Ji>KeHHe Ha mhoto roflHHH. MaMa OTBapanie BpaTaTa Ha o6opa h 
H3Be^cflanie KpaBaTa Ha yjinijaTa, 3a ^a a npeflaae Ha cejiCKHa roBe^ap. 
nocjie ce BpT>manie, cBapflBanie mjiakoto h npHroTBmie 3aKycKaTa. 

^,HHTe npe3 cenTeMBpn h oktombph 1944 r. 6axa Hy^HH, HenoBTOpHMH 
flHH, kohto fli>n6oKO ca ce BpjreajiH b naMerra mh. H cera, KoraTO cbm yca- 

MOTeH HJIH CT>M 06XBaHaT B HyBCTBO Ha n>ra, a3 CH CnOMHHM H npe^CHB5IBaM 

othobo Te3H #hh, noTan^M ce b T^XHaTa aTMoc(|>epa c paflocraaTa n>ra 3a 
Hemo HenocTH^CHMO. Te3H npeacHBflBaHHfl Me BKSpaayjaT, .zjaBaT mh chjih, a 

240 



He caMO HOCTajirafl no MHHajiOTO. 

IIpe3 cenTeMBpH HMauie flBe BaacHH 3a ceMeficTBOTO h npMTHH 3a Men 
noncKH pa6oTH: npH6HpaHe, HyicaHe, ToneHe h MMeHe Ha jieHa h Ba/jeHe h 
npH6HpaHe Ha KapTO(|)HTe. B3ex ynacrae bt>b Ba/jeHeTO Ha KapTO(J)HTe. B 
npotfbJiaceHHe Ha 5-6 /jhh b kbchhtc cjie/joGe/jHH nacoBe c EjiaroH^o 
flOKapBaxMe c KonaTa no 7-8 nyBajia KapTo^n. Bi>p30 rn pa3TOBapBaxMe. 
BnarofiHO 6eme chjich h Hoceme 50-KHJiorpaMOBHTe nyBajin Ha n>p6a ch, 
A3 ce H3MHBax h OTHBax b KJiy6a, b o6mnHaTa hjih HHTajinmeTO. 

BceKH^HeBHO 6ax c 6a6a Bi>p6a, c no-rojieMHTe mh GpaTOBHe^jj 
#BaMaTa AHrejioBijH, kohto 6axa yneHHijH b IlemepCKaTa rHMHa3M, KaKxo 
h c no-MajiKHTe no Bi>3pacT 6paTOBHeflH Tomo h Hnicojia, cbc CTpHHKHxe 
(naHHTe) Mapna, MnTpa, Hop/jaHica, c hhho Tocko, c nennTe-cecTpHTe Ha 
MaMa h TaTe. BceKH /jeH nocemaBax JiennTe en Mapna ToMOBa h HBaHKa. 
Jlejia HnKOJiHHa Pa/iyjiOBa nonra bcckh /jeH H/jBame y Hac. Ta Bjnreaiue b 
#BOpa h ce npOBHKBame: 

- JleHO, JleHo! KaK CTe? ,3,o6pe jih CTe? 

Ta BHHarn 6i>p3aine. GbBeTBame ce c MaMa, cno/jeiuniie BceKH/jHeBHHTe 
en npe^KHBMBaHH^, /jaBaine cbBera. IlpeKpacHH xopa 6axa jiejia KojiHHa h 
KajieKO Teoprn, npHBi>p3aHH kbm bchhkh po/jhhhh, 6e3KopncTHH h b 
Hy)Kfla 5 n b pa^ocT. 

C Jiejw Mapna n Jienfl BaHKa cnoaejMx bchhko: TpeBorn n ycnexH 
o6mocejicicn npo6jieMH, nojiHTHnecKH BT>npocH, necTO ce cbBeTBax c Tax. 
Te 6axa yMHH aceHH, ci>c chjiho nyBCTBO 3a o6mecTBeHa oitobophoct 
BffbXBaxa mh yBepeHOCT b ao6poTaTa n npaB/jaTa, BMnmaBaxa Me b 
HOBeKOJiio6ne n B3anMonoMom. B ffbiirme 3hmhh Benepn Ha 1944-1945 r. 
npeKapBax MHoro nacoBe y tax 3aeflH0 c Bynno JIhko Kpan nenKaTa b 
pa3roBopn no Han-pa3JiHHHH BMpocH. 

JJ^jip Teoprn, 6a6a /Ja<|)HHa n Bynno Bopnc cbc cbnpyraTa en CnnKa h 
fli>mepHHKaTa #a(])HHa 6axa b c. KocTaHflOBo: npn6npaxa ^6i>JiKHxe 5 
uapeBHi^aTa. HflMax TbpneHHe «a rn /jonaicaM ^a ce 3aBi>pHaT b BaTaK h 
3aTOBa caM oth/jox b KocTaH/jOBO nem npe3 noneTO. IIocpemHaxa M e 
pa^ocTHO. B o6innpHHfl flBOp ce pa3Hacmie npHOTHa MnpH3Ma Ha neneHH 
cjihbh, MapMajia/i;, m6i>jikh h Mefl. C flfl/jo Teoprn n Bynno Eopn c 
oGmcojinxMe OBomHaTa rpa/jHHa, ropflocrra Ha flfl/jo. 

Ha /jpyraa /jeH cyTpHHTa c Bynno Bopnc, kohto 6eme B3en ynacTHe b 
ycTaHOB^BaHe Ha OTenecTBeHO(|)poHTOBCKaTa BJiacT b cenoTo n ynpe^.. 
BaHeTO Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OreHecTBeHna (|>pOHT, noceTHXMe o6njHHaTa. Tyx 
ce cpenjHax c no3HaTH. CeKpeTap Ha o6njHHaTa 6euie Ctoah ,3,yKOB, Mog 
wpHXTeii. B Kopnflopa npe/i; KMeTCKaTa CTaa bujvlx no/ipe/jeHH hakojiko 

241 



BenocHiiefla. XpyMHa mh HfleaTa fla B3eMa e/jHH ot thx h #a ora^a #o 

6JIH3KOTO C. ,3,OpKOBO. 

Cjie/j nac 6ax TaM. B o6in;HHaTa 3aBapnx rpyna aHTH^auiHCTH, cpe# 
kohto 6axa h MOHTe npHHTenH ot 3aTBOpa Hjihh ManeB, XpHCTO OraTeB, 
HBaH ,ZJohhhhob, Kpi>CTbo 3apeB, Kpi>CTbo JIacKOB h flp. Te mh pa3Ka3axa 
3a 3aB3eMaHe Ha BJiacrra b ,3,opKOBO, 3a peBOJiioijHOHHOTO HacTpoeHHe Ha 
HacejieHHeTo, 3a noHHira kbm 3arHHanHTe aopKOBijH b aHTH(J)aiHHCTKaTa 
6op6a. ,3,OHfloxa h jjpyr cejiflHH, kohto no3HaBax ot CBH5KflaHHH b 3aTBopa h 
no pa3MeHeHH c tax nncMa. Cjie/j flfia naca ch Tptraax, B^npeicH 
yBemaHH^Ta m ocTaHa. He Me nycHaxa o6ane aa ntTyBaM caM: c MeH Ha 
Bejiocnnea Tptraa Hjihh ManeB. KoraTO H3Jifl30XMe ot cenoTO, BHe3anHo 
nyxMe BHKOBe h njian cpea nojieTO. Tpyna )KeHH npeMHHaBaxa Orapa peKa 
h njianexa Ha bhcok rjiac. Cnpax, norjieflHax Hjihh h npefljio^cnx fla OTH/jeM 
npH njianemHTe, 3a fla hm noMorHeM. 

- He! - Ka3a Hjihh h ycnjiH CKOpocrra. - Kapan cjiea MeH. LU,e th o6hc- 
hjl Hhkojiko apecTyBaHH (JmumcTH Bqepa 6axa OTKapaHH b Okojihhckoto 
ynpaBJieHHe b na3apfl)KHK 3a pa3nHT 3apaflH H3Bi>pineHO ot tax npecTtn- 
jieHHe. ToBa ca 6jiH3KHTe hm, kohto ce 3aBptmaT ot na3apfl5KHK. CTpaxy- 
BaT ce 3a apeeryBaHHTe. npoKHBABaT. 

Hjihh Me H3npara ao m. ToMOBaTa BOfleHHija b Kpaa Ha KocTaHflOBO, a 
kbcho cjieflo6ea a3 noex othobo neimeoM 3a BaTaK. 

npe3 cenTeMBpH oth/jox ao c. HenHHO 3aeflHO c MaMa h etceflKHTe, 
kohto Tpfl6Banie aa tomt jieH Ha TonnnaTa Kpan cenoTO. TyK ce cpenjHax 
ctpfleHHO c naHa MnKa h hhho To/top, kohto pa6oTenie b HenHHO. Bhaax 
ce h c 6HBiHHTe nojiHT3aTBOpHHijH ^HMHTbp rajiHJieeB, K)ceHH IHoftjieB, 
AceH Bo3afl»CHeB ? 6afi KocTa IJokob, 6afi nerbp TeiHeB h ap. nortpcHX 
5Iko Mojixob b KaMeHHija, ho mh Ka3axa, ne e b Ka3apMaTa b na3apfl)KHK h 
me 3aMHHe c napTH3aHCKaTa 6pHraaa 3a (J)pOHTa. 

Bama mh npofltn^KaBauie fla pa6oTH b o6njHHaTa KaTO /jenoBOflHTeji. Toh 
HMaine HenpHOTHOcra, hakoh apyrapH HacTOflBaxa bchhkh cjiyaorrejiH, 
pa6oTHJiH b o6mHHaTa npH CTapaTa BJiaer, /ja 6i>flaT yBOjraeHH He3aBHCHMO 
ot TexHHTe Bi>3rneflH h noBeaeHHe. HancTHHa, HMaine cjiy^cHTenn c 

nOJIHTHHeCKH H flpyTH npOBHHeHHH, KOHTO 6flXa OTCTpaHeHH ot o6mHHCKaTa 

ynpaBa. Bama mh 6eme Han-onHTHHHT cny^KHTen, no3HaBauie MHoro ao6pe 
rpa^K^aHCKOTO cbCToamie Ha HaceneHHeTO h ochobhhtc (J)yHKijHH Ha 
o6mHHaTa. Toh 6eme aKypaTeH, pa6oTJiHB h Haft-Ba^cHO - jioajieH kt>m 
Bnacrra Ha OTenecTBeHHa (^poHT. 3a aa He CM/jaBa Tpy/jHOCTH Ha MeH, toh 
caM npefljio^cH aa 6tfle ocBo6oaeH ot pa6oTa. 06iijHHCKaTa ynpaBa o6ane He 
ce ctrnacH h HacToa toh aa nopa6oTH ome 2-3 Meceija, fla ypeflH KaHijenap- 

242 



cKaTa pa6oTa h na noAroTBH HOBOHa3HaneHHTe cnysKHTenH. TaKa h CTaHa. 

B HanajioTO Ha 1945 r. TaTe HanycHa o6njHHaTa h CTaHa ropcKH pa6ox- 
hhk. Tpn6Ba #a OT6ejie^ca 5 ne b MHHajiOTO toh He CHMnaTH3Hpame Ha EPlj 
ho npe3 1942-1944 3acTaHa Ha aHTH(|)aiHHCTKH no3HijHH. Kojiko cpe^CTBa 
H3pa3XO^Ba 5 kojiko TpeBorH npe^cHBH toh no BpeMe Ha moa npoijec ^ 
3aTBOpHHHecTBOTO mh, kojiko BpeMe npeKapa npe# )Kejie3HHTe BpaTH ^ a 
3aTBOpHTe b Co(J)hh ? HflpH30BO h IIa3ap,u)KHK. Ct3flafle ch HenocpeztCTBeHpj 

Bpfc3KH H B3aHMOnOMOHi; C fleCeTKH CeMeHCTBa Ha nOJIHT3aTBOpHHIJH. Ox 

6jih30 50-roflHineH TpyzjOB CTa)K, toh 6eme cny^KHTen caMO b npofltJDKeHHe 
Ha 10 r., BtnpeKH cpaBHHTenHO ao6poTO ch o6pa30BaHHe h CBO#ra BHCOKa 

HHTeJIHreHTHOCT. 

Ilpe3 oktombph 6paT mh Ejiaroa ce no^roTBHUie #a ora/je b Ka3apMaTa 
3aeflHO c Bpi>CTHHL(HTe ch ot Ha6op 1924 r. Ome ot 14-roflHuieH toh 3anot^ 
Ha m pa6oTH KaTO ropcKH pa6oTHHK, 6eme HJieH Ha PMC h no,unoMaraiu e 
aHTH(J)auiHCTKOTO /jBHflceHHe. H3npamaHeTO Ha Ha6opa CTaHa no crap 
o6HHafi ot uhjioto HacejieHHe Ha BaTaK. 06khhchh c ijBeTfl h #apOBe # 
npHflpy)KeHH ot 6jih3khtc ch, MJia#HTe bohhhijh ce ci>6paxa b #Bopa n a 
yrajiHmeTO Ha Kpaa Ha cejiOTO. H3BHxa ce KptuiHH xopa, #yMKaxa TtnaH^ 
naxa ce necHH. A HManie h ct>ji3h. MaMa ci>mo 3anjiaKa. 

BnaroiiHO OTH#e cnyacH b MOTOpH3HpaH nojnc b rp. IIjiob,uhb. J$ 
Ka3apMaTa H3npaTHXMe h hzuiwl GpaTOBne^; h cbcea Bopnc IleTpoB 
HaymeB, Ham npMTeji h apyrap ot actctboto hh, kohto 3aBi>pniH rHMHa^ 
3H)iTa b Tlemepa, a Bnocne/jcTBHe npeMHHa no^roTOBKa b UI30. 

Ilpe3 oktombph 3anoHHax #a ch Tbpca pa6oTa h 6ax Ha3HaneH Kaxo 
HaflHHHap Ha Hemaraa pa6oTa b IIonyjiflpHaTa 6aHKa, tbh KaTO 6ax 3aBi>p. 
ihhji Ti>proBCKaTa rHMHa3H5i h #o6pe BJia^eex chctoboactboto. HHCTpyic. 
TopHTe ot 06jiacTHH^ h Okojihhckhh KOMHTeT Ha PMC ce uieryBaxa: 

- PeMCOB ceKpeTap h 6aHKOB hhhobhhk - #o6po ctneTaHHe! 

Ha Ta3H pa6oTa ocTaHax ao HanajioTO Ha 1945 r., KoraTO 6ax H36paH 3 a 
ceKpeTap Ha Okojihhckha komhtct Ha PMC. 

CeKpeTap Ha PMC b BaTaK (1944-1945 r.) 

Cnefl ci>6paHHeTO Ha 17.IX.1944 r. h H36opa Ha pi>kobo,zjctbo Pa6oTHn- 
necKHAT MJia^e^cKH ci>K)3 (PMC) aKTHBHO ce bkjiiohh b o6mecTBeHo^ 
nojiHTHHecKHH )khbot. Ilpe3 ntpBHTe /jhh Ha6ejiH3axMe KOHKpeTHHTe 
3aflaHH Ha opraHH3aijHHTa. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe OT^ennxMe Ha Btnpoca 3a 
npHBJiHHaHeTO Ha hobh nneHOBe, KaKTO h Ha pa3flCHHTejma pa6oTa cpe^ 
Mnafleflcra 3a Heo6xo#HMOcrra ot ynacTHeTO Ha Ei>jirapHfl bi>b BOHHaTa npo- 
thb TepMaHHfl. Hapea TOBa npOBOK/jaxMe nojiHTHKO-npocBeraa /jeHHOcx, 

243 



noflnoMaraxMe HOBaTa o6ujHHCKa BJiacT h KoMmeTa Ha OrenecTBeHHH 
4>pOHT ? BKJiioHHXMe ce b rorpaacflaHeTO Ha hobh o6mecTBeHH opraHH3ai^HH: 
npo$ci>io3HH /jpyacecTBa, aceHCKO apyacecTBO, cnopTHO h TypHCTHHecKH 
apy^cecTBa h pp. 

A3 h Bopnc EajiHHOB h3^jio ce nocBeTHXMe Ha pa6oTaTa b PMC. 
MoKayBpeMeHHO HJieHi>T Ha pt>kobo,zjctboto AHreji Ctohhcb 6euie moGhjih- 

3HpaH H 3aMHHa Ha (|)pOHTa. ^HMHTbp T. /JflCypKOB npOflfcJDKH BHCUieTO CH 

o6pa30BaHHe b Coc])Hfl, ho HaMHpauie bi>3mo)khoct aa H^sa b BaTaK h 
aKTHBHO ynacTBaine b fleHHOcrra Ha MJia,zje)KKaTa opramoaijHfl. Hakojiko 
aeceTKH aKTHBHH peMCHCTH 6axa Mo6HJiH3HpaHH, a MJiaaoKHTe ot Ha6op 
1924 r. 6axa npH30BaHH m ot6hat pe/jOBHaTa ch BoeHHa cnyacGa. 

Ilpe3 3HMaTa 1944-1945 r. nojioaoixMe cneijHajiHH ycHJina 3a pa3BHTHe 
Ha KyjiTypHO-npocBeTHaTa aefiHOCT h 3a nojiHTHHecKOTO aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha 

MJiaa^KHTe, BI>npeKH Tpy^HHTe BOCHHH yCJIOBHfl H TeflCKOTO HKOHOMHHeCKO 

Hacjie^CTBO Ha (JmuiHCTKara BJiacT. 3a ijejrra pa3pa6oTHXMe nnaH, kohto 
6euie o6ci>AeH h Ha o6mo ci>6paHHe. PtKOBO^eHH ot eHTycna3Ma, ne hh 
npe^CTOH aa H3rpa#HM e^HO ^eMOKparaHHO h coijnajiHO cnpaBe^jiHBo 
o6mecTBO ? Kb/jeTO BO#ema pojia me HMaT 3HamieTO, HayKara h npocBeTara, 
HHe ch nocTaBHXMe rojieMH 3a#aHH. 

3ana3eH e npoTOKOJTbT c njiaHa hh 3a pa6oTaTa. HancraHa, HHe npoa- 
BHXMe rojiflM MaKCHMajiH3tM ? oco6eHO mo ce OTHaca ro npocBeTHaTa 
aeiiHOCT, koato onpe/jejiaxMe KaTO nojiHTHnecKa rpaMOTHOCT. Gb3,zja,zjoxMe 
niecT Kpt^coKa (Kypca) 3a H3ynaBaHe Ha HCTOpHOTa Ha pa6oTHHHecKOTO 

ABH^CeHHe, 06meCTBeH0-HK0H0MHHeCKHTe (|)OpMaiJHH, nOJIHTHHeCKa HKOHO- 

mha, HCTOpHfl Ha Ei>JirapcKaTa pa6oraHHecKa naprafl. BtB BceKH Kpi>)KOK 
ynacTBaxa cpe^HO no 15-20 ayniH ot Haft-pa3JiHHHH Bt3pacTH: cjiyacHTenH 
ot KOonepaijHOTa, o6mHHaTa h 6aHKaTa, yHHTejiH, 3aHaaTHHH, pa6oraHijH 
ot Ai>cK0pe3HaTa <])a6pHKa "Op^eft", yneHHijH, ropCKH pa6oraHijH. IlocTaBH 
ce HanajioTO Ha e^Ha #o6pa Tpa^HijHfl 3a KyjiTypHO-npocBeraa h nonn- 
THHecKa aefiHOCT Ha o6mecTBeHHTe opraHH3aijHH npe3 3HMHHTe MeceijH. 
^o6pe paGoTeuie h Hapo^HHOT yHHBepcHTeT npn HHTajiHiijeTO, kohto 
HMauie AMroroflHinHH Tpa^HijHH. 

A3 pi>KOBoaex Kpt^coKa 3a H3ynaBaHe HCTOpHOTa Ha o6mecTBara 

(06meCTBeH0-HK0H0MHHeCKHTe (|)OpMaL(HH) ? KOHTO npo,m>jraH ao HaHaJIOTO 

Ha 1945 r. B Hero ynacTBaxa npe^HMHO yHHTejiKHTe EneHa ifrieBa, 
Haae^caa KonapOBa, Mar^a KnneBa, aseTe yHHTejicKH ceMeficTBa HBaHOBH 
(/JyneBCKH) h IIonoBH, BejiHHKa IlacKOBa, J\. /JomeBa, Mapa XpHCTOCKOBa 
h jjp. Ct6HpaxMe ce BCAKa ce^MHija b e^Ha ot CTaHTe Ha CTOJiapcKOTO ynn- 
jinme. Cpea ynacTHHL(HTe ce ci>3,zja,zje aTM0C(])epa Ha ^OBepne h B3aHMHO 

244 



yBaaceroie. HecTO ce OTKJioHHBaxMe ot ocHOBHaTa hh TeMa h o6ci>^c^axMe 

na3JIHHHH 06m0CeJICKH BMIpOCH, KaKTO H npo6jieMHTe Ha fleMOKpaTHHHOTO 

npeycTpoScTBO Ha Ei>jirapHfl. 

Ci>6paHHH Ha peMCOBaTa opraHH3aiiHH. Be^H^HC Ha ^Be ce/jMHijH 
npoBe^c^axMe ci>6paHH)i, Ha kohto o6cb^cflaxMe TeKymn o6mo nojiHTHnec- 
kh BtnpocH h ce o6ci>)K,uaxa pe^epara h 6ece,zjH no BtnpocH, HHTepecyBa- 
mn MJiaae^cHTe. 06HKHOBeHO TOBa CTaBauie b He^ejieH hjih flpyr npa3HHHeH 
Hepa6oTeH ,ueH, KoraTO MJia/jeacHTe HMaxa jihhhh nnaHOBe 3a npeicapBaHe Ha 
cBo6oflHOTO BpeMe. KaTo ceKpeTap ce CTpeM^x cb6paHHOTa #a He ca 
HanecTO, ho #a ca ao6pe opraHH3HpaHH, c HmrepeceH flHeBeH pea h KpaTKa 

npOfl'bJIHCHTeJIHOCT. 

npe3 3hmhh Mecei^H Ha 1944-1945 r. ce npOBeacaaxa MHoro BenepiiHKii 
h 3a6aBH ? a caMOflefii^HTe ot cenoTO nocTaB^xa nnecH. Cb3,ua,uoxMe MJia- 
flencKH xop h TeaTpajiHa rpyna c pi>KOBOflHTeji Oep^HHaHfl IlapHCOB, kooto 
npeflCTaBH hakojiko nnecH b EaTaK h Ha djemrre b PaKHTOBO, HenHHO h 
JTbaceHe. Cnopea 3ana3emiTe /jaHHH, npe3 cemreMBpH-aeKeMBpH 1944 r. 
6aTauiKaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha PMC e npoBen 9 ci>6paHH)i, ^Ba MHTHHra h TpH 
BenepHHKH-3a6aBH. npe3 1945 r. ca 6hjih opraHH3HpaHH 34 ci>6paHHfl, 12 
BenepHHKH h 3a6aBH, 5 MHTHHra, hakojiko Tpy^OBH aicqHH. 

IIO HHHIJHaTHBa Ha p'bKOBOflCTBOTO Ha PMC npe3 OKTOMBpH 1944 r. B 

EaTaK ce CT>3,ua,zi;e nnoHepCKa opraHH3aijHfl "CenTeMBpniiHe", koato 06- 
XBaHa yneHHijHTe ot ni>pBOHaHajiHHTe ynnjinma h nporHMHa3H)iTa. Th 
pa3BH flo6pa flefiHOCT, H3m>jiHflBanie ycneniHO CBOHTe 3a,n;aHH h ch cnenejin 
aBTOpHTeT cpea HacejieHHeTO. PtKOBO^HTeji Ha Ta3H aeTCKa opraHH3aijHfl 
6euie ynHTejiKaTa BejiHHKa IlacKOBa, noflnoMoraaTa ot flpyra MJia/jH 

yHHTeJIKH H yHHTeJIH. 

npe3 cenTeMBpH 3anoHHaxMe #a H3,n;aBaMe h CTeHBecTHHK. Akthbho 
ynacTHe b HeroBOTO cnncBaHe B3eMaxa TpeHfla4)HJi KbHeB, ^a^HHKa 
EoHcaHOBa, AHreji Ohkhhh h flpyrn yneHHijH ot IlemepcKaTa rHMHa3Hfl. 
TpeHfla4>HJi KbHeB, kohto pa6oTeine b o6mHHaTa, ptKOBOfleine 6h6jiho- 
TeKaTa h HHTajmaTa Ha PMC b KJiy6a. B HHBeHTapHaTa KHHra Ha PMC npe3 
1945 r. ca OT6ejifl3aHH noBene ot 400 khhth. 

EaTaniKHTe MJiaaeacH ynacTBaxa b pt>koboactboto Ha MecTHHTe 
opraHii Ha BJiacTTa h aKTHBHO ce BKJiioHHxa b T^XHaTa pa6oTa, KaKTO h b 
opraHH3HpaHeTO Ha pe^Hija hobh CHHflHKajiHH, cnopTHH, KooneparaBHH, 
KyjiTypHO-npocBeTHH opraHH3aijHH. Hapea c TOBa, Te H3m>jiH5iBaxa h 
HenocpeflCTBeHHTe ch 3a,m>ji)KeHHfl KaTO ropCKH pa6oTmmn b KoonepaijHfl 
"Op^en", b fl'bpacaBHHTe ropCKH CTonaHCTBa (EaTauiKOTo, EeniHiHKOTO, 

IllHpOKOnOJIHHCKOTO, HaTbMCKOTO H flp.), KaTO pa60THHIJH H TeXHHIJH B ffbC- 

245 



K0pe3HHTe 4>a6pHKH, K aTO 3aHa^THHH H HHHOBHHIJH B pa3JIHHHH yHpOKaeHHfl, 
KaTO yHHTeJIH H yHeHHJJH. IIpH HOBHTe nOJIHTHHeCKH H 06meCTBeHH yCJIOBHH 

Te CTaHaxa ^BHacema CHJia Ha aeMOKparaHHOTO npeycTpoflcTBO b HaniHH 
Kpafi h b i^uiaTa CTpaHa. npHflrao 6enie #a ce Ha6jiK)flaBa KaK MJia^eacHTe 
H3pacTBaxa npo(^ecHOHajiHO ? nojiHTHHecKH h HHTeneKTyajiHO, KaK MJia#OTo 
noKOJieHHe 6e3KOpHCTHO OT^aBanie cbohtc chjih h TajiaHT 3a jorpaayjaHeTo 
Ha HOBa aeMOKpaTHHHa, CBo6o#Ha h 6jiaroaeHCTBama Ei>jjrapHfl. 

CTOTHiiHTe peMCHCTHTe ot TOBa noKOJieHHe Ha BaTaK b npo,m>jiaceHHe Ha 
MHoro roflHHH pa6oTexa c eHTycHa3i>M 3a hkohommhcckhh Hanpe,m>K 5 6jia- 
roycTpo^BaHeTO h KyjnypHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha BaTaK. MHoro ot tax CTaHaxa 
BHCOKOKBajiH(|)HiiHpaHH pa6oTHHijH, TexHHijH h HHaceHepH. Apy rH CTaHaxa 
ne#aro3H, npo^ecopH h HayHHH pa6oraHijH 5 jieKapH, apxHTeKTH, o<])HijepH, 

CTOnaHCKH H aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH ptKOBOflHTCJIH. Pa3npl>CHaJIH Ce B pa3JIHH- 

hh rpa^oBe Ha CTpaHaTa, Te Hocexa h ome hocot poMaHTHKaTa Ha peM- 
coBaTa ch MJia#ocT, Ha HfleajiH3Ma, 6e3K0pHCTHeT0 h #o6poTaTa, ocTaHaxa 
BepHH Ha iieHHOCTHTe h #o6po#eTejiHTe, Ha 3aBeTHTe Ha anpHJiijH ot 1 876 r. 
h Ha 3arHHajiHTe b 6op6aTa npOTHB 4>aniH3Ma 5 3a CBo6o^aTa h He3aBHCH- 
MociTa Ha BtJirapHH. 

B IlemepCKaTa rHMHa3HH npe^H h cjie^ 9.IX.1944 r. ce ynexa MHoro 
flo6pH 6aTauiKH MJia^eacH, noBeneTO ot kohto 6axa aHTH(|)ainHCTH. Oco6eHO 
aKTHBHO ynacTHe b flefiHocrra Ha PMC cpe# MJiatfeacra Ha BaTaK B3exa 
ToraBaniHHTe rHMHa3HCTH AHreji Ohkhhh, TeoprH IlHmpoHeB, TeoprH A. 
HaynieB, ^hmhtbp HeHOB, AHreji 3a(^HpKOB 5 AHreji T. KojiapoB, ATaHac 
XJypeB, TeoprH ^. BaHHeB, AHreji BopHCOB HaynieB, Aureji Tockob HaymeB, 
Aureji II. TaHeB, ^hmhtbp A. ifaeB, BacHJi MaHOJieB, Cre(|)aH IlayHOB h 
aeceTKH flpyrn. B ci>6oTa Benep Te ce 3aBpi>maxa b BaTaK h 3am>jiBaxa KJiy6a 
h HHTajiHmHaTa 6H6jiHOTeKa. Moace j& ce Kaace, ne TOBa 6enie 6i>fleiij,HflT 
ejiHT Ha 6i>Aeii];aTa 6aTaniKa HHTejinreHijHfl. Mhoto ot tax 3aBi>pniBaxa 
BHcnie o6pa30BaHHe h ce npecejinxa b IIjioBflHB, IIa3ap/pKHK, Co(|)Hfl h b 
#pyra Kpanma Ha CTpaHaTa, ho 3ana3Hxa o6HHTa ch kt>m poahha BaTaK. 



He Mora fla He OTftejieaca HMeHaTa Ha hjikoh ot MJia^e>KHTe, kohto npe3 1944-1946 r. KaTO 
HJieHOBe Ha PMC flazjoxa cboh npHHOC 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha poflHH* BaTaK: AHreji Ctohhcb, /J,hmhti>p 
Tep3HHCKH 5 AHreji BaHHeB, rien>p KanyHHeB, HHKOJia TopaHOB, ^hmhtlp npo^aHOB, ^hmhtlp 
BjiaroeB, XpncTO YpyivioB, Hjihh BaHHeB, Cothp HoBaKOB, TeoprH flaneB, Ejiaroa HayuieB; 
^eBOHKHTe MapHH HynyjieBa, HBaHKa HynyjieBa, /Ja^HHKa EoacaHOBa, EjieHa EoacaHOBa, Mapna 
UlyTeBa, HpeTaHa flyHeBa, FleTpyHa repxpKHKOBa, flac^HHKa IIInnpTOBa; yHHTejiHTe: #hko JfynQB, 
Cnac He^eB, Mmrym UfceTaHOB, AHreji T. Ohkhhh, ^hmhtbp B. Ohkhhh, U,BeTaHa KepejioBa, 
/Jhmhtph* /JomeBa, BejiHHKa IlacKOBa, IjBeTaHa ^HcaM6a30Ba, /Jhmhtbp HeHOB, MapeHKa 
TlonoBa; CTyjjeHTHTe: Hjihh Ctohmchob, BopHC BejioKanoB, Ore^aH HemepeB, TaHHO TaHeB, 

flHMHTBp T. fl^CypKOB, /J,HMHTT>p HeHOB. 

246 



CeKpeTap Ha Okojihhckhh komhtct Ha Pa6oTHHnecKH MJiaaeacKH 
ct>m)3 b Demepa 

B ycjiOBMTa Ha (|)aniHCTKaTa flHKTaTypa npe^H 9.IX.1944 r. fleHHOcira 
Ha BPIT h PMC b BaTaK ce pi>KOBOflexa ot pafioHHHTe komhtcth b rp. 
EpaijnroBO, kohto 6eme ecTecTBeHHOT nojiHTHHecKH ijeHTBp Ha cejinmaTa b 
oKOHHHTa. J\o HanajioTO Ha 1945 r. flBaTa paiioHHH KOMHTeTa, Maicap h 
npeycTpoeHH b okojihhckh, npofl'LJDKaBaxa aa pa6oTHT b EpaijnroBO. 

Me^cay OKTOMBpH 1944 h AHyapH 1945 r. a3, E. BajiHHOB h ApyrHTe 
HjieHOBe Ha 6aTaniKOTO peMCOBO p^koboactbo necTO nocemaBaxMe EpaijH- 
tobo, 3a aa ynacTBaMe b mhthhth, KOH(j)epeHijHH h CLBemaHHH Ha PMC h 

BPII. TaKa H3rpaflHXMe MHOrO flo6pH B3aHMOOTHOIIieHHfl C aKTHBHCTHTe Ha 

oKOJiHHCKaTa peMCOBa opraHH3aijHfl, 3ano3HaBaxMe ce c mhoix) 6paijHroB- 
ckh MJiafleacH h aeBOHKH, ynacTBaxMe b tcxhh BenepHHKH h 3a6aBH. 3a Hac 
EpaijnroBO 6eme rpaa Ha repon, KpenocT Ha 6i>JirapcKH5i naTpHOTH3i>M, Ha 
6op6nTe 3a HaijHOHajiHa He3aBHCHMOCT, CBo6o,na, aeMOKpaijHfl h coijHanHa 
cnpaBeanHBOCT. Ot actckh roflHHH 3HaexMe 3a noflBHra Ha ITeTJieniKOB, 3a 
repoH3Ma Ha 6paijHroBijH b AnpHJicKOTO BtcTaHHe, 3a yHacraeTO hm 
CenTeMBpHHCKOTO Bi>CTaHHe npe3 1923 r. h 3a EpaijHroBCKaTa KOMyHa. 

Ot flpyra CTpaHa, npeflCTaBHTejin Ha Okojihhckhh komhtct cliijo 
nocemaBaxa BaTaK, flaBaxa hh yKa3aHH5i h ctBeTH, npnctcTBaxa Ha HaniH 
3ace,naHHfl h ci>6paHH5L ITo-necTO H^Banie ITaBeji IlaBJiOB, kohto ycTaHOBH c 
MeH h c BopHC BajiHHOB npHHTejiCKH, a 6hx Ka3an h 6paTCKH B3aHMO- 
OTHonieHHH. Ton HMame 6jiaropo/i;eH xapaKTep, KaTO ynacraHK bt>b BoeHHa 
KOHcnnpai^HH 6hji octfleH h jieacan c Te^cKa npHctfla bt>b bochhha 3aTBOp - 
CnHBeH. 

B HanajiOTO Ha 1945 r. Okojihhckhtc komhtcth Ha BPII (k) h PMC ce 
npexBtpJiHxa ot EpaijHroBO b Ilemepa. EpaijnroBCKHTe flpyrapn c HeoxoTa 
npnexa TOBa pemeHHe. EflHa Benep b Kpaa Ha AHyapH IlaBeji riaBHOB Me 
noTBpcH no Tene(|)OHa h HacTOjrrejiHO mh cboGhjh fla ce hbh 3aeflHO c Bopnc 
BajiHHOB b Bpai^nroBO Ha 3aceaaHHe Ha Okojihhckhh komhtct. CyTpHHTa 
paHO c Bopnc noexMe neniKOM 3a Ilemepa, a orraM clc cyrpeiiiHHfl BjiaK 3a 
nnoBflHB npHCTHTHaxMe Ha rapa EpaijHroBO, KLfleTO hh naKanie riaBen. Cjiea 
B3aHMHHTe npHBeTCTBHH TptraaxMe no 3acHe^ceHOTO moce ki>m rpa^a. 

3aBi>p3a ce HenpHHyneH pa3roBOp. 

- riaBJie, aa He 6h m hh KaHHHi Ha ro^eac? - Becejio nonirra Bopnc, 3amoTO 
3HaexMe, ne riaBeji ce 6eme bjik>6hji b eflHa npeKpacHa 6paijHT0BCKa fleBOHKa. 

- He ce HieryBaii Eopnce, HHMa TaKOBa Heiijo! - OTBi>pHa riaBeji. H 
npofli>Ji3KH etc sarafltHHa ycMHBKa: 



247 



- HMa pemeHHe Ha KOMHTeTa, kocto Tpa6Ba fla bh CT>o6mHM h #a 
o6cbflHM KaK Hafi-flo6pe aa ro H3m>JiHHM. 

B KJiy6a Ha peMcoBaTa opraHH3au;Hfl hh onaKBaxa hakojiko ot 
HJieHOBeTe Ha KOMHTeTa (Toihkob, /JacyKaHOB, BaHrejioB, Xp. 3jiaTapeB). 
IlHXMe nan, oGctflHXMe hobhhhtc 3a 6ohhhtc fleficTBHa Ha IlbpBaTa 
6tJirapcKa apMM b lOrocjiaBHfl h YHrapHfl, a CT>mo h KaKBa noMom #a 
OKaacaT peMCOBHTe opraHH3au;HH Ha bohhhhikhtc ceMeiicTBa h t. h. 

no eflHO BpeMe IlaBeji ce H3npaBH: 

- Cera HCKaM «a bh CT>o6mfl peuieHHe Ha OK. 3HaeTe, ne komhtctkt 
Tp^6Ba aa ce ycTaHOBH b okojihhckha ijeHTbp - Ilemepa. EpaijnroBO 6enie 
ycnemeH paftoHeH ijeHTbp Ha PMC npe3 BpeMeTO Ha 6op6aTa npOTHB 
4>auiH3Ma. Cera ycjioBHjrra ca flpyrn. IlpeMecTBaHeTO o6ane He Moace #a 
CTaHe MexaHHHHO. HyacHo e fla ce H3Bi>piHH npeycTpoftcTBO, fla ce HaMepH 
MaTepnajiHa 6a3a b Ilemepa (HaBflpHO eflHa-flBe CTan 3a pa6oTa Ha 
KOMHTeTa) h fla ce HanpaBAT hakoh npoMeHH b CBCTaBa Ha p^koboactboto. 
Hne eflHHOflyuiHo B3exMe peuieHHe: 3a ceKpeTap Ha OK ce onpeflejia ap. 
AHreji HaymeB, a 3a ceKpeTap Ha PMC b EaTaK - ap. B. BajiHHOB. 3a 
opraHH3aijHOHeH ceKpeTap ce onpeflejia jsp. IlaBeji IlaBJioB. Bi>3Jiara ce Ha 
AHren ^ayuieB, IlaBeji IlaBJioB h Bopnc IlHpHHHHeB (ceKpeTap Ha TK - 
Ilemepa) aa ocnrypaT cbOTBeraa MaTepnajiHa 6a3a 3a fleHHOcrra Ha 
Okojihhckha KOMHTeT. Ha CBHiHTe ce Bi>3Jiara #a BHecaT npeflJioaceHHfl Ha 
hobh HJieHOBe Ha OK, kocto fla CTaHe Ha OKOJiHHCKa KOH(])epeHijHfl. 

C TpeBora H3CJiymax peuieHHeTO aa CTaHa ceKpeTap Ha OK. Bi>3pa3HX, 
ne He no3HaBaM ao6pe cennmaTa b OKOJiHjrra h peMCOBHTe opraHH3au;HH, ne 
b BaTaK HMaM o6mecTBeHH 3aflT>ji2KeHHfl: HJieH cbm Ha KOMHTeTa Ha 
OTenecTBeHHfl <j)p0HT, pa6oT# b IIonyjiflpHaTa 6aHKa, MaKap h KaTO 
Ha^HKHap, ne b Ilemepa me HMaM TpyflHoera c HaMHpaHe Ha KBapTHpa h 
pa6oTa h np. Ocbch TOBa ce noflroTB^x npe3 eceHTa Ha ctmaTa roflHHa #a 
npofli>Ji)Ka o6pa30BaHHeTO ch b CocJhhi. IIpeflJioflCHX 3a ceKpeTap Bopnc 
IlHpHHHHeB, kohto ao6pe no3HaBame OKOJiHjrra, a KaTO nemepeij meme #a 
H36erae Bene H36poeHHTe 6htobh Tpy^HOCTH. 

IlaBeji mh OTroBOpn: 

- AHrejie, HMaxMe npeflBHfl tbohtc bi>3mo)khh Bi>3pa)KeHHfl. B. 
IlHpHHHHeB e HH(J)opMHpaH h ci>mo noflKpenn TBO^Ta KaHflHflaTypa. Tpya- 
HOCTHTe ot 6htob xapaKTep me pemaBaMe 3aeflHO. Te ca hhhj;o b cpaBHeHHe 

C TpyflHOCTHTe, KOHTO HMaT 60HIJHTe Ha (|)pOHTa. 3aflaHHTe ? KOHTO 

pemaBaMe, pa6oTaTa, aeHHOCTra, kohto Tpa6Ba aa H3Bi>pHiHM KaTO peM- 
chcth 3a yKpenBaHe HapoflHOfleMOKparaHHaTa BJiacT, 3a Bi>3nHTaHHeTO Ha 
MJia^e^cTa b OKOJiHflTa b aeMOKpaTHneH h naTpHOTHHeH pyx, H3HCKBaT aa 

248 



pa6oTHM caMOOTBepflceHO. A mo ce oraaoi #o npofltJDKaBaHe Ha o6pa30Ba- 
HHeTO - flo eceHTa HMa MHoro BpeMe. HflMaMe BMpaaceHHe #a H3in>jiH5iBaiii 
H safltJiaceHMTa, kohto HMaui b o6mecTBeHHTe opraHH3aimH b BaTaK. 

HaKpaa o6cbflHXMe hakoh KOHKpeTHH BtnpocH okojio npexBtpJDiHeTO 
Ha OK b Ilemepa h no no^roTOBKaTa 3a IleTaTa HaipioHajiHa KOH^epeHima 
H a PMC. 

3aceaaHHeTO npHKJiiOHH. C6oryBaxMe c flpyrapHTe h noexMe o6paTHO 
kt>m BaTaK. Ha ppyrun rqh HH^opMHpaxMe ceKpeTapa Ha napraftHaTa 
opraHH3aima nerbp BpaHHeB h npeflceflaTejM Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OTenecT- 
BeHHfl 4>poht. npOBe^oxMe h 3aceaaHHe Ha ptKOBO^cTBOTO Ha PMC, Ha 
KoeTO BopHC BajiHHOB noe mohtc flOToraBaniHH (JjyHKimn. 

Cnefl hakojiko flHH b KJiy6a Ha rpaflCKH5i komhtct Ha PMC b Ilemepa ce 
cpenjHax c riaBen h c Eopnc nupuHHiiCB. Toft hh 3ano3Ha noapo6HO c 
aeftHOcrra Ha rpaflCKara opraHH3amifl h ycjiOBHOTa 3a pa6oTa b nemepa. 
KaTO ynacTHHK b aHTH(j)aniHCTKO jifiiiyKQmie h 6hbhi nojiHTHHecKH 3ar- 
BOpmnc, BopHC ce noji3Bame c tojihm aBTOpHTeT cpefl MJiafleflcra h 
HHTejiHreHijHHTa b rpa#a h otcojiHflTa. Ctc cboa Gjiaropo^eH h aeMOKpaTH- 
neH xapaKrep, Toft Cb3flafle /jo6pH ycjioBHfl 3a pa6oTa Ha KOMHTeTa h 
opraHH3aimjrra h mhoto ,zi;onpHHece 3a TOBa hoboto okojihAcko 

pT>KOBOflCTBO Ha PMC 6tp30 #a yCTaHOBH ntJIHOIieHHH KOHTaKTH c 

OKOJinftcKHTe h rpa/jcKHTe ynpeacfleHHfl h o6mecTBeHH opraHH3aipiH. IIo- 
kt>cho BopHC ycneniHO ce yTBtp^H KaTO BH^eH h 6e3K0pHCTeH o6mecT- 
BeHHK b nemepa h Ila3apfl»CHHiKH OKptr. 

Kjiy6i>T Ha rpaflCKM komhtct ce npeBtpHa b KJiy6 Ha OK h 
OKOJinftcKaTa opraHH3aima, flenoBOflHTejiKaTa Ha TK Kara IlHpHHHHeBa noe 
n HaniHTe TeKynm KaHijenapcKH ^ejia. Ct>c cboa cnoKoeH h ypaBHOBeceH 
xapaKrep, etc CBOflTa eHeprHHHOCT h TpynojnoGne t% ce OKa3a MHoro flo6i>p 
aflMHHHCTpaTop h fleMOHCTpHpa tojiamo yMeHHe aa o6myBa c MJiaaeacHTe. 

Ilpe3 cneflBamHTe hakojiko rhu TpHMaTa noexMe ptKOBO^CTBOTO Ha 
OKOJinftcKara opraHH3aima. B CBCTaBa Ha KOMHTeTa #0 npeflCToamaTa 
KOH(J)epeHiiH^[ 6axa KOonrapaHH hobh HJieHOBe, npHBJieneHH 6axa h ctTpyfl- 
HHitH no opraHH3aijHOHHaTa h nonHTHKO-npocBeTHaTa ^eftHOCT. H3jreeHH 
aKTHBHCTH Ha rpa#CKaTa opraHH3aima Ha PMC b Ilemepa no TOBa BpeMe 
6axa PyMeH rpnropOB, IleTbp TonHHeB, BecejiHH XaflflCHHHKOJiOB, IleTbp 
^oktopob, Teoprn On,naH0B, /Jhmhtbp ByxneB h ,np., c kohto CTaHaxMe 
npH^TenH h ci>,n6aTa npo,m>jraH m hh cpema b npofltJDKeHHe Ha mhoto 
roflHHH. Ono3Hax ce etc ceKpeTapHTe Ha OK Ha BPI1 Teoprn 5Ihkob h 
HnKOJia TpaaHOB, ycTaHOBHX KOHTaKTH c MecTHHTe o6mecTBeHHitn HopaaH 
IlajiHKapOB, KocTa Ah,zjohob, IfeaH rpnropoB, HnKOJia TajiaHOB, To^op 

249 



KoacyxapoB, To,zjop ApHayzjOB, HHKOJia Ctohjiob, IIJepK) IIJepeB h jjp. 

C IlaBeji h BopHC IlHpHHHHeB npoBefloxMe cbBemaHHe etc ceKpeTapHTe 
Ha peMCOBHTe apyacecTBa b llemepa h apyrHTe cennma Ha oKOJiHHTa, 

HH(J)OpMHpaXMe TH 3a H3MeHeHHflTa B CbCTaBa Ha OKOJIHHCKHfl KOMHTeT H 

onpeflenHXMe HenocpeflCTBeHHTe hm 3aaaHH. npe3 MapT-anpHJi 1945 r. 
HneHOBeTe Ha PMC b IlemepcKO 6axa okojio 1300. npe3 cjieflBamara 
ceflMHi^a o6HKOHHXMe OKOJiraTa h ce ono3HaxMe c HJieHOBeTe Ha ptico- 
BOflCTBaTa, npHCbCTBaxMe Ha 3ace,zjaHHfl h ci>6paHHH. npe3 TOBa BpeMe 
ycnax aa noceTH h npoBe^a CT>6paHHfl c peMCOBHTe opraHH3aijHH b 
Pa^HJiOBO, KanHTaH ^HMHTpHeBO, Eara, HcnepnxoBO, Ko3apcKO, HoBa 
Maxana, BaTaK. IlaBeji IlaBJioB noceTH Po3obo, PaBHorop, >Kpe6HHKo, 
Oothhobo, EpaijHroBO. B HanajioTO Ha MapT npOBe^oxMe OKOJinficKa 
KOH(j)epeHijHfl, Ha koato o6cbflHXMe cbCTOAHHeTO Ha opraHH3aijHHTe h 
npeflCTonmHTe hm 3a,zjaHH, bkjhohhtcjiho HeoGxoflHMOcrra ot cbBMecTHara 
pa6oTa c flpynrre MJiaaeacKH opraHH3aijHH (h oco6eHO ct>c 3eMeaejicKHH 

MJiaflOKKH CT>K)3) H CT>3flaBaHeTO Ha MJiaflOKKH KOMHCHH KT>M KOMHTCTHTe 

Ha OTenecTBeHKH $poHT. 3a flejierara Ha IleTaTa HaijHOHajiHa KOH^epemjHH 
Ha PMC 6axMe H36paHH BopHC IlHpHHHHeB, IlaBeji IlaBJioB h a3. 

npoflT>jraaBax aa ynacTBaM h b fleHHOcrra Ha PMC h 0<D b BaTaK. 
BopHC BajiHHOB 6eine ^aKTHHecKH^T ceKpeTap Ha PMC, ho a3 (J)opMajiHo 
6ax ocBo6ofleH ot fljn>2CH0CT e^Ba Ha 11. III. 1945. B npoTOKOJia Ha o6moTo 
ci>6paHHe Ha PMC e 3anncaHo: 

"^pyrapOT Ahtcji HayineB aaae othct 3a HiecTMeceHHaTa achhoct Ha 
PMC ot 9 cenTeMBpH ao 9 MapT 1945 r. Ton o6pncyBa 6op6nTe Ha PMC ^o 9 
cenTeMBpH h thh cnea 9 cenTeMBpH, a hmchho pa6oTara npH nerajiHH ycjiOBHH 
- MacoBH3aijHfl Ha opraHH3aijHflTa. Cbiijo TaKa toh o6ctohho pa3niefla bchhko 
HanpaBeHO ot PMC aocera, opraHH3aijHOHHOTO cbCTOAHHe, KyjiiypHO- 
npocBeTHaTa aeftHOCT, cna6ocTHTe h rpeniKHTe, kohto ca aonycHaTH h ap. 

Cnefl TOBa ce npHcrbnH kt>m H36npaHe Ha hob ceKpeTap Ha PMC, tbh 
KaTO floceraniHHHT AHren ^aynieB, HanycKa no npHHHHH, ne CTaBa 
ceKpeTap Ha Okojihhckha komhtct Ha PMC b llemepa. 3a TaKtB ce H36pa 
flp. BopHC EaJIHHOB" (IIpOTOKOJI M 17 ot 1 1. III. 1945). 

Eflx e^HH ot HHHitnaTopHTe h 0praHH3aT0pHTe Ha hhkojiko o6nj;ocejiCKH 
ci>6paHHH b (3a roflHHiHHHaTa ot repoHHHaTa CMi>pT Ha Bacnji JIcbckh, 3a 
roflHHiHHHaTa ot repoHHHaTa ra6eji Ha napTH3aHHTe ot OTpflfla "Ahtoh 
HBaHOB" h flp.). 

Ha 18.111.1945 r. 3aeflHO c rpyna 6aTaniKH peMCHCTH (Bopnc EajiHHOB, 
AHren Ctohhcb, ^hko ,Hy HeB > AHflpefi TaineB, Teoprn BacHJieB, IIJepK) 
Hhkojiob, Hjiha TaHeB, /Jhmhtbp IHnnpTOB, Ctohho rp03#HH, Ilertp 

250 



p e p,zpKHKOB, ^HMHTBp KajiHHHH, ilHKO CTaHKOB) 651X npneT 3a qjieH Ha BPn 
(k). Tpfl6Ba aa OT6ejieaca, ne Eopnc BajiHHOB h a3 onje ot cenTeMBpH 
peflOBHo npncbCTBaxMe Ha 3aceflaHHH Ha napTHHHOTo pt>koboactbo h Ha 
napTHHHHTe ci>6paHHfl. Ilo Hanie HacTOHBaHe o6ane npneMaHeTO hh 3a 
qjieHOBe Ha napTHOTa Tpfl6Bame ^a CTaHe 3aeflHO c rpyna peMCHcra cjiea 
saBp'tmaHeTO hm ot 4>poHTa. 

C IlaBeji 3aeflHO hjih nooTflejiHO noceujaBaxMe ci>6paHHfl Ha peMCOBHTe 
opraHH3aijHH b cejiHiijaTa Ha OKOJiHHTa. CrpeMAXMe ce ^a aKTHBH3HpaMe 
yqacTHeTO Ha peMCHCTHTe h jipyrure MJiafleaoi b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha o6iu;h- 
HHTe h apyrHTe Be^oMCTBa, b o6mecTBeHHTe opraHH3aijHH, b peniaBaHeTo 
Ha Bi>npocH h npo6jieMH, CBT>p3aHH c Mnafleaera. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe o6pt- 
maxMe Ha yneHHijHTe b flBeTe nemepcKH rHMHa3HH, rHMHa3HOTa b 
BpaiiHroBO, npoMHinjieHOTo ynHJiHiije b BaTaK h Ha MJia^ara HHTejiHreHijHfl. 
B aeHHocrra Ha KOMHTeTa npHBJiHHaxMe MHoro aKTHBHCTH ot Ilemepa h 
^pyrHTe cejiHiija 3a 6ece,zjH, pe^epara, flOKJiaflH 3a H3flCHABaHe Ha pa3JiHHHH 
Bi>npocH ot nojiHTHHecKH5i h CTonaHCKHJi hchbot b CTpaHara, 3a penieHHfl Ha 
LJK Ha BPII ? PMC h HaijHOHajiHM cbBeT Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT. d>3fla- 
#oxa ce MHoro ao6pH B3aHMOOTHonieHH5i Meacfly okojihhckhh h MecTHHTe 
KOMHTeTH, c apyrHTe MJia^eHCKH nojiHTHHecKH h npocBeTHH opraHH3aijHH. 

IleTaTa HaunoHajiHa KOH^epeHUHH Ha PMC, kooto ce ebCToa b Kpaa 
Ha MapT 1945 r. floKJia^H H3Hecoxa Thtko HepHOKOJieB h Hhhko Cre(|)aHOB. 
Ot HMeTO Ha peMCOBHTe opraromijHH b IljiOBflHBCKa o6jiacT ce H3Ka3axa 
TepMaH TepMaHOB (ceKpeTap Ha OGjiacraiM komhtct) h TeoprH Hobkob. 
Hne, TpHMaTa aejierara Ha IlemepCKa okojiha, 6axMe HenpeKbCHaro 3ae;jHO. 
3ae«HO c ocTaHajiHTe npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha IIjioBflHBCKa o6jiacT 6^XMe HacTaHe- 
hh Ha ntpBHfl 6ajiKOH. TyK KaTO toct Ha KOHcJjepeHijHflTa 6enie h mhhh- 
CTbptT Ha BtTpeniHHTe pa6oTH Ahtoh K)roB 3aeflH0 etc ceMeiiCTBOTO ch. 

IIoMHfl KaK e^Ha pa6oTHHHKa ot TeKcrariHa 4>a6pHKa bt>b BapHa Hanpa- 
bh eMoijHOHajiHO H3Ka3BaHe h pa3Ka3a 3a Teaoarre ycjioBM h eKcnjioa- 
TaijHOTa, Ha kooto ca no/yioaceHH paGoTHHHKHTe bt>b 4)a6pHKara, h 3anHTa 
"flOKora me 6 r bj\QM 6ejiH po6hhh". PeaiojHOTa Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO 6enie 
MHoro 6i>p3a. Ha flpyrra aeH Ahtoh K)roB ct>o6hjh, ne no penieHHe Ha 
MHHHCTepcKM ctBeT Ta3H 4>a6pHKa ce HaijHOHajiH3Hpa, KoeTO 6enie 
nocpemHaTO c OBaijHH ot flejieranrre. 

BenepTa Ha m>pBHfl ^eH rjie^axMe 6aneTHa nocTaHOBKa. npe3 aHTpaK- 
THTe Teoprn Hobkob KOMeHrapame H3m>jiHeHHOTa Ha 6ajiepHHHTe, 
oGflCHABanie CHMBOJiHKaTa Ha flBHaceHMTa hm h np. BnenaTJiH Me HeroBaTa 
ocBe^oMeHOCT h niHpoKaTa Kyjrrypa, koato jiHHenie b H3Ka3BaHHATa h b 
ApyrHTe My npo^BH KaTO MJia^eacKH ptKOBO^HTeji. 

251 



Cne/j 3aBpi>maHeT0 ch b Ilemepa npOBe/joxMe OKOJiHHCKa KOH(f>epeHmiH 
h flOKJiaflBaxMe 3a peineHHjrra Ha HaijHOHajiHaTa KOH^epemjHfl. ITpHeTa 
6eine nporpaMa 3a H3m>jiHeHHe Ha B3eTHTe b Co(|)h^ pemeHM. Cne/j TOBa ce 
CbCTOHxa ci>6paHHH Ha MecTHHTe opramoaiiHH. PeMCHCTHTe 3apa6oTHxa c 
rojwM eHTycHa3i>M ? c noBene caMOHyBcrane h acHOTa 3a 3a#aHHTe h 
npH3BaHHeT0 Ha MJia/jeacTa b npeycTpoiicTBOTO Ha HOBaTa OTenecTBeHo- 
4>pOHTOBCKa #T>p)KaBa. Ochobhh ijejin cera 6axa opraHH3aijHOHHO-H,zjeHHOTo 
yKpenBaHe h MacoBH3HpaHe Ha peMCOBHTe opraHH3aijHH, pa3inHp5iBaHeTO Ha 
cbBMecTHaTa pa6oTa c jspyruTQ MJiafle}KKH opraHH3aijHH h ci>3flaBaHeTO Ha 
eflHHHa MJia/jeacKa opraHH3aijHfl. 

B ITemepCKa okojiha no TOBa BpeMe ce Genie ci>3aajia Ao6pa nojiHTH- 
necKa h CTonaHCKa o6cTaHOBKa. Bjiacrra Ha OrenecTBeHHfl 4 ) P°ht 
yKpenBanie, HacejieHneTO noantpacaine nojiHTHKaTa Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO, 
H3Bi>pnieHO 6enie npeycTpoiicTBOTO Ha OKOJinnciarre n MecTHHTe a/jMHHH- 
CTpaTHBHH ynpe)K,zjeHHfl n opramoaijHH. YnnjinmaTa pa6oTexa #o6pe. 
HnTannmaTa pa3BHBaxa cpaBHHTejiHO aKTHBHa KyjnypHO-npocBeTHa aen- 
hoct. npOBe)Kaaxa ce MacoBH ci>6paHHH no aKTyajmn MecTHH n o6njo- 
HapoflHH Bi>npocH. Mjiafle^KHTe B3eMaxa aKTHBHO ynacrae b pa6oTaTa Ha 
o6mnHHTe h oGmecTBeHHTe opramoaijHH. 

MoK/jyBpeMeHHO b cenaTa 3aBT>pniBaine noaroTOBKaTa Ha npojieraaTa 
cenT6a, 3aca^KflaHeTO Ha TK>TK>Ha, no#pfl3BaHeTO n nptcKaHeTO Ha ncmTa h 
OBoniHHTe rpaflHHH, 3aca^caaHeTO Ha 3ejieHHyijHTe. Teneme n KaMnaHM 3a 
H3KynyBaHe Ha TK)TK)Ha ot peKOJira 1944 r. n TK)TK)HonpoH3BO#HTejiHTe 
6axa 3arpH5KeHH KaK me 6i>flaT onpe/jeneHH H3KynHHTe ijeHH. B njiaHHH- 
CKHTe cena EaTaK, HoBa Maxana, Oothhobo h b ropcKHTe CTonaHCTBa 
ycneniHO, MaKap n Tpy/jHO nopa^n He^oGpOTO cHaG/jflBaHe, npo,m>JDKaBaiiie 
A'BpBoaoGnB'bT n AtpBonpepaGoTBaHeTO. 

CtmecrayBaxa pe^Hiia TpyaHOCTH, kohto BtJiHyBaxa HacejieHneTO h 
ctoTBeTHHTe ai>P^KaBHH oprami: He^ocTnr Ha HHBeHTap, HeflOCTartHHO 
CHa6flHBaHe c xpaHH n o6neKJio (Bee ome ctmecTByBanie KynoHHaTa 
cncTeivia), Tpy^HOCTH npn H3m>JiHeHneTO Ha atpacaBHHTe aoeraBKH (T.Hap. 
HapHfln), 3JioynoTpe6nTe Ha cneKynaHTH-HepHo6opcafl}KHH ? kohto ce 
Bi>3noji3Baxa ot Heflocrara Ha npo/jyKTH n noBnniaBaxa ijeHHTe. 

Te3n Tpy^HOCTH ome noBene Mo6njiH3Hpaxa ycnjin^Ta Ha HacejieHneTO 
n Ha MJia,zje)KTa. C Bncona ci>3HaTejiHOCT TpynoBHTe xopa H3Bi>pniBaxa 
CBOHTa aenHOCT h ,naBaxa cboa npnHoc 3a yKpenBaHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 3a 
H3ni>jiHeHHe Ha 3a£aHHTe, nocTaBeHH ot npaBHTencTBOTO, 3a yKpenBaHe Ha 
aeMOKpaTHHecKOTO npeycTpoiicTBO Ha CTpaHaTa h 3aBi>pniBaHe Ha BOHHaTa 
npoTHB repMaHHM. ITpH Ta3H CHTyaijnfl pe^Hija tokkh h Ha6onejiH Btnpocn 

252 



6>ixa o6cT>5K,aaHH 6ypH0 Ha o6iu;ocejiCKH ct6paHH5i. He 6wBa ^a ce 3a6paB5i, 
qe 6axa H3MHHajiH caMO hhkojiko Meceija cjiea 9.IX.1944 r. h ne BOHHaTa Ha 
Ci>K)3HHixHTe npOTHB XHTJiepo^auiHCTKa TepMaHH^ npofltJDKaBame, a 
6oHijHTe Ha HainaTa HtpBa apMM ome ce cpaacaBaxa b yHrapcKHTe CTenH. 



* * * 



OKOJiHHCKaTa opraHH3ai^H^ ce ptKOBOfleuie Henocpe^cTBeHO ot 
06jiacTHH5i KOMHTeT Ha PMC b rijioB^HB. TyK ce cpemax etc ceKpeTapHTe 
Ha oKOJiHHCKHTe komhtcth b na3ap/pKHK, naHariopHme, KapjiOBO, Cmojiah, 

C ptKOBOflHTeJIHTe H CbTpyflHHIJHTe Ha 06jiaCTHHH KOMHTeT CjiaBH 

HaicbpOB, TepMaH TepMaHOB, Teoprn Hobkob, Tpyio nanyKHHeB, Hjiha 
KptcTeB (,3,ohhhh), LJbotko TaroB, TeoprH CanyHtfcneB, HaHKa CepKe- 
^HHeBa (BnTKa) h ap. C hakoh ot tax CTaHaxMe npHjrrejra 3a mhoto 
roaHHH. B IIjiOBflHB HMax bt>3mo)khoct rzl nocemaBaM TeaTpn, KHHa, KOH- 
itepTH. Cpemax ce etc cTyaeHTH ot EaTaK, nenjepa, BpaiinroBO h apyrHTe 
cejrama ot OKOJiH^Ta, c 6hbihh nojiHT3aTBopHHiiH, c kohto ce no3HaBax OT 
CocJmhckha, CKoncKHH h ItoapA^KHHiKiM 3aTBOpH ? c HHTejieKTyajnjH (xy- 
flOEcmmH, nncaTejiH, noera, acypHajiHCTH), etc CTonaHCKH ptKOBOflHTejin. 

B E[jIOBflHB npHCtCTBaX H Ha 06jiaCTHH KOH(J)epeHIIHH H ctBemaHHfl Ha 

BPn (k) h Ha OTenecTBeHHfl <J)poHT, kohto ce npoBOKflaxa b canoHa Ha 
6HBineTO HeMCKO ynHJiHme. HMax Bt3MoacHOCT ,zja cjiymaM flOKJiaflH, 
6eceflH h penH Ha ptKOBOflHTejiH Ha Te3H opramrcaijHH (TeoprH Koctob, 
Toho Tp03eB ? ^eMHp Rues) h Ha npeacTaBHTejiH Ha U,K Ha BPn (k) (BacHJi 
KojiapoB, BtJiKO HepBeHKOB, Teoprn HaHKOB, Ahtoh IOtob, Upjia 
^paroSneBa, Thtko HepHomneB h ap.). ToBa mh aaBaine Bt3M05KHOCT m ce 
HH(J)opMHpaM 3a nojiHTHHecKOTO h CTonaHCKO nojioaceHHe Ha CTpaHaTa, 3a 
ocHOBHHTe 3aaaHH, kohto ce pemaBaxa ot npaBHTejicTBOTO, 3a 3aaanHTe Ha 
napTHHHHTe, MJiaaeaocH h /jpyra o6mecTBeHH opraHH3aijHH. BnenaTJiflBaiHe 
Me BHCOKaTa nojiHTHnecKa KyjiTypa Ha opaTopme, TOJiepaHTHOcrra hm KtM 
pa3JiHHHHTe MHeHH^, peanH3MtT b MHCJiHTe h aejiara hm. ToBa Me o6oraTa- 
Baine h CTHMyjrapaine. Herax MHoro, 6ax nocroflHeH kjihcht Ha KHHacap- 
HHUHTe b nemepa h Hjiobahb. 

Hne c naBJieTO pa6oTexMe c rojiHMa BHpa b peajnoauHsnra Ha 
HauiHTe MJiaae^cKH H^eajiH. Pa6oTexMe BceoT^aHHO h 6e3KopncTHO, 6e3 
3anjiaTH ? 6e3 KaKBHTO h aa 6hjio napHHHH Bt3HarpaacfleHHfl, KaTO 
"anocmiiH". Bt3xnmaBaxMe ce ot no^BHra Ha napTH3aHHTe ot HauiM Kpafi 
- Te hh cjiyacexa 3a npHMep. 3a Te3H 3-4 Meceija HHe ce 3ano3HaxMe h 
pa6oTHXMe c aeceTKH npeKpacHH MJia,o;e)KH. 

IlaBeji IlaBJiOB 6eme BceoTflaeH peMCHCT, njiaMeHeH naTpnoT, BapHO 

253 



neflo Ha EpamiroBO, BT>3npHeji H^eajiHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma h totob aa OTfla^e 
CBOHTe chjih 3a Hsrpa^c^aHe Ha o6HOBeHa Ei>JirapHfl. 3a IlaBeji CBo6o,o;aTa h 
aeMOKpaijHHTa 6axa CLiUHOCTTa Ha coipiajiH3Ma, Ha coitnajiHaTa cnpaBe#- 
jihboct. 3a coijHajiH3Ma toh He caMO MeHTaeme, a pa6oTeuie. OTHonieHHjrra 
hh 6axa 6paTCKH. Toh 6eme near toct Ha HameTO ceMeficTBO h ce 
nyBCTBaine y Hac KaTO y aoMa ch. 

IlaBeji 6eine npHpoflHO HHTejinreHTeH, ao6poHaMepeH, BHHara HaMH- 
paine o6m e3HK c MJiaflOKHTe. BHHara 6eine ycMHXHaT, ho H3jn>HBaiiie 
eflHOBpeMeHHO ^oGpoTa h CTporocT. OraHHaBaine ce c AHCitHnjiHHHpaHocT: 
npe^H 6eine cnyacHJi b apMHjrra h TaM 6enie ynacTBan b aHTH(J)aiHHCTKa 
KOHcnHpaijHfl, sapaflH koato 6hji CL^eH ot BoeHHO-noneBH cbfl no 33,3, h 
jieaean bt>b bochhhji 3aTBOp b Cjikbch. npe3 3HMaTa xoaeine o6neneH c 
BoeHHO Koaeyxne 6e3 pticaBH, a npe3 npojierra c BHirrara. KoraTO o6HKa- 
jwxMe cenaTa Hocenie jiioGhmha ch niMaifeep, kohto no-KLCHO 3aMeHH c 9 
mm "EepeTa". IIo xapaKTep 6eine npjiM h cmcji, totob Ha BCflicaKBH jiHinerow 
npn H3ni>JiHeHHe Ha 3a,m>Ji)KeHHflTa ch. 

KoraTO 6nx ocBoGoaeH KaTO ceicpeTap Ha Okojihhckha komhtct h 
npeMHHax Ha pa6oTa b EaTaK, IlaBeji HeroayBaine. rio-KLCHO noen>nH b 
rpaHHHHH bohckh h npe3 eceHTa Ha 1948 r. 6eine y6HT ot TepopHcra- 
areHTH Ha nyaeflOTO pa3y3HaBaHe b pafioHa Ha rpaHHijaTa c pLpiiHfl Kpaii rp. 
Tone flenneB. Maflop IlaBeji IlaBJiOB, BceoT/jaftHHOT naTpHOT h counajiHCT, 
npeKpacHH^iT hobck, 6ama Ha rbq aeija h BepeH CT>npyr, aoctohho He^o Ha 
BpaiiHroBO, 6eine norpe6aH c bochhh nonecTH b po^HM ch rpafl. H cera 
c^Kain nyBaM TpaypHaTa My3HKa h nyuieHHHfl cajiiOT b HeroBa naMeT. 



* * * 



C ocBoSo^cflaBaHeTO mh KaTO ceKpeTap Ha Okojihhckha komhtct Ha 
PMC h npeMHHaBaHeTO Ha nojiHTHnecKa pa6oTa b BaTaK npiiKJiioHH 
oceMroflHiimaTa mh CKpoMHa nojiHTimecKa aHTii(J)aiiiiiCTKa aeiiHOCT b 
MJiaae^cKOTO flBHyKCHiie h PMC. To3H nepnofl Moace ycnoBHO #a ce 
pa3flejiH Ha TpH eTana: fleHHOcrra b PMC - b Ti>proBCKaTa raMHa3Hfl (1938- 

1942); B 3aTBOpHTe (CO(|)HHCKH, CKOnCKH - H,ZjpH30BO, Ilasapfl^KHiHKH 

(1942-1944) h cjiea ^eBeTocenTeMBpHHCKaTa no6e,na (1944-1945 r.). 

npe3 T03H nepHOfl pa3BHBax h yKpenBax nojiHTHnecKHTe ch BH^cflaHM h 
Hflen, Kajuraax ce b 6op6aTa, npeoflOJiflBaiiKH TpyflHocnrre b ycnoBHOTa Ha 
MOHapxo(|)aHiH3Ma h HMax macTHeTO m ynacTBaM b aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a 
Ha Hapo,ua, pi>KOBO,ueHKH ce ot MJiafleaocH H r neanH3i>M h eHTycHa3T>M, b 
6op6aTa 3a CBo6oflHa h aeMOKparaHHa Bi>jirapH^ 5 3a ei>3,uaBaHe Ha 

COIJHaJIHCTHHeCKO 06meCTB0 ? B KOeTO Tbp)KeCTByBaT 06lH0H0BeiHKHTe ijeH- 

254 



HOCTH Ha CbBpeMeHHaTa imBHJIH3aimfl. 

lHacTJiHB cbm, ne 6ax e^Ha ManKa nacraija ot Ta3H 6op6a Ha 
nporpecHBHaTa MJiaaeac, h ce ropflea, ne HMax bi>3mo)khoct ^a pa6ora c 
npeKpacHHTe Mnafle^cH-peMCHCTH b TtproBCKaTa rHMHa3M (Cocj)Hfl), b 
MoeTO poflHO Macro BaTaK, b cejinmaTa Ha IlemepcKa okojim. IIpe3 AHyapH 
1972 r., KoraTO Ha TBpacecTBeHO ci>6paHHe ce OT6en^3a 50-ro,zjHiHHHHaTa ot 
cb3flaBaHeTO Ha KoMyHHCTHHecKHfl MJiaae^KKH ci>k)3 (KMC) b EaTaic, 6ax 
y#ocToeH c noHeraa rpaMOTa Ha IJK Ha JJKMC "3a 3acjiyrn b yKpenBaHe Ha 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha MJiaae^cKaTa opraHH3aijHfl b rp. BaTaK", koato mh 6e 
BpT>neHa ot ceKpeTapa Ha U,K Ha ,ZJKMC Teoprn rpnropoB. IIpoH3Hecox 
KpaTKO cjiobo, b KoeTO 6jiaro,zjapHx Ha PMC 3a HfleiiHOTO, nojiHTHHecKO h 
naTpHOTHHHo Bt3nHTaHHe h 3a Bi>3MO)KHOCTTa, kooto mh fla^e #a ynacTBaM 
c MJiaae^cKH eHTycHa3i>M h HfleanH3i>M b 6op6aTa Ha Tpy^OBHTe xopa 3a no- 

ao6l>p )KHBOT. 

Othobo b BaTaK (1945-1946) 

ToflHHHTe 1945-1946 6axa H3m>jiHeHH c mhoto HCTOpHnecKH ct>6hthh 
cbc CBeTOBHO 3HaneHHe. Ha ^JiTeHCKaTa KOH^epemjHfl OrajiHH, HtpHHJi h 
Py3BejiT npnexa ocHOBHHTe npHHiinnn 3a opraHH3aijHfl Ha cneflBoeHHHa 
CBflT. npe3 Man 1945 r. BOHHaTa npHKJiiOHH c pa3rpoMa h KanHTyjiaijHflTa Ha 
(J)aiHHCTKa TepMaHH^. C noTc^aMCKaTa KOH(J)epeHi^H5i 3anoHHa no^roTOB- 
KaTa 3a CKJiioHBaHe Ha MHpHHTe aoroBopH. 

IIojiHTHHecKHTe npoMeHH b Ei>JirapM 6axa yicpeneHH c napjiaMeHTap- 
HHTe H36opH 3a XXVI HapoflHO ci>6paHHe npe3 HoeMBpH 1945 r., pe(])epeH- 
flyMa 3a npeMaxBaHe Ha MOHapxHOTa h H36opHTe 3a BenHKo Hapo^Ho 
ci>6paHHe npe3 1946 r. Me^c^yBpeMeHHO 6euie c(])opMHpaHO h TpeTOTo 
npaBHTejiCTBO Ha OrenecTBeHHfl (])poHT, Hanejio c Teoprn ^hmhtpob. 

Mo^rra flefiHOCT npe3 T03H nepnofl npoTene noa 3HaKa Ha Te3H rojieMH 
cbGhtha h npoijecH. Kmctbt Ha BaTaK IleTtp T. BpaHneB c Moe ctrjiacne 
npe/yioacH npefl OK Ha BPn aa 6i>#a ocBoGo^eH KaTO ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha 
PMC h m ce Bi>pHa Ha o6mecTBeHa pa6oTa b BaTaK. Eax onpe^ejieH 3a 
ceKpeTap Ha 06mHHCKM komhtct Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (])poHT h HJieH Ha 
o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa. IIo3HaBax ^o6pe fleHHOcrra Ha KOMHTeTa h 
B3aHMOOTHOineHH5iTa Meacay napTHHTe, ti>h KaTO 6ax HeroB HJieH ot eceHTa 
Ha 1944 r., He3aBHCHMO ot apyrHTe fleiiHOCTH, kohto cbm H3ni>jiHflBaji. 
HaacHO 6ax h c pa6oTaTa Ha o6m;HHCKaTa ynpaBa. C y^OBOJicTBHe npnex fla 
pa6oT5* c Ilerbp BpaHneB, kohto 6eine 6e3KOpHCTeH, npHHijHneH h Mt^tp 
HOBeK, a HeroBHTe penieHH5i 6axa 6tp3H h oGocHOBami. B HeroBO otcbctbhc 
H3m>jiHflBax 4>yH^HHTe Ha KMeT. 

255 



IIpeflceflaTeji Ha KOMHTeTa 6eine HHKOJia K)pyKOB, ebmo Mbjxbp hobck, 
Ape6eH TbproBeu;, 6hbih kmct b HanajiOTO Ha 30-Te roflHHH, kohto 6eme 
fleMOKpaT no ayuia h y6eacfleHHfl. KaTO npeflce^aTeji Ha /jpyacGara Ha 
E3HC, toh no/mtpacame Bpi>3KH etc cboh CTap nojiHTHnecKH npHHTeji 

^HMHTbp THHeB H TOBa CTaHa npHHHHa 3a HerOBOTO KOJie6jIHBO OTHOUieHHe 

cnpHMO ocj)opMHJiaTa ce npe3 1946-1947 r. 3eMe,zjejicKa ono3HijHfl. C 
HHKOJia K)pyKOB pa6oTexMe ,no6pe, toh Bi>3nHpauie KOMHTeTa ot B3eMaHe 
Ha npH6i>p3aHH pa^HKanHH pemeHHfl no hakoh nojiHTHnecKH h CTonaHCKH 
BMipocn. OcTaHajiHTe HJieHOBe Ha KOMHTeTa 6axa aBTOpHTeTHH xopa c 
pa3JiHHHO o6pa30BaHHe h npo(J)ecHH ? ho c OTroBOpHO OTHomeHne kbm 
o6mocencKHTe npo6neMH: HnKona Cepac])HMOB, ,3,HMHTbp TopaHOB, HBaH 
KopMyuieB, ^hmhtbp Hb. TopaHOB, Teoprn HemepeB, ^hmhtbp PaneB, 
Teopra Xa/pKHeB, IleTbp TeHneB, Teoprn KonapOB, Ahtcji Xp. Ctohhcb h 
flp. TpyflHOCTH b pa6oTaTa Ha KOMHTeTa h bi>b B3aHMOOTHOineHH5rra Meac/jy 
napTHHTe npe3 1946 r. cb3flaaoxa hhkoh npe/jCTaBHTejiH Ha H.C. "3bcho". 

He3aBHCHMO ot bchhko, komhtctbt Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)pOHT pa6oTeme 
flo6pe h noflnoMarauie o6mHHCKaTa ynpaBa b peniaBaHe Ha ochobhhtc 
o6mecTBeHH ? hkohomhhcckh h 6jiaroycTpoficTBeHH npo6neMH. E/jHa ot 
ocHOBHHTe sa^aHH npe3 T03H nepnofl 6enie aeMOKpaTHHHOTO npeycTpon- 
ctbo Ha o6mHHaTa h Ha AtpacaBHHTe ynpe)K,neHHfl, ropCKHTe cronaHCTBa, 
KoonepaijHHTe (rilK "Op^efi", "Po/joncKH cKOTOBVjeij", nonyjiapHara 
6aHKa) ? yHHJinmaTa, MacoBHTe opraHH3aijHH. To3H npoijec, MaKap h ^cejiaH 
ot HaceneHHeTO, He 6enie jieK h npofli>ji^cH hakojiko ro/jHHH. 

Heo6xoflHMO 6eme m ce npeo/jojiee CTpaxtT Ha xopaTa, /ja ce npeo^o- 
jiee anaTHHTa, %a ce peuiaBaT KOHKperaHTe npo6neMH Ha HaceneHHeTO, m 
ce Bi>3CTaHOBH /jeMOKpaimaTa, HOBeKOJiioGneTO h cojiHflapHocira, aa ce 
Bi>3poflHT HapoflHOCTHHTe Tpa/jHitHH, /ja ce noAm>pacaT h pa3iHHpflBar 
flo6pHTe cbce^CKH B3aHMOOTHOuieHHH Me^cfly 6tJirapcKOTO, noMauiKO h 
TypcKO HaceneHHe b panoHa Ha o6mHHara (EaTaK, HoBa Maxana, Oothhobo) 
h h3bt>h Hea (^ocnaT, BopHHO, Ci>pHHita). Tpa6Baine /ja ce BtpHe BflpaTa Ha 
xopaTa b flT>p>KaBHHTe h o6mHHCKHTe ynpe^cfleHHH, b CTonaHCKHTe h 
o6mecTBeHHTe oprammitHH. ToBa npeycTponcTBO ce H3Bi>puiBauie #eMO- 
KpaTHHHO h eHeprHHHO npn m>jiHO cna3BaHe Ha 3aKOHHTe, yeraBHTe, 
(j)yHKijHHTe h sa^aHHTe Ha Te3H Be/joMCTBa h opraHH3aijHH. ^eMOKpa- 
thhhhht xapaKTep Ha TOBa npeycTponcTBO ce ocnryp^Bauie ot ynacraeTO h 
BJiHHHHeTO Ha TaKHBa npeflCTaBHTenH Ha 6aTaniKaTa HHTejinreHitHfl KaTO 
^hko ^HeB ? Teoprn KxmapoB, IleTbp T. BpaHHeB, TpeHfla(J)HJi KepejiOB, 
AjieKcaHfli>p ^[oMycHHeB, EjieHa JlHeBa, HaflOKfla KonapoBa, BeTKa 
K)pyKOBa ? Bopne EanHHOB, fl-p AHren Ctohmchob, Cnac He/jeB, Bopnc 

256 



£I,hmob, Tocko BaHneB, ilHKO /JyHeB, MHJiyni LfceTaHOB, /jHMHTbp 
Tep3HHCKH ? ^HMHTBp Y. BpaHneB, ^HMHTbp H. Be3eB, AHren Ohkhhh, 
AHren Ctohhcb h jsp. 

^eMOKpaijH^Ta ce B'bspa^Kflaine. YnacTBax jihhho b noaroTOBKaTa h 
npoBOKflaHeTO Ha pe,mma cbGpaHH* (hakoh aocTa 6ypHH), npaBex 
H3Ka3BaHH)i. ToBa mh flaBaine bt^moachoct aa ono3HaBaM 3aflaHHTe h npo- 
6jieMHTe 5 aa B3eMaM ynacrae b peinaBaHeTO hm c noMomTa Ha ci>OTBeTHHTe 
A'bpKaBHH h napTHHHH p'bKOBOflCTBa. H Hafi-Ba>KHO - ono3HaBax Cl>CeJMHHTe 
ch, TexHHTe o6hj;h h HHflHBHAyajiHH HHTepecn, xapaKTepHTe H ,zi;o6po- 
fleTenHTe hm, HHTejieKTyajiHHTe hm bt>3mo>khocth h np. HMax bksmoachoct 
one/* TOBa b npoa'bJi^KeHHe Ha MHoro roflHHH aa HaGjiioflaBaM no- 
HaTarbiHHOTO hm npo(J)ecHOHajiHo 5 o6pa30BaTenHO h KyjnypHo pa3BHrae. 
MHoro ot t%x CTaHaxa pa6oTHHijH, tcxhhijh h HH^ceHepH npH rarpaaytaHeTO 
Ha BaTaniKH)i bo,uhochjiob m>T h Ha /jpyra HaijHOHajiHH CTpoHTenHH o6eKTH. 
^pyrn H3pacHaxa KaTO flo6pH CTonaHCKH, aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH h oGmecTBeHH 

p'BKOBOflHTeJIH. 

Oco6eHo Ba>KHa 3a/i;aHa 6enie npeo^ojuraaHeTO Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe 
TpyAHocTH, 6i>p30TO h pe3yjiTaTHO pemaBaHe npo6jieMHTe, CBtp3aHH c 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha pafioHa h npe#H bchhko Ha ropCKOTO CTonaHCTBO h 
a'BpBoaoGHBa. Okojio 80% ot Tpyaocnoco6HOTO mi>)kko Hacejiemie Ha 
BaTaK h Ha apyrHTe #Be cennma Ha o6mHHaTa 6eine 3aeTO c fl'bpBOfloGHBa, 
apyrHTe ropCKH ^efiHOCTH (3ajiecflBaHe, CTpOHTencTBO Ha ropcKH ntrama h 
crpa^H) h ^i>pBonpepa6oTBaHe. B panoHa HManie 5 fl'bp^KaBHH ropCKH 
CTonaHCTBa (,fl,rC) h e^HO o6iii;hhcko (EaTauiKOTo), b kohto ce cb3j&ji£ 
HOBa opraHH3aijHfl Ha Tpy^a, b pe3yjiTaT Ha kocto 6axa nocTHrHaTH ,u;o6pH 
pe3yjiTaTH: ^pBo^oGHBtT ce yBejiHHH, noBHiHHxa ce .zjoxo/urre, no,u;o6pHxa 
ce npoH3BO^CTBeHHTe h 6HTOBHTe ycnoBH^ 3a pa6oTa, 3anoHHa H3rpa>K- 
aaHeTO Ha hobh ntrama. Pi>KOBO,zurrejiHTe Ha ,0,rC 6axa bhcoko 
KBajiH^HijHpaHH cneijHajiHCTH h flo6pH 0praHH3aT0pH. HecTO ce cpemax c 
tax, npOBeamaxMe ctBemaHHfl c ropCKHTe pa6oTHHijH 3a pemaBaHe Ha 
pa3JiHHHH npo6neMHH Bi>npocH 5 CBi>p3aHH c npoH3BOflCTBOTo 5 3anjiamaHeT0 5 
CHa6A^BaHeTO h #p. riocemaBax pa6oTHHHecKHTe 6pHraflH Ha TexHHTe 
6HBaijH h no cennmaTa, 3aTOBa no3HaBax TexHHTe Tpy^Hocra h cb^eHCTBax 
3a peniaBaHeTO hm ot p'bKOBOflHTenHTe Ha ,H,rC h KoonepaijHfl "Op(|)eH". 

C oco6eHO bhcokh flenoBH h npo(J)ecHOHajiHH KanecTBa ce OTJinnaBaxa 
HH>KeHep-jiecoBi>flHTe Hhho CraTKOB (6i>flem npo(J)ecop bi>b BJITY), AHren 
TajiaHOB, TeoprH KionyKOB, Teoprn CraHKOB, BopHC MapHH, HeflflJiKO 
riHnepKOB, HHKOJia IlaHOB, a ctmo h p^KOBOflHTenOT Ha paiioHHaTa flnpeK- 
ijha Ha ropHTe (P^r) b Ilemepa hh>k. Hop/jaH KbpnaneB. C tax pa6oTHX h 

257 



no-KBCHO KaTO napTHeH pa6oTHHK b OKOJiMTa. CTaHaxMe flo6pH npHATejiH 
h ce pa^Bax, KoraTO y3HaBax 3a taxhoto npoc^ecHOHajiHO H3pacTBaHe. 

06mHHCKaTa ynpaBa h komhtctbt Ha OreHecTBeHHfl 4>poHT nonaraxa 
MHoro rpH>KH 3a CHa6flHBaHe Ha ropcKHTe pa6oTHHii;H h HaceneHHeTO Ha 
BaTaK c pa6oTeH HHBeHTap (noflKOBH, kjihhu;h, rB03,aeH, neM6ep h ap.) h c 
xpaHHTejiHH npoayKTH. HecTO opraHH3HpaxMe flejierau;HH, kohto nocema- 
Baxa pa3JiHHHHTe MHHHcrepCTBa h BeflOMCTBa b Co(J)H5i h apryMeHTHpaHO, c 

nHCMeHH H3JIO)KeHHfl, flOKa3BaXMe Heo6xOflHMOCTTa ot OTnycKaHe Ha 

Hap^flH 3a 3aaoBOJMBaHe Ha noTpe6HocTHTe Ha ropcKOTO HacejieHHe h Ha 
ropcKHTe CTonaHCTBO b pafioHa. HMaxMe h cnynan Ha koh(J)jihkthh cpenm c 
npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha ijeHTpajiHHTe Be/joMCTBa h no/jejieHHATa hm, c6jn>CKBax- 
Me ce c npo^BH Ha 6e3/jyuiHa 6iopOKpaijH5i. IIpH Te3H nocememifl ci>3fla- 

BaXMe fl06pH /jeJIOBH KOHTaKTH C H5IK0H p'BKOBOflHTejIH, KOHTO npe3 

cjie^BaniHTe roflHHH HanpaBHxa MHoro 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha BaTaK. HecTo 
nocemaBaxMe Haunra CbrpaacflaHHH reH. IleTLp At. BpaHneB, jhoGhmcij Ha 
6aTanaHH. Ton hh npHeMauie Hafi-cbpfleHHO b MHO, npoaBflBauie 
3arpH>KeHOCT 3a cbCToaHHeTO Ha cenoTO, cb/jeHCTBame hh 3a ypeacflaHeTO 

Ha CpeUIH C MHHHCTpH H p^KOBOflHTCJIH Ha BeflOMCTBa. 

B3eMax aKTHBHO ynacrae b fleHHOcrra Ha oGupraaTa h KOMHTeTa 3a 
6naroycTpo^BaHeTO Ha BaTaK. B HanajioTO Ha 1945 r. 6euie pa3pa6oTeHa 
nporpaMa 3a pa3BHraeTO Ha cenoTo, b ebOTBeTCTBHe c koato 6enie H3ipafleH 
BO/jonpOBO£T>T ot m. CeMepajiaH ro BaTaK c /j'BJDKHHa 6-7 km. HaceneHHeTO 
MacoBO ynacTBauie b npOKonaBaHeTO Ha KaHajia, npeB03BaHeTO, nocTaBfl- 
HeTo h 3apHBaHeT0 Ha tpt>6htc npe3 cne/jBamaTa ro/jHHa 6euie HanpaBeHO 
OTKJiOHeHHe Ha BO/jonpOBO/ja ot m. IleTpoBO 6t>p#o #o m. IIpeBajia, Kb/jeTO 
6euie HanpaBeHa neniMa, yKpaceHa ci>c CKyjimypHa 4>nrypa. 3anoHHa 
npoKapBaHeTO Ha KaHajiH3aijHfl b cenoTo, naBHpaHa 6eme eflHa ot 
i^eHTpajiHHTe yjiHijH, peMOHTHpaHH 6axa hakoh moctobc 

3a o6ci>>KaaHe h peniaBaHe Ha no-BaacHHTe Bwipocn ce CBHKBaxa 
o6mocencKH cb6paHH5i. Kmctbt h HJieHOBe Ha KOMHTeTa HH(|)opMHpaxMe 
HaceneHHeTO 3a B3eraTe peiHemra h 3a H3m>JiHeHHeTO hm, 3a CBOsrra 
flefiHOCT, 3a npe/jCToamHTe 3a#aHH. CTaBaxa o^chbchh pa3HCKBaHHfl. IIoHfl- 
Kora cb6paHH5iTa HMaxa 6ypeH h KpHTHneH xapaKTep npn peniaBaHe Ha 
KOHKpeTHH BMpocn, HHTepecyBanjH OT^ejiHH rpynn ot HaceneHHeTO. ToBa 
CBH^eTejicTBauie 3a aKTHBHOcrra h 3aHHTepecoBaHocrra Ha HauiHTe 
ctcejiflHH npn pemaBaHeTO Ha MecTHHTe BMpocn, 3a npnoGmaBaHeTO hm 
kbm ynpaBJieHHeTO, KoeTO npnfloGHBauie hcthhckh aeMOKpaTHneH 
xapaKTep. Cpe/j ropcKHTe paGoTHHijH, 3aHa^THHHTe h cjiy^KHTejiHTe ce 
npoflBHxa hakoh flo6pH opaTOpH. H3Ka3BaHH5rra KaTO npaBHJio 6axa /jocra 

258 



KpHTHHHH, ho Mbjipu h ,n;o6po)KejiaTejiHH. 3a6ejifl3Bax, ne B npHCtCTBHeTO 

Ha npeflCTaBHTeJIH Ha BHCineCTOflllJH R-bpyKZBHH HHCTHTyiJHH H napTHHHH 

pi>KOBOflCTBa H3Ka3BaHHHTa CTaBaxa onje no-ocTpn. OGnnax ,na cjiyinaM 
TaKHBa H3Ka3BaHH5i 5 kohto pa3KpHBaxa MHCJieHeTO Ha 6aTanaHH h thxhoto 

OTHOHieHHeTO KbM OTfleJIHH MeCTHH H 06m0A'bp5KaBHH BMpOCH. 

Tp^6Ba aa OTGejieaca MacoBOTO ynacrae Ha aceHHTe b Te3H ci>6paHHfl. 
BaTaniKaTa aceHa 3anoHHa m oci>3HaBa CBOATa pojia b o6mecTBeHHfl h 
cTonaHCKH5i skhbot. 3acnyra 3a TOBa HMaxa aKTHBHCTKHTe Ha aceHCKOTO 
jXpyyKQCTBO h yHHTejiKHTe, kohto opraHH3Hpaxa pa3JiHHHH cpenjn, ci>6pa- 
hhh, ceaeHKH, KypcoBe no rpaMoraocT, no nieB h jsp. 

3a H3^CH5iBaHe Ha nonHTHKaTa Ha npaBHTejiCTBOTO Ha OreHecTBeHHa 

(])pOHT OT HMeTO Ha KOMHTCTa CBHKBaXMe CT>6paHH5I, Ha KOHTO pfcKOBOflHH 

aenuH h ao6pH opaTopn - KoHCTaHTHH nonpycHHOB (HepBeHH5i non), 
Bna^HMHp ^HMHeB, To^op IIojiflKOB, Bopnc ^,hmob 5 Ore^aH ftueB, 5Ihko 
^HeB, KpyM EoTeB, XpHCTO HojieMeTOB, ^eMHp Rugb - KOMeHTHpaxa 
aKTyajiHH BtnpocH, CBi>p3aHH c HKOHOMHHecKOTO nojio^KeHHe Ha BtJirapHH 
h HeiiHHTe OTHOineHM c BenHKHTe fltpacaBH h etc cbce^HHTe CTpaHH, 

KOHTO npeflflBflBaxa TepHTOpHaJIHH H (JDHHaHCOBH npeTeHIJHH BT>B Bpt3Ka c 

npeacT05imoTO noanncBaHe MHpHHTe aoroBOpn. OpaTopHTe o6khobcho 
aHajiH3Hpaxa kphthhho pe3yjiTaTHTe ot fleiiHOCTTa Ha npaBHTencTBOTO h 
^pyrHTe fltpacaBHH HHCTHTyijHH npn pemaBaHeTO Ha KOHKpeTHH npo6neMH. 
CTaBaxa o^chbchh ^HCKycHH, 3a^aBaxa ce MHoro BtnpocH bi>b Bpt3Ka c 
#i>pBOflo6HBa, CHa6flHBaHeT0 h Hap5iflHTe. 

IIpe3 3HMHHTe MeceuH Ha 1945-1946 h 1946-1947 r. HHTanHiijeTo h 
ApyrHTe MacoBH opraHH3aijHH pa3n>pHaxa niHpoKa KyjnypHO-npocBeTHa 
aeHHOCT. HapoflHHHT yHHBepcHTeT npOBe^e ci>6paHHfl, CKa3KH 5 cpemn, 
BenepHHKH c ynacraeTO Ha h3bccthh nncaTejiH, noeTH h apTHCTH KaTO flopa 
Ta6e 5 EjmcaBeTa Earp;raa, M. rpy6enijraeBa 5 HnKOJiafi XpejncoB, BjiaflHMHp 
TpeHfla(J)HJiOB 5 K. Khchmob h flp. TexHHTe nocenjeHHfl ce npeBptmaxa b 
KyjiTypHH npa3HHi;H 3a HacejieHHeTO Ha BaTaK. 

Oco6eHO 6oraT Ha ct>6hth5i 6enie m. Man Ha 1945 r. OpraHH3HpaxMe 
ntpBOTO CBo6oflHO necTBaHe Ha ITbpBH Man, KaKTO h Ha roflnniHHHaTa ot 
AnpHJicKOTo Bi>CTaHHe. C ronHMa pa^ocT 6enie nocpenjHaTo ci>o6meHHeTO 
3a ntJiHaTa KanHTyjiaijHfl Ha XnTjiepHCTKa repMaHM Ha 9.V.1945, koato 
03HaMeHyBa Kpaa Ha BOHHaTa, npHHHHH yacacHH CTpaaaHHH h onycToineHHa 
h OTHe >KHBOTa Ha fleceTKH mhjihohh xopa. IIomh5i 5 ne 6enie He/i;ejieH aeH. 
ToBOpHTeji^T Ha pa^HO Cocjma Tbp^KecTBeHO ci>o6mH 3a ntnHaTa 
KanHTyjiai^H^ Ha repMaHM, 3a no6eaaTa. DiaBHaTa yjiraja h nnomaaa npea 
HHTajiH^eTO ce H3m>jiHHxa c xopa, BO^exa ce oacHBeHH pa3roBOpn. Bt3HHKHa 

259 



HMnpOBH3HpaHa Tpn6yHa, npOH3Hacaxa ce njiaMeHHH penn, neexa ce 
naTpHOTHHHH 6i>JirapcKH h cbBeTCKH necHH, ot pa3JiHHHHTe Kpanma Ha 
cenoTO ce nyBaxa H3CTpenH. HaceneHHeTO - MJiaao h erapo - cnoHTaHHo 
jiHKyBame. 

H35opn 3a XXVI OHC. IlapjiaMeHTapHHTe H36opH 6nxa HacponeHH 3a 
26.VIII.1945 r., ho no HCKaHe Ha ono3HiyioHHHTe napTHH h noa nojiHTH- 
necKHH HaTHCK Ha CAIU, h BenHKo6pHTaHH5i TpaGBame aa 6i>flaT OTJio)KeHH 
3a 18.XI.cr. OTenecTBeHo^poHTOBCKHTe napTH H3JiH30xa c o6iu;h jihcth 3a 
H36op Ha HapoflHHTe npeflCTaBHTenH Ha ocHOBaTa Ha eflHHHa nporpaMHa 
njiaT(|)opMa. BaTaK 6euie bkjhohch b IIa3apfl)KHiiiKHJi H36HpaTeneH paftoH. B 
o6m;aTa jiHCTa Ha KaHflHflaTHTe 6eme BnHcaH h H36paH HauiHAT MHoroyBa- 
)KaBaH ci>rpa5KflaHHH Bopnc ,3,hmob, iopHCT no o6pa30BaHHe, aHTH(|)aiHHCT, 
aeMOKpaT n naTpnoT no ayma, c bhcoko o6ma h npocJjecnoHajiHa KyjiTypa. 
H3flHrHaxMe h KaHflHflaTypaTa Ha Ore(|)aH BacnjieB, ho toh 6eme BKJiioHeH 
b JiHCTaTa KaTO m>pBH noflrnacHHK. 

B noflroTOBKa Ha H36opHTe ce BKJiioHHxa h HJieHOBeTe Ha KOMHTeTa Ha 
OTenecTBeHHfl (j)poHT h Ha napTHHHHTe opraHH3aiiHH Ha BPII (k), B3HC h 
HC "3bcho". 3aeflHO c aeceTKH nponaraHflHcra h a3 B3ex aKTHBHO ynacTHe 
b noflroTOBKaTa, araTaiiHATa h npoBOKflaHe Ha H36opHTe. Bchhkh 
ny6nHHHH npoflBH ce H3Bi>pinBaxa ot HMeTO Ha KOMHTeTa Ha OreHecTBeHHfl 
(J)poHT 5 hhhto ceKpeTap 6ax. OcHOBHaTa hh 3aaana 6euie He caMO ^a 
araTHpaMe H36npaTejiHTe b non3a Ha eflHHHaTa OTeHecTBeHO(J)poHTOBCKa 
JiHCTa, a aa pa3flCHHM nojiHTHKaTa Ha npaBHTencTBOTO, aa 3amHTHM Heo6- 
xoflHMOCTTa ot m>jiHOTO fleMOKpaTH3aiiHH Ha o6mecTBOTO h nocreneHHO, 
ho KOpeHHO npeycTpoficTBO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. npOBefloxa ce mhoto ci>6pa- 
hm h cpemn c HaceneHHeTO no KBapTajiHTe h ropcKHTe CTonaHCTBa. Mho- 
rojiioflHH 6axa o6mocejicKHTe npeflH36opHH cb6paHHH c KaHflHflaTHTe 3a 
HapoflHH npeflCTaBHTenn h ao6pe noaroTBeHH opaTopH, hakoh ot kohto 
CTaHaxa ao6pn npHflTenn Ha 6aTanaHH. B pe3yjrraT Ha TOBa H36npaTenHaTa 
aKTHBHOCT flocTHTHa 90%, a okojio 95% ot raacyBajiHTe noflKpennxa eflHH- 
HaTa JiHCTa Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (|)pOHT. 

CTyaeHT. IIpe3 cenTeMBpn 1945 r. nonynnx bt>3MO)khoct aa npofltJiaca 
CBoeTO o6pa30BaHHe. MoHTe npH^Tenn h bpi>cthhiih ot BaTaK cneflBaxa b 
pa3JiHHHH bhcihh yneGHH 3aBefleHH^ 5 hakoh 6axa Bene 3aBi>piHHJiH: HnKona 
CTOHMeHOB, Bopnc EejioicanoB, AHreji IlyHHeB, ^hmhtbp ,H,acypKOB, Tocko 
BaHHeB, AHreji At. KojiapOB h ap. CpeflHOTO o6pa30BaHHe 6euie Hefloera- 
tbhho, 3aTOBa ce 3anncax aa cjieflBaM KaTO 3afloneH CTyaeHT b ^tp^KaBHOTO 
BHcuie yHHJinme 3a (])HHaHCOBH h aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH HayKH, KoeTO no- 
kbcho, npe3 1948 r., 6enie npeycTpoeHO bt>b OaicyjrreT 3a CTonaHCKH h 

260 



couHajiHH HayKH npH Co^hhckha yHHBepCHTeT, a ot 1951 r. 6eiue 
o6oco6eHO KaTO Bhcui hkohomhhcckh hhcthtyt. npo(j)Hjn>T Ha TOBa 
yqe6HO saBeaeHHe 6eine HaH-6jiH3i>K ,zjo npo(|)HJia Ha TbproBCKaTa thm- 

Ha3Hfl, KOOTO 6flX 3aBT>pHIHJI. 

Tt>h KaTO 6ax TBtpae 3aeT c no/jroTOBKaTa 3a napjiaMeHTapHHTe H36opH, 
4>opMajiHOCTHTe no 3anHCBaHeTO H3Bi>piHH GpaTOBHe^KaTa mh JIio6Ka, 
kohto 6enie CTyzjeHTKa b cbiijoto yne6HO 3aBe,n;eHHe. 3anoHHax aa ce 
noflroTB^M 3a nojiaraHeTO Ha H3nHTH e^Ba npe3 fleiceMBpH. J\o ABHBaHeTO Ha 
ni>pBHH H3nHT He 6ax BJiH3aji b crpa^aTa Ha TOBa yne6HO 3^bqj\quuq, a ao 
npeKtCBaHeTO Ha CTyzjeHTCTBOTO mh He nocerax hhto e,n;Ha jigkixhx, tbh 
KaTO TOBa He 6enie 3a;jT>Ji)KHTejiHO. IIoflroTOBKaTa h ABflBaHeTO mh Ha 
h3iihth CTaBanie HepaBHOMepHO, c npeKbCBamifl, o6ycjioBeHH ot o6mecTBe- 
HaTa mh flefiHOCT. npe3 fleKeMBpH 1945 r. h b HanajiOTO Ha 1946 r. B3ex 
irbpBHTe ch H3nHTH no cneTOBOflCTBO, o6ma Teopna Ha npaBOTO, ctoko- 
3HaHHe h ,zjp. HMax HaMepeHHe ^a CTaHa pe^oBeH CTyzjeHT h eBeHTyanHO ^a 
nojiyna CTHneHflHfl hjih aa 3anoHHa nocTOAHHa pa6oTa b BaTaK hjih Cocjdha. 
MaKap aa HMax TaKaBa bt>3mo)khoct, TOBa He CTaHa nopa^H oGujecTBeHHTe 
mh 3a,m>Ji)KeHHfl, kohto 3aTpyflHABaxa no^roTOBKaTa mh 3a H3nHTHTe. Ocbch 
TOBa jinncBaxa yneGHHim h flpyra yne6Ha jiHTepaTypa. BtnpeKH TOBa He ce 
OTKa3Bax ot cjie^BaHeTO. 

* * * 

1946 r. 6eme oco6eHa ro^HHa 3a MeH h mocto ceMeiicTBO. A3 3aBHHarn 
CBi>p3ax ^cHBOTa ch c Tepa IleeBa h ^BaMaTa b npofl^jraeHHe Ha mhoto 
roflHHH BoiOBaxMe 3a macTHeTO ch, cno,zi;ejwxMe ycnexHTe h HeycnexHTe b 
jihhhha ch achbot, b npo(|)ecHOHajiHaTa h o6mecTBeHa fleftHOCT, pa6oTexMe 
necTHO h 6e3KopHCTHO 3a H3rpa^cflaHeTO Ha coijHanHCTHHecKa ET>jirapHfl. 

Tepa e po^eHa npe3 1924 r. b c. KaMeHHija. YnacTBa aKTHBHO b 
aHTH^auiHCTKOTO flBHflceHHe. IIpe3 1938 r. CTaBa hjich Ha PMC, a npe3 
1944 r.- HJieH Ha BKQ. npe3 anpHJi 1943 r. 3ae^HO ct>c cecTpa ch Bejia 
CTaBa napTH3aHKa b OTp^a "Ahtoh HBaHOB", a no-KbCHO - b 6pHraaa 
"HenHHeix". YnacTBa b ntpBaTa 4>a3a Ha OrenecTBeHaTa BOHHa h e Harpa- 
#eHa c o(J)HixepCKH op^eH "3a xpa6pocr". 

Tepa IleeBa 6euie H3npaTeHa ot OGjiacTHHfl komhtct Ha PMC b 
IIjiOBflHB j\2l pa6oTH KaTO 3aBe)K,zi;am OTfleji "nponaraH^a h arHTaipra" b 
Okojihhckha KOMHTeT Ha PMC b Ilemepa. Ta 6eme npneTa mhoto aoGpe ot 
nemepcKHTe MJia^e^cH h MecTHaTa o6mecTBeHOCT h 3anoHHa aa CBOOTa 
aeHHOCT c ronHM eHTycHa3T>M. Flo aynia th 6eme aeMOKpaT h mhoto flo6T>p 

MaCOBHK. C nOCJIOBHHHaTa CH CKpOMHOCT H C yMCHHeTO Jldi pa60TH Tfl CH 

261 



cnenejiH CHMnaTHHTe Ha .neMOKpaTHHHaTa MJiafleac. Ome b ntpBaTa 
ce/jMHija cnefl HeHHOTO npHCTHraHe ce cpenmaxMe b OK Ha PMC h jxbjito 
pa3roBapaxMe. KaTO 6hbui ceKpeTap Ha okojihhckhh komhtct a3 ce nocTa- 
pax #a a HH(^opMHpaM 3a ctCTO^HHeTO h fleHHOcrra Ha PMC h apyniTe 
MJiaae^KKH opraHH3au;HH b OKOJiHjrra. 

npofltJi^KHXMe aa ce cpemaivie b BaTaK h Ilemepa, npH/jpyacHX anpn 
HeflHOTO ntpBO nocemeHHe b cejiaTa HoBa Maxajia h Oothhobo. IIpH 
cpemHTe BOflexMe fltJira pa3roBOpH, cno/jejiHXMe BnenaTJieHHaTa h 
OTHOineHHeTO ch klm nonHTHKaTa h fleHHOcrra Ha no-BHcnnrre opraHH h Ha 
MecTHaTa BJiacT b IlemepCKa h IIa3ap,zpKHiHKa okojihh. Me^c/jy Hac ce 
CT>3,nafloxa B3aHMOOTHOineHHH Ha flOBepHe, a CKOpo h Ha B3aHMHa jiio6ob, 
kohto cnoflejiHXMe Ha 17.V.1946 r., ro/miHHHHaTa ot AnpHJicKOTo 
BtCTaHHe b BaTaK. CpemaxMe ce noHTH BceKH He^ejieH /jeH b BaTaK, 
Ilemepa hjih KaMeHHija, HeHHOTO po^HO mhcto. TaKa th CTaHa He(j)opMajieH 
HJieH Ha HauieTO ceMencTBO, a a3 - Ha HefiHOTO. 

CeKpeTap Ha EPII (k) b BaTaK. Okojio cpe/jaTa Ha iojih (IleTpOB rqk) 
6nxMe c Tepa b KaMeHHija. BtpHaxMe ce b BaTaK Ha 15 iojih. Ha aBTo- 
6ycHaTa cnnpKa 3acMeHH hh onaKBaxa Tocko BaHHeB h Hjihh Ctohmchob. 

- ,fl,o6pe flouiJiH, 3araflT>HHO ycMHXHaT Ka3a Tocko. - Bnepa HMame 
napTHHHO CT>6paHHe h Te H36paxMe 3a ceKpeTap Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH- 
3aijHH. PeuieHHeTO e ctrnacyBaHO c Okojihhckhh komhtct. 

H npe^H fla Kaaca cbocto He^OBOJiCTBO h Bi>3pa)KeHHfl, Te 3anoHHaxa aa Me 
yGeacflaBar, ne TOBa e Heo6xoflHMO, 3a ;ja ce no,no6pH fleHHOcrra Ha napTiDrra, 
ne me HMaM bt>3mo)khoct aa ce no/jroTBHM h aa ch B3eMaM H3nHTHTe. IIo- 
cjieflBa cpema c flOToraBaniHHH ceKpeTap TeoprH KonapOB, kohto mh o6hchh, 
ne e mhoto 3aeT KaTO anpeKTOp Ha CpeflHOTO TexHHHecKO yHHJinme, h Me 
HH(j)opMHpa 3a npeflCTO^iijHTe mh 3a,zjaHH. Ct>o6iiih mh ci>mo, ne fljn>5KHOCTra 
me Gtfle maraa h ne me nonynaBaM ckpomho Bi>3Harpa)K,zjeHHe, a toh ocTaBa 
HJieH Ha KOMHTeTa h me mh ctfleficTBa Hafi-aKTHBHO. C BKspaaceHHe npnex 
npeflJio^KeHHeTO aa ct>m njiaTeH ceKpeTap, TaKa KaKTO e 6hjio aocera. OnHTax 
ce m y6e,nfl apyrapHTe, ne H3nHTBaM Heyao6cTBO aa nojiynaBaM Bi>3Harpa5K- 
aeHHe ot napTHATa h npefljio^KHx #a ch HaMepn flpyra pa6oTa, HanpHMep - aa 
CTaHa yHHTen. Te o6ane peuiHTejiHO ce npoTHBonocTaBHxa. 

TaKa CTaHax ceKpeTap Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl, kohto HMame noBene 
ot 200 HJieHa h nrpaeuie ptKOBO^Ha pojra b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha o6uiHpHaTa 
BaTauiKa o6umHa. B 3ace,zjaHHe Ha napTHHHHH komhtct oGctflHXMe ocHOBHHTe 
hh 3aaaHH ? MOKfly kohto 6euie npoBe^aHeTo Ha pe^epeH^yMa 3a npeMaxBa- 
HeTO Ha MOHapxHOTa h Ha H36opHTe 3a Bcjihkoto Hapo^HO ci>6paHHe. Komh- 
TeTbT npne miaH-nporpaMa, kohto 6euie o,no6peHa Ha napTHHHO CT>6paHHe. 

262 



npofltJDKH npomecBT Ha no-HaTarmiHO npeycTpoficTBO Ha o6mHHaTa h 
Ha cTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH. Heo6xoflHMO 6euie Ha p-bKOBO^Ha pa6oTa j\a 
6i>#aT npHBJieneHH o6pa30BaHH h no#roTBeHH Ka^pH, kohto ^a BH5K#aT b 
nepcneKTHBa pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 6jiaroycTpoficTBOTO h KyjiTy- 
paTa b EaTaK, ^a no3HaBaT ^o6pe MecTHHTe ycjioBHfl h noTpe6HocTH. 

C ijeji aa noflo6pH fleflHOCTTa Ha o6mHHaTa, KOMHTerbT Ha 
OTeHecTBeHH5i (J)poHT H3#HrHa 3a KMeT BopHC BajiHHOB. Ton 6euie 
npeflCTaBeH h oflo6peH ot o6mocejicKO CT>6paHHe, tbh KaTO no TOBa BpeMe 
KMeTOBeTe He ce H36npaxa, a 6axa Ha3HanaBaHH ot o6jiacTHHTe ynpaBHTejin 
no npeflJi05KeHHe Ha MecTHHTe KOMHTeTH Ha OTenecTBeHHfl 4>poHT. npe3 
nepHO^a Ha cbocto KMeTyBaHe BopHC ce pa^Banie Ha ntJiHOTO aoBepne Ha 
6aTanaHH. KaTO ceiepeTap Ha PMC h yHHTen b TexHHKyMa 3a fli>pBO- 
o6pa6oTBaHe h BtTpeuiHa apxmeKTypa, toh 6enie e#HH ot jno6HMijHTe Ha 
MecTHHTe MJiaae5KH. Beuie 24-roAHineH, aKTHBeH ynacTHHK b 6op6aTa 

npOTHB (|)aniH3Ma ? OCBfleH Ha CMl>pT OT (JmiUHCTKHfl BOeHHO-nOJieBH Cb,ZJ. 

IIoBene ot ^Be ro^HHH toh BceoT^aHHO h ycnenmo H3m>jiHflBanie 
KMeTCKHTe ch 3afli>ji5KeHH3i. IIo TOBa BpeMe 3anoHHa HHBejiHpaHeTO, 
KaHajiH3HpaHeTO h naBHpaHeTO Ha ynnijHTe b cejioTO. Bopnc BajiHHOB 

BKJIIOHH peflHIja MepKH no HKOHOMHHeCKOTO H 6jiaroyCTpOHCTBeHOTO 

pa3BHTHe Ha EaTaK b /jBeroflHinHHfl (1947-1948) h b ntpBH^ IleTroflHineH 
nnaH 3a coijHajiHO-HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha Ei>jirapH5i (1949-1953). 

IT0-KT>CH0 TOH 3aBl>pHIH BHCHie 06pa30BaHHe B MoCKOBCKHfl yHHBepCHTCT 

(1954), CTaHa npoc|)ecop h flOKTOp Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe HayKH. 

IIapTHHHH5iT komhtct aKTHBHO noanoMaranie pa3BHTHeTO Ha Koone- 
paTHBHOTO #BH5KeHHe. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe 6enie OTaeneHO 3a noao6pflBaHe 
h pa3iHHp^BaHe aeHHOcrra Ha Koonepaipm "Op^eft" - ocHOBHaTa 
CTonaHCKa opraHH3an;Hfl b EaTaK. H3Bi>pniHxa ce npoMeHH b p^kobo^ctboto 
h nepcoHajia. 3a ^HpeKTOp 6eine Ha3HaneH ^hmhti>p H. Be3eB, kohto 
HManie BHcnie hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe, a no-KtcHO 3aeManie pi>KO- 
BOflHH fljii>)KHOCTH b CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH ot HaijHOHajiHO 3HaneHHe. B 
CHcreMara Ha KOonepaiiHjrra 3anoHHaxa aa pa6oTAT h flpyrn MJia^H Ka^pH, 
kohto ce npoaBABaxa KaTO mhoto ^o6pH cneiinajiHCTH: AHren BaHHeB, 
,EI,hmhti>p EjiaroeB, Hjiha BaHHeB, ,ZJhmhtt>p Kophtckh, Teoprn BjiaceB, 

XpHCTO ypyMOB H flp. 

IIpe3 T03H nepHoa #o6pe (JjyHKiiHOHHpanie 6aTaniKaTa IIonyjiflpHa 
6aHKa ? koato npHBJiHHaine cnecraBaHHATa Ha HacejieHHeTO h noAnoMaranie 
CBOHTe HJieHOBe c Kpe^HTH npH 6jiaronpH5iTHH ycjioBM. Ha ro^HHiHOTO 
ci>6paHHe Ha 6aHKaTa a3 6ax H36paH 3a npeflceflaTen Ha kohtpojihha cbbct, 
a 3a ^HpeKTOp 6enie Ha3HaneH JSpMwrbp At. TaHeB, kohto HManie BHcnie 

263 



HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe h no-KtcHO fltJira roflHHH pa6oTeme b 
6aHKHTe b Ilemepa h CTapa 3aropa. 

B HanajioTO Ha 1946 r. no HHHimaraBa Ha TeoprH KonapoB b EaTaic 
6eme cb3,na,zi;eHO BtJirapo-ctBeTCKO .apyacecTBO, 3a npe#ce,naTeji Ha kocto 
6ax H36paH a3, a hjich Ha ptKOBoacTBOTO h Kacnep 6enie BacHJi ^hmob. B 
Kpaa Ha ctmaTa ro^HHa apy^cecTBOTO HManie Bene okojio 400 HJieHa, kohto 
ynacTBaxa b pa3JiHHHH ci>6paHHfl h 6eceflH. Cjie/j 1948 r. npeflce/jaTeji 6euie 
^HMHTbp TaHeB. 

Pe4>epeHayM 3a penySjraicaTa. npe3 iojih 1946 r. Hapo/jHOTo 
ci>6paHHe npne 3aKOH 3a pe^epemjyM 3a npeMaxBaHeTO Ha MOHapxMTa h 
ynpe^iBaHe Ha peny6jiHKaHCKa (J)opMa Ha ynpaBJieHHe. Pe^epeHflyMtT ce 
npoBe^e Ha 8.IX.1946 r. OTenecTBeHO(j)poHTOBCKHTe napTHH b BaTaK (EPII, 
E3HC, HC "3BeHo") 3acTaHaxa TBi>p,no npoTHB MOHapxMTa, koato BKapa 
CTpaHaTa b hakojiko HaimoHajiHH KaTacTpo(J)H h npoBajiH mjeajiHTe 3a 
o6eflHHeHHe Ha 6i>jirapcKHfl Hapofl. npoBefloxMe ninpoKa nponaramma 
flefiHOCT 3a H3flCHflBaHe Ha nary6HaTa aHTHHapo/ma nojiHTHKa Ha pe)KHMHTe 
Ha ijap OepflHHaHfl h ijap Bopnc III h Ha noKopHHTe hm crapH 6yp)Koa3HH 
napTHH. Ha 8.IX. GaranaHH npaKTHnecKH eflHHoayniHO Ka3axa "He" Ha 
MOHapxMTa, 3a 3ana3BaHeTO Ha kooto 6axa noflaaeHH caMO 32 rnaca, 
cpemy 3000 rjiaca b non3a Ha peny6jiHKaTa. 

Ha flpynw ^eH Ha iuionwja npe^ HHTajinmeTO ce cbctoa MHoro6poeH mh- 
THHr no cjiynafi ABeroflmHHHHaTa ot ^eBerocenTeMBpHHCKOTO BtcTamie. Or 
TpnGyHara roBOpHXMe Cretan BacHJieB h a3. CnoMHHM ch KaK rpyna Bt3pacT- 
hh flcemi cjiea MHTHHra Me nonHTaxa: "Aurejie, a KaKBO me craHe c iiapHero?" 
OiroBopHx, ne HMa Manica h poahhhh. lU,e pacre, me paGora h acHBee Kaicro 
bchhkh flpym xopa. "/Jan Eor, #aft Bor: to He oiroBapH 3a 6auja ch h jwjp ch". 

Il36opn 3a BHC. H36opHTe 3a BejiHKO Hapo/mo ci>6paHHe, HacponeHH 3a 
18.XI.1946 r., CTaBaxa npn ycjio^KHeHa nojiHTHHecKa o6eraHOBKa, KoeTO flaae 
OTpaaceHHe h Btpxy o6cTaHOBKaTa b BaTaK. JlerajiHHTe ono3HimoHHH napTHH 
h CBajieHara ot BJiacT peaKijHOHHa 6yp)Koa3Hfl ce crpeMflxa aa pa3CTpo#r cto- 
naHCKHfl ^chbot h fla cni>BaT npaBHTejicTBeHHTe MeponpHflTHfl 3a o6HOBHBaHe 
Ha o6mecTBOTO. B BaTaK ci>mo HManie xopa, kohto HeroayBaxa cpemy hakoh 

flefiCTBHfl Ha flI>p^KaBHHTe H 06mHHCKH HHCTHTyiJHH. TflXHOTO HeflOBOJICTBO Ce 

nopa>Kflame ot Heflocrara Ha xpaHHTejiHH h flpyra ctokh, ot Jinncara Ha pa- 
6oTeH HHBeHTap, ot HanHHa Ha onpcuejiflHe Ha HapaflHTe, kohto no ci>mecTBO 
npeflCTaBJWBaxa H33eMBaHe Ha nacT ot npOH3Be#eHaTa ot cejiCKHTe cTonaHH 
npoayiajPDL Te3H BtnpocH otkphto ce o6ci>)Kflaxa Ha ci>6paHH5iTa h ce TLpce- 
xa CBOTBeraH pemeHHH. ToBa He/jOBOJiCTBO o6ane H^Manie nojiHTHHecKH xa- 
paKTep. Ot apyra crpaHa, cpemy HOBara BJiacT 6axa chjiho HacrpoeHH hakoh 

264 



6hbiiih TBproBim, KptHMapH h 6aKajiH, hhato /jeftHOCT 6enie H33eTa ot icoone- 
pauHHTa h nonynHpHaTa 6aHKa. 

B BaTaK Tana h He ce ct3fla,ne noflpa3flejieHHe Ha ono3HitHOHHa nap-ma 
hjih opraHH3HpaHa ono3HiyioHHa rpyna. B apy)K6aTa Ha B3HC HManie H3BecT- 
ho KOJie6aHHe cpea hakoh 3eMeflejmH, Koero ce fltJUKeme rnaBHO Ha TexHH 

npHHTeJICKH OTHOHieHHH C fleHIJH Ha On03HItHOHHH napTHH H3BtH BaTaK. 

Ha H36opHTe 3a BHC napTHHTe Ha OreHecTBeHHfl 4>poHT othobo ynacT- 
Baxa c eAHHHa nporpaMa, ho GioneTHHHTe 6axa c pa3JiHHHH ijBeTOBe 3a BCflKa 
napTHH (BPn c nepBeH, B3HC c opaH^eB), KaTo Bcrna napTHH ynacTBame etc 
cboh JiHCTa 5 etc cboh Kaummara, ho Ha ocHOBara Ha o6ma nporpaMa. 

OpraHH3aijH>iTa Ha BPn (k) H3BtpniH orpoMHa aeHHOCT 3a noflroTOBKara n 
npoBe^KaaHeTO Ha H36opHTe h noKa3a CBoeTO yMeHHe m pa6oTH 3a nepcneK- 
thbho pemaBaHe Ha npo6neMHTe, CBtp3aHH c HKOHOMHHecKOTO h ayxoBHO 
pa3BHTHe Ha BaTaK. Ct3flaaeHH 6axa arHTaijHOHHH rpynn, kohto pa3flCHABaxa 
nojiHTHKaTa Ha OTeHecTBerora $p0HT h Ha BPn (k), a ctmo h Ha H3roTBeHaTa 
ot Hac nporpaMa 3a HKOHOMHHecKOTO h 6naroycTpoHCTBeHO pa3BHTHe Ha 
BaTaK. npoBefloxa ce h hhkojiko npe,n;H36opHH ct6paHH« c KaHflH^aTHTe 3a 
HapoAHH npeflCTaBHTejin ot jiHCTara Ha BPn (k) XpHCTO HojieMeTOB - HhGhc, 
o6mecTBeHHK ot EpaitHroBO, c BHcnie arpoHOMHHecKO o6pa30Bamie, h ot 
jiHCTaTa Ha B3HC - HHKOJia OypHafl^oieB. XpHCTO TiojieMeTOB 6enie H36paH 
h aoctohho H3ntJiHH CBOHTe AenyTarcKH 3a,HtJDKeHHfl. 

B IlemepcKa okojiha ono3HijH#ra b jinijeTO Ha npHBtp^eHHiprre Ha 
HnKOJia neTKOB, T. M. /Jhmhtpob h Ctp6HHCKH He ce non3Banie c rojiflMa 
nonyjMpHOCT, ho Bee naK HManie h3bcctho bjihahhc b cejiaTa Pa^HJioBO, 
KanHTaH /jHMHTpneBO h Ko3apcKO. npe3 oktombph to opraHH3Hpa OKOJIHHCKH 
ct6op b Ko3apCKO. napTHHTe ot OTenecTBeHiDi $poHT opraHH3Hpaxa Ha 
ctmiw Ron KOHTpa-ct6op b c. HcnepHxoBO, KoeTO ce HaMHpa Ha 2-3 km ot 
Ko3apcKO. Cnefl penme Ha oparopHTe, xHJW#Hre yqacTHHitn b KOHTpa-ct6opa 
HanpaBHxa MaHH^ecTaitHH ot HcnepHxoBO j\o Ko3apcKO h etc ctothijh 
3HaMeHa h nnaKara npeMHHaxa npe3 rniomaaa Ha cenoTO, Kt^eTO ManKa rpyna 
npHBtp)KeHHitH Ha ono3HijHOHHHTe napTHH npoBOK^axa cboh ct6op. ToBa 
6enie eflHa CHjma aeMOHCTpaitHfl Ha MopanHOTO h HHCJieHOTO npeBt3xoacTBO 
Ha OTenecTBeHo^poHTOBCKHTe napTHH b Hannra Kpafi. 

B HanajiOTO Ha oktombph ce ctcToa ctBemaHHe etc ceKpeTapHTe Ha 
napTHHHHTe opraHH3aitHH b OKOJiHsrra. HHCTpyKTOp Ha IJ^K hh HH^opMHpa 
3a BtTpeniHOTO nojioaceHHe Ha CTpaHaTa, 3a ctCTaBa Ha KaHAH^aTCKHTe 
jihcth, 3a B3aHMOOTHOineHH)iTa Me^cay OTenecTBeHO(j)poHTOBCKHTe napTHH. 
HaKpaa toh noncKa BceKH MecTeH napTHeH ceKpeTap aa aaae acHa oijeHKa 
3a Bt3MOKHHTe pe3yjiTaTH ot npeflCToamHTe H36opH. A3 o6abhx, ne b 

265 



BaTaK MHHHMyM 80% ot rjiacono^aBaTejiHTe me no#Kpemrr BPI1 (k), a 
o6mo 3a OTenecTBeHH^ (|)poHT onaKBaM okojio 90-95%. Toft He ce cbrnacn 
c MeH h 3annca 3a EPII (k) 60%. 5bho 6eine, ne He no3HaBa HacTpoeHMTa b 
BaTaK h roneMM aBTOpHTeT Ha napTHATa cpea HaceneHHeTO. 

A pe3yjrraTHTe ot H36opHTe b BaTaK 6axa HancTHHa BnenaTJDiBamH. 3a 
BPn (k) 6axa noaaaeHH 3250 raaca (93%), B3HC nojiynn 4%, HC "3bcho" 
okojio 1%, a ono3HijH5iTa Cb6pa caMo 33 rjiaca (ok. 1%). TaKa cnope^ 
H36opHHTe pe3yjiTaTH opraHH3aijH5rra Ha BPE[ (k) b BaTaK ce OKa3a Ha e;jHo 
ot HBpBHTe MecTa b CTpaHaTa. ToBa pa36npa ce He 03HaHaBaine, ne 6aTanaHH 
He ci>3HaBaxa cjia6ocTHTe h HeflocTartuHTe Ha uempajiHaTa h MeeraaTa 
BnacT, qe H5iMa He^oBOJicTBa ot peinaBaHeTO Ha eflHH hjih flpyra BMipocn. 
HanpoTHB. Ha npeflH36opHHTe cb6paHH5i 6axa HanpaBeHH mhoto kphthhhh 
oejieaocH h 6eine H3Ka3aHO HeflOBoncTBO ot CHa6flHBaHeTO cbc ctokh, ot 
noiiiHTe ycjioBHa Ha pa6oTa b fli>pBOflo6HBa h pp. H36opHHTe pe3yjiTaTH 
o6ane noKa3Baxa aoBepneTO Ha 6aTanaHH kbm OreHecTBeHH* 4>pOHT h BPn 
(k), thxhoto oflo6peHHe 3a nporpaMaTa 3a H3rpa)K#aHe Ha eflHO hobo h 
cnpaBefljiHBo o6mecTBO, KoeTO H3HCKBaine BpeMe h mhoto ycHJiHH. 

Ha 15.XIL1946 r. b canoHa Ha HHTaiuimeTO ce npOBe^e cb6paHHe 3a 
OTHHTaHe flefiHOCTTa Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijH5i npe3 H3MHHajiaTa roflHHa. 

IIOJIO^CHX MHOTO yCHJIHfl fla H3rOTB5I 06eKTHBeH H aHaJIHTHHeH flOKJiafl, KOHTO 

6eme o^oGpeH ot HJieHOBeTe Ha KOMHTeTa. Cb6paHHeTO 6eme floera 
oacHBeHo h HanperHaTO. OpraHH3aijH5rra hh 6eme nocrarHajia peflHua yc- 
nexH, nocTaBeHO 6eme HanajioTO Ha peflHija HanHHaHM 3a hkohomhhcckoto, 
onaroycTpoficTBeHOTO h KyuiypHO-npocBeTHO pa3BHTHe Ha BaTaK, kohto 

OflXa HCTHHCKO H3nHTaHHe 3a pT>KOBOflHHTe KaflpH H TeXHHTe yMeHHfl aa 

ynpaBJiaBaT cbotbcthhtc aefiHOCTH. B npoTOKOJia Ha cb6paHHeTO e 
OT6eji»3aHo, ne ca 6hjih 3aaafleHH noBene ot 30 BMipoca, Ha 19 ot kohto cbm 
OTroBopHJi a3, a Ha ocTaHajiHTe - kmctbt Bopnc EajiHHOB, AHpeKTOp'bT Ha 
ropcKOTo CTonaHCTBO hh)k. AHren TajiaHOB, flHpeKTOp'bT Ha Koonepaipra 
"Op^efi" h flp. H3Ka3anH ca ce 18 .nymn, bkjhohhtcjiho h npeflCTaBHTejiHTe 

Ha OKOJIHHCKJDI KOMHTeT. A3 HanpaBHX o6CTOHHO 3aKJIK>HHTeJIHO H3Ka3BaHe, 

nocjie H3Me^cfly H3flHrHaTHTe 29 KaH^HflaTypH 6eine H36paH hob 9-hjiquqh 
CLCTaB Ha napTHHHH5i KOMHTeT, b kohto BJi5i30xa Bopnc BajiHHOB, AHren 
HaymeB, TeoprH KojiapoB, fl-p AHren Ctohmchob, Teoprn BacnjieB, BacHJi 
llejieB, HeBeHa HojiaKOBa, ^hmhtbp KojiapoB, To#op KojiapoB. Eax 
npeH36paH 3a ceKpeTap Ha KOMHTeTa, BtnpeKH MOHTe BKSpaaceHHfl. npnexMe 
h njiaH 3a pa6oTaTa Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl 3a npe3 1947 r. 

npe3 HHyapH 1947 r. o6ane a3 6ax H36paH 3a BTOpH ceKpeTap h 3aBe)K- 
flam opraHH3aijHOHHH5i OTfleji Ha okojihhckha komhtct Ha BPE[ (k) b 

266 



riemepa. Taica 3aBT>pniH ome eflHH nepnoa ot moh achbot, npe3 kohto 
3aeflHO c aeceTKH flpyrn 6aTanaHH pa6oraxMe /jpyacHO, 6e3K0pHCTH0 ? c 
MJiaaeacKO BtoflymeBJieHHe, c Bapa b npaBOTaTa Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKHTe 
H#eajiH, 3a H3rpa)K,zi;aHeTO Ha ^eMOKpaTHHHO h coijHajiHO cnpaBe^nHBO 
o6mecTBO ? 3a CTonaHCKOTO h ayxoBHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha BaTaK. 

B Okojihhckhh KOMHTeT Ha BPn (k) b Ileujepa (1947-1948) 

B HanajioTO Ha 1947 r. ce cbctoa roflHiiiHaTa OTHeTHO-H36opHa KOH(J)e- 
peHijHfl Ha OKOJiHHCKaTa opraHH3auH^ Ha BPI1 (k), b pa6oTaTa Ha kohto 
yqacTBax KaTO /jejieraT ot BaTaK. HamaTa napTHHHa opraHH3aijHfl nojiynn 
#o6pa oueHKa. B Kpaa Ha m>pBHfl /jeH 6ax noBHKaH b KOMHCH*nra no npe/j- 
no^ceHH5iTa 3a hobh HJieHOBe Ha Okojihhckhh komhtct. Obo6mHxa mh, ne 
me H3flHTHaT h MOHTa KaH/jH/jaTypa. Bt3pa3Hx KaTeropHHHO h H3Ti>KHax 3a 
nope/jeH m>T, ne )Kejiaa ^a npofltjraa o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. 

He3aBHCHMO ot TOBa, KOH(J)epeHLtHHTa Me H36pa 3a HJieH Ha 6iopoTO, 
BTopn ceKpeTap h 3aBeac,zjam opraHH3aijHOHHHfl OT/jeji Ha Okojihhckhh 
KOMHTeT. OKa3ax ce c HOBa napTHHHa /jJTbacHOCT, c hobh (^yHKijHH h 3a^a- 
hh. B ctCTaBa Ha hoboto 6iopo Ha OK Bjmoxa ctmo: Teoprn ilmcoB, 
^oceraniHHHT ceKpeTap, Ilerbp BpaHneB, 3aBOK,nam CTonaHCKM OTfleji, 
HHKOJia TanaHOB, 3aBe5K#am oTenecTBeHoc^poHTOBCKaTa /jchhoct, Teoprn 
J[. IIonoB, 3aBe5Kflam arHTaiiHOHHO-nponaraHflHCTKaTa /jeiiHOCT. Ot npe- 
flHniHHH ctCTaB oma/jHaxa nopa^H npeMHHaBaHe Ha apyra pa6oTa HHKOJia 
TpaHHOB h To^op ApHayzjOB, c kohto npo/jtJDKHx #a ce cpemaM h pa6oT5i b 
npofltJi^ceHHe Ha ^eceTKH ro/jHHH: TpaaHOB h3bcctho BpeMe 6eme h 
mhhhctbp, a ApHay^OB - reHepajieH ^npeKTop Ha CTonaHCKO o6e#HHeHHe. 

Teoprn ^[hkob HMame 6oraT nojiHranecKH onHT. ITpeflH /JeBera 
cenTeMBpn 1944 r. toh 6hji ceKpeTap Ha PK Ha PMC, hjich Ha PK Ha EPII, 
aKTHBeH ynacTHHK h opraHH3aTop Ha aHTH^aniHCTKaTa 6op6a b EpaijnroBO 
h paiioHa, a cjie/j no6e/jaTa - ceKpeTap Ha MecraaTa napTHHHa opramoaijHfl. 
Toh flo6pe no3HaBame napTHHHHH aKTHB Ha OKOJiMTa, MecTHHTe a^MH- 
HHCTpaTHBHH ynpe)K,zjeHHfl h o6mecTBeHH opraHH3aijHH. ITo xapaKTep 6eme 
AeMOKpaTHHeH h caMOKpHraneH, o6mHTejieH h /jo6t>p opraHH3aTop. Beme 

yCTaHOBHJI ,ZJ06p0HaMepeHH H npHHIJHnHH OTHOIIieHHfl C pT>KOBO,HHTeJIHTe 

Ha OTenecTBeHo4)poHTOBCKHTe napTHH, c o6jiacraaTa h OKOJiHHCKHTe 
cjiyacGn. Ynex ce ot Hero h nojiynaBax nojie3Ha no/jKpena b pa6oTaTa mh 
KaTO opraHH3aijHOHeH ceKpeTap. 

HHKOJia TanaHOB OTroBapame 3a pa6oTaTa Ha OTenecTBeHHa (J)poHT, 
OTenecTBeHHTe napTHH h okojihhckoto ynpaBJiemie. Toh 6eme npeKpaceH, 
eTHHeH h 6e3KopncTeH hobck, 6eme HaacHO c npo6jieMHTe Ha Ilemepa h 

267 



no3HaBauie iiohth bchhkh nemepijH. KaTO e^HH ot Haii-yBa^caBaHHTe h 
o6nHaHH MecTHH o6m;ecTBeHHijH, toh flonpHHaomie MHoro fleHHocrra Ha 

OkOJIHHCKHA KOMHTeT. 

TeoprH IIonoB HMaine 6oraT onHT b nponaraHflHCTKara fleHHocr h 
pa6oTeine c eHTycHa3tM. B MHHanoTo toh 6hji kmct Ha c. PaflHJioBo h 
noflnoMaran aHTH^aniHCTKaTa ci>npoTHBa. Enaro/japeHHe Ha bhcokhtc ch 
npo^ecHOHajiHH KanecTBa, no-KbCHo toh craHa npeno/jaBaTeji b e^Ho ot 
njioB^HBCKHTe bhchih yne6HH 3aBefleHHH. 

IleTbp T. BpaHHeB 6euie 3ano3HaT b no/jpo6HOCTH etc CTonaHCKOTo 
pa3BHTHe Ha OKOJiMTa. Toh /jopa3BH cboh /jeMOKpaTHHeH xapaKTep h 6e3- 
KopHCTHOCT, npoflBABauie B3HCKaTejiHOCT h flHcitHnjiHHHpaHOCT h ce 
noji3Bauie c bhcok aBTOpHTeT b Ilemepa h OKOJiHflTa. 

B Okojihhckha KOMHTeT pa6oTeuie h Teoprn CaMapOB, kohto 
3aBe)«flaHie ceKTOp "Ka/jpn" h BT>TpeuiHO-napTHHHaTa HH^opMaima, 
ntpBOHanajiHO 6enie HJieH Ha njieHyMa Ha OK, a no-KtcHO h hjich Ha 610- 
poTO. IIo xapaKTep 6enie flo6tp 5 npHJieaceH b pa6oTaTa ch, ho nepHorjiefl, 
eflHOCTpaHHHB, BH^Kflanie h He caMO ne n>pceuie e/jHHCTBeHO cjiaGocnrre, 
HeflocTarbiiHTe h rpeniKHTe Ha xopaTa h MecTHHTe napTHHHH opraHH3ai|HH, 
ho b h5ikoh cjiynan chjiho th npeyBejiHHaBame. HeroBHAT no/jxo,a HaHece 
rojieMH Bpe^H b o6jiacTTa Ha pa3BHTHeTO Ha Ka^pHTe, Ha napTHHHHTe 
ptKOBOflCTBa h opraHH3aijHH, oco6eHO npe3 nepno^a Ha KyjrroBCKHfl peaaiM 
(1950-1953). A3 MHoro ro "H3Mi>HBax", KoraTO OTKa3Bax ^a no/jnncBaM 
H3roTBeHHTe ot Hero xapaKrepHCTHKH h flpyrn flOKyMeHTH. Toh Tpy^HO 
Bi>3npHeManie o6eKTHBHHH h pa3HOCTpaHeH no/jxo/j npn oijeHKHTe, 
aHanH3HTe h H3BOflHTe. Ka3Baxa mh, ne toh 6hji "b CTHXHjrra ch" b 
Mecei^HTe h roflHHHTe cnefl npoijeca cpemy Tpanno Koctob. 

KaTO i|5Dio o6ane, njieHyMi>T Ha Okojihhckha komhtct ce ctcToenie ot 
BceoTflaflHH xopa, kohto 3aeflHO pa6oTexa 3a hkohomhhcckoto h ayxoBHO 
pa3BHTHe Ha OKOJiMTa h OTflejiHHTe cejinma. IIo o6pa30BaHne, npo(j)ecHH, 
napTHeH CTaac Te 6axa MHoro pa3JiHHHH, ho HMaxa 6oraT nojiHTHHecKH 
onHT, c eHTycHa3tM Bt3npHeMaxa coijHanHCTHHecKHTe H/jeajiH h 6axa 
flocTOHHH 3a yBa)«eHHe jihhhocth. 

IIojiHTHHecKaTa h CTonaHCKa o6cTaHOBKa b OKOJiHjrra 6euie cpaBHH- 
TejiHO flo6pa. HacejieHHeTO b oipomhoto ch 6ojihihhctbo no/jKpemmie 
nojiHTHKaTa Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT. BPII (k) HMaine 
3HaHHTejiHO bjihahhc BtB bchhkh cejinma 6axa H3rpa#eHH napTHHHH 
opraHH3aiiHH, hhhto HJieHOBe 6axa okojio 2000. B o6iij;h jihhhh no3HaBax 

ptKOBOflHHTe KaflpH B OKOJIHHCKHfl IjeHTbp H OTfleJIHHTe cejinma ome ot 

BpeMeTO Ha fleHHOcrra mh KaTO ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha PMC h ot MHoro6pofi- 
268 



H HTe ctBemaHHfl h KOH(|)epeHiiHH b Ilemepa h IIjiobahb. ToBa MHoro mh 
noMoraa 6tp30 ^a ce opneHTHpaM h ao6pe ^a opraHH3HpaM pa6oTaTa ch. 

riemepCKa okojiha no HaceneHHe h nnom 6euie cpaBHHTejiHO Majnca, ho 
MHoro ni>CTpa b reorpac|)CKO h hkohomkhccko OTHOineHHe. Ta BKJiioHBauie 
13 cejinma, jifiQ ot kohto 6axa rpa^oBe - Ilemepa h EpaimroBO. HermaTa 
xepHTOpH^ Moace ycnoBHO m 6i,fle pa3fleneHa Ha flBa pafioHa. Klm m>pBHfl 
cna^axa HaceneHHTe MecTa, Kb^eTO npeo6jiaaaBam noMHHT>K 6eme 
3eMeflejiHeTo: cenaTa PaflHJiOBO, KanHTaH ,ZjHMHTpHeBO, Eara, HcnepnxoBO, 
Ko3apCKO h flo H3BecTHa CTeneH rp. EpaimroBO h rp. Ilemepa. B rpaflOBeTe 

HMaUie HflKOJIKO MaJIKH npOH3BOflCTBeHH H TBprOBCKH npe^npHHTH^ H 
3aHaHTHHHCKH pa60THJIHHIJH. KfcM BTOpHfl paiioH, kohto Moace #a 6l>fle 

xapaKTepH3HpaH KaTo ropCKH, cna^axa OHe3H HaceneHH MecTa, KbfleTO 
npeo6jiaflaBamHAT noMHHi>K 6euie CBi>p3aH c fli>pBOflo6HBa h fli>pBoo6pa6oT- 
Kara, a 3eMeflejineTO h CKOTOBtflCTBOTO HMaxa noMomeH xapaicrep: PaBHorop, 
Oothhobo, HoBa Maxajia, EaraK h nacT ot HaceneHHeTO Ha Ilemepa. 

Ta3H ycnoBHO onepTaHa CTonaHCKa CTpyKTypa ro ronflMa CTeneH 
onpeflejiame napraiiHaTa, o6mecTBeHara, HKOHOMHHecKaTa h coimajiHara 
aefiHOCT Ha okojihhckha komhtct h Ha MecTHHTe napTHHHH opraHH3aiiHH. 
Tpa6Ba fla OTGeneaca, ne b ropcKHJi pafioH Hape/j c o6nmHHTe roiwMa pojia 
Hrpaexa h ^tpacaBHHTe ropcKH CTonaHCTBa CZjrC), hhhto pi>KOBOflCTBa 
o6HKHOBeHO ce HaMHpaxa h3bt>h HaceneHHTe MecTa. Hmchho Te opraHH- 
3Hpaxa fli>pBOflo6HBa h ,HT>pBonpepa6oTKaTa, 3ajiecaBaHeTO h ona3BaHe Ha 
ropHTe, CTpoHTencTBO Ha m>THHja h noerpoHKH - fleiiHOCTH, b kohto 6euie 
aHra^cHpaHa 3HaHHTejiHa nacT ot HaceneHHeTO Ha OKOJiHATa. B tax ci>mo ce 
CB3aaBaxa napTHHHH opraHH3aijHH. 

TyK me ce cnpa caMO Ha hakoh momchth ot ABeroflnuiHaTa mh pa6oTa b 
Okojihhckha KOMHTeT, hhoto fleiiHOCT ce ptKOBO/jeuie ot o6maTa nOJIHTHKa 
Ha LJeHTpanHHfl komhtct h npaBHTencTBOTO Ha OrenecTBeHHfl (])poHT, 
HaconeHa ki>m no/jroTOBKa 3a npeMHHaBaHe ki>m rorpaayjaHeTO Ha ocho- 
BHTe Ha C0D[HajiH3Ma b CTpaHaTa. Ilpe3 nepno/ja 1947-1948 r. ce npoBe/joxa 
XIII, XIV h XV njieHyMH Ha IJK Ha BPI1 (k), c(J)opMHpaHH 6axa ntpBOTO h 
btopoto npaBHTencTBO Ha Teoprn ^hmhtpob, npneTa 6eme HOBaTa peny6- 
JiHKaHCKa KOHCTHTyiiHHTa, ^BeroflHHiHHHT njiaH 3a pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHO- 
MHKaTa, Han[HOHajiH3HpaHH 6axa HH/jycTpHajiHHTe npeanpHHTHH h 6aHKHTe. 

HauiaTa 3aflana 6euie «a pa3flCHABaMe Te3H ci>6hth5i h pecj)opMH Ha 
napTHHHH, o6mocejicKH, rpa^cKH h KBapTanHH ci>6paHHfl, a 6jiaroaapeHHe 
Ha opraHH3aiiHOHHaTa hh /jeiiHOCT no MecTa nojiHTHnecKHTe pemeHHa h 
nporpaMH ce npeBtpHaxa b peanHOCT. 

XopaTa Tp^6Bauie «a CTaHar ci>npHHacTHH Ha peBOjnoijHOHHHTe npo- 

269 



MeHH, kohto 3ajiaraxa ochobhtc Ha coii;HajiH3Ma b CTpaHaTa. Ochobho 
BHHMaHHe o6pi>maxMe Ha yKpenBaHe Ha napTHHHHTe opraHH3aijHH, Ha 
nojiHTHHecKaTa no^roTOBKa Ha ceKpeTapHTe h pi>KOBOflCTBaTa Ha napTHH- 
HHTe h Ha ocTaHajiHTe MecTHH h okojihhckh o6mecTBeHH opraHH3aitHH. 
Ci>3flaBaxa ce ceMHHapH h kptokoijh. B pa6oTaTa ch 6flXMe B3HCKaTejiHH h 
caMOKpHTHHHH. H MaKap napTHHHHTe opraHH3aiiHH aa aonycKaxa pe^Hija 

CJia60CTH ? T^XHaTa fleHHOCT 3HaHHMO Ce n0fl06pH H aKTHBH3Hpa. 

BlOpOTO Ha OKOJIHHCKHfl KOMHTeT H MeCTHHTe napTHHHH OpraHH3ai|HH 

no^noMaraxa aflMHHHCTpaTHBHHTe ynpeacfleHHH b JiHijeTO Ha okojihhckoto 
ynpaBJieHHe, OKOJiHHCKaTa arpoHOMHHecKa cjiyac6a h KMeTCTBaTa 3a noflo- 
6pHBaHe Ha 3eMeaejicKOTO npoH3BoacTBO. Ba^cHO macto b CTonaHCKara 
CTpyKTypa Ha pafioHa 3aeMauie TK)TK)HonpOH3BOflCTBOTO, Btpxy KoeTO npe3 
npojierra Ha 1947 r. 6enie ycTaHOBeH ,m>p)KaBeH MOHonoji. Meacfly tiotio- 
HonpOH3BO,HHTejiHTe h areHTHTe Ha ,m>p)KaBHaTa ^HpeKijHfl Ha MOHonona, 
kohto Tp5i6Banie ^a opraHH3Hpa H3KynyBaHeTO Ha tiotiohhtc b 3aBHCHMOCT 
ot thxhoto KanecTBO, ce nopo^Hxa pe^Hija cnopOBe h koh^jihkth. JIhhho 
cbm B3eMaji ynacTHe b 6ypHH 3aceflaHH5i no Te3H BMpocn b cejiaTa 
Pa^HJiOBO, KanHTaH /jHMHTpneBO h Ko3apCKO, Ki>fleTO MecTHHTe npoH3BO- 
flHTenH ce npoTHBonocTaB^xa Ha cneijHajiHCTHTe ot fli>p^caBHaTa flHpeiojHfl. 
Tp^6Ba aa OT6ejie)Ka, ne ono3Hax ao6pe npo6jieMa h ce npeKJiaHax npea 
npoH3BOflHTejiHTe Ha tiotioh, HHeTO OTrjie^cflaHe, cbGnpaHe h npepa6oTKa 

He CaMO H3HCKBaT Te^CbK (J)H3HHeCKH Tpyfl, HO H Ca CbnpOBOfleHH c MHoro 

HecnrypHOCT othocho KanecTBOTO Ha OKOHnaTejiHHH npo^yKT. B TOBa 
OTHomeHHe MHoro nojie3Ha pojm nrpaeuie HayHHO-npaKTHHecKaTa CTaHijHfl 

no TK)TK)HHTe B C. K03apCKO, pT>KOBOfleH OT ^HMHTLp ATaHaCOB, KOHTO nO- 

kbcho CTaHa npo(J)ecop h peKTOp Ha BHXBII - rp. ILiob^hb. Hapea c TOBa, 
b Ilemepa HManie h TioTioHeBa rHMHa3H5i, b kohto yHHTejiH-cneijHajiHCTH h 
o6ynaBaxa yneHHijH ot bchhkh TKmoHeBH pafioHH Ha CTpaHaTa. 

flo6pe pa6oTeuie h OKOJiHHCKaTa arpoHOMHHecKa cjiy^c6a c ^HpeKTOp 
^HMHTtp BaHKOB, kohto pa3nojiarauie c no^roTBeHH arpoHOMH h BeTepH- 
HapH. Ilojiaraxa ce ycnjiHH 3a BHeapHBaHeTO Ha HaH-,n;o6pHTe copTOBe h6i>ji- 
kh, aroflH, rpo3fle ? KapTO(j)H h ap. B c. PaBHorop ce Cb3,n;a,zje ceMenpoH3BOflH- 
TenHa 6a3a 3a npoH3BOflCTBO Ha KapTO(|)H, kohto ce H3KynyBaxa Ha no-BHeo- 
kh ijeHH h ce H3noji3Baxa caMO 3a ceMe b OKOJiHOTa h b jspym panoHH. 3acjiy- 
ra 3a Hanpefli>Ka Ha cencKOTO CTonaHCTBo b paftoHa 3acnyra HMauie h E3KE, 
kohto OTnycKauie Kpe^HTH h noflnoMarauie 3eMeflejiCKHTe npOH3BOflHTejiH c 
flocTaBKa Ha ceMeHa, 3eMe,zjejicKH MauiHHH h cbopioKeHHfl, H3KynyBauie h aoc- 
TaBHHie cejicKOCTonaHCKH np0H3BefleHHH. flnpeKTOp Ha 6aHKaTa 6euie Lfce- 
TaHCKH - HOBeK eHeprHHeH, CMen b fleficTBHHTa ch h uinpoKO CKpoeH no ayuia. 

270 



3a opraHH3HpaHe h 3amHTa Ha cejicKHTe CTonaHH b CTpaHaTa 6enie 
cwaaaeH 06m 3eMeflencKH npo(])ecHOHajieH cbk)3 (03nC), Hanejio c 
jiereHaapHHa nojiHranecKH aeeij h Mbjipen IleKO TaKOB. Bi>b bchhkh cenH- 
ma Ha OKOJiHflTa ci>3flafloxMe mccthh 03IIC, a npe/tceflaTen Ha okojihhcko- 

TO npO(J)CI>K)3HO pI>KOBOflCTBO CTaHa ^HMHTbp BaCHJieB OT C. HdiepHXOBO. 

MaKap h cpaBHHTenHO MJia/t, toh no3HaBauie b tbhkocth mccthoto 
cejicKOCTonaHCKo npOH3BOflCTBO h HeroBHTe npo6neMH h 3a/taHH. Beuie 
npHpo^HO HHTejiHreHTeH h flo6i>p no xapaKTep. CnpHflTenHXMe ce h necTO 
3ae#H0 o6HKaimxMe cejiaTa, Benep npaBexMe ci>6paHHfl h CBBeiijaHHfl b 
KJiy6oBeTe 5 a npe3 aenn H3JiH3axMe Ha nojieTO 3aeflH0 etc cejiflHHTe npH 
3aca^c/taHeT0 h o6HpaHeTO Ha TKmoHa, npH cyuieHeTO h ^HnneHeTO My. 
H3MHHajiH CMe 3aeflH0 ctothijh khjiomctph neuiKOM no MeacaycencKHTe 
irbrama h ni>TeKH, 3ae/tH0 nocemaBaxMe poflHTennTe en b npa3HHHHHTe h 
CBo6oflHH #hh, 3a aa ce HaxpaHHM, aa noHHHeM, ^a nonyBCTBaivie 
ManHHHHTe JiacKH. /Jhmhtbp 6eme HJieH Ha njieHyMa, a npe3 1948 r. CTaHa h 
HjieH Ha 6k>poto Ha Okojihhckha KOMHTeT. Cjiea 1950 r. 6eme Ha pa6oTa b 
apMH^Ta KaTO nojiHTHHecKH o4)Hi(ep; neHCHOHHpa ce c hhh nojncoBHHK, a 
cjiea TOBa npoai>Ji5KH aa pa6oTH Ha pi>KOBO£HH ajtbachocth b e^Ha 
CTonaHCKa opraHH3aijH5L 

B OKOJiHflTa hh, h Haft-Bene b Eflra, HenepnxoBO, Ko3apCKO h riemepa, 
ce npOH3Be^cflaxa 3HaHHTejiHH KOJinnecTBa nnoflOBe - ^6i>jikh 9 rp03,ne, 
HroflH h #p. H flocera mh ce CTpyBa, ne HflMa no-BKycHH 5i6i>jikh ot Te3H, 
OTraeflaHH b rpa^HHHTe noKpafi HamaTa CTapa peKa... 

ToflHHaTa 1947, KaKTO h npe^iuecTBamaTa, 6eme cymaBa b ijanaTa CTpa- 
Ha. Okojihhckhat komhtct, OTenecTBeHH^T 4>pOHT h okojihhckoto arpo- 
homctbo npnexMe nnaH c pe^Hija MeponpMTHfl cpemy nocne/mmrre ot 
cymaTa: HanoaBaHe, ni>JiHO 3ac5reaHe Ha bchhkh 3eMeaejiCKH 3eMH, 3ac>raaHe 
Ha hakoh ropcKH mioiim c KapTO^H, 3aM^Ha Ha fli>pBeH MaTepnaji cpemy 
achto h Ma3HHHH, 6op6a ci>c cnexyjiaTa h pp. Ot cboa CTpaHa, npaBH- 
TejicTBOTO oflo6pn Hapefl6a N« 1, c koato npOH3BOflHTejiHTe ce 3a,m>jraa- 
Baxa aa H3Bi>puiBaT Bi>piiiHT6aTa Ha onpe^ejieHH ot o6umHHTe xapMaHH h 
no/t Ha#30pa Ha cneimajiHH KOHTpojibopH. npeflBHacflaxa ce tokkh caHKijHH 
3a HapyuiHTejiHTe Ha Hapefl6aTa. 

3a H3^CH^BaHe Ha o6eKTHBmrre Tpy^HOcra, nopoflHJin Heo6xoaHMOcrra 
ot Te3H CTpora MepKH, h 3a ci>3flaBaHe Ha CBOTBeTHaTa opraHH3aijHfl npo- 
Beacflaxivte napTHHHH h o6mocencKH ci>6paHHfl ot hmcto Ha OTenecTBeHHfl 
(J)pOHT. B H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha Ta3H 3aaana ce BKJiioHHxa bchhkh okojihhckh 
aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH cjiyacGn h o6m;ecTBeHH opraHH3auHH. Beme ycTaHOBeH 
CTpor KOHTpoji. HecTO HJieHOBeTe Ha 6iopOTO Ha OK npeicapBaxMe HomTa Ha 

271 



xapMamrre, 3a #a 0Ka3BaMe noMom Ha KMeTCTBaTa 3a opraHH3au;HOTa Ha 

BT>pIIIHT6aTa H 3a H3rJia)KflaHe Ha KOH(|)JIHKTHTe MGTKJiy KOHTpOJIbOpHTe H 

cencKHTe CTonaHH. HeflOBOJiCTBOTO Ha np0H3B0flHTejiHTe Ha 3i>pH0 6eme 
MHoro rojMMO, nocTOHHHO ce Btpniexa HapymeHHfl h ce Hanaraxa Hana- 
3aHHH ? kohto ci>3flaBaxa HanpeaceHHe. 06mo B3eTO h TOBa "MeponpMTHe" 
6enie H3m>JiHeHO. Ha o6jiacTHO cbBenjaHHe b rLioBflHB Bi>jiko HepBeHKOB 
H3Hece HH^opMaijira othocho Hape^6a JY2 1 h ci>o6mH, ne TeoprH /Jhmhtpob 
% onpeaejiHn KaTO "jioih floicyMeHT" h Tpy^HO ce cbrjiaciui aa a noflnHine. 

BiopoTO Ha Okojihhckha komhtct nojiaranie rojieMH ycHJiM aa no/mo- 
Mara .neHHOcrra Ha PafioHHaTa flHpeKijHfl no ropHTe (P,H,r) 3a pa3BHTHeTo 
Ha ropcKOTO CTonaHCTBO h oco6eHO 3a opraHH3aijHflTa Ha fli>pBOflo6HBa, 
kohto HManie HaijHOHajiHO 3HaneHHe h cbCTaBJMBanie okojio 20% ot fli>pBo- 
flo6nBa b CTpaHaTa. OKOJiMTa 3aeMame no-rojwMaTa njiom; ot EaTauiKara 

nJiaHHHa C HeHHHTe 06uiHpHH rOpCKH MaCHBH OT HrJIOJIHCTHH H 6yKOBH ropH. 

B P^r ce Tpyaexa mhoto HHaceHep-necoB'bflH, ropcKH Hafl3HpaTejiH h 
pa6oTHHijH. Ochobhh cTonaHCKH 3BeHa Ha flHpeKijHOTa 6axa ,m>p)KaBHHTe 
ropcKH CTonaHCTBa (necHHHeficTBa). 3anecflBaHeTO, R r bpBORo6nB r bT, ,m>pBo- 
o6pa6oTKaTa h TpaHcnoprapaHeTO Ha MaTepnajia 3a HyacflHTe Ha ctpoh- 
TejicTBOTO ce H3Bi>pniBanie ot hakojiko xhjmah pa6oTHHijH, opraHH3HpaHH b 
noBene ot 10 fltpacaBHH ropcKH CTonaHCTBa (TjrC). 

^HpeKTOp Ha P^r npe3 1947 r. 6eme mm. Hop^aH RbpnaneB, MHoro 
flo6i>p cneijHanHCT h opraHH3aTop, c nepcneKTHBHH BHacaaHHH 3a pa3BH- 
THeTO Ha ropcKOTO CTonaHCTBO b pafloHa h CTpaHaTa. Ton HManie TBi>pfl 
xapaKTep h BO^enie ynopHTa 6op6a cpemy K0Hrpa6aHflaTa h KopymjHOTa. 

EflHa Hom cjiea ci>6paHHe b ropcKOTO CTonaHCTBO h fli>CKOpe3HaTa 
4>a6pHKa b m. IlInpoKa nojiflHa, ntTyBaxisie c KOJia 3a TC "EeniHKa", Kbflero 
Tp^6Banie aa npeHomyBaMe. BHe3anHO npe/i; KonaTa h3ckohh 3aeK h ce 
3aTHna kbm CBeTJiHHaTa Ha (j)apoBeTe. Ilerbp BpaHneB CTpejiH c nncTOJieTa 
ch h 3a Hauie yny^BaHe ycna aa yijejiH. CyTpHHTa, KoraTO 6axMe ce^HajiH 
aa nneM nan, KbpnaneB 3anHTa BpaHHeB: 

- IleTpe, 3Haein jih, ne jiobi>t e 3a6paHeH h a3 ct>m fljib^ceH m Haicaaca 
HapyniHTeji^ 3a y6HHCTBOTO Ha 3aeica. H TOBa me CTOpa. 

Ton HapeflH aa ^OHecaT (J)opMyjiflpH h Hannca aKT Ha HapyuiHTejw c 
onpe^ejieHHe aa 3annaTH 400 jieBa. Tjio6aTa 6euie nnaTeHa, a 3aeKbT - 
OTHeceH b KyxH^Ta Ha pa6oraHHecKaTa CTOJioBa. 

npe3 1948 r. 3a flHpeKTOp Ha ¥J\y 6eine Ha3HaneH hhdk. Teoprn CraiiKOB. 

B ropCKHTe CTonaHCTBa 6axa ci>3flafleHH napraHHH opraHH3au;HH, kohto 
OKa3Baxa Mo6HJiH3Hpamo Bi>3fleHCTBHe Btpxy napTHHHHTe HJieHOBe, rop- 
CKHTe pa6oTHHii;H ? cny^KHTenHTe h pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe. C y^OBOJicTBHe noce- 

272 



maBax (MHoro necTO neuiKOM) ropCKHTe cronaHCTBa, cpemax ce c pa6oT- 

HHUHTe H pI>KOBOAHTeJIHTe ? npHCbCTBaJI CbM Ha MHOrO Cl>6paHHH H 

3aceflaHHH no Haii-pa3JiHHHH BMpocH. IIpe3 T03H nepHOfl pa6oTex c hh>k.- 
jiecoB'bflHTe TeoprH CTafiKOB, HeflflJiKO IlHnepKOB, HafiaeH ToflopOB, 
HHKOJia naHOB h apyrn CMejiH Mt^ce, kohto 6yKBanHO ce 6opexa 3a pa3- 
BHTHeTO, ona3BaHe h paijHOHajiHO H3noji3BaHe Ha ropHTe. 

ITpe3 1947-1948 r. b ctCTaBa Ha PffT ce eb3flafle h noflejiemie "JJppBO- 
nJiacMeHT" npH PafioHHaTa flHpeiojHfl Ha ropHTe- Ilemepa. 

OkOJIHHCKHAT KOMHTeT XBl>pJIH MHOTO yCHJIHfl H OKOJIO OpraHH3aiJHflTa 

Ha crpoeaca Ha H30Biip "Tam6oa3" (cera 'Tojihm EerjiHK"). OrpoH- 
TejiHTe 6axa noceTeHH ot MHHHCTbpa Ha eHepreTHKaTa Tpafino Koctob, 
npeflceaaTejifl Ha AKII ,0,o6pH TepnemeB, BacHJi KonapoB h apyra 

tfbp)KaBHH H napTHHHH pl>KOBOflHTeJIH. TyK pa60Texa BHCOKOKBaJIH(|)H- 

UHpaHH HH^ceHepH, tcxhhijh h pa6oTHHijH. MHoro ot tax cnefl 3aBi>pniBaHe 
Ha cTpoHTejicTBOTO Ha ^30BHpa ynacTBaxa h b H3rpa>KflaHeT0 Ha EaTaniKHfl 
bojhochjiob m>T. ^HpeKTOp Ha CTpoeaca 6euie hh)k. AnocTOJi nameB - 
oTJiHHeH cneijHajiHCT h opraHH3aTop, 3aBT>puiHJi BHcme o6pa30BaHHe b 
^exocnoBaKHH, ynacTHHK b aHTH^aniHCTKOTO flBHaceHHe. IIo-KbCHO toh 
CTaHa 3aMecTHHK-MHHHcn>p ? npenoaaBaTen h npo^ecop b IIojiHTexHHKaTa 
h npeaceflaTen Ha /J'bpacaBHHfl njiaHOB komhtct. 

HecTO npHCbCTBax Ha ci>6paHHfl h ceMHHapH Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH- 
3aijHfl Ha CTpoHTenHTe Ha A30BHpa. MHoro none3HH ce ona3axa pa3roBOpHTe 
mh c AnocTOJi nameB no pa3JiHHHH cny^ce6HH h napTHHHH Bi>npocH. MajiKO 
npean npraonoHBaHeTO Ha CTpoe^ca 3a anpeKTOp 6eme Ha3HaneH hhhc. 
HepHeB, kohto CT>mo mhoto Ao6i>p ptKOBOflHTen. Cnefl Tbp^cecTBeHOTo 
OTKpHBaHe Ha A30BHpa, CTpoHTenHTe ce ineryBaxa: 

- J\o6pe e aa CTponm ^30BHp KaTO AnocTOJi nameB, ho ome no-ao6pe e 
aa ro OTKpHBam KaTO mm. HepHeB. 

/Jpyra rpnaca Ha Okojihhckha komhtct 6eme aa CTHMyjmpa pa3BHTHe- 

TO Ha KOOnepaTHBHOTO ^BHyKCHHe B JIHIjeTO Ha TOpCKHTe npOH3BOflHTeHHH 

KOonepaijHH, kohto HMaxa 3HaHHTeneH am b H3m>JiHeHHe Ha ,0,BeroflHiHHHfl 
njiaH (1947-1948 r.); Ha noTpe6HTejiHHTe h TpyaoBO-3aHaOTHHHCKHTe 
KoonepaijnH, Ha KoonepaijHHTe Ha TK)TioHonpoH3BOflHTejiHTe n nonynap- 
HHTe 6aHKH. MaKap h c 6aBHH TeMnoBe, 3anoHHa no^roTOBKa 3a ci>3flaBaHe 
Ha TK3C. ritpBOTO TpyzjoBO-KOonepaTHBHO 3eMeaencKO CTonaHCTBO b 
OKOJiHOTa 3apa6oTH b c. HcnepnxoBO npe3 cenTeMBpH 1948 r. 

HanpaBHXMe mhoto h 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha o6pa30BaTejraaTa CHCTeMa. 
no TOBa BpeMe b OKOJiHflTa HMame 5 cpeflHH yne6HH 3aBefleHM. Ctothijh 
MnaflencH 3aBi>pmHxa cpe/jHO o6pa30Bamie, a mhoto ot tax ce 3anncaxa bi>b 

273 



BHcniH yne6HH 33bqjiquu^. Cb3,naBaine ce eaHa HOBa HHTejiHremjHfl, kooto 
flaBame cboa npHHOc b pa3BHTHeTO Ha OKOJiHATa h CTpaHaTa. Oco6eHa 
3acjiyra 3a KyjnypHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HaceneHHeTO HMaxa HHTajinmaTa, 
kohto opraHH3Hpaxa 6h6jihotckh 5 HHTanHH, pa3BHBaxa xyaoacecTBeHa 
caMOflefiHOCT, KypcoBe 3a jiHKBH/tfipaHe Ha HerpaMOTHOcrra, nocTaBHxa 
TeaTpajiHH nocTaHOBKH h np. 

Othobo Ha Minimi. H b Ilenjepa npofltJiacaBax ,zja H3noji3BaM 
CBo6oflHOTO ch BpeMe, 3a aa ce noaroTBAM 3a H3nHTHTe no hakojiko flncim- 
njiHHH. Herax h pa3HOo6pa3Ha xy^oacecTBeHa, HaynHa h HayHHO-nonyjiapHa 
jiHTepaTypa. BnHarn npH nocememifl b cenaTa h ropCKHTe CTonaHCTBa Hocex 
b naHTaTa ch no h^roa KHHra, a b CBo6oflHHTe BenepHH nacoBe b Ilemepa 
H3ynaBax yne6HHijHTe hjih Herax HKOHOMHHecica h $HJioco(J)CKa JiHTepaTypa. 

IIpe3 MapT 1947 r. Tepa mh cboGiijh, ne H3nnTHaTa cecna me 6i>,ue npe3 
Man h k)hh h mh npe/jjioacn #a ce 3annma 3a H3nHTH no 2-3 /mcimmiHHH. 
TaKa h HanpaBHX. IIpe3 iohh nojiynnx 15-flHeBeH OTnycK h 3aMHHax 3a 
Co(J)Ha 5 KT>aeTO achbax y hhhobh, a Tepa 6enie Ha KBapTHpa y npHOTejiKara 
ch Haflfl IIonoBa. 3anoHHaxMe 3ae^HO aa yHHM h a3 ycnax ^a ce aba Ha 
H3nHTa no coijnojiorHfl. 

Me^cflyBpeMeHHO ot Okojihhckha komhtct mh CT>o6mnxa no Tejie(J)OHa 
fla ce Bi>pHa b Ilemepa, 3amoTO CLTpy/jHHijH Ha 06jiacTHHfl komhtct ca 
flonuiH Ha nocemeHne h HCKaT aa npOBepOT pa6oTaTa Ha Okojihhckha 
KOMHTeT. C6oryBax ce c Tepa h ce BtpHax b Ilemepa. 

Ha 3aKJiK)HHTejiHOTO 3aceaaHHe cnefl npOBepKaTa npnctcTBaxa h 
ceKpeTapHTe Ha 06jiacTHH*[ komhtct Teoprn Koctob h ,ZJeMHp ^HeB. Cnefl 
3aceaaHHeTO HManie CKpoMHa Benepa Ha HJieHOBeTe Ha 6iopoTo c tax h 
ctTpy/mHim na 06jiacTHHA KOMHTeT. IIo eflHO BpeMe T. Koctob ce o6i>pHa 
ki>m MeH h npe/j bchhkh 3anHTa: 

- ^pyrapio ^aymeB, KaK CMOTam e/jHOBpeMeHHO #a npofltjraHiH 
o6pa30BaHneTO ch h #a pa6oTHin b Okojihhckha komhtct? Pa6oTaTa th e 
TpyflHa, H3HCKBa Hanpe^ceHne h BceoT^anHOCT. 

Be3 aa ^onaKa OTroBopa mh, toh 3anoHHa aa pa3Ka3Ba KaK e one^Baji 
npaBO h KaK ro e 3aBtpuiHJi. 

- Cjie^BaM b ^tp^caBHOTO Bncnie ynHJinme 3a (J)HHaHCOBH HayKH, 
B3eMaM ch nocTeneHHO H3nHTHTe h ce HaflflBaM npe3 eceHTa aa ce 3annnia 
3a ce^MH ceMecrtp. Ome Be/maac me noBTOpa MOJi6aTa ch aa 6i>fla 
ocBo6o^;eH ot napTHHHa pa6oTa, 3a #a npHKjnona o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. Cne^ 
KaTO ce jpmjioMHpaM me 6T>#a no-nojie3eH h Ha o6mecTBOTo, h Ha ce6e ch. 
HeKa aa ce HMa npeflBH^, ne Bene ct>m Ha 25 roflHHH. 

Pa3Ka3ax KaKBH /mcijHnjiHHH H3ynaBaM h 3a HeoTflaBHauiHHfl H3nHT no 

274 



COUHOJlOTClfl. 

- IIo npHHimn Tpa6Ba rs, ce cbrjiacHM c Hero - o6i>pHa ce T. Koctob 
kbm bchhkh, - ho npeflnaraM toh #a pa6oTH b KOMHTeTa noHe ome qrus, ro- 
flHHa ? a npe3 cjie^BamaTa yne6Ha roflHHa rs, 6i>fle BKjnoneH b cnncbKa 3a 
KaH,mmaTHTe #a cjieflBar BHCine o6pa30BaHHe b CCCP. Th me 3ary6Hin oiu;e 
eflHa ro^HHa - o6i>pHa ce toh kbm MeH, - ho me nojiyHHin cojih^ho hkoho- 
MHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe. ToBa He e 3ary6a Ha BpeMe, 3aiu;oTO TyK th Tpynain 
onHT h 3HaHHfl. Cera He 6nxMe motjih aa Te ocboGo^hm. Th h tbohtc apy- 
rapH ot KOMHTeTa ci>3HaBaTe TOBa no-flo6pe ot MeH h ot #p. A eMH P ^nes. 

Bchhkh npHCBCTBamn no^Kpennxa npe#Jio)KeHHeTO Ha Teoprn Koctob. 

Ilpoai>Ji^cHX #a pa6oTH b Okojihhckhh komhtct, a ycnope^HO c TOBa ro 
jiatoto Ha 1948 r. ycnax #a nojio)Ka ome hhkojiko H3nHTa. 

Tepa cbuif) npofl'bJDKaBanie cjie^BaHeTO ch. IIocTOflHHO ce cpemaxMe b 
Ilemepa, EaTaK, KaMemma h Co4>h^ ? onaKBafiKH #a ce cb3#a#aT no^xo- 
flfliim ycnoBHH aa ckjiiohhm 6paK h #a 3a)KHBeeM 3ae#HO. Meac^yBpeMeHHO 
HanpaBHXMe CKpoMeH 3a ToraBaumoTO BpeMe ro^eac b EaTaK, kohto 
npH#a#e rouxklrq 0(|)HijHajieH xapaKTep Ha Hannrre OTHonieHM. 

H3MHHa oiu;e e#Ha roflHHa. npe3 aBiycT 1948 r. Okojihhckhh komhtct 
Me npenop'bHa Ha KoMHTeTa 3a HayKa, H3KycTBO h KyjiTypa (KHHK) KaTO 
KaHOTaaT 3a cjie^BaHe Ha BHcme o6pa30BaHHe b CCCP. Eax o#o6peH, ho ce 
c6jn>CKax c hobh Tpy^HOCTH npH ocBoGoayjaBaHeTO mh KaTO BTOpH 
ceKpeTap Ha okojihhckha komhtct. 3a uejrra 6euie Heo6xo#HMO cbrjiacneTO 
Ha opraHH3aitHOHHHfl OT^eji Ha L^K Ha BPII (k), tt>h KaTO o6jiacTHHTe 
KOMHTeTH Bene 6axa pa3(|)opMHpOBaHH. ^nro naxax OTroBOp ot Co(|)Hfl, a 
toh Bee He H^Bauie. HHCTpyKTOpT>T Ha U,K 3a HauiaTa okojihh CaBKa 
Bor^aHOBa o6ane 3Haeuie 3a yroBOpicaTa c 06nacTHHfl komhtct npe3 1947 r. 
h ycmi rsl H3#eHCTBa pa3peuieHHe 3a ocBoGoacflaBaHe mh ruh npe/m 
3aMHHaBaHeTO Ha CTyaeHTCKaTa rpynaTa 3a CCCP. 

Tepa cbii^o 6euie npefljioaceHa 3a cjie#BaHe b CCCP. Pa^ociTa Ha #BaMa 
hh h Ha HaniHTe 6jih3kh 6euie rojiflMa. Tepa o6ane OTna^Ha ot cnncbKa Ha 
ni>pBaTa rpyna 3aMHHaBaiim CTy^eHTH. CboGumxa hh, ne ca x bkjiiohhjih bt>b 
BTOpaTa rpyna, kooto ome ce o(|)opMfl. npe/jcToeme hh BpeMeHHa pa3flHJia. 

3anoHHax aa ce noflroTBAM 3a 3aMHHaBaHe. Tpa6Baxa mh napH, 3a /ja ch 
Kyna flpexH h apyrn Heo6xoflHMH Beiim, h ce npHHyanx #a H3Terjui 3aeM ot 
60 000 jib. ot IIonyjiflpHaTa 6aHKa, nopi^HTejiH no kohto craHaxa 6ama mh 

H HHHO BopHC. 

* * * 

3a 6jih30 flBeTe torhhh (ot AHyapH 1947 ro cenTeBpH 1948 r.), npe3 koh- 

275 



to pa6oTHX b Okojihhckha komhtct, a3 ce npHBT>p3ax kbm Ilemepa h cejiH- 
mara Ha OKOJiMTa, o6HKHax MecTHHTe Tpy^OBH xopa, c MH03HHa ce cnpHH- 
TejiHX h 3ana3HX ot tax ckmih cnoMeHH h BnenameH. Eto HMeHara Ha hhkoh 
ot tax. Ot Tleiuepa: lopHCTHTe KocTa Ah^ohob h Hop^aH IlajiHKapoB, 
HHKOJia TajiaHOB, BnaflHMHp /JoicropOB, Toflop KoacyxapOB, HHKOJia 

CtOHJIOB, ToflOp ApHayflOB, BopHC IlHpHHHHeB, HHKOJia Eohkhhob, MapHH 

TpH3Ji0Ba 5 KocTa Tep3HeB, IU,epio IIJepeB, ,H,hmhtt>p EyxneB, PauiKO CyrapeB 
h flp. Ot BpaunroBo: Teoprn #hkob, HHKOJia TpaaHOB, To^op Tep3HeB, 

^HMHTbp TpOflHOB, IleTbp TpOflHHHH H £p. Ot PaBHOrOp: ^HMHTbp AneB, 

IleTbp AneB, Hop^aH Mna^eHOB h ap. Ot Po3obo: Ahtcji Mjihhkob, Teopra 
Hjihcb, KbpnaneB. Ot Eura: CjiaBHO CnacoB, Bejia ^lOfliOKOBa, PaHreji h 

EOHHO, HHHTO (j)aMHJIHH CbM 3a6paBHJI, ,H,HMHTbp CtOHHCB. Ot K03apCKO! 

BacHJi PyceB, HopaaH IIonoB, Ahtcji #HeB. Ot HcnepHXOBo: Ahtcji 
CraMeHOB, ,ZJhmhti>p LLIonoB, BopHCJiaB IIIonoB, Teoprn lIIonoB, ^hmhtbp 
BacHJieB. Ot 5Kpe6HHKo: Teoprn KpyinapCKH h ToMa. H mhoto flpyra ot 
cejinmaTa Ha OKOjnuiTa h ropcKHTe CTonaHCTBa... 

IIpe3 Te3H #Be roflHHH HKOHOMHKaTa Ha OKOJiMTa ce pa3BHBaine ao6pe 
h ycneuiHO ce H3ni>jiHflBaxa 3aaaHHTe, nocTaBeHH ot ^BeroflHiiiHHfl njiaH. 
3anoHHa CTpoHTencTBO Ha hakojiko 3aBOfla b Ilemepa h EpaipiroBo; 
pa3uiHpH ce h ce MOflepHH3Hpa uioceTO riemepa-BaTaK-^ocnaT; H3rpaaeH 
6euie ^30BHp "Tam6oa3"; £o6hbt>t Ha flT>pBeH MarepHan aocTHraa 200 000 
Ky6. m.; 3anoHHa MOflepHH3auM Ha fli>CKOpe3HHTe 4>a6pHKH; yBejiHHH ce 

npOH3BOflCTBOTO Ha TK)TK)H, aGmKH, rp03,Ue, flTOflH, KapTO(J)H H flp. Ilo- 

HaTarbuiHOTO hkohomhhccko pa3BHTHe Ha OKOJiMTa 3ajieraa b npoeKTa Ha 
m>pBHfl neTroflHineH njiaH (1949-1953) 3a couHajiHO-HKOHOMHnecKOTO 
pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. 

OKOJiHHCKaTa napTHHHa opraHH3aitfra yicpenHa h ce pa3BHBauie flo6pe: 
HefiHOTO BJiH^HHe cpea HacejieHHeTO HapacTBauie. BpaTCKH ce cGoryBax c 
m>pBH^ ceKpeTap IleTbp T. BpaHneB, c HJieHOBeTe Ha GiopoTO LLJepK) 
IIJepeB, ,0,HMHrbp BacHJieB, HHKOJia TanaHOB h c HJieHOBeTe Ha nneHyMa Ha 
Okojihhckha KOMHTeT. Pa3flejiHx ce c Ilemepa, ho ta ocTaHa nacTHija ot 
MoeTO cbpue h ayuia. H cera, cjiea noBene ot 60 roflHHH, a3 na3fl cnoMe- 
HHTe 3a HauiaTa ycneuiHa paGoTa b ToraBauiHHTe tokkh h cjioechh ycjioBHfl, 
3a eHTycna3Ma h 6e3KOpHcraeTO, 3a pOMaHTHKaTa Ha HauiaTa MJia^ocT, 3a 
floGpHTe aejia, 3a xyGaBHTe xopa, apyrapH h cbpanMUH b 6op6aTa 3a no- 
flo6i>p )KHBOT. 



276 



TJIAB A IV 

CTY^EHTCKH TO^HHH B MOCKBA 

(oktombph 1948 - aeKeMBpn 1952) 

IlbTyBaHe ro MocKBa 

B Kpaa Ha cenTeMBpH 1948 r. HaiuaTa rpyna ot noBene ot 100 hobh 
cTyfleHTH b CCCP 6eine OKOHHaTejiHO c(J)opMHpaHa. Ha rapa Co(])H5i Me H3- 
npaTHxa Tepa, poflHTenHTe mh h npMTejiH. Beine raxa h npHaraa Benep. 
CyTpHHTa npHCTHrHaxMe b Byprac h 3a nptB ni>T bh^ix MopeTO. OnyK 
oTiuiyBaxMe c Kopa6 kt>m Ofleca. ITbTyBaHeTO 6eine npofltjraHTejiHO. napa- 
xojxbT ce flBHacenie caMO npe3 aenn h 6jih3ko ,zi;o 6peroBaTa jihhha, 3amoTO 
b HepHO Mope Bee ome HMaine mhhh. HMaxMe Hommi npecroH bt>b BapHa h 
KiocTeHfl^ca. TpynaTa hh 6enie pa3Hopo,n;Ha, ho Becena. 3ano3Hax h ce 
cnpMTejiHX c MHoro GtflemH CTyaeHTH. C hhkoh ot tax ce cpemaxMe npe3 
roflHHHTe Ha oneflBaHeTO, a no-KBCHO h b E^JirapHfl, KoraTO Te Bene 6axa 

CTaHaJIH HH)KeHepH, HKOHOMHCTH, JieKapH, apTHCTH, KHHOpe^CHCBOpH... 

B O/jeca. 3a m>pBH m>T cTbiraax Ha pycKa 3eMa. nocpenmaxa hh MHoro 
cbp^eHHO h hh HacTaHHxa b xoTen c ,zi;o6pH 6htobh ycnoBHfl. OpraHH3Hpaxa 
hh h o6HKOJiKa Ha 3a6ejie)KHTejiHOCTHTe Ha Ofleca, kooto npe3 BOHHaTa 
6HJia nojiypa3pyuieHa ? ho cera 6eine Bene noHTH Hani>jiHO BT>3CTaHOBeHa. 
Oce3aTenHO nonyBCTBaxMe o6ane Mama6me Ha BapBapcKHTe pa3pymeHH5i h 

rpa6e)KHTe 5 H3BT>pnieHH OT HeMCKHTe H pyMT>HCKHTe BOHCKH. 

ntTyBaHeTO hh kbm MocKBa npo;n>JDKH c BJiaK, HacTaHeHH b y,n;o6HH 
cnanHH BaroHH. MnHaBaxMe npe3 MHoro nojra h peKH, noKpaft ManKH h ro- 
jieMH cennma, kohto 6axa BT>3CTaHOBeHH, ho ome ce BH5Kflaxa h nyBCTBaxa 
roneMHTe pa3pymeHHfl Ha BOHHara. Bee ome HMaine pa3BanHHH, no nojurra 
ce BHacflaxa o6ropenH TaHKOBe. Ha no-roneMHTe rapn BJiaKbT HMaine npe- 
ctoh h HHe H3JiH3axMe fla ce pa3n>nHeM. Ha nepoHHTe HaniHTe caMOflenijH 
neexa pycKH h 6i>jirapCKH necHH. JIio6HMa hh 6eine "KajiHrnca". Kt>m rpy- 
naTa ce npHCbe^HH^Baxa h flpyra hbthhijh, kohto cbiijo neexa h TamiyBaxa. 

B KneB HMaxMe 24-nacoB npecTofi. H TyK hh nocpenjHaxa mhoto ,n;o6pe 
h hh HacTaHHxa b xoTejiH. Pa3rjie,zi;axMe hakoh ot 3a6ene)KHTejiH0CTHTe Ha 
T03H npeKpaceH rpafl, kohto BnocneflCTBHe necTO nocemaBax npn ni>Ty- 
BaHHOTa mh npe3 BaKaHijHHTe. 

npe3 luijioto m>TyBaHe chjiho BnenameHHe mh HanpaBHxa tojimmoto 
ABH^ceHHe Ha hbthhijh no 5Kejie3om>THHTe rapH, Mama6HOTO CTpoHTencTBOTO 
Ha moceTa, jihhhh, moctobc, h Hafi-Bene xopaTa: 6o,n;pH, 3a6i>p3aHH, Becenn. 

Han-nocjie npHCTHraaxMe b MocKBa, 3a kooto TaKa MenTaenie HaniaTa 

277 



rpyna. CjiH30XMe Ha KHeBCKaTa rapa ("Khcbckhh B0K3aji"), Kt/jeTO maxMe 
aa npHCTHraMe h fla ch 3aMHHaBaMe npe3 cjie^BamHTe hakojiko ro^HHH. 
Tapa, koato o6HKHax h nocemaBax h no-KbCHO... BtJiHyBaxMe ce MHoro. 
nocpemHaxa hh MHoro xopa: npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha noconcTBOTO, ptKOBo^. 

TeJIH Ha CTyaeHTCKOTO 3eMJIflHeCTBO, Ha MHHHCTepCTBO Ha o6pa30BaHHeTo 

Ha CCCP, Ha Mockobckha KOMHTeT Ha KoMCOMOJia, 6tJirapcKH CTy/jeHTH h 
acnnpaHTH. nperptmaHHfl, pT>KOCTHCKaHHfl, pa3roBopH, pa3MAHa Ha clo6- 
merora h npaTKH ot BtnrapH^... 

C aBTo6ycH ntTyBaxMe no niHpoK 6yneBapfl Kpan MocKBa peica h no 
ApyrH 6yneBapflH h yjinijH. H eTO CTy/jeHTCKOTO o6me)KHTHe "JJpM 
KOMMyHbi" Ha yn. "BTOpoft ,ZJohckoh nepeyjioic". BpeMeHHO 6axMe Haera- 
HeHH b toji^m rHMHacTHHecKH canoH, cneijHajiHO npHrofleH 3a npHcraramH 
ot nyacGHHa CTyzjeHTH. TyK npeKapaxMe hakojiko ahh. HanpaBHxa hh Me^H- 
ijhhckh npernefl, pa3npeaejiHxa hh h hh H3npaTHxa b ctoTBeTHHTe bhciuh 
yne6HH 3aBe,neHHfl. npe3 ntpBaTa Benep opraHH3HpaHO noceTHXMe khho 
"YflapHHR" h rne/jaxMe (j)HJiMa "Mna^a reap/pra". Cjiea (J)HJiMa 6axMe no3- 
apaBeHH c "flo6pe /joihjih" ot npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha Mockobckha Komcomoji. 
06cbflHXMe h BnenaTJieHKHTa ch ot (|)HJiMa. E'b/jemaTa BHflHa TeaTpOBe^Ka 
IOjiha OraaHOBa HanpaBH xy6aB aHajiH3 Ha (J)HJiMa h roBopn eMOijHOHajiHO 
3a repOH3Ma Ha cbBercKHTe MJia/jeacH. ^OKaTO naicaxMe pa3npeaejieHHeT0 
ch no yne6HH 3aBe,neHHfl, npe3 cjie/jBamHTe ahh HHe pa3raeflaxMe 
"HepBeHHfl njiomaa", miomafla Ha PeBOJiioiiHflTa, MeTpoTO h apyraTe 3a6e- 
noKHTejiHOCTH b ijeHrbpa Ha MocKBa. Ot LJeHTpajiHaTa noma ronparax 
nncMa h TenerpaMH Ha Tepa h poflHTejiHTe ch. Oco6eHO npMTHa h 
cbp^eHHa 6enie cpemaTa mh c Bynno #hko ^hcb h cbnpyraTa My MapeHKa 
b xoTen "MeTponoji".* 

Bi>b BucmiiH HHCTHTyT 3a napoAHO cTonaHCTBO "I\ B. ILiexaHOB" 

3aeflHO c Teoprn (rpnina) OraHHOB OnnnnoB h HteaH Bn/jeHOB 6#xMe 
pa3npe,nejieHH /ja cjieflBaMe bt>b Bhcihha HHTCTHTyT 3a Hapo^HO CTonaHCTBO 
'T. B. IXriexaHOB", cneijHajiHOCT "BtTpeniHa TbproBHa". OcHOBaH KaTO BHCine 
TbproBCKO yHHjrame npe3 1907 r., HHCTHTyn>T 6eme e/jHO ot Hafi-floGpHTe 

MOCKOBCKH BHCIHH yHe6HH 3aBefleHHM. B HerO Ca pa60THJIH H3BeCTHH pycKH 

yneHH icaro B. P. Bhjmmc, O. B. U,epeBHTHHOB, 51. 51. Hhkhtckhh h jjp. 

B^XMe npneTH ot 3aM.-peKTOpa npo^. A. H. IIonoB, ot fleicaHa npo^. O. 
<D. CejiHBaHOB h ot HeroBHH 3aMecTHHK /joij. Bopnc ^aBHflOBHH. Te ce OCBe- 
flOMHxa 3a HaineTO o6pa30BaHHe h no^roTOBKa, pa3Ka3axa hh 3a HHCTHTyra 



* no TOBa BpeMe ByiiHO 6eme ceKpeTap npn bochhhh aTauie b 6tJirapcKOTo nocojicTBO b MocKBa. 

278 



H 3a cnei^HajiHocrra, kooto maxivie H3ynaBaMe, ^a^oxa hh hakoh yKa3aHHa 
3a HauiHTe 3afli>Ji^ceHH5i h hh yBepnxa, ne BHHarn MoaceM ^a pa3HHTaMe Ha 
THXHaTa noiviom. 

CTonaHCKOTO ynpaBJieHHe Ha HHCTHTyTa hh HacTaHH b CTy/jeHTCKOTO 
o6ffle^cHTHe Ha yji. "3aijena" N2 43, CTaa 50. 3a Hama pa/jocT KBapTHpaTa hh 
ce HaMHpanie b Henocpe/jcTBeHa 6jih30ct /jo crpa/jaTa Ha HHCTHTyTa. 
ycnoBHHTa 6axa /jo6pH. ,H,Ba Meceua echbax b TOBa o6me>KHTHe 3ae/jHO c 
TpHUia OnjinnoB h HBaH Bh/jchob. Meacay Hac ce ycTaHOBHxa /jpyrapCKH 
oTHomeHM Ha flOBepne, B3aHMonoMom h TOJiepaHTHOCT. 

3anoHHaxMe yne6HH 3aHOTHfl b cpe/jaTa Ha oktombph, KoraTO Bene 6eme 
MHHana nojiOBHHaTa ot ceMecrbpa. H TpHMaTa 6axMe 3aHHCJieHH b VI 
yqe6Ha rpyna Ha I Kypc b TtproBCKO-HKOHOMHHecKHfl (JmKyjrreT, kooto ce 
cbCToeine ot 25 cry/jeHTH. Bi>p30 ce cnpHOTejiHXMe h CTaHaxMe nacT ot 
e^HH npeKpaceH kojickthb. Ory/jeHTCKOTO hh pt>kobo,hctbo ce ctcToeine ot 
oTroBOpHHtca Ha rpynaTa ("cTapocrra") C. T. Mhkocjihh, komcomojickha 
opraHH3aTop Jlapnca h napTHHHM opraHH3aTop Bojioaa Eejibnyic - ynacT- 
hhk bt>b BOHHaTa c o(])HuepcKO 3BaHHe, kohto to/jhhh no-Ki>CHO meme fla 
cTaHe npo(])ecop h aoKTOp Ha HKOHOMHqecKHTe HayKH. H TpHMaTa 6axa 
yMHH ? Tpy/jojiioGHBH h floGpH 0praHH3aT0pH. 3apa^H BHCOKaTa hh ycneBae- 
moct npe3 cjie/jBamHTe to/jhhh HauiaTa rpyna meroBHTO 6eme npoBi>3- 
rnaceHa 3a "rBap/jeficKa". 

Beuie Bene cpe^aTa Ha ceMecTbpa, jieKiyiHTe no pa3JiHHHHTe /jhcijh- 
njiHHH 6axa HanpeflHajiH mhoto h HHe 3anoHHaxMe ycnjieHa pa6oTa, 3a /ja 
npeoflOJieeM hcbojihoto hh H30CTaBaHe. ripeno/jaBaxa hh bhcoko KBajiH- 

4>HUHpaHH H H3BeCTHH C HayHHHTe CH nOCTHECeHHfl npO(j)eCOpH H /JOIjeHTH. 

Ay^HTOpHHTe 6axa npocTopHH h y/joGmi. Pa3nojiaraxMe c 6oraTa yne6Ha 
6H6jiHOTeKa ? c THxa h CBeTJia HHTajiHa 3ajia, a necTO nocemaBax h (JjyH/ja- 
MeHTajiHaTa (HaynHa) 6n6jiH0TeKa ? npeflHa3HaneHa Haft-Bene 3a npeno/ja- 
BaTejin h acnnpaHTH. HHCTHTyTbT pa3nojiarame h c MHoro cneijHajiH3HpaHH 
yne6HH KaGHHera, cHa6/jeHH etc cbOTBeTHa JimepaTypa. 

OaKyjiTeTHaTa KaHijejiapM ycneniHO opraHH3Hpame h KOHTpojiHpame 
yqe6HHH npoijec. npe3 ijajioto Bpeivie Ha cjieflBaHeTO ch a3 He bhaax h He 
nonyBCTBax HapyuieHHe Ha ycTaHOBeHHTe npaBHJia. CeKpeTap Ha (JmicyjiTeTa 
6eme aejiOBaTa h ynraBa BajieHTHHa HBaHOBHa CejiHBaHOBa, kohto CTy/jeH- 
THTe H3KJiioHHTejiHO yBaacaBaxa. ,H,o6pe ype^eHa 6euie h CTOJiOBaTa 3a 
ery/jeHTHTe h npeno^aBaTejiHTe. 

Cnopea yne6HHflT miaH, npe3 ntpBaTa h BTOpaTa yne6Ha ro/jHHa ce 
H3ynaBaxa rjiaBHO o6moHKOHOMHHecKH h flpyrn 4>yHflaMeHTajiHH /jhcijh- 
njiHHH: nojiHTHnecKa hkohomha, HCTOpHHecKH h flnajieKTHHecKH MaTepna- 

279 



JIH3T>M, JIOrHKa, HCTOpHfl Ha HKOHOMHHeCKHTe yHeHHfl, HCTOpHfl Ha CCCP H 

ApyrHTe CTpaHH, reorpa(|)Hfl Ha CCCP h apyrHTe CTpaHH h ap. Te3H 
npe^MeTH He npeflCTaBJuraaxa Tpy^HOCT 3a MeH, 3amoTo HMax floGpa 
HKOHOMHHecKa h nojiHTHnecKa no^roTOBKa. CneijHajiHHTe flHciymjiHHH ce 
H3ynaBaxa rjiaBHO npe3 cneflBamHTe flBe-Tpn ro#HHH. 

A3 h HBaH BH^eHOB o6ane Tpa6Baine ^a npeo^ojieeM peflHua Tpya- 
hocth npH H3ynaBaHeTO Ha pycKH e3HK h Ha BHcnia MaTeMaTHKa. 3anon- 
HaxMe e3HKOBO o6yneHHe npH npenoaaBaTejia rieTtp IleTpoBHH, kohto 
6eme cbp^eneH h eHeprHneH hobck b neHCHOHHa Bi>3pacT, c 6oraT ne^aro- 
rHHecKH onHT. Tofi hh o6HKHa h npeKapBaiue c Hac noBene ot onpeae- 
jieHOTO BpeMe, nocemaBaine hh h b o6meacHTHeTO. no-Tpy#HO Bi>pB)ixa He- 
maTa c BHcniaTa MaTeMaTHKa, tbh KaTO a3 h HBaH HAMaxMe Heo6xoflHMaTa 
no^roTOBKa h He MoacexMe #a BKfflpneMaMe m>JiHoijeHHO npenoflaBamifl 
MaTepnaji. 

B TbproBCKara rHMHa3Ha 6ax H3ynaBaji ejieMeHTapeH Kypc no 
MaTeMaTHKa. Cno,a;ejiHXMe TOBa c aeKaHa. Toft He3a6aBHO onpe^ejiH npeno- 
AaBaren, kohto 3anoHHa #a hh npeno/jaBa no cneipiajiHa nporpaMa c ijeji «a 
noKpneM H3HCKBaHMTa Ha nporpaMaTa no BHcnia MaTeMaTHKa. Iloce- 
maBaxMe JieKijHHTe Ha npo$. IIonoB, H3BecTeH pycKH MareMaTHK, kohto 
HMaine apHCTOKpaTHHeH bha h 6eme TBT>p#e CTpor etc CTy^eHTHTe. no 
BpeMe Ha JieKijHHTe toh HManie HaBHK ,zja ce pa3xoac#a H3 3ajiaTa h ot BpeMe 
HaBpeMe KaHeme hakoh ot Hac ^a pemn onpe^ejieHa 3a^ana Ha nepHara 
flT>CKa. ToBa HCKpeHO 3a6aBJWBanie CTy^eHTHTe. Te HCKpeHO ro yBaacaBaxa, 
BtnpeKH BHCOKHTe H3HCKBaHHa 5 kohto npeAflBABaine KbM TAX. 

^BaMaTa c HBaH npeoaojwxMe H30CTaBaHeTO h ei>o6pa3HO yne6HHH 
njiaH h nporpaMaTa 3a flBeTe yne6HH ro#HHa nojio)KHXMe «Ba H3nHTa no 
BHcnia MaTeMaTHKa c otjihhch yenex. TojiflMa noMom Ha e^HH no-Ki>ceH 
eTan mh OKa3Banie h Fepa, kohto 6eme #o6pa MareMaTHHKa. 

npe3 m>pBHTe ce^MHUH cnefl npHCTHraHeTO b MocKBa HHe c HeTtp- 
neHHe onaKBaxMe necTBaHeTO Ha 31-Ta roflHHiHHHa Ha BejiHKara oktom- 
BpHHCKa peBOJnouHa. B flHHTe npe^H npa3HHKa (JDoafieTO, 3ajiHTe h crpa^ara 
Ha HHCTHTyTa 6axa yKpaceHH h flom>JiHHTejiHO ocBeTeHH. HaBCflKb^e ce 
nyBCTBanie pa^ocTHo 0)KHBJieHHe. npoBe^e ce o6moHHCTHTyTCKO TBpacecT- 
BeHO d>6paHHe, nocjie^BaHO ot KOHijepT h 3a6aBa. 

HamaTa yne6Ha rpyna npa3HyBa kojickthbho BenepTa Ha 6 cpemy 7 
HoeMBpn b KBapTHpaTa Ha e^Ha cbciyaeHTKa. Beuie Becejio, HMauie mhoto 
necHH h TamjH. TaKa yenax ^a bhaa cbCTy^eHTHTe ch b HenpHHy^eHa 
aTMOC(|)epa: BecejiH, floGpoHaMepemi, ayxoBHO 6orara, pa3JiHHHH no xapaK- 

Tep, npOKHBHJIH npH pa3JIHHHH yCJIOBHfl BOeHHHTe TpyflHOCTH h He 
280 



3a6paBHJiH 3ary6aTa Ha cboh 6jih3kh po^hhhh h npHATejra. Hpe3 BOHHaxa 
xe ca 6hjih ome fleija Ha 15-18 toahhh. Cpe^HOTO ch o6pa30BaHHe 
noBeneTO ot tax 6%x 3aBtpniHJiH b cjie,n,BoeHHHTe BpeMeHa. Ho MJia/jocrra 
ch e MJia^ocT, Te ce Becejiaxa, neexa h TaHijyBaxa. Hne TpHMaTa, TpHHiaTa, 
HBaH h a3, ce npH6paxMe b o6me)KHTHeTO cnefl nojiyHom. 

B 8 h. cyTpHHTa Ha 7 HoeMBpH ora/joxMe Ha CepnyxoBCKHfl rniomafl, 
KbAeTO 6euie c6opHHAT nyHKT Ha CTyaeHTHTe ot HaniHfl HHCTHTyT. C necHH 
h TaHijH KOJioHaTa hh 6aBHO noe kt>m HepBeHH^ miomafl. Ilpefl Tpn6yHaTa 
Ha MaB30Jiea npeMHHaxMe b paHHHfl cjie^oGefl, cjiea 13 h. HbnHTBax 
oco6eHO, TpeneTHO nyBCTBO. Ha TpH6yHaTa 6axa 3acTaHajiH ptKOBO/jHTejin- 
Te Ha fltp^KaBaTa h napTHflTa, kohto 3a npi>B ntT BH)K,uax Ha )khbo: 
Mojiotob, Mhkoah, Eepra, XpyuiHOB, KaraHOBHH, JiereH/japHHAT BopniH- 
jiob... Ho... HflMauie ro CTajiHH. Pa36paxMe, ne toh He ctoaji npe3 ijajioto 
BpeMe Ha Tpn6yHaTa. 

Cjiea KaTO npec^KOXMe njioma^a, Ha MOCTa Ha MocKBa peKa ce 
c6oryBaxMe etc ctcTyaeHTHTe ch h ce npnGnpaMe b o6me^cHTHeTO. Benep- 
Ta h TpHMaTa othobo ce BtpHaxMe Ha HepBemifl nnomaa, kohto 6eme 
yKpaceH h CBexbJi. Xhjulrh MOCKOBnaHH ce Becejiaxa h TaHijyBaT. ToBa 
6eine e^HH MeHTaH h macraHB fleH, kohto He Mora «a 3a6paBfl. 

IIpHCTHraHeTO Ha Tepa. B CTyneHTCKOTO o6me/Knme 

",3[OM KOMMyHbl" 

Tepa npHCTHTHa b MocKBa c BTOpaTa rpyna CTy^eHTH okojio cpe^aTa Ha 
AeKeMBpH 1948 r. Pa3npe,uejiHxa a b cneqnajiHOCT "nnaHHpaHe Ha Hapo/j- 

HOTO CTOnaHCTBO" Ha BhCUIHA fltpflCaBCH HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT, KOHTO 

ce HaMHpauie b ctceflCTBO c HaniHfl HHCTHTyT. Paflocrra hh, ne CMe othobo 
3ae,UHO 6enie rojiflMa. 

C Tepa CKJiioHHXMe rpa^aaHCKH 6paK b nocojicTBOTO. KyMyBaxa hh 
BoeHHH^T aTauie nojiK. AneKcaHfltp Hohhhkob h Byfino ^hko #HeB. nnxMe 
no nauiKa bhho. H tojiko3... HnKaKBH ijepeMOHHH h n>p)KecTBa. ]To,ueHHKi>T 
h rofleHHi^aTa CTaHaxa ctnpyr h ctnpyra. 

C noMomTa Ha nocojicTBOTO h Ha npe^cTaBHTejiHTe Ha 6i>JirapcKOTO 
CTy^eHTCKO 3eMJi^necTBO TeprHH TepraHOB h ^hmht^p PycHHOB nojiy- 

HHXMe KBapTHpa B CTyfleHTCKOTO 06me)KHTHe ",H,OM KOMMyHBl". ToBa 

6eine e^HO cpaBHHTejiHO y^o6HO 3a CTyaeHTH o6me)KHTHe c noBene ot 
2000 CTan 3a no flBaMa aynin, c rojiHMa HHTajiH^ h 6n6jiHOTeKa ? c 

KHHOCaJIOH, CTOJIOBa, 6K)(J)eT H Mara3HH 3a XpaHHTeJIHH ctokh. Ha BCeKH 

eTa^c HManie KyxHfl, H30JinpaHa ot ^cnjinmHaTa nacT. TyK b npofltj^KeHHe 
Ha 4 roflHHH ^CHB^XMe b apy^cGa etc cbbctckh, GtJirapcKH, hcmckh, 

281 



iiojickh, KHTaHCKH h jipym cxyAeHTH... 

Tepa 6euie HJieH Ha "^OMCbBeTa", kohto opraHH3Hpauie KyjnypHo- 
npocBeTHH 3aHHMaHH^ b o6me)KHTHeTo: npo^KeKTHpaxa ce 4)hjimh, 
ypeacflaxa ce cpemn c yneHH, KyjnypHH h nojiHranecKH /jeftijH h apTHCTH. 

IIpOBOKflaxa Ce KOHIjepTH CT>C CbBCTCKH H Hy^KfleCTpaHHH H3ni>JIHHTeJlH. 

06me)KHTHeTO ce no/wbpacanie flo6pe, b Hero ijapeme pea, HHCTOxa h 
cnoKOHCTBHe. He ct>m 3anoMHHJi npe3 Te3H nerapH roflHHH npeKbCBaHHa Ha 
OTonneHHe, ejieKTpHHecTBO h BO.ua. npefl ohhtc mh e HamaTa MajiKa 
CTaHHKa, c miom MajiKo no-roiravia ot Ta3H Ha BJiaKOBO cnajiHO Kyne, c e,zma 
MacHHKa, flBe niKa(j)HeTa, flBe MajiKH CTeHHH eTaacepKH 3a khhth, ao6pe 
noflpeaeHa h yKpaceHa. ToBa 6euie HaniMT npi>B 06m ^om. 

BeflHara cnea KaTO ce HacraHHXMe b o6me)KHTHeTo Tepa ce bkjiiohh b 
yqe6HH^ npoijec. Hajiarame ce MHoro 6i>p30 aa KOMneHCHpa tojiamoto ch 
H30CTaBaHe. 3a flBa Meceija tji ycna aa nojiomi CT>OTBeTHHTe H3nHTH h th 
B3e c OTJiHneH ycnex. Ha 15.11.1949 r. tx 3anoHHa BTOpna ceMecrbp, ones 
KaTO 6euie H3m>jiHHJia bchhkh 3aflT>JDKeHHfl 3a m>pBHfl. no o6moTeo- 
peTHHHHTe flHcitHnnHHH ta Bene 6euie nonynnjia ao6pa noaroTOBKa b 

Co(j)HHCKH5I yHHBepCHTCT. 

YneHHe h npenoAaeaTejiH 

npe3 jmyapH 1949 r. npHKJiioHHx m>pBHJi yneGeri ceMecrbp c OTJinneH 
ycnex. no TpaflHijHfl, cnefl 3aBi>puiBaHeT0 Ha cecHjrra HHCTHTyrbT H3npaTH 
rpyna otjihhhh CTyaeHTH Ha eKCKyp3M b JleHHHipafl. B npo,zjT>jraeHHe Ha 
e^Ha ceflMHija a3 h HBaH Bhachob pa3rjie)KflaxMe 3a6ene5KHTejiH0CTHTe Ha 
rpa^a-repoH, npocjiaBHJi ce npe3 BejiHKaTa OKTOMBpHHCKa peBOjnoijHfl h b 
roflHHHTe Ha OrenecTBeHaTa BOHHa... 

KaKTO OT6ejw3ax ? b HanajioTO Ha HameTO cjie^BaHe HHe H3ynaBaxMe 
o6moTeopeTHHHH flHcipinjiHHH. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe ce OTflenanie Ha nojiH- 
THnecKaTa hkohomha. JleKijHHTe hh no T03H npe^MeT ce BO^exa ot npo(J). 
KoHCTaHTHHOB, a ceMHHapHHTe 3aH>iTH5i - ot ,zjoij. ,ZJeMaHmeHH. YHeGHHItH 
H^Mauie. noflroTB^xMe ce no jieKijHHTe, kohto o6ane He noKpHBaxa 

BHCOKHTe H3HCKBaHHfl Ha CeMHHapHHTe 3aHflTHfl. OCHOBHO HCTHBO HH 6eilie 

tphtomhoto H3flaHHe Ha "KanHTajia" Ha Kapji MapKC h hakoh HayHHH 
Tpy/jOBe. npe3 m>pBHTe MeceijH, KoraTO Tpa6Bame aa H3ynaBaM pycKH e3HK 
h eflHOBpeMeHHO aa ycBomaM cnoacHHTe mhcjih Ha Kapn MapKC h Opnapnx 
EHrenc, npeKapax /jMra nacoBe b neTeHe Ha "KanHTajia". PtKOBOflHTeji- 
KaTa Ha ceMHHapa H3HCKBauie aa KOHcneKrapaMe jiHTepaTypHHTe h3toh- 
hhijh no Bcjnca TeMa h aKTHBHO aa ynacTBaivie b o6cb)K,zjaHH5rra. Beme hh 
TpyflHO, ho ome ci>m 6naroflapeH Ha aoij. ^eMaHmeiiH 3a HeftHHTe MeTOflH- 

282 



qecKH yMeHM, kohto H3noji3Bax no-KtcHO b Mojrra ne^arorHHecKa ^chhoct. 

,Hpyra ocHOBHa ^HCiiHnjiHHa 6euie "MapKCH3i>M-JieHHHH3'bM", kooto 
BKJiK)HBauie HcTopM Ha BKII (6) h ^HajieKTHnecKH h HcropHHecKH 
MaTepHajiH3i>M ((Jjhjioco^h^i). H ^BaTa npe^MeTa ce npeno,o;aBaxa ot npo(|). 
>Ikob JIbobhh XapanHHCKHH, a ceMHHapHHTe ynpaacHeHHe ce BOflexa ot 
jxou. HaTajiM MaTBeeBHa LjBeTKOBa h Apyrn npenoaaBarejiH. HHTepecHa 
jihhhoct 6euie npocj). XapanHHCKHH, 3a Hero ce pa3Ka3Baxa bhiiobc, ho 
6euie flo6tp jieKTOp, CTy^eHTHTe ce npHBtp3Baxa kt>m Hero h necTO ro 
H3npamaxa c ptKonjiHCKaHH^i. Ha ptcT toh 6euie bt>3hhct>k, jieKO ntJieH h 
He6peacHO o6jieneH, BHHarH HflBame c nama, kooto He6pe^cHO 3axBT>pimiiie 
Ha KaTeapara, ho HHKora He H3noji3Baine. 

BeflHt^c mh pa3Ka3axa 5 ne Haui KOJiera Ha napTHHHO ci>6paHHe KpHTH- 
KyBan npo(|)ecopa 3a He6peacHOTO My o6jieKJio. H eTO ntpBMT yne6eH nac 
cjiea KpHTHKaTa: npocj). XapanHHCKHH BJie3e b aynHTOpHOTa h 3acTaHa npea 
KaTeapaTa ycMHXHaT h o6jieneH b hob koctiom h c HOBa nama b pttca. 
Bchhkh CTaHaxMe h ro npHBeTCTBaxMe c anjioflHCMeHTH. Mora aa nocona 
MHoro noflo6HH npHMepH, kohto noKa3Baxa B3aHMHOTO yBaaceHHe Meayiy 
npeno^aBaTejiH h CTy^eHTH. 

IltpBH^T H3nHT 3 kohto nojio)KHX, 6euie no HcTOpna Ha BKII (6), no- 
ki>cho npeHMeHyBaHa b KTICC. IIo npe/yioaceHHe Ha rpnuia OnjinnoB h c 
pa3peuieHHeTO Ha ^eKaHa TpHMaTa 6i>jirapH ce abhxmc Ha H3nHTa no Ta3H 
AHCitnnjiHHa npe^cpOHHO cjiefl npHKJiiOHBaHeTO Ha JieKiyiHTe. EaxMe flo6pe 
noflroTBeHH ome b EtJirapHfl. H TpHMaTa nonyqnxMe otjihhhh oiteroai c nox- 
Bana ot ,a;oit. I^BeTKOBa. Ta 6eme KpacHBa, erpoHHa h acH3Hepa,a;ocTHa aceHa. 
Cjiea hskojiko roflHHH y3Hax ? ne ce e OMtacHJia 3a npocj). XapanHHCKHH. 

C HHTepec cjiyuiax jieKi|HHTe no HcTOpna Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO Ha 
CCCP h flpyrHTe CTpaHH h no HKOHOMHHecKa reorpa(|)Hfl Ha CCCP h 
ApyrHTe CTpaHH. KteynaBaxMe HKOHOMHHecKHTe paftoHH Ha CbBeTCKHfl 
CbK)3 ? nocTHaceHHATa hm, orpoMHHTe npnpoflHH pecypcn, c kohto pa3no- 
jiarame crpaHaTa, pa3n>pHajioTO ce cjiea BOHHaTa CTpoHTejicTBO - 
"BejiHKHTe CTanHHCKH CTpoeacH"... 

ni>pBaTa mh KypcoBa pa6oTa no HKOHOMHHecKa reorpa(])Hfl 6euie Ha 
TeMa "TioTioHeBOTO npoH3BOflCTBO b EtJirapHfl". 3a HanncBaHeTO h ronoji- 
3Bax jiHTepaTypa b JleHHHCKaTa 6H6jiHOTeKa. IIojiyHHx OTJiHHHa oiieHKa h 
6ax no3flpaBeH no BpeMe Ha jieKijHfl ot npo(J)ecopa c "MOJiofleit", c kocto 
hcthhckh Me npHTecHH. IIpe3 BpeMe Ha cjieflBaHeTO pa3BHX ome flBe KypcoBH 
pa6oTH. EflHara 6euie no nojiHTHHecKa hkohomha Ha TeMa "Pa3BHrae Ha 

KOJIX03HTe H npeyCTpOHCTBOTO HM" (no TOBa BpeMe KOJIX03HTe H COBX03HTe 

ce pe4>opMHpaxa no npeflJioaceHHe Ha H. C. XpymoB), a BTOpaTa 6euie no 

283 



HKOHOMHKa Ha TtproBHSTa Ha TeMa "06o6mecTB3BaHe Ha TtproBHSTa b 
B'bJirapH^". 

MHoro cbfl'bp^caTejiHH h yBJieKaTejiHH 6axa jieKijHHTe no npaBHH ahc- 
iihiijihhh Ha H3BecTHHTe lopHCTH npo(|). A- M. TeHKHH h npo(|). TpaBe, 
kohto npenoflaBame rpaac^aHCKO h rtproBCKO npaBO. Hapefl c TeopnaTa, 
toh H3HCHflBauie h aHajiH3Hpaine pa3JiHHHH Ka3ycH. CTyaeHTHTe My 3aaa- 
Baxa MHoro BT>npocH b nncMeHa (|)opMa h OTflejiaine BpeMe 3a OTroBop, ho 
o6hkhobcho BpeMeTO He My CTHrauie. Cjiarame jiHCTHeTaTa c BT>npocHTe b 
,zpKo6a ch h flOB'bpniBaiHe pa3)iCHeHH^Ta ch Ha cjie^BamaTa jieKijHfl. 

Hafi-rojieMH ycHJiM nojiarax 3a H3ynaBaHe Ha cneijHajiHHTe ahc- 
ijHnjiHHH: HKOHOMHKa, njiaHHpaHe h opraHH3aijHfl Ha TbproBHjrra, rtproB- 
CKa CTaTHCTHKa, (J)HHaHCH h cneTOBOflCTBO. IIpenoflaBaTejiHTe no Te3H 
AHCi^HnjiHHH 6axa yTB'bpaeHH yneHH. JleKijHH no "HKOHOMHKa h njiaHH- 
paHe" neraxa npo(J). JIh^iuhij, npoc|). B. H. Toroji h flp. Te 6axa aBTopn Ha 
yneGmmn h HMaxa MHoro HaynHH ny6jiHKaijHH. CeMHHapHTe no hkoho- 
MHKa h njiaHHpaHe Ha TbproBHjrra ce pi>KOBOflexa ot floij. TeHKHHa, eflHa 
MHoro noflroTBeHa, B3HCKaTejiHa, ho npHBeTJiHBa h BHHMaTejiHa kt>m 
CTyaeHTHTe npeno^aBaTejiKa. HefiHOTO yMeHHe aa 6eceflBa ct>c CTyaeHTHTe 
no H3ynaBaHHTe Bi>npocH h npo6jieMH h aa o6o6maBa pe3yjiTaTHTe ot tax 
CTaHaxa o6pa3eii 3a MeH h ce CTpeMax aa rn H3noji3BaM b CBoaTa ne#a- 
rorHHecKa npaKTHKa. 

Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe ce o6pT>mame Ha cneijHajiHHTe ceMHHapn 3a 
H3ynaBaHe Ha ctokobhtc na3apn, kohto ce npOBOKflaxa b nocjieflmrre flBa 
ceMecTbpa. OryneHTHTe nojiynaBaxa 3aflaHa aa H3ynaT na3apa Ha onpe- 
aejieHa CTOKOBa rpyna, KoeTO 03HaHaBauie aa ce H3CJieflBa npoH3BOflCTBOTO 
h TbproBH^Ta hm (flBHHceHHeTO Ha CTOKHTe flo TbproBCKaTa Mpeaca h 
peajiH3ai^H^Ta hm, ijeHHTe, TbproBCKHTe OTcn>nKH, pa3xoflHTe Ha 
o6pi>n;eHHeTO, npo6jieMHTe h npefljioaceHM 3a pemeHHeTO hm). ^oiciaflHTe 
ce o6cb)Kflaxa ot ynacTHHijHTe b ceMHHapa h npeno^aBaTejiHTe. Ilo 
opraHH3ai^H^ Ha TbproBHjrra jickljhh H3Hacaxa ci>mo H3BecTHHTe yneHH 
npo$. C. B. Cepe6pflKOB, npo$. ft. A. KaMHHCKHH h ap. 

Mhoto none3HH 3a Hac 6axa npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe npaKTHKH no BT>npo- 
CHTe Ha nnaHHpaHeTO h opraHH3aiiHOTa Ha TtproBHATa, kohto ce 
npOBeacflaxa no cneijHajiHH nporpaMH b TbproBCKHTe opramoaijHH. Te 
3aBT>pniBaxa c othcth Ha CTyneHTHTe h ce 3anjHTaBaxa npea npeno- 
flaBaTejiHTe h pT>KOBO,zi;HTejiHTe Ha opraHH3aijHHTe. B pe3yjrraT yneGHaTa 
noflroTOBKa Ha CTyneHTHTe MHHaBanie npe3 H3nHTaHHeTO Ha npaKTHKara. 
Mora fla Kaaca, ne flBaMaTa c HBaH Bhachob nojiynnxMe noflroTOBKa, kohto 
aaBame bt>3mo)khoct aa pT>KOBOflHM 3HaHHTenHa no aeftHOCT rtproBCKa 

284 



opraHH3auHfl. JXoKJiajxbT, kohto HanpaBHX 3a njiaHOBO-HKOHOMHHecKaTa 
npaKTHKa b MocKBOpeijKHfl yHHBepcajieH Mara3HH, 6eme cbfl'bpacaTejieH h 
npefljiarauie He caMO aHajiH3, ho h pcmma h3bo,uh h npenopi>KH, kohto 
nojiynnxa BHCOKa oijemca npn 3amHTaTa npe,u KOMHCMTa c ynacraeTO Ha 
#HpeKTOpa Ha Mara3HHa. 

JleTHH eaKaHUHH b Ei>JirapnH 

C Tepa 3aBi>piHHXMe ycneniHO irtpBara ch yne6Ha roflHHa h nono)KHXMe 

BCHHKH H3nHTH C OTJIHHHH OIjeHKH. CeCHHTa npHKJIIOHH b nocjie^HHTe flHH 

Ha k)hh 1949 r. IlpHroTB^xMe ce c BtJiHeHHe 3a 3aMHHaBaHe b Ei>jirapHfl. 
npeflCTO^ixa hh ABa Meceija BaKaHijHH. H3noji3BaxMe hakojikoto cbo6o,uhh 
flHH ,zi;o 3aMHHaBaHeTO ? 3a aa pa3nie,zi;aMe hhkoh 3a6ejie)KHTejiHOCTH Ha 
MocKBa, pa3X05K,n;axMe ce b napiea 'TopKH", no 6yji. 'TopKH" h njioma,u 
"MaHKOBCKH", m>TyBaxMe no MocKBa peKa c Kopa6ne h #p. il^oxMe 
cjiaflOJiea c no naina inaMnaHCKO. ToBa 6axa ahh Ha ni>JiHa CBo6o,n;a, 6e3 
jickijhh, 6e3 3a,jxbJiyKemm cnea oceMMeceneH HanperHaT Tpya. 

Obc cbfleficTBHeTO Ha Byftno 5Ihko OTni>TyBaxMe kbm Co(|)Hfl Ha 
1. VII. 1949 r. c BoeHeH caMOJieT 3ae,nHO c HanajiHHKa Ha TeHepajiHHH ma6 Ha 
EuirapcKaTa apMra reH. KfeaH Khhob, nneHa Ha IlojiHTGiopo Ha BKI1 Thtko 
HepHOKOJieB h flpyrn BoeHHH Jinija. 3a6enfl3ax, ne bchhkh ca Han>^ceHH 5 
ManKO h npnrjiyuieHO npHKa3Baxa noMeamy ch. He ce no3HaBax jihhho c 
hhkoh ot tax. Ot 3aBi>p3ajiHTe ce pa3roBOpn pa36pax, ne Khhob h 
HepHOKOJieB ca 6hjih npH Teoprn ^hmhtpob, kohto ce JieKyBanie b MocKBa. 
B Co(|)H5i npHCTHTHaxMe BenepTa. C KOJia Ha bochhoto MHHHCTepcTBO 
orafloxMe b KBapTHpaTa Ha hhho Toflop h rocTyBaxMe Ha ceMencTBOTO My 
HiiKOJiKO ,h;hh. KaKTO BHHara, h cera 6axMe npneTH KaTO cboh. JIio6Ka 6enie 
Bene Ha pa6oTa b MHHHCTepcTBO Ha TBproBHHTa, a AHreji 6enie jieKap b c. 
^Kopy^a. 

Ha 2. VII. cyTpHHTa c Tepa H3Ji5i30XMe Aa ce pa3xoflHM no yjiHijHTe Ha 
Co(J)H^. B Te3H m>pBH nacoBe cnea 3aBpT>maHeTO hh ot MocKBa rpaatT mh 
ce bh^ Majn>K, c hhckh crpa/jH, ho thx h hhct. Bi>pBflXMe no 6yji. IJap 
OcBo6o,n;HTeji. Ot yjiHHHHTe BHCOKoroBOpHTejiH 3Bynenie TpaypHa My3HKa. 
CnpaxMe h ce sacjiyuiaxMe. ToBopHTeji^T c n>5KeH rjiac ci>o6iim, ne e 
noHHHaji MHHHcrbp-npeaceflaTeji^T n m>pBH ceKpeTap Ha IJK Ha EKH 
Teoprn ^hmhtpob. XopaTa cnnpaxa h c HaBe/jeHH rjiaBH OT^aBaxa noHHT Ha 
BenHKHH 6t> JirapHH . . . 

npHCTHTHaxMe b EaTaK, nocpemHaTH paayuiHO ot ceMencTBOTO, poa- 
hhhh h npH^TejiH. B3exMe ynacTHe b npnGnpaHeTO Ha peKOjrra. H3Hecox 
ABe jieKijHH b IIlKOJiaTa 3a no^roTOBKa Ha nponaraH^HCTH b nemepa. no 

285 



HmmHaTHBaTa Ha B-bJirapo-ctBeTCKOTo apyacecTBO b HHTajramHHfl cajioH 
npefl MHoro6poftHa ny6jiHKa ^BaMaTa c Eopnc BajiHHOB pa3Ka3axMe 3a 
BnenaTneHHflTa ch ot CtBeTCKHfl ctK)3. 

^Ba Meceija. . . eflHO npeKpacHO jihto. EaxMe cpea Hafi-6jiH3KHTe - 6ama, 
MaiiKa, 6paT EjiaroHHo, CHaxa ^a^HHKa h MHoro poahhhh. HecTo 
rocTyBaxMe Ha flflflo TeoprH h 6a6a ^a^HHa. B MajiKaTa hm rpa^HHKa bo- 
aexMe 0)KHBeHH h BecejiH pa3roBopH c jiejiHTe Mapna, HBaHKa h HHKOjiHHa, 
c 6paTOBHeflH h poahhhh. 

npH^THO 6eme h npe6HBaBaHeTO b KaMemma h BejiHHrpaa npH 
poflHTejiHTe Ha Tepa, 6paTa, cecTpaTa h ceMeficTBaTa hm. CpemaxMe ce c 
MHoro6poHHHTe npHATejiH Ha Tepa - hchhh ctnapTroaHH, flTaijH, /ipyrapH, 
CBrpa^cflaHH. IIoceTHXMe m. EeniHKa, Bp. Qotkm, A30BHp "Bacnji KojiapOB" 
(cera 'Tojiam EeniHK") h flpyrn cejinma h ropCKH o6eKTH okojio BaTaK. 
CpemHax ce c mhoto npMTejiH h /ipyrapH, c kohto o6cB)KflaxMe Hacn>- 
nnjiHTe cnefl Heraa KOHrpec Ha BKn npoMemi. Herax MHoro GtJirapCKa 
xy,u;o5KecTBeHa h HaynHa jiHTepaTypa. 

B nocjieflHHTe jjjm Ha aBiycT c rpyna ot okojio 50 CTyaeHTa 3aeflHO c 
Tepa 3aMHHaxMe 3a MocKBa c BJiatc. HfcTyBaHeTO, MaKap h ctntTCTBaHO c 
MHoro TpyflHOCTH (npexBT>pJiHXMe ce ot BJiatc Ha BJiaK, H3TbpnaxMe MHoro 

MHTHHHeCKH H TpaHHHHH npOBepKH), 6eUie npHOTHO H nojie3HO c 

HenocpeflCTBeHHTe BnenaTJieHHfl 3a CTpaHnre, npe3 kohto MHHaxMe. 

YneGHaTa 1949-1950 3anoHHa HOpMajiHO b ntpBHTe ahh Ha cenTeMBpH. 
C Tepa othobo 6axMe b HaniaTa yioraa CTyaeHTCKa CTaHHKa. Othobo 
nocemaBax JieKijHOHHHTe 3ajiH, yneGmrre KaGHHera, HHTajiHHTe h 6h6jiho- 
TeKHTe. Cpemax ce etc ctcTyaeHTHTe ch, cno/tejiaxMe npe)KHB5iHOTo npe3 
BaKamjHOTa, pa^BaxMe ce e^HH Ha flpyr. 

Tpeeo/KHa 6euie JiHTHaTa BaKaHuiin npe3 1950 r. He Mora .zja He 
OTGene^ca TarocTHHTe nojnrraHecKH cbGhtha h npoijecH, nocjie^BajiH 
IIeTH5i KOHrpec Ha BKn (neKeMBpH 1948), kohto nocTaBHxa HanajioTO Ha 
Maiu;a6HH napTHHHH h ci>fle6HH penpecnn. npe3 MapT 1949 r. Tpairao 

KOCTOB, eflHH OT Haft-BHflHHTe napTHHHH ptKOBOflHTeJIH H nptB 3aMeCTHHK 

Ha Teoprn ^hmhtpob, 6enie H3BaaeH ot ctCTaBa Ha IIojihtGiopo Ha IJK Ha 
BKn, a npe3 iohh c. r. 6enie H3KJiK)HeH h ot LJK 3apa^H HeroBaTa "aHTH- 
CBBeTCKa h aHTHnapTHHHa fleiiHOCT". Ton h pe,mma bh^hh fltp^aBHH h 
napTHHHH aeHijH (npocj). HBaH Ore(])aHOB, HnKOJia naBJiOB, Ore(|)aH 
EoryjaHOB, HBaH TeBpeHOB h ap.) 6axa ctfleHH h CTaHaxa )KepTBa - KaKTO 
no-KtcHO 6eme o(J)HiiHajiHo npH3Haro - Ha Heo6ocHOBaHH oGbkhchh^. npe3 
cjie^BamHTe hakojiko roflHHH 6axa penpecnpaHH tojiam 6poii napTHHHH 
Ka^pH. Oco6eHO Bpe^Ha ce OKa3a nocTaHOBKaTa Ha U,K aa ce rbpcn cpefl 

286 



napTHHHHTe nneHOBe "BpartT c napTHeH 6HneT". 

"B^pxy 3HaHHTejiHa nacT ot napTHHHHTe fleftijH b ijeHTbpa h no MecTa - 

6HBIHH nOJTHTHHeCKH 3aTBOpHHIJH, KOHIJJiarepHCTH H napTH3aHCKH pT>KO- 

BOflHTenH, KaKTO ce Ka3Ba MHHanH npe3 ortH h BO^a, BHTaeme oiHKaTa Ha 
ctMHeHHeTO h Ha no,no3peHHeTo", nnnie Teoprn HamcoB, no OHOBa BpeMe 
qjieH Ha I1B h ceKpeTap Ha IJK Ha BKII. "3a H3BecTeH nepnoa ot BpeMe 
MHHTejiHocrra h KJieBeTaTa 6axa B3enH 3HaHHTenHH pa3MepH. ToBa cb3flafle 
cMymeHHe h cipax b pe^OBeTe Ha napTMTa h cepH03HO TopM03enie HefiHa- 
Ta BcecipaHHa aeHHOCT. Peaima flpyrapH 6axa penpecnpaHH h ocbfleHH".* 

npe3 jwTHaTa BaKaHijHa Ha 1950 r., kooto npeKapaxMe c Fepa b BaTaK h 
BejiHHrpaa, y3Hax, ne h b 6aTaniKaTa napTHHHa opraHH3aijHfl ce e 
BT>3ii;apHJia o6cTaHOBKa Ha HecnrypHOCT h no,no3peHHe, cbn^TCTBaHa ot 

IIpOflBH Ha KJieBeTHHHeCTBO H flOHOCHHHeCTBO. Bl>3 OCHOBa Ha H3MHCJieHH 

o6BHHeHH5i ca H3KJiK)HeHH ot napraaTa h HaKa3aHH pe,mma npe^aHH h 
aKTHBHH fleftijH Ha napTH5iTa h aHTHC^auiHCTH, b TOBa hhcjio h ITerbp T. 
BpaHHeB - e^HH ot CB3aaTejiHTe Ha opraHH3aijHHTe Ha PMC h BPI1 b BaTaK, 
6hbhi nonHT3aTBOpHHK ? ceKpeTap Ha OK Ha BKII (1948 - 1950). Oco6eHO 
acecTOK h cpaMeH e cnynafl c ^hmhtbp T. Xa,n)KHeB, e#HH ot aKTHBHHTe 
ATaijH Ha napTH3aHHTe ot OTp^ma "Ahtoh HBaHOB". Ilo jti>)kjihbh aohoch 
toh e o6flBeH 3a npe^aTen h ocb^eH. Cnefl ro^HHa toh h apyrHTe Haica3aHH 
ca Ham>jiHO peaGnnHTHpaHH. IIcHXHHecKH h 4 )H3HHeCKHTe CTpaflaHHa, 
noHeceHH ot tax h 6nH3KHTe hm, o6ane He MoraT ^a ce 3a6paBAT h 3ajiHnaT. 
Cjiea peaGnjiHTaijHflTa ch /Jhmhtbp Xa,zj)KHeB b npo,m>ji)KeHHe Ha 7 ro^HHH 
6enie ceKpeTap Ha BKII b BaTaK h HanpaBH mhoto 3a HKOHOMHnecKOTO 
pa3BHTHe Ha rpa^a. IleTbp T. BpaHHeB ycneniHO pa6oTenie KaTO 3aM.- 
AHpeKTOp Ha 3axapHH5i 3aBOfl b rp. IIjiobahb. 

Bi>jiHaTa ot flOHOCH 3acerHaxa h MeH. B Kpaa Ha aBiycT c Tepa Bene ce 
noaroTB^XMe 3a 3aBpi>maHe b MocKBa, toh Karo yneGHara ro^HHa 3anon- 
Banie ot 1 cemeMBpH. ilBHXMe ce b KaHijejiapHATa Ha yn. "AKcaKOB", 
Kb^eTO Tp^6Banie ^a nonyHHM nacnopTHTe ch h flpyrcrre flOKyMeHTH, kohto 
hh 6axa HeoGxo^HMH, 3a #a 3aMHHeM 3a CCCP. A3 o6ane He nojiynnx 
nacnopT: "HflMa ro, noHaKairre, npOBepflBairre. KoraTO e totob me bh 
ci>o6mHM". 

H a3 3anaKax... Tepa BpeMeHHO otjioech 3aMHHaBaHeTO ch. fleBera 
cenTeMBpH npa3HyBaxMe b BaTaK h BenHHrpa^. Haii-HaKpafl cnea 15 
cenTeMBpH Tepa 3aMHHa 3a MocKBa, a a3 ocTaHax aa "naKaM". 5Icho 6enie, ne 



* HamcoB, T. PaBHOCMeTKaTa. CnoMeHH h pa3MHCJiH 3a peBomoimoHHaTa 6op6a h ctpohtcjictboto 
Ha counajiH3Ma. C, 2000, 297-298. 

287 



ci>m 3nenocTaBeH, OKJieBeTeH. 3anoHHax #a HCKaM oSflCHemie 3a 3a,m>p-. 
^caHeTO Ha nacnopTa mh ot nacnopTHaTa cjiy)K6a npn MBP. HacoHBaxa Me 
KbM KHHK, a TaM othobo Me npenpamaxa fla ce o6i>pHa kt>m MBP. ilBABax 
ce h npefl komhtct Ha BKTI b BaTaK, okojihhckha komhtct Ha BKQ b 
Ilemepa, b OTflejiH Ha LJK Ha BKQ. Ilpn cpemme mh c pa3JiHHHH OTroBopHH 
napTHHHH aefiijH a3 HacTOjreax fla y3Haa b KaKBO Me o6BHHABaT hjih 
KJieBeTHT, h aKO HMa HAKaKBH flOHOCH cpemy MeH, Te aa 6i>flaT npoBepeHH, #a 
flaM oGflCHemui ht.h, Mo)Ke 6h ca 6hjih npaBeHH TaKHBa npoBepKH, ho a3 He 
nojiyHHx HHKaKi>B OTroBop Ha MOHTe 3anHTBaHHH. Heoc^HUHajiHO o6ane - no 
cjiyxoBe - nocTeneHHO y3Hax, ne cpemy MeH ca 6hjih OTnpaBeHH KJieBeTH b 
Tpn HanpaBJieHH^: 

1. Kama mh e 6hji apxneap b oGmnHaTa, a cjieflOBaTejmo e 
no^noMaraji (J)amncTKaTa BJiacT. BebiimocT, npe3 1941-1944 toh 6eme 
Ha OTKpHTH aHTH^auiHCTKH no3HL(HH. IIoflnoMarauie MeH h apyra 
nojiHT3aTBopHHUH h ceMeftcTBaTa hm, ynacTBauie b noflroTOBKaTa Ha HauiHfl 
npoijec. HacT ot Ta3H My fleHHOcira ct>m OTpa3HJi no-rope bt>b BTopaTa 
rnaBa Ha HacTonmHTe cnoMeHH. 

2. HMaji ct>m poAHHHa, eMHrpaHT b OpamiHH, ctfleH ot HapoAHHH 
cbfl. Tpa6Ba aa OT6ejie)Ka, ne c Hero He ci>m no^m^p^aji HHKaKBH Bpi>3KH, a 
HeroBH^T chh Genie napTH3aHHH b OTpaaa "Ahtoh HBaHOB". 

3. Bhji ci>m b e/jHa khjihh c Tpafino Koctob b Co^hhckhh ijeHTpa- 
jieH 3aTBop. ToBa He 6euie BflpHO h M05Keme necHO aa ce npOBepn. 

Othobo o6hkojihx cwiiHTe napTHHHH opraHH, 3a aa H35icH5iBaM (JmKnrre 
no BepoflTHHTe aohoch h KJieBeTH. HHKbfle He nojiynaBax KaTeropHHHH 
OTroBopH. Hanncax Mon6a ao Bt>jiko HepBeHKOB, b kooto h3jio)khx noa- 
Po6ho ropenoconeHOTO. 3anoHHax m ch Tbpca h pa6oTa. MoHTe apyrapn h 
npHHTenH 3Haexa 3a bchhko TOBa. HyBcraax taxhoto flOBepne h totobhoct 
fla Me noflnoMoraaT. HMax tojihm aBTOpHTeT h ce non3Bax c yBa^ceHHe cpefl 
MOHTe Cbipa^cflaHH h MHoroGpoHHHTe mh no3HaTH b IlemepcKa okojihh h 
Co(J)hh. He 6ax H30CTaBeH h TOBa Me Kpenenie. BapaTa b cnpaBeflJiHBOcrra 
He Me HanycKanie. rioBene ot Tpn roflHHH 6ax ynacTBaji b HenerajiHaTa 
aHTH(|)auiHCTKa fleftHOCT Ha PMC b TbproBCKaTa rHMHa3Hfl, nonra #Be 
roflHHH npeKapax KaTO nonHT3aTBopHHK b Tpn 3aTBOpa, b npofli>Ji^ceHHe Ha 
neTHpH roflHHH ce 6ax OTflaji Ha aKTHBHa h 6e3KOpHCTHa oGmecTBeHa h 
napTHHHa fleiraocT b BaTaK h OKOJiHOTa. Bchhko TOBa TpaGBame #a 3acTaHe 
cpemy HeoSocHOBaHHTe KJieBeTH... 

Beme CTy^eH cjrbHHeB aeH, KaKBHTO ca oGhkhobcho flHHTe b BaTaK npe3 
Ki>CHaTa eceH. Bi>pBflx no rnaBHaTa yjnnja. BtnpeKH BflpaTa, Mi>KaTa h 
KJieBeTaTa rjioaeaexa ctpijeTO mh. Bhamx, ne cpemy MeH rana 

288 



Tenerpa(|)HCTbT TeoprH IlejieB, moh npHATeji h ctpaTHHK ot peMCOBH 
ro^HHH. Ton pa3Maxa HflKaKBB jihct h ce npOBHKHa: "AHrejie, hoca Hafi- 
#o6paTa Tenerpaivia, koato cbm npHeMaji. H 3a Te6, h 3a MeH. Tpi>rBaH 3a 
MocKBa." B TenerpaMaTa HaHCTHHa nHinenie m ce aba b KHHK, 3a ^a 
nojiyna floicyMeHTHTe 3a 3aMHHaBaHeTO mh b MocKBa, kbacto aa npo,m>ji)Ka 
o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. 

MHoro ce Kone6ax aa OT6ejie^ca jih Te3H momchth ot cnoMeHHTe mh. H 
tbhchoto, Maicap h OT^aBHa 3a6paBeHO ? Tpa6Ba aa ce 3Hae: to e nacT He caMO 

OT JIHHHHfl MH )KHBOT, HO OTpa3flBa flyxa Ha OHC3H TOflHHH Ha KJieBeTH H 

penpecHH, kohto Bi>3fleHCTBaxa OTpHijaTejiHO Bi>pxy ayxoBHOTO h 
HKOHOMHHecKO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. Tpa6Ba m OT6ene^ca cbhio Tajca, ne 
cjiea TOBa He cbm nonyBCTBaji KaKBOTO h #a 6hjio HeflOBepne kbm 
jiHHHOcrra h fleHHOcrra mh ot KaKTO ot CTpaHa Ha oGmecTBeHocrra, Tana h 

OT CTpaHa Ha fll>p}KaBHHTe H napTHHHHTe HHCTHTyiJHH... 

HHTepecHH h npHATHH 6axa h jieTHHTe BaicaHLjHH npe3 cneflBaiijHTe 
yne6HH ro/jHHH. Oco6eHO BaacHO h paflocrao 3a Hac c Tepa 6eine jihtoto Ha 
1951 r. Ha 25. VII. b EaTaK ce po/jn HainaTa fltmepa EjieHa. IIpe3 cen- 
TeMBpH a3 3aMHHax 3a MocKBa, a Tepa ce 3afli>p^ca b EtJirapHfl h ce 3aBi>pHa 
b MocKBa npe3 3HMaTa Ha 1952 r., 3a aa nojioacH nope/jHHTe ch H3nHTH. 
EjieHa H3pacTHa npn 6a6a ch EneHa h aa/jo ch nerbp npe3 MeceijHTe, 
KoraTO Tepa 6eine b MocKBa. Ti>raTa hh npe3 Te3H MeceijH Ha pa3£fljia c 
AMijepfl hh 6enie mhoto rojravia... 

CTyaeHTCKaTa 3eMJiHHecKa opramnauiiH b MocKBa 

Ei>jirapCKHTe CTyzjeHTH h acnnpaHTH b MocKBa HMaxa cboa 3eMJiflHecica 
opraHH3aiiH^. IIpH npHCTHraHeTO hh ta ce p^KOBoaeme ot TeprHH 
TeprHHOB (acnnpaHT), ^hmhtbp PycHHOB (cTyzjeHT) h flp. npoBOK/jaxMe 
ci>6paHHH no HaH-pa3JiHHH noBOflH, y^acTBaxMe b cpenjH c 6i>JirapCKH 
AeneraijHH b MocKBa, c bh,zjhh cbbctckh KynTypHH flefiiui h h3bccthh 
yneHH. OpraHH3Hpaxa ce h nocememifl Ha My3en h H3JieTH h3bi>h rpa/ja. 
Pi>KOBOflCTBOTO no/jnoMaraine CTy^eHTHTe npn peinaBaHe Ha yne6HH h 
6htobh BMIpOCH. 

BtJirapcKOTO noconcTBOTO 6eine rocTonpneMHO kbm Hac h necTO opra- 
HH3Hpame cpenjH no pa3JiHHHH noBOflH, flopn KaHenie CTyzjeHTH Ha npneMH. 
Oco6eHO BHHMaTejiHa kbm Hac 6enie nocjiaHHK CTena BnaroeBa. 

Ha e^HO ci>6paHHe b CTapaTa crpa.ua Ha Mockobckhh ffbpyKaBeu yHHBep- 
CHTeT npnctcTBa Toflop )Khbkob, kohto hh 6euie npe^cTaBeH KaTO 
ceKpeTap Ha TpaflCKHH komhtct Ha BKn h hjich Ha aejieraijHfl, ptKOBO^eHa 
ot BtnKO HepBeHKOB. no^BaTa My npe,zjH3BHKa tojiam HHTepec. 3a ntpBH 

289 



itbt KaTo cTyaeHTH ce cpemaxMe c npe/jcTaBHTeji Ha IJK Ha EKI1. 
CtSpaHHeTO pa3rne^c/i;anie flOKJia/i; 3a pa6oTaTa Ha 3eMJiflHecTBOTo h 

npOflfcJDKH ffbJlTO. ToflOp }KHBKOB npOflBH HHTepeC KbM flOKHafla H H3Ka3- 

BaHH^Ta, ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe ce HaMecBanie c pemiHKH, ho MHoro 
BHHMaTenHO. B Kpaa Ha ci>6paHHeTO toh H3Jie3e Ha TpnSyHara h np0H3Hece 
npofltn^cHTejiHa pen 3a BtTpeiHHOTO h MeacflyHapoflHO nonoaceHHe Ha 
CTpaHaTa, roBopH 3a Tpy^HOCTHTe h ycnexHTe, 3a xo^a Ha H3ni>JiHeHHeT0 Ha 
ntpBHfl neTHJieTeH rniaH, 3a Heo6xo,HHMOCTTa ot no,nroTOBKara Ha hobh 
Ka/tpH. Iloflcena hh aa ce yHHM #o6pe, aa CTaHeM ^o6pH cneiinajiHCTH h aa 
B3eMeM fleiiHO ynacrae b H3ipa^cflaHe Ha coiyiajiH3Ma b EtnrapHfl. Beme 
H3CJiyniaH c tojihmo BHHMamie, roBopenie cnoKOHHO h eHTycHa3Hpa 
cnymarejiHTe, 3aacaflHejiH 3a HH(J)opMaiiHa othocho CTaBamoTO y nac. 

06pa3yBaxMe h 3eMJiHHecKa rpyna Ha CTyaeHTHTe ot HKOHOMiiHec- 
KHTe bhcuih yHeSmi 3aBeAemitt cbc cneiyiajiHOCTH B'bTpeniHa rtproBHa, 
BtHHiHa TbproBHa, CTaracraKa, (|)HHaHCH h Kpe^HT. rpynaTa hh nepHo- 
flHHHO npOBe^cflanie o6ci>5K,naHHfl Ha aKTyajiHH BtnpocH h npo6jieMH Ha 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha HauiaTa HKOHOMHKa, opraHH3Hpanie cpeiiyi c 6tJirapCKH 
cneijHajiHCTH h yneHH, kohto npe6HBaBaxa b MocKBa. TaKa HHe ce 
CTpeMAXMe aa CMe b TeneHHe 3a #i>n6oKHTe nojiHTHnecKH h hkohomhhcckh 
npoMemi, kohto 6axa 3anoHHajiH b CTpaHara cnea HanieTO 3aMHHaBaHe b 
CCCP. B .neHHOCTra Ha rpynaTa ynacTBaxa MHoro CTy^eHTH, kohto no- 

KbCHO IipiXa m CTaHaT BHflHH flfcpHCaBHH H CTOnaHCKH ptKOBOflHTeJIH H 

yneHH: rpnuia OnjinnoB, KHpnn 3apeB, ^aHO EajieBCKH, rpy^H >KejieB, 
HBaH Bn,neHOB, AHren HaynieB, Eotomhji Ah^ohob, B^jiko Mjia/jeHOB, 
HnKOJia CTe(J>aHOB 5 Mnxann BentOB, Teoprn KapaMaHeB, TaHKa KymiHa, 
Tepa IleeBa, HnKOJia BejiHHKOB, AceH ^o6peB 5 JIio6eH MapHHHeniKH h ap. 

Bo^exMe oacHBeHH ^HCKycHH no hakoh TeoperaHHH Bwipocn. TaKa 
HanpHMep, HManie cnopOBe aajin TK3C npcucTaBJWBar coijHajiHCTHHecKH 
npeflnpHATHfl, o6cb^cflaxMe Btnpoca 3a co6cTBeHocira Btpxy 3eM5rra, 3a 
xapaKTepa Ha peHTaTa. ToraBa Bee ome HMaxMe no-pa3JiHHHH npeflcraBH 3a 
coijHajiH3Ma 5 3a njiypajiH3Ma Ha co6cTBeHocrra, 3a eTanHTe Ha H3rpa)K#aHe 
Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKOTO o6mecTBO y Hac. Pasct^KflaBaxMe h roBOpexMe 
cbo6o#ho. Ci>3HaHHeTO hh Bee ome He 6euie nponHTO ot florMHTe Ha 

CTaJIHHCKHfl MOfleJI 3a COIJHaJIH3Ma. 

B3eMax flefiHO ynacrae b pa3HCKBaHMTa no BtnpocHTe Ha pa3BHTHeTO 
Ha KOJixo3HTe b CCCP. H3Hecox pe(J)epaT b Kp-bacoKa no nonHTHKOHOMHfl b 
rinexaHOBCKHfl HHCTHTyT. 3a m noaroTB* T03H pec[)epaT, a3 H3HeTOx hakoh 
flOKJia^H h CTaTHH Ha HnKHTa XpymoB no arpapHaTa pec])opMa h 

pa3BHTHeTO Ha KOJIX03HTe H COBX03HTC B TAX HMaHie ^OpMyjIHpOBKH, 

290 



kohto acHBOTbT acecTOKO onpOBepra (HanpHMep - 3a CB3,zjaBaHeTO Ha t. Hap. 
arporpa^oBe). EpomypaTa Ha H. B. OrajiHH "HicoHOMHHecKHTe npo6jieMH 
Ha coi{HajiH3Ma" ot 1952 r. cnpa pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa mhcbji, 
TjiacHa TeopMTa h npaKTHKaTa b norpeuiHa nocoKa. 

He3aBHCHMO OT BCHHKO, B MoCKBa C Tcpa HMaXMe npeKpaCHH Bl>3MO)K- 

hocth He caMO aa ycBOflBaMe HKOHOMHHecKaTa Hayica, anja Bi>3npHeMaMe 
6oraTaTa pycxa KyjiTypa. IIocemaBaxMe TeaTpajiHH nocTaHOBKH, KomjepTH, 
My3en 5 h3jio)k6h, cpemn c yneHH, nncaTeji h apTHCTH. Haft-necTO xo^exMe 
Ha npeflCTaBJieHH^ b Eojibihoh h Majitra TeaTp. 3a Hac Te 6axa ^Ba 

HCTHHCKH XpaMa Ha H3KyCTBOTO H KyjITypaTa. ObBeTCKOTO KHHrOH3flaBaHe 

hh BneHaTJMBauie c pa3Hoo6pa3HeTO h 6oraTCTBOTO Ha ny6jiHKyBaHaTa 
xynoacecTBeHa h HaynHa JiHTepaTypa. /Jo6pe no/WbpacaHH h MHoro noceuja- 
BaHH 6axa 6H6jiHOTeKHTe. HeraxMe MHoro. Chjiho BnenaTJieHHe ome b 
ni>pBHTe flHH b MocKBa mh HanpaBH, ne MOCKOBHaHH neTaT HaBCflKb^e: b 
TpaMBaHTe, b MeTpOTO h b aBTo6ycHTe. 

CTyaeHTCKH npHHTejicTBa 

C rpHina OnnHnoB h HBaH BH^eHOB ce 3ano3HaxMe npH m>pBOTO mh 
in/ryBaHe ot Co(J)h^ 3a MocKBa. C tax echbax flBa Meceija b e^Ha KBaprapa. 
YnexMe b e^Ha rpyna h CTaHaxMe ^o6pH npHOTejiH. 

rpHina OnjinnoB e po^eH b YicpaHHa, 6ama My e 6i>jirapHH, a MaiiKa My 
- yKpaHHKa. B EtJirapHfl ceMeftcTBOTO My ce 3aBpT>ma cjiea IlbpBaTa 
CBeTOBHa BOHHa h ce ycTaHOBHBa b c. YrbpHHH - po^HOTO macto Ha 6ama My. 
TpHuiaTa 3aBtpiHBa rHMHa3Hjrra b JIoBen, CTaBa CTy^eHT b Co^hhckhh 
yHHBepCHTeT, ho 3a aHTH(])aiHHCTKa ^hhoct e ocb^eH no 33/J Ha 15 r. 

3aTB0p. 

Ilpe3 1946-1948 r. toh e noMonjHHK Ha MHHHcrbpa Ha HKOHOMHKaTa 
npo(|). IleTKO KyHHH. /JojcaTO 6axMe CBCTy/jeHTH, toh H3rneacflame cjxbp- 
acaH, ho npHBeTHHB h flynieBHO 6oraT, ocTpoyMeH b pa3roBopHTe. Beme 
KpaftHO Tpyaojiio6HB ? c roneMH HHTejieiayajiHH bksmoachocth. 06HHame aa 
npeflH3BHKBa h bo,hh flHCKycHH. Cnea npHKJiiOHBaHeTO Ha KOH(|)epeHijHHTe 
hjih ceMHHapHTe, b kohto ynacTBame, okojio Hero BHHara ce Cb6npaxa 
CTy^eHTH, acnnpaHTH h MJia^H npenoflaBaTejin. Cnefl m>pBaTa yne6Ha 
ro^HHa ce pa3flejiHXMe, tbh KaTO toh ycKOpeHO nonoacH H3nHTHTe h 3a 
BTOpH Kypc h 3aBi>piHH npe^H Hac. 

C HBaH BH,zjeHOB ynnxMe 3aeflHO HerapH ro#HHH (#eBeT ceMeerBpa), 
flHnnoMHpaxMe ce e^HOBpeMeHHO h cjie^ TOBa b npofli>Ji)KeHHe Ha 50 ro^H- 
hh pa6oTHXMe bt>b BHH h YHCC b croBop h npHOTencTBO, b TBOpnecxa 
Apy^c6a h B3aHMonoMouj;. 

291 



flo6pH npHHTenH 6^XMe c ToMa IJeTa, an6aHCKH CTy^eHT ot rp. Kopna, 
kohto 6eme 3aBi>piiiHJi HTanHaHCKH kojiok b rp. TnpaHa. npH Hac HManie h 
jxpyrn an6aHCKH CTy^eHTH, kohto HanycHaxa HHCTHTyTa h ce 3aBi>pHaxa b 
An6aHHH no Hapeac/taHe Ha EHBep Xo^)Ka cnea BJiomaBaHeTO Ha 
B3aHMOOTHonieHHHTa MOK^y Aji6aHHH h CCCP. C ToMa LJeTa 6>ixMe b e/ma 
yne6Ha rpyna. JJpyr Hani npHATen 6euie JIh-,H,h-Eh ot CeBepHa Kopea. Toii 
3anoHHa cne^BaHeTO ch e^Ha ro^HHa cnea MeH. Mhoto My noMarax ^OKaTo 
H3yHaBame "KanHTana" Ha K. MapKC. Ton necTO Tbpceine nocTOAHHo 

MOeTO CbfleHCTBHe 3a H3flCHflBaHe Ha HflKOH BMIpOCH. Cl>BeTCKHTe CTy^eHTH 

ce yny^Baxa: 

- Ton He pa36npa ao6pe Hannrre o6acHeHHfl, kohto My ^aBaMe Ha hhct 
pycKH e3HK 5 a tbohtc pa36npa! 

- Ba)KHO e TbpneHHeTo, oTTOBapax a3. - MoeTO yxo e CBHKHano #a 
Bt3npHeMa h He ao6i>p pycKH e3HK h TtpnejiHBO m ro H3CJiyuiBaM. 

JIh-,H,h-Eh 6enie CTpanmo TpyaojiK)6HB. OTHacaine ce c tojwmo 
yBa^ceHHe kt>m Tepa h MeH, necTO hh rocTyBaine. 

Mhoto ca cnoMeHHTe 3a mohtc cbCTy^eHTHTe. Ha^BaM ce ^a HMaM 
bt>3mo)khoct aa pa3Ka>Ka ome 3a Te3H npeKpacHH npHflTenH, Konern h 
ApyrapH, 3a cpemme, kohto HMaxMe c tax nooTflejiHO h rpynoBO b CocJjh^ 
h b MocKBa. npe3 1983 r. a3 h Bhachob ce ci>6paxMe c nonra bchhkh 
CTyaeHTH ot VI "rBapaencKa" Ha TbproBCKHfl (J>aKyjiTeT npH IIjiexaHOBCKHH 
HHCTHTyT h npeKapaxMe 3ae^HO b pecTOpaHTa Ha CHB mhoto nacoBe b 
Apy^cecKa aTM0C(J)epa 5 c mhoto cnoMeHH h pa3Ka3H 3a HainaTa npo^ecno- 
HanHa aeHHOCT h 3a ceMeiicTBaTa hh. 

C Tepa HMaxMe mhoto xy6aBH B3aHMOOTHOineHH5i h npHATencTBO c 
mhoto 6i>JirapcKH ceMeftcTBa - 5Ihko h MapeHKa ilHeBH, nojnc. AjieKcaHfltp 

H 3flpaBKa IIOHHHKOBH, C /jHMHTbp PyCHHOB, /jHMHTbp MeTOflHeB, /JeHHO 

3HenojiCKH ? Teoprn ,H,)KarapOB, TeprHH TeprHHOB, /JaKO ^aKOB, BopHC 
BajiHHOB, Kpi>CTi>o TopaHOB h pp. Mhoto flpy)KaxMe c Kara h Rkq 
Mojixobh. 5hao cne^Baiue bt>b BoeHHaTa aKa/i;eMHfl, a KaTeTO - b CencKO- 
CTonaHCKaTa aKa#eMHfl "THMHpfl3eB". 3aeflHO xo^exMe Ha TeaTpanHH npe#- 

CTaBJieHH^ H KOHIjepTH. OTKpOBeHO CnOfleJMXMe MHeHHeTO ch 3a nOJIHTH- 

necKOTO h HKOHOMHnecKOTo pa3BHTHe Ha Ei>jirapH5L Te 6axa h ch ocTaHaxa 
Hafl-flo6pHTe hh npH^Tenn h apyrapn. 

^iinjioMiipaiie h 3aBpi>maHe b Ei>JirapHH 

BnciueTO ch o6pa30BaHHe 3aBi>puiHX npe3 ^eKeMBpH 1952 r. c fltpaca- 

BeH H3nHT no HeTHpH flHCLJHmiHHH: OCHOBH Ha MapKCH3Ma-JieHHHH3Ma, 

IIonHTHHecKa hkohomha, HKOHOMHKa h nnaHHpaHe Ha TbproBHflTa h 

292 



OpraHH3aiiHfl h TexHHKa Ha rbproBHjrra. fltp^aBHaTa ranHraa komhcha 
6eine npeflceflaTencTBaHa ot npo(J). J\. M. TeHKHH. 

IIojiyHHX flnnnoMa c ntnHO otjikhhc 

Cnefl neTHpH roflnniHO ynemie TpaGBame aa ce pa3flejw c Bhcihha 
HHCTHTyT 3a HapoflHO CTonaHCTBO, c npHjrrejiHTe h c npenoflaBaTenH, c 
kohto MHoro MeceijH h flHH npeicapBaxMe 3aeflHO. CGoryBaxMe ce... Ho 
TbraTa mh npemiBanie b paflocrra, ne ce 3aBpT>maM b Po^HHaTa h ne me 
Mora aa paGora c noBene 3HaHHfl h ycHjraa 3a hchhoto pa3BHTHe. 

Cera, cjiea noBene ot 50 roflHHH, e Tpy#HO ^a pa3Ka^ca 3a TOBa, KoeTO 
cbm H3ynaBaji 5 3a TpymiocTHTe h ycnexHTe, 3a paflocrra ot aoGpirre 
oueHKH, 3a npeKpacHHTe npenoflaBaTejra h 3a rpH^cHTe Ha HHCTHTyTCKaTa 
aflMHHHCTpaijHfl 3a Hac. TpyflHO mh e fla pa3Ka^ca noflpoGHOCTH 3a 
cbBMecTHaTa paGoTa h )khbot etc cbCTy^eHTHTe mh, 3a GpaTCKaTa apy^cGa h 
B3aHMonoMom... Ho h flocera hoca cnoMeHa 3a tax b yMa h ctpijeTO ch. 

B Kpaa Ha aeiceMBpH 1952 r. CTyaeHTHTe ot VI "rBapfleiicKa" yneGHa 
rpyna H3npaTHxa MeH h HBaH Bhachob Ha nepoHa Ha KneBCicaTa rapa. 
nperptflKH, necHH. . . BnaRtT GaBHO noTermi. . . TpynaTa 3ana: 



npoWfdu, nwduMbiu eopod, 
YxoduM 3aempa e Mope, 
Mpauneu nopou 
MenbKHem 3a KopMou 
3uaKOMbiu nnamoK zonydou. 



HbTyBaxMe 3ae#HO c Tepa, koato 3aBT>pHiH ceMecTpnajiHO. 3a aa 
3aBT>pniH cjie^BaHeTO ch oGane tz TpaGBame aa H3Kapa flByMeceneH cra)K b 
fltp^caBHH^ KOMHTeT no njiaHHpaHe b Co(|)Hfl (flHyapH-(|)eBpyapH 1953, aa 
Hannnie h 3amHTH flnnnoMHa paGoTa h aa nono)KH fltpacaBeH H3nHT... 

Ha 30.XIL1952 r. c Tepa npHCTHraaxMe b BaTaK h c tojdimo BtJiHemie 
ce cpemHaxMe c fltmepHHicaTa hh EneHa... 



neceHTa "Benep Ha peftae". 

293 



Tepa neeBa-Haynieea 





C Tepa b MocKea, 1949 r. 



294 




Ha eKCKyp3HH b okojihocthtc Ha MocKBa, 7 Mail 1950 r. Ot jihbo Ha aacho: 

AHreji HaymeB (1), Tepa Ileesa (2), reH. ^eHno 3HenojicKH (3), 

nojiK. Ebthm IlyHHeB (4), Bopiic BajiHHOB (ce/jHaji) 




6-xa "rBap/jeftcica" yneSHa rpyna, IhiexaHOBCKH HHCTHTyT, MocKBa, 1952 r. 

Ot jihbo Ha ahcho Ha ntpeii pe/j AHreji HaymeB (1), 

Ha TpeTHH pe/j - IleaH Bii/jchob (4) 

295 




MocKBa, anpnji 1951 r. 
Ot ahcho Ha jihbo: Fpnnia <X>hjihiiob, AHreji HaynieB h IleaH Bn/jeHOB 




C KOJierHTe ot MOHTa CTy/jeHTCica rpyna. MocKBa, 1951 r. 



296 




Tepa, Abiijepfl hh EjieHa, 
MaiiKa mh EjieHa h a3. Co<J)iih, 
21 HoeiviBpii 1953 r. 



C Tepa b CocJhih, 
10 cenTeMBpH 1953 r. 



297 




B ABopa Ha po^HaTa mh icbnja b BaTaK, jihtoto Ha 1950. 

Ot jihbo Ha ahcho: Mapemca 5lHeea, Tepa 9 6ama mh nen>p, 

MaiiKa mh EjieHa, a3, ^a^HHKa, JIio6a IIonoBa 




Ci>c ceMeiicTBO npo4>. Hhko h MapeHKa Hhcbh h TpHTe mh 6paTOBMe^Kii 
ot jihbo Ha ahcho: Ha^Ka, ^acJiHHKa, ^ac^HHica 



298 



TJIABA V 

B KOMHTETA 3A HAYKA, H3KYCTBO H KYJITYPA 

H MHHHCTEPCTBOTO HA KYJITYPATA 

(1953-1956) 

B CocJmh. B Kpaa Ha aeKeMBpH 1952 r. c Tepa npHCTHrHaxMe b BaTaK 
npH HaniaTa ,m>mepfl EjieHa, po^HTejiHTe, 6paT mh Enaroa h CMpyraTa My 
/J,a(|)HHKa h TexHHTe aeijaTa EjieHa h rierbp. 3aeflHO nocpenmaxMe HOBaTa 
1953 roflHHa, koato 6ejifl3a hob eTan b mo* echbot h cbAGara Ha MoeTO 
ceMeficTBO. 

B cpe^aTa Ha jrayapH 1953 r. c HBaH Bhachob ce aBHXMe b KoMHTeTa 3a 
Hayica, H3KycTBO h KyjiTypa (KHHK) h npeflCTaBHXMe AOKyMeHTH 3a 
3aBi>pnieHO b MocKBa BHcnie o6pa30Baroie. H ^BaMaTa 6axMe pa3npe,u;ejieHH 
Ha pa6oTa bi>b Bhcihhji hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT. CpemHaxivie ce c 6hbhi 
hh CBCTyzjeHT rpHina OnjinnoB, kohto Bene 6euie pT>KOBO,zjHTeji Ha OT^en 
"BHCine HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe" b ynpaBneHHe "BHCine o6pa30BaHHe", 
a CBmeBpeMeHHO npenoflaBauie nojiHTHnecKa hkohomhh b IlojiHTexHHKaTa. 
Pa3roBOpHXMe ce ctpaeHHO h rpHHiara hh pa3Ka3a no#po6HOCTH othocho 
HOBOCb3flaaeHH5i Bhcih HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyT. HaKpaa toh hh npenopi>Ha 
#a KaHflHflaTCTBaMe 3a acncTeHTH b Kareapa "HKOHOMHKa Ha Bi>TpeiHHa 
TbproBHH 5 '. Pa36paxMe cbiijo, ne b HHCTHTyra HMa cneimaneH cnncbK Ha 
3aBi>pniHJiHTe BHcme hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe b CCCP, kohto Moacexa 
aa KaHaHflaTCTBaT 3a pa6oTa KaTO npeno/jaBaTejiH c npe^HMCTBO. 

Ome emma aeH ^BaMaTa c Bh^chob noceTHXMe 3aMecTHHK-peKTOpa Ha 

HHCTHTyTa npO(j). ,3,HMHTl>p ^HMHTpOB. IlpeflCTaBHXMe CC TOH OTBOpH eflHa 

TeTpaflKa, npejiHCTH a h Ka3a: 

- ,3,a, HHe bh onaKBaMe. Bne cnoKOHHO MoaceTe m KaHflH^aTCTBaTe 3a 
acncTeHTH. IloflaHTe ch ^OKyMeHTHTe. Heo6xoflHMH ca o6ane peuieHHA Ha 
OaKyjiTeTHHH h Ha AicafleMHHHHfl ctBeT. Te me npeijeHHT BaniHTe bi>3mo)k- 
hocth no floicyMeHTHTe, kohto me npe^cTaBHTe h no cnpaBKHTe, kohto CMe 
nonyHHJiH ot KHHK. Pe3yjiTaTa me onaKBaTe cjie# Meceij, KoraTO me ce 
npOBe^aT 3ace,naHHa Ha ctBeTHTe. H36opi>T bh 3a acncTeHTH, aKO cb,a# no 
AOKyMeHTHTe, me 6tfle nojioacHTeneH. 3ano3HaHTe ce c ,zjoij. HBaH MaTOB, 
kohto 3aBe^c^a KaTe^pa "Bi>TpeiHHa TbproBHfl". )Kejiafl bh ycnex! 

Pa3roBOpi>T o6ane npo,m>jraH. npoc|). ^hmhtpob hh 3a#a,a;e mhoto bm- 
pocn othocho CTpyKTypaTa Ha ynpaBJiemie Ha RjiexaHOBCKHfl HHCTHTyT h 
opraHH3aimaTa Ha yneGHHH npoijec, pa3nHTa hh 3a npeno^aBaTejiHTe h 3a 

TeXHHTe B3aHMOOTHOUieHH^ C aflMHHHCTpaiJHflTa h CTy^eHTHTe. Ot pa3- 

299 



roBopa h ot ^OKyMeHTHTe toh ocxaHa c BnenaTJieHHe, ne HHe HMaMe 
HeonaKBaHo 6oraT onHT 3a e/jHH TOKy-mo 3aBT>puiHJiH CTyzjeHTH, ne HMaMe 
onpe^ejieHH o6mecTBeHH BMraeflH h bhcokh H3HCKBaHM kbm yneGHara 
noflroTOBKa. Moace 6h hmchho T03H pa3roBOp CTaHa ocHOBaTa Ha 6i>flemHTe 
hh KOJieraajiHH h npHOTejicKH B3aHMOOTHomeHHfl, kohto 6ejifl3axa c 
flOBepne h B3aHMH0CT 6i>flemaTa hh cbBMecTHa pa6oTa b HHCTHTyTa. 

^BaMaTa c Bhachob 6axMe H36paHH 3a acncTeHTH bt>b BTOpaTa nojio- 
BHHa Ha ^eBpyapH 1953 r. 3a cbacajieHHe o6ane npe3 cjieflBaiiwre TpH 
roflHHH, naK flo cpeaaTa Ha 1956 r., Ha MeHe mh ce Hajioacn aa pa6oTH Kaio 
acHCTeHT h npenoaaBaTeji caMO no CBBMecTHTejicTBO. 

Ilpe3 HHyapH h 4>eBpyapH 1953 r. Tepa 3aBi>puiH CBoarra npe^nnjioMHa- 
Ta npaKTHKa b /J'bpacaBHHfl komhtct no njiaHHpaHe h ce 3aBi>pHa b MocKBa, 

3a fla npHKJIIOHH CJieflBaHeTO CH B MoCKOBCKHfl HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT 

cbc 3aiiprra Ha flnnnoMHa pa6oTa h nojiaraHe Ha fl'bp^caBHH H3nHTH. 

Cl>BeTHHK B OTAeJI 

"npenoaaeaHe Ha H/jeojiorHHecioiTe /jHCUHiuiiimi" 

B Kpaa Ha HHyapH 1953 r. 6ax noBHKaH /ja ce aba b oxzjeji "Hpenofla- 
BaHe Ha HfleojiorHHecKHTe flHciiHmiHHH" Ha KHHK. 3a moh H3HeHaaa TyK 
6hx nocpemHaT ot Tepo Tp03eB 5 kohto npeflH hhkojiko Meceija 6hji 
ocBo6o,aeH ot flji'b^KHOCTTa m>pBH ceKpeTap Ha 06jiactHHfl komhtct Ha BKn 
b IljioBflHB h CTaHan 3aBeaga;am Ha OTflena. PaflocTHH ot cpemaTa, HHe ce 
pa3roBOpHXMe. Tepo mh o6hchh, ne OTflejii>T e HOBOC(|>opMHpaH, onnca mh 
3aaaHHTe My h CBCTaBa Ha CBTpyammHTe. 

- npefljio^cHx aa Te Ha3HaHHM 3a cbbcthhk b OT^ejia, Ka3a toh. - 3HaM, 
ne onaKBani Ha3HaneHHe bt>b Bhchihh hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT. U\e 
ocTaHeui Ha ocHOBHa pa6oTa b OT/jejia, a ot HananoTO Ha yne6HaTa ro/jHHa 
Hie npeMHHeni Ha ocHOBHa pa6oTa bt>b BHH. rpnnia OnnnnoB, kohto 
OTTOBapa 3a HKOHOMHnecKOTO o6pa30BaHHe b KHHK, noflKpena TOBa 
npefljio^ceHHe. CwuiacyBaji cbm HemaTa cbc 3aM.-npeflce,zjaTeji5i Ha komh- 
TeTa npo(J). KpT>CTi>o ,3,o6peB. HMaM Hyaena ot CBTpynHHK, c Te6e ce 
no3HaBaMe ome ot BpeMeTO Ha HenerajiHaTa achhoct Ha PMC. Tpa6Ba aa 
mh noMoraeui npe3 m>pBHTe neT-mecT Meceita. 

GbrjiacHx ce h 6hx Ha3HaneH 3a cbbcthhk b OTflena, kohto BJiH3auie b 
CBCTaBa Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bncnie o6pa30BaHHe" h 3aeflHO c hhkojiko flpyrn 
OTflena H3m>jiHHBauie HeroBHTe 3aaaHH. B HauiM OT/jeji Bene pa6oTexa 
hhkojiko CBTpyflHHKa. H3Me)Kfly tax Mora aa OTKpoa HBaH KanaftKOB, 
npenoflaBaTen no (Jjhjioco^hh b MeflHitHHCKaTa aKa/jeMHfl, MHoro ao6i>p 
TeopeTHK h npenoaaBaTeji, noji3Banie ce c aBTOpHTeT cpe# KOJierHTe ch, a 

300 



no-KbCHO CTaHa npo(j)ecop. Beuie MHoro eraHeH, pa6oTJiHB h ot3hbhhb, 
6HHanie flHCKycHHTe h pa3roBOpHTe no pa3JiHHHH (|)hjioco(|)ckh BMipocn. B 
oxaejia hh pa6oTexa ome BacHJi He^KOB, kohto 6euie npenoflaBaTen no 
HCTOpHH Ha EKQ, h IleTBp ^aHKOB, acncTeHT no hctophh h 6tflem 
npo^ecop. 

OcHOBHaTa 3aflana Ha OTflena 6eine aa noAKpena pa3BHTHeT0 Ha 
KaTeapHTe, b kohto ce npeno^aBaxa t. Hap. HfleojiorHnecKH flncijHnjiHHH - 

nOJIHTHHeCKa HKOHOMHfl, (|)HJIOCO(|)Hfl, HCTOpHfl Ha EKII, HCTOpHfl Ha 

KI1CC); fla cvteficTBa 3a npHBJiHnaHe Ha cnoco6HH HayHHO-neaaroraHecKH 

KaflpH no CbOTBeTHHTe flHCIJHnJIHHH; fla OCHiypflBa BHCOKO yHHBepCHTCTCKO 

paBHHme Ha npenoaaBaHeTO, noflo6paBaHeTO Ha yne6HHTe nporpaMH, 
noflroTOBKaTa Ha hobh Ka^pn Hpe3 acnHpamypH h cneu;HajiH3aijHH y Hac h 
b ny»c6HHa. H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha Te3H 3aaaHH CTaBame bt>b B3aHMOfleftcTBHe c 
ApyrHTe oTflenn Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bncuie o6pa30BaHHe", c ptKOBOflCTBaTa 
Ha BY3 h etc ci>OTBeTHHTe KaTe^pn, b kohto pa6oTexa aBTOpHTeTHH 
jihhhocth KaTO aKafl. Toflop EtaBJiOB, aKafl. CaBa TaHOBCKH, aKa#. )KaK 
HaTaH, npocj). Toflop BnaflnrepOB, npo(|). EBreHH KaMeHOB, npocj). Paftno 
KapaKOJieB, npoc|). Pa^ocjiaB ^HneB ? npo(J). >Ihko ATaHacoB h jjp. 

KojieKTHBi>T Ha OTflejia hh 6eme Majio6poeH, ho pa6oTeuie b He- 
nocpeflCTBeHa Bpt3Ka c KaTeapHTe h c hakoh no-H3BecTHH yneHH h 
npenoflaBaTejra. Tepo Tpo3eB 6eme mhoto flo6tp opraHH3aTop, yMeeuie aa 
pa6oTH c xopaTa h aa rn npHBJiHna b H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha nocTaBeHHTe 
3aaaHH. Ton no3HaBauie jihhho MHoro ot npeno^aBaTejiHTe h ce noji3Bame c 
taxhoto yBa5KeHHe. Cbohtc KanecTBa Ha xapH3MarHHHa jihhhoct Tepo 6euie 
noKa3aji ome KaTO MJiaae5KKH ptKOBO^HTeji h KaTO m>pBH ceKpeTap Ha 
06jiacTHH^ KOMHTeT Ha BKn b rp. ILnoBflHB. ToBa MHoro flonpHHac^nie 3a 
ycneuiHOTO (J>yHKijHOHHpaHe Ha OT^ejia h 3a ycTaHOBABaHeTO Ha ao6pH 
B3aHMOOTHomeHH^ c KaTeapHTe. 

B H3m>JiHeHHe Ha ocHOBHaTa 3aaana npe3 ceMecrtpa, OT^ejitT 
pa3pa6oTH nporpaMa 3a oijeHKa fleHHOcrra Ha BcaKa KaTe^pa (hhbo Ha 
npenoflaBaHe Ha ctoTBeTHHTe flncijHnjiHHH, paBHHme h TeMaTHKa Ha 
HayHHOH3CJie,uoBaTejicKa pa6oTa, CTeneH Ha no^roTOBKa Ha HayHHO- 
neaarorHHecKHTe Kaapn). B npOBepKaTa ynacTBaxa ,uo6pe no/jroTBeHH 
npeno^aBaTejiH ot jspym KareflpH. IlocemaBaxa ce jieKipm, ceMHHapn h 
ynpa^cHeHHH, a BneHameHHOTa ch pa3HCKBaxMe Ha 3ace,uaHHfl Ha 
KareapHTe, nocoHBaxMe cjiaGocra, aaBaxMe npenoptKH, o6cT>)KAaxMe 
yneGHHTe nporpaMH, nyGjiHKaijHHTe Ha npenoaaBaTejiHTe h pe3yjiTaTHTe ot 
o6yneHHeTO. Pe^oBHO HH(j)opMHpaxMe 3a xo^a Ha npOBepKaTa ptKO- 
boactboto Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO, peKropHTe, npeflce/jaTeim Ha KHHK npocj). 

301 



Py6eH ABpaMOB, a ctmo h ctoTBeTHHfl OTflen Ha IJK Ha EKIL B npoijeca Ha 
npOBepKHTe b KaTeapHTe ce ci>3fla,ne TBOpnecKO HanpoiceHHe, KoeTo 
CT>aeficTBanie 3a kphthhhh h o6ckthbhh h3bo,hh h npenoptKH 3a noflo- 
Gp^BaHe paGoTaTa Ha npenoflaBaTejnrre. B Kpaa Ha yneGHara ro^HHa 
bchhkh KaTeapH pa3pa6oTHxa h o6cvjHxa flOKJia^H no oijeHKaTa c h3bojo;h h 
npenopi>KH 3a no,zjo6pflBaHe Ha fleHHoerra HM . Pe3yjiTaTHTe 6axa o6ci>aeHH 

H OT CbOTBeTHHTe (JjaKyJITeTHH H aKafleMHHHH CbBeTH. 

npe3 Te3H MeceijH MajiKHAT kojickthb Ha oxzjejia hh paGoTeine MHoro 
ycHJieHO. CpemaxMe peoinia TpynHocra c yneGHHTe nporpaMH no OT^eji- 
HHTe flncijHnjiHHH, xopapnyMHTe, paBHHmeTO Ha npeno^aBaHeTO, kohto 
ycneniHO npeoflOJMBaxMe. npHctCTBax Ha MHoro jickijhh h Ha oGctac- 
^aHH^Ta hm, Ha 3ace,a;aHHfl Ha KaTe^pn n (JmKyjrreTHH h aKaaeMHHHH 
CbBeTH, 3ano3Hax ce c pe^Hija npeno^aBaTejiH, a c hakoh ot tax CTaHaxMe 
npMTejiH h cbpaTHHijH b 6i>aemaTa mh HayHHO-neflaroranecKa n oGmeer- 
BeHO-nojiHTHHecKa aefiHOCT. 

no TOBa BpeMe 3anoHHaxMe no^roTOBKa 3a CBHKBaHeTO Ha HamiOHajiHa 
KOH4>epeHiiHH no npenoaaBaHe Ha HfleojiorHHecKHTe ^HCijHnjiHHH bt>b 
BHcniHTe yneGHH 3aBe#eHHa. ^BaMaTa c Tepo Tp03eB b npoflT>Ji)KeHHe Ha 
hakojiko ahh ce yeflHHHXMe b noHHBHaTa CTaHijHa Ha KHHK b Eamoi h 
pa3pa6oTHXMe oGoGmaBamna flOKJiaa 3a KOH(])epeHijHflTa, kohto npe^a- 
aoxMe Ha npeaceflaTejw npo(J). Py6eH ABpaMOB. Toh hh Gjiaro^apH h 
pa3nopeflH %a ce H3pa6oTflT npoeiera 3a penieHHe h aa 3anoHHe no^roTOBKa 
3a npOB^KflaHe Ha CBBemaHHem HcKaM no T03H noBO^ fla OTGejieaca 
H3KJiioHHTejiHaTa pa6oTocnoco6HOCT Ha npo(j). Py6eH ABpaMOB, h HeroBaTa 
BHCOKa epymmna, b kohto ce yGe^nx b xo^a Ha MHoacecTBO ctBemaHHfl no 
pa3JiHHHH Bi>npocH Ha o6pa30BaHHeTo, HayKaTa h H3KycTBOTO. Bchhkh 
BMpocH, cBi>p3aHH c oijeHKaTa h no^roTOBKaTa Ha HaijHOHajmaTa KOH(j)e- 
pemjHfl ce cbrnacyBaxa etc cbTpy^HHUHTe h ceKpeTapHTe Ha U,K Ha BKI1. 
ObBemaHHeTO ce npoBe^e b cpe^aTa Ha iojih 1953 r. b cajiOHa Ha E^Jirap- 
CKaTa aKa^eMH^ Ha HayKHTe. HanpaBeHH 6axa MHoro H3Ka3BaHHH h ce B3exa 
cbOTBeTHH peineHHfl. 

Cnea e^Ha ro^HHa KHHK 6eme npeycTpoeH b Mhhhctcpctbo Ha 
Kyjnypara, a Tepo 6e Ha3HaneH 3a 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTbp h OTroBapame 3a ha- 
kojiko ynpaBJieHHH, BKJiioHHTejiHO h 3a ynpaBJieHHe "BHCine o6pa30BaHHe". 

3aepi>maHeT0 Ha Tepa. npe3 iojih Tepa nonoacH ,HT>p2caBHHTe ch 

H3nHTH H 3amHTH flHnJIOMHa pa60Ta B MoCKOBCKHfl BHCIU HKOHOMHHeCKH 

HHCTHTyT. Ta nojiynn flHmioMa c OTJinneH ycnex 3a 3aBi>pineHO BHCine 
HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe cbc cneipiajiHOCT "miaHHpaHe Ha Hapo^HOTO 
CTonaHCTBo". Cnefl 3aBpT>maHeT0 ch b EtJirapHA ta nocn>nH Ha paGoTa 

302 



KaTO cnemiajiHCT b ^tp^caBHHH komhtct no miaHHpaHe b Co(J> Ha tt „ 
nocjie 6axMe 3ae/jH0 c HaniaTa fltmepHHKa EjieHa. 

CMi>pTTa Ha CTajiHH 

Tojihmo HCTOpHHecKO ci>6wme 6eme cMrbprra Ha ptKOBo^Hxejisr 
CtBeTCKH^i cbk)3 H. B. CTajiHH. Ha 4.IIL1953 r. BecTHHijHTe h parm a 
cbo6mHxa 3a tokkoto My 3a6oji>raaHe, a paHO cyTpHHTa Ha 5. Hi D ° 
"Co(J)hh" npefla^e TpaypHO ci>o6meHHe 3a HeroBaTa cmt>pt. HpaBpr ° 
ctboto o6abh BceHapo/jeH Tpayp, a cjie,zi flBa-TpH ahh b Co(J)Ha ce ct 
xpaypeH MHTHHr. Benie xnaaeH MapTeHCKH /jeH. Ot 6anKOHa Ha crp afla a 
MHHHCTepcKHii CBBeT (6hbhihh ^Bopeii) TpaypHa pen nporaHece n ^ 
ce^aTeim Ha MHHHCTepcKM cbbct h reHepaneH ceKpeTap Ha LJK Ha KTm 
Bmko HepBemcoB. IIpeMpKSHaji, o6jieneH c BHirrara, c npocLji 3eHH 
KaKTO h xHiwflHTe npHCbCTBaiuji co(|)hhhiih ? a3 cjiyuiax Hero ' 
TporaTenHa pen. Toh H3pa3H ronflMara CKpT>6 Ha 6i>JirapCKHa Hapcm a 
Te^cKaTa 3ary6a Ha "BejiHKM boska Ha HapoflHTe Ha C'bBeTCKna clta » 
kohto npe3 "H3MHHanHTe TpH aeceraiieTHfl e HanpaBHJi Han-jv^o ? 
CBeTa..., ocHiypH CBeTOBHOHCTOpHHecKara no6eaa Ha coijHajiH3Ma b CCrtf 
ocnrypH HeroBaTa no6eaa Haa (J)aiHH3Ma npe3 BTOpaia cbctobho bo" ' 
/ja,zie flCHa nporpaMa 3a CTpoHTencTBOTO Ha KOMyHH3Ma b C^bctckhh olio ' 
3a 6op6aTa Ha Hapo^HTe 3a MHp, fleMOKpaijHfl h coi|HanH3'bM b ijejina C b ^ 
PeHTa 6enie BMHyBama. 

CnyniaxMe h cKbpGaxMe c ijfljiara ch ayuia 3a 3ary6aTa Ha Bejn* 
CTajiHH, 6e3 aa nofl03HpaMe, ne MHoro CKOpo me CTaHeM CBH^eTejiu * 
HeroBOTO pa3o6nHHaBaHe npea XX KOHrpec Ha KIICC, c nojiyne£ OBe a 
me cnymaMe h neTeM flOKJiaaa 3a H3BT>pHieHHTe ot CTajiHH h Hero* C 
o6iepT>)KeHHe npecTbnjieHH5i ? me CTpaflaMe 3a oraeTaTa hh Bflpa bi>b bo^c ° 
HeroBHTe ebpaTHHim, 3a aa ocb3HaeM fleHCTBHTejiHocira TaKaBa KaicBax ** 
eflHO ctHeTaHHe ot o6mecTBeHH ycnexn h jihhhh TpareflHH. ILJaxMe 

CKT>p6HM 3a MHJIHOHHTe >KepTBH Ha CTaJIHHCKHfl Tepop, HO H #a npojT 

HcaBaMe #a ce rop/jeeM c Tpy^OBHTe h BoeHHH noflBH3H Ha CBBeTCKnxe x 
c TiixHaTa caMo^cepTBa b H3rpa>KflaHeT0 Ha coimanHCTHHecKOTO o6m eC XB ' 

Ct>bcthhk b OTAeji "BHCiue HKOHOMHHecico o6pa30Bamie" 
(cenTeMBpn 1953 - iojih 1956) 

B Kpaa Ha aBiycT 1953 r. bmccto 3anoBea 3a ocBoGoacflaBaHe, KaKxo 
6enie o6emaHO, nojiynnx 3anoBea 3a npeHa3HanaBaHeTO mh Kaxo rjia ** 
CBBeTHHK b OTflen "BncHie HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30Bamie", a no ci>b 



303 



CTHTejiCTBO h KaTO npenoaaBareji bi>b Bhcuiha hkohomhhcckh hhcthtyt. 
rpHiua OHJinnoB npeMHHa Ha pa6oTa b ^i>p»caBHH^ komhtct no njiaHHpaHe. 
3a HanajiHHK Ha oxzjejia 6eine Ha3HaneH npo(J). HBaH Xafl5KHHBaHOB. C Hero 
b npo,m>Ji5KeHHe Ha okojio TpH ro^HHH pa6oTHXMe apyacHO h nnoflOTBopHo 
3a H3in>jiHeHHe Ha nocTaBeHHTe ot ynpaBJieHHe "Bncnie o6pa30Baroie" 
3aaaHH h npeflH bchhko - 3a npo,zp>ji)KaBaHe Ha pe(J)opMHTe bt>b bhcuicto 

HKOHOMHHeCKO o6pa30BaHHC 

B EtJirapHfl HacrbnBaxa KopeHHH coitHajiHO-mcoHOMHHecKH npoMeHH. 
IIpe3 aeKeMBpH 1948 r. Bcjihkoto Hapo^HO ci>6paHHe 6eiue npHeno 3aKOH 
3a ntpBH* neTroflHiueH njiaH 3a pa3BHTHe Ha EtJirapHJi (1949-1953), kohto 
Tp^6Bame m OT6ejie)KH HanajioTO Ha npexo^a ki>m ci>3AaBaHe Ha hko- 
HOMHnecKHTe ochobh Ha coitnajiH3Ma Hpe3 HH,nycTpHajiH3aitH^ h eneK- 
TpH(J)HKaitH^ 5 Hpe3 KoonepHpaHe h MexaHH3aitHJi Ha cejicKOTO CTonaHCTBo. 
3ano^ceHHTe b njiaHa hkohomhhcckh noKa3aTejiH 6axa nocTHrHaTH 3a 4 
roflHHH. npOH3BOflCTBOTo ce yBejiHHH ^Ba ntTH cnpflMO 1948 r., HaijHOHaji- 
hmt floxofl HapacHa etc 140%. CbOTHomeHHeTO MOK^y npoMHiujieHOCTTa 
h cencKOTO CTonaHCTBo CTaHa 7:3, kocto npeBtpHa EtJirapHJi b HHflyc- 
TpnajiHO-arpapHa erpaHa. ManjaGHH npoMeHH HacTbnnxa b ctpohtcjictboto, 
TpaHcnopTa, TLproBHjrra, (j)HHaHCHTe, o6pa30BaHHeTO, HayKaTa h KyjiTypaTa. 

Te3H H3MeHeHH^i 5 pa3nie)KAaHH ToraBa KaTO 4>aKTHnecKO yeraHOBJiBaHe 

Ha COIJHaJIHCTHHeCKH npOH3BOACTBCHH OTHOHieHH^, H3HCKBaxa afleKBaTHO 
nOflrOTBCHH BHCOKOKBaJIH(])HItHpaHH KaApH, KOHTO HMaT 3HaHM H yMCHHfl 
fla ptKOBOA^T pa3JIHHHHTe npeflnpH^TH^Ta H OTpaCJIH Ha HKOHOMHKaTa B 

ycjiOBH^Ta Ha H3Bi>pHiBamHTe ce cjioachh hkohomhhcckh npoitecn, m 
npHJiaraT hobh mctoah Ha ynpaBJieHHe, aa BHeflpjrear hobh TexHOJiorHH b 
npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe npoitecH. Bchhko TOBa Hajiaranie m ce H3Bi>piiiH 
KopeHHO npeycTpoHCTBO Ha cpe^HHTe h bhchihtc yne6HH 3aBe,zieHHfl, kohto 
Tp^6Bame aa noflroTBAT TaKa Heo6xoflHMHTe Ha pa3pacTBamara ce 
6tJirapCKa HKOHOMHKa cneitnajiHCTH b o6jiacrra Ha npoMHirnieHocrra, 
cejicKOTO CTonaHCTBo, TpaHcnopTa, TLproBMTa h apyrHTe OTpaenn. 

Pe^opMH 

Pe(|)opMHTe Ha bhcuicto o6pa30BaHHe Bene 6axa 3anoHHajiH c npne- 
MaHeTO Ha 3aKOHa 3a bhcuicto o6pa30BaHHe npe3 1948 r. Ako npe3 1939 r. 
BHcniHTe yne6HH 3aBe,zjeHHfl 6axa 5 c 29 cneitnajiHOCTH h 10 200 CTy^eHTH, 
KtM 1953 r. Te 6axa CTaHajiH 19 etc 150 cneitnajiHOCTH h noBene ot 30 000 
CTyaeHTH. 

IIo-3HaHHTejiHO npeycTpoHCTBO Ha bhcuicto hkohomhhccko o6pa30- 
BaHHe 3anoHHa 1952 r. C yKa3 Ha IIpe3HAHyMa Ha HapoflHOTO ci>6paHHe ot 

304 



1.1.1952 r. OronaHCKHflT (JmicyjiTeT npH Co^hhckha yHHBepcHTeT 6euie 
o6oco6eH b OT/jejiHO BHcme yne6HO 3aBeaeHHe noa HaHMeHOBamieTO Biicm 
HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyr c 4 (JmicyjiTeTa: njiaHOBO-CTonaHCKH, npOMH- 
uuieHO-TpaHcnopTeH, rtproBCKH h (JwHaHCOBO-cneTOBOfleH. Gb3,aa,zjeHH 
6axa 9 hobh cnei^HajiHOCTH (nojiHTHHecjca hkohomha, Hapo/jocTonaHCKo 
nJiaHHpaHe, CTaracTHKa, cneTOBO/jHa othcthoct, 4>HHaHCH h Kpe/jHT, 

HKOHOMHKa Ha npOMHUIJieHOCTTa, HKOHOMHKa Ha TpaHCnOpTa, HKOHOMHKa 

Ha BtHuiHaTa TbproBHa, HKOHOMHKa Ha BtTpeuiHaTa TbprOBHfl), B KOHTO 
TpnGBauie /ja ce noaroTBOT cneijHanHCTH etc cojih^hh 3HaHHfl h yMeHM 3a 
pa6oTa b pa3JiHHHHTe CTonaHCKHTe OTpacjiH h npe/jnpHOTHfl. ripenoflaBa- 
tcjickhat ctcTaB 6euie pa3npe/jejieH b 15 KaTeapH. 

Ct>c ctmHH yxa3 Bhcuicto yHHJiHme 3a CTonaHCKH HayKH b Cbiiluob 
6euie npeHMeHyBaHO bi>b Bhciii (JniHaHCOBO-CTOiiaHCKH HHCirnyT c 2 
4>aKyjiTeTa: (JMHaHCOBO-CTonaHCKH h CHeTOBOflHO-CTaracTHHecKH. BtB 
Bhcuihh CTOiiaiiCKii HHCTHTyT b rp. Bapua 6axa cb3,zja,zjeHH 3 4>aKyjrreTa: 

npOMHUIJieHO-CTpOHTeJieH, TbprOBCKO-CTOnaHCKH H (|)HHaHCOBO-CHeTOBOfleH. 

IIpoMeHHTe b CTpyKTypaTa Ha TpHTe hkohomhhcckh yne6HH 3aBefleHHa 
h CT>3flaBaHeTO Ha hobhtc cneunajiHOCTH Hajiaraxa aa ce npepa3rjieaa n 
ci>,m>p)KaHHeTO Ha yHe6HO-neflarorHHecKaTa h HayHHaTa achhoct. 3a 
yne6HHTe 1952-1953 h 1953-1954 ce npHCTMH kbm pa3pa6oTBaHe h 
yTBtpagjaBaHe Ha hobh yneGroi njiaHOBe 3a BCflKa cneijHajiHOCT. Te3H 
njiaHOBe onpeaejiaxa npofltJiacHTejiHOCTTa Ha o6yHemieTO, Ha6opa ot H3y- 
naBaHHTe flncijHnjiHHH h xopapnyMHTe hm, ceflMHHHaTa h ceMecTpHanHaTa 
3aeTOCT Ha CTy/jeHTHTe, BpeMeTpaeHeTO Ha H3nHTHHTe cecnn, BaKaHijHHTe, a 
ctmo h yne6HHTe nporpaMH no Bcaica flncijHnjiHHa. 

Tpa6Ba aa OTGejieaca, ne npe#H pe(J>opMaTa ca 6hjih H3ynaBaHH 

npeflHMHO 06m0Te0peTHHHH H o6mOHKOHOMHHeCKH flHCIJHnJIHHH, KOHTO He 

ca ocnrypJiBajiH Ha CTyzjeHTHTe KOHKpeTHH 3ueam^ h yMeHM b oGjiacrra Ha 
ynpaBJieHHeTO, miaHHpaHeTO, (|)HHaHCHpaHeTO, opraHH3aijHflTa Ha /jen- 
HocTra Ha ocHOBHHTe OTpacjiH Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. B xofla Ha npoMeHHTe 6axa 
yTBtpaeHH HopMaTHBH 3a 3aeTOCTTa Ha npeno^aBaTejicKHfl ctcTaB b 
paMKHTe Ha H3Bi>puiBaHHTe ot Hero achhocth, KoeTO He 6eme nocpenjHaTo 
flo6pe ot no-Bi>3pacTHHTe npenoaaBaTejiH, CBHKHajiH flocera caMH /ja 
onpeaejWT xopapHyMa Ha cbohtc flncijHnjiHHH. Manap h 6iopoKpaTHHHH no 
xapaicrep, hobhtc HopMH 3a OTHHTaHe Ha H3BT>puieHHTe achhocth 6axa e^Ha 
Heo6xoaHMOCT npH ToraBauiHHTe ycjiOBHa. 

Bi>BefleHH 6axa 3aflOHHaTa h BenepHaTa ^opMH Ha oGynemie Ha 
CTy^eHTHTe, kohto aaaoxa bi>3mo)khoct Ha cneijHajiHCTH, kohto pa6oTexa b 
npeanpH^TH^Ta h yHpeacfleHHjrra, aa noBHUiaT CBOOTa KBajiH^HKauH^. 

305 



YHeGHHTe miaHOBe Ha cneitnajiHOCTHTe h nporpaMHTe Ha OT^ejiHHTe 
AHCijHnjiHHa ce cbcraBaxa bi>3 ocHOBa Ha CBBeTCKHfl onHT h npaKTHica, KaTo 
ce OTHHTanie cneizH(J)HHHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HauiaTa HKOHOMHica, 4>opMHTe h 
MeTOflHTe Ha hchhoto ynpaBJieHHeTO h noTpeGHOCTHTe ot bhcoko KBajin- 
(^HijHpaHH KaapH. Te3H nnaHOBe h nporpaMH ce oGdOKflaxa h npneiviaxa ot 
KaTeapeHHTe, 4>aKyjiTeTHHTe h aicafleMHHHHTe CBBeTH, ho ce ofloGpaBaxa ot 
ynpaBJieHHe "Bncine o6pa30BaHHe". HauiHOT oxneji HMaine pi>KOBOflHa pojia 
npn peinaBaHeTO Ha Te3H Bi>npocH bt>b bhchihtc hkohomhhcckh yne6HH 
3aBe,neHH5i. Hne c npo<]). Xa/pKHHBaHOB ynacTBaxMe b oGebayjaHeTO Ha nna- 
HOBeTe h nporpaMHTe, KaTo pa3HHTaxMe h Ha oiiemarre Ha KBajiH(|)HiiHpaHH 
cneijHajiHCTH ot bhchihtc yne6HH 3aBeaeHH5i h MHHHCTepcTBara h th npe#- 
CTaB^xMe 3a o,zjo6peHHe. npe3 T03H nepHOfl b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha o6pa30BaHHe- 

TO, KaKTO H B1>B BCHHKH OCTaHaJIH C(|)epH, BJiaCTBaHie CHJIHa IjeHTpaJIH3aiIH«. 

Oco6eHH rpH5KH ce nojiaraxa 3a nom>jiBaHe Ha KaTe^pHTe c KBajmcjm- 
mipaHii npenotfaBaTejm, kocto 6enie kjiiohob 4>aKTOp 3a ycneuiHOTO 
H3Bi>pHiBaHe Ha pe(J)opMaTa. TpaGBa ^a OTGejieaca, ne no,o;roTBeHHTe 
npenoflaBaTejiH HancTHHa He flocraraxa. Bee naic, b TpHTe hkohomhhcckh 
HHCTHTyTa pa6oTexa peoniia h3bccthh ynemi. B o6jiacrra Ha nojiHra- 
necKaTa HKOHOMH5rra h CTonaHCKaTa HCTOpna TOBa 6axa aicafl. )KaK HaTaH, 
npoc|). EBreHH KaMeHOB, npocj). To,nop Bjia^HrepoB, npo$. Kpi>CTbo 
floGpeB, npo(J). >Ihko ATaHacoB, npo<|). MapKO BtJiKaHOB, ,zjoij. TeHO TyTeB. 
OGjiacrra Ha njiaHHpaHeTo: aKa^. EBreHH MaTeeB, npocj). HBaH 
Xaa^cHHBaHOB, floij. Hmcojia BtJieB. B oGjiacrra Ha (JmHaHCHTe h Kpe^HTa: 
anafl. HBaH OrecjmHOB, npo(|). Teoprn CBpaKOB. B oGjiacrra Ha chctoboa- 
HaTa othcthoct: npo(j). /],hmhtt>p Hop^aHOB, npo(J). BacHJi PaHKOB, npo4>. 
CBeTocjiaB Mhhhcb, #oii. Teoprn /JeneB. B oGjiacrra Ha CTaracTHKaTa: 
npocj). OrecJmH OraHeB, npo$. A. K). Totcb, floij. 3flpaBKO CyrapeB, aoii. 
BeHeij U,OHeB. B o6jiacrra Ha CTonaHCKaTa reorpa(|)Hfl: npo(J). Tahko 
Hop^aHOB. B o6jiaciTa Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe fleHHOcra: 
npo(|>. Toflop IIojiaKOB, floii;. XpHCTO KannropOB h ap. B oGjiacrra Ha 
npaBHHTe HayKH: npocj). Mnxanji Tchobckh, npo(J). /Jhmhtbp /Jhmhtpob. 
Bchhkh Te o(J)opMaxa HaynHOTO h ne^arorHHecKOTO flflpo, okojio kocto ce 
rpynnpaxa h noflroTBaxa MJia^HTe Ka^pH b cbotbcthhtc HanpaBJieHHH Ha 
HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayxaTa h o6pa30BaHHe. 

npe3 ntpBaTa nojioBHHa Ha 50-Te ro#HHH ce nyBCTBauie ocn>p 
He^ocTHr Ha KBanH(J)HiiHpaHH npeno^aBaTejiH no cneijHajiH3HpaHHTe ,hhc- 

IJHnjIHHH B HOBHTe CneiJHaJIHOCTH npOMHIHJieHOCT, CTpOHTeJICTBO, CeJICKO 

CTonaHCTBO, TpaHcnopT, BtHHiHa h BtTpeniHa TbproBHH. 3a ,na 6i>,aaT 
npHBneneHH h no^roTBeHH MJia/jH Ka,npH, 3anoHHaxa aa ce onpe^ejMT 

306 



acnupaHTypH, npeno^aBarejiHTe 6axa H3npain;aHH Ha cneimajiroauHfl b 
Apyrn CTpaHH, npoBOK^axa ce KOHKypcH 3a Ha3HanaBaHe Ha hobh acnc- 

TeHTH H T. H.. 

HaniH^T OTflen HMaine onpeaejiama pona peinaBaHeTO Ha Te3H Bwipocn. 
Ot HeroBaTa achhoct ro rojmMa CTeneH 3aBHceuie ycneniHOTO KOMnneK- 
xyBaHe Ha hkohommhcckhtc BY3 c noflxoflflmn KaflpH. Hne c npocj). HBaH 
XaaKHHBaHOB ynacTBaxMe h b aeHHOCTra Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bhchic 
o6pa30BaHHe" 3a H3pa6oTBaHe, npHeMaHe h npHJioaceHHe Ha mhofo Hop- 
MaTHBHH flOKyMeHTH, CBi>p3aHH c H3m>jiHeHHe Ha ropenoconeHHTe h flpyrn 
npo6jieMH 5 kohto npOH3THnaxa ot 3aKOHa 3a bhcihcto o6pa30BaHHe. 
OxnejrbT hh HMaine OTHOineHHe klm: o6flBABaHeTO Ha KOHKypcH h hobhtc 
Ha3HaHeHH^; npHeMa Ha CTyaeHTHTe h onpeaejiflHeTO 6poa Ha MecTaTa 3a 
npHeM no cneijHajiHOCTH h yneGmi 3aBeaeHH^; ci>3flaBaHeTO Ha no- 
6jiaronpH^THH ycjiOBHfl 3a acnnpaHTHTe, KaTO ce CTpeMflXMe aa yBejiHHHM 
cTHneHflHHTe, cbfleficTBaxMe 3a ocHrypjraaHe Ha HaynHO pi>kobo,zjctbo, 
Hajio^KHXMe t. Hap. BT>TpeniHa acnnpamrypa, Hpe3 koato acHCTeHTHTe noa- 
roTB^xa h 3amHTaBaxa ^ncepTaijHH 6e3 ,ua npeia>CBaT npenoflaBaTencKaTa 

CH fleHHOCT. 

OTflejii>T HMaine h pe^nija ottobophocth, CBi>p3aHH c H3#aBaHeTO Ha 
yneSmiiui h yne6Ha JiHTepaTypa: onpefleiumie aBTOpcKH kojickthbh, 
opraHH3Hpaine oGcb^c^aHH^ Ha npoeicraTe h cbfleHCTBame 3a 6i>p30TO 
H3flaBaHe Ha Bene H3roTBeHHTe noMarajia. B HanajiOTO Ha 50-Te roflHHH 
jinncBaxa yne6HHijH no MHoro ot hkohomhhcckh flHCijHnjiHHn. IlpHCbCTBax 
Ha npeflCTaB^HeTO h oGcbflyjaHHHTa Ha MaKeTH Ha hobh noMarajia b TpHTe 
bhcuih yne6HH 3aBeflemDi. YneGHHijHTe ce nocpemaxa c HHTepec, a 
AHCKycHHTe npn TexHHTe o6ei>)K£aHHfl .uonpHHecoxa 3a o6oraT^BaHe Ha 

Cbfl'bpflCaHHeTO HM. 

IlpOBe5KflaHaTa b crpaHaTa nojiHTHKa Ha ycKopeHa HHflycTpHajiroaijHfl 
H3HCKBanie nocTnraHeTO Ha 6i>p3 Hanpe,ni>K b o6jiacrra Ha HKOHOMnnecKaTa 
TeopH^ h ycTaHOBjraaHeTO Ha HayneH noflxoa npn pemaBaHeTO Ha 
npo6jieMHTe b oGnacrra Ha ynpaBJieHHera, njiaHHpaHeTO h opraHH3aijHflTa 
Ha OTpacjiHTe n CTonaHCKHTe oprammijHH, KaKTO h bt>b (J)HHaHCOBaTa 5 
AaHtHHara n cneTOBOflHO-KOHTpojiHaTa chctcmh. YnpaBJieHne "Bncme 
o6pa30BaHHe" Hpe3 Hapefl6n h yica3aHHfl Bi>3Jiaranie Ha pi>KOBOflCTBaTa Ha 
BY3 aa onpeaeji^T TeMaTHKaTa h j\& cjieflflT 3a H3m>jiHeHHeT0 Ha 
nporpaMHTe 3a HaynHii mcjie^BaHHH, aa cb3flaBar ycjiOBHA 3a HaynHaTa 
AefiHOCT Ha npenoflaBaTejnrre. P^KOBOflCTBaTa Ha TpHTe hkohomhhcckh 
HHCTHTyTa flo6pe pa36npaxa 3HaneHHeTO Ha Te3n 3aaaHH. KaTeapHTe 
Tp^6Banie aa ce npeBi>pHaT b ijempoBe He caMO 3a npenoaaBaHe h 

307 



noflroTOBKa Ha cneijnajincTH, ho h 3a H3CJieflBaHe Ha TeopeTHHHHTe h 
npaKTHnecKHTe npo6jieMH, CBi>p3aHH c pa3BHTHeTO h ynpaBJieHHeTo Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa. npe3 T03H nepnofl ce noflBHxa mhoaccctbo nyGjiHKaijHH, 
npOBeayjaxa ce HaynHO-TeopeTHHHH KOH^epeHiinn, ancicyTHpaxa ce Hafi- 
pa3JiHHHH npo6jieMH. IIoTpeGHOCTHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHeTo Ha HKOHOMHKaTa 
o6ane npofl'bJDKaBaxa rzl HaflXBtpJurr no cbohtc MamaGn pe3yjiTaTHTe ot 
HaynHaTa aenHOCT Ha HKOHOMHnecKHTe BY3. 

B OT#ejia "Bncnie hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe" pa6oTHX 6jih3o TpH 
roflHHH, H3ni>jiH^BaHKH eflHOBpeMeHHO c TOBa 3afli>n^ceHHaTa CH KaTO 
npenoflaBaTeji no CBBMecraTejicTBO bt>b Bhcuih^ hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT. 

TaKa 5KHBOTBT Me CpeilJHa C HaH-pa3JIHHHH CbTpyflHHIIH H pT>KOBOflHTejIH Ha 

ynpaBJieHne "BHCiue o6pa30BaHn", BY3 h apyrn HHCTHTyunn. TpyzjHO mh e 
aa pa3Ka)Ka 3a bchhkh, ho 3a noBeneTO ot tax cbm 3ana3HJi xy6aBH cnoMeHH. 
PT>KOBOflHTejiflT Ha Hanina OT^en npo(|). HBaH Xa,zpKHHBaHOB Me 
BnenaTJi^Banie etc CBOOTa eHeprnHHOCT, c yMa, Mtflpocrra h rojieMHTe ch 
HayHHO-H3CJieflOBaTejiCKHTe bt>3mo)khocth. Ton nocBera HaynHaTa ch 
flefiHOCT Ha TeopMTa h MeTOflOJiorrorra Ha njiaHHpaHeTO Ha Hapo^HOTO 
CTonaHCTBO, Hannca MHoro nyGjinicaiiHH n yneGHHiin h CTaHa e^HH ot 
H3BecTHHTe yqeHH b Ta3H o6jiacT Ha HKOHOMHnecKaTa MHCbJi. B npo,m>ji>Ke- 
HHe Ha hakojiko roflHHH toh 6enie flHpeKTOp Ha HayHHO-H3CJie#OBaTejicKHfl 

HHCTHTyT npH MHHHCTepCTBOTO Ha BT>HIUHaTa TBprOBHfl H nOJIO)KH MHOTO 

ycHJina 3a npHJiaraHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTHHecKHTe mcto^h 3a 
nporH03HpaHe h rniaroipaHe Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO h Ha bt>huiho- 

TbpTOBCKHTe HH OTHOlIieHHfl. IIOflrOTBH H MHOTO CneitfiaJIHCTH C BHCUie 

o6pa30BaHHe h MJia^H HaynHH Ka#pH. 3arHHa TparHHHO npH aBTOMo6Hjraa 
KaTacTpoc|)a. 

HaHajiHHK Ha ynpaBJieHne "Bncnie o6pa30BaHne" 6enie npo(J). HBaH 
HeHOB, npeno^aBaTeji no nojiHTHnecKa hkohomha. BceoT^aeH aeaTeji 3a 
pa3BHTne Ha BncmeTO o6pa30BaHHe, yMeH n eHeprnneH, aBTOp Ha 3Ha- 
HHTejieH 6pon ny6jiHKaiinn. B cncTeMaTa Ha ynpaBJieHHeTo toh pa6ora 15 
roflHHH, npe3 10 ot kohto 6enie 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTtp n ycmi ^a Cb3flafle 
flo6i>p ynpaBJieHCKn eienn, kohto TBOpnecKH pa6oTenie 3a peniaBaHe Ha 
cjio)KHHTe npo6neMH Ha BncmeTO o6pa30BaHne. 

3aMecTHHK-npeflceflaTeji Ha KHHK npe3 1952-1954 r. 6enie npocj). 
Kpi>CTi>o ,3,o6peB. Ton HMa roneMH 3acnyrn 3a pe(J)opMHpaHeTO Ha 
HKOHOMnnecKOTO o6pa30BaHH h 3a Hanpefltica Ha HKOHOMnnecKaTa hh HayKa. 
IIo flynia toh 6enie otkpht n apyacenioGeH. npnHiinneH n nocjie/jOBaTejieH b 
y6e^caeHHHTa n Bnac^aHHATa ch, toh 6enie Hyam Ha cy6eKTHBH3Ma n 
florMaTH3Ma n yMeenie aa pa6oTH ntJiHoijeHHO etc CKrpyzjHHiiHTe en. B 

308 



C&BeTCKHfl ct>k)3 6eme HaTpynaji fl-bJiroroflHiueH oiiht b HayHHaTa h yne6H0- 
neflarorHHecica achhoct. CnpHOTejiHXMe ce ome b ni>pBHTe ,u;hh Ha 
no3HaHCTBOTO hh, KoraTO 3anoHBax pa6oTa b ynpaBJieHHe "BHcme 
o6pa30BaHHe" ? a 6jiH30CTra h cbBMecraaTa hh achhoct npofltJDKH #o Kpa# 
Ha 5KHBOTa My npe3 1976 r. 

npo(J). Kpi>CTi>o ^o6peB HMa 6oraTa o6mecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKa h 
HayHHO-neaarorHHecKa achhoct. Ton B3eMa yHaerae b 6op6aTa npoTHB 
4>auiH3Ma ? ocbfleH e Ha CMi>pT npe3 1925 r. h eMHrpHpa b CCCP. 3aBi>piHBa 
Bhcuiha HHCTHTyT 3a HapoflHO CTonaHCTBO 'T. B. IIjiexaHOB", 3amHTaBa 
flHcepTaijHfl h npenoflaBa nojiHTHHecica hkohomha b Mockobckha 
HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyT. npe3 1944 r. ce 3aBpi>ma b ET>JirapHfl, H36paH e 
3a HapofleH npe/i;cTaBHTeji h CTaBa mhhhctbp Ha TtproBHflTa bi>b btopoto 
npaBHTejiCTBO Ha TeoprH ^hmhtpob. Ot 1954 ao 1972 r. e flHpeierop Ha 

HKOHOMHHeCKHfl HHCTHTyT npH BAH, OCHOBaTCJI H fl'bJirOrOflHHieH 

pe^aKTOp e Ha en. "HKOHOMHHecica mhckji", npi>B npeaceflaTeji e h Ha 

CbK)3a Ha HKOHOMHCTHTe B El>JirapHfl. ABTOp e Ha MHOrO 3HaHHMH 

ny6jiHKai|HH no npoGjieMHTe Ha nojiHTHHecKaTa hkohomha h 
HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. 

MHoro xy6aBH cnoMeHH ct>m cbxpaHHJi 3a ptKOBOAHHTe CKipyflHHijH - 
CBBeTHHijH h ptKOBO^HTejiH Ha OTflejiH - b YnpaBJieHHe "Bncuie 
o6pa30BaHHe": npocj). rieHKO IlaTapHHCKH, npotj). JIcbho MaHOHJicKH, npo<j). 
Mnxanji MnneB, npocj). Chmob. Otjihhhh BnenaTJieHHfl HMaM ot 
CBBMecTHaTa mh pa6oTa etc cbBeTHHiwre ot KaGnHeTa Ha mhhhctbp Py6eH 
ABpaMOB: AHreji Ey#eB, Bjiaron HBaHOB (eflHH ot noflcvjHMHTe 3ae#HO 
Teoprn ^hmhtpob Ha JlaftnijHrcKHfl npoijec), MapHH Hotob h flp. 

J\o6pu B3aHMOOTHomeHHfl HMax h ycneuiHO paGorax c peieropHTe h 

ptKOBOflCTBaTa Ha TpHTe BHCHIH HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyTa: peKTOpI>T Ha 

BHH npo(j). Toflop HeHOB h HeroBHflT 3aMecTHHK npocj). J\. ^hmhtpob; 
peKTOpi>T Ha BOCH - rp. Cbhiiiob npo(|). Ore(|)aH CTaHeB; peKTOpi>T Ha 
BCH - rp. BapHa npocj). MapKO BMKaHOB. Cbc CBOOTa BHCOKa KBajiH- 
(J)HKaitH5i ? npo(J)ecHOHajiHa Kyjnypa h HayHHH 3HaHHfl, c no3HaHH5rra ch 
Bi>pxy coi^HajiHO-HKOHOMHHecKHTe H3MeHeHH5i Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa, Te ycneniHO pi>KOBOflexa h peniaBaxa ochobhhtc cj)yHKijHH h 
3aaaHH Ha HHCTHTyTHTe no no^roTOBKaTa Ha cneijHajiHCTH h pa3BHTHeTO Ha 
HaynHa fleHHoer. 

He HCKaM aa ce cnnpaM Ha MHoro6poflHHTe h pa3Hoo6pa3HH, 
nojio^KHTejiHH h HeraTHBHH CTpaHH h acneKTH ot ^eHHOcira Ha ynpaBJieHHe 
"Bncnie o6pa30BaHHe" b cnereMaTa Ha KHHK h Ha Mhhhctcpctbo Ha 
KyjiTypaTa (1954-1956), b kohto ynacraax hjih HaGnioflaBax. TpaGBa ome 

309 



e#HH iit>t #a OTGejie^ca fleHHOcira Ha npocj). Py6eH AepaivfOB KaTo 
npeflceaaTeji Ha KHHK h mhhhcti>p Ha KyjiTypaTa, HeroBaTa 3acnyra 3a 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha 6i>JirapCKaTa Hayica, H3KycTBO h KyjiTypa, KaKTo h Ha 
BHCineTO o6pa30BaHHe. Te3H ^eHHOCTH c noflnepTaHO H^eojiorHHecKo 
cbfltp^KaHHe ce ptKOBO^exa MHoro Tpy^HO npH ToraBauiHHTe ycnoBra Ha 
rocnoflCTBO Ha KyjiTa ki>m JiHHHOcrra Ha ToraBaniHHTe napTHHHH h 

fltptfCaBHH ptKOBOflHTCJIH. 

KaTo cbBeTHHK h HJieH Ha ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha hakoh o6mecTBeHH 
opraHH3aiiHH necTO ynacTBax b npoBeacaaHHTe noa ptKOBOflCTBaTa Ha 
Py6eH ABpaMOB 3aceaaHHH Ha pa3JiHHHH KOJierayMH, b cbBemaHM c 
npeflCTaBHTejiHTe Ha bhchihtc ynnjinma h TBOpnecKH opraHH3aimH. 
BneHaTJiHBaine Me, ne b cbohtc ^OKJiaflH h H3Ka3Bamifl toh npaBeme 
o6o6iu;eHHH h oijemcH, kohto pa3KpHBaxa rojiflMa epy/mima h 3HaHHH no 
o6ci>^cflaHHTe BtnpocH. 

AnpnjiCKHHT njieHyM Ha IJK Ha BKII (1956) 

Cnefl CMtprra Ha CTajiHH h pa3o6jiHnaBaHeTO Ha HeroBHTe npecTMi- 
jieHHH, H3Bi>pHieHH 3aeflHO c Jl. Eepna, 3anoHHa 6aBeH npoitec Ha oci>3- 
HaBaHe Ha Bpe^HHTe nocjie/mim ot rocno^CTBOTO Ha Kyjrra ki>m jiHHHOcrra 
h b HaniaTa CTpaHa. IIpe3 MapT 1954 r. ce ebCToa VI KOHrpec Ha EKQ, 
kohto npne BTopHfl neTroflHineH njiaH 3a pa3BHtHeTO Ha CTpaHaTa 3a 
nepHo^a 1954-1958 h OTneTe 3HaHHTejiHHTe nojioacHTejiHH npoMeHH b 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, HayKaTa, H3KycTBOTO, b noflo6p«BaHe Ha 

)KH3HeHOTO paBHHme Ha HapOfla, B COimaJIHO-HKOHOMHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha 

o6mecTBOTO. 

B CBOHTe penieHHfl o6ane KOHrpectT He HanpaBH Heo6xo,zpiMOTo, 3a ^a 
octflH peuiHTejiHO h OTCTpaHH BpeflHHTe nocjie/mim ot KyjiTa b Btjirapna, 

KaKTO H fla OTXBtpJIH npaKTHKyBaHHTe flOTOraBa BOJiyHTapHCTHHHH H 

AHKTaTOpCKH MeTOflH h (|)opMH Ha ynpaBJieHHe. B napraftHHTe cpe/m, cpea 
o6mecTBeHOCTra h oco6eHO cpea HHTejinreHijHOTa ce ycemauie e^HO Ha- 
nperaaTO onaKBaHe: me 6tflaT jih HanpaBeHH a^eKBaTHH h3boah othocho 
ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha napraaTa h ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha crpaHaTa, othocho 4>op- 
MHTe h MeTOflHTe Ha ptKOBOflCTBo; me 6i>fle jih Bt3CTaHOBeHO fleMO- 
KpaTHHHOTO Hanajio b ynpaBJieHHeTO ; me 6i>flaT jih octfleHH penpecnHTe h 
me ce noTBpCH jih OTroBopHOCT ot eK3eKyT0pHTe h TexHHTe BfltxHOBHTenn? 
KyjiTOBCKHTe MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe, cy6eKTHBH3Mi>T h l norMaTH3Mi>T 5 
npofltJiacaBaxa ^a npeo6jiaflaBar bt>b bchhkh paBHHma h c(J)epH Ha 
ynpaBJieHHe h oxa3Baxa OTpnijaTejiHO BT>3,neHCTBHe Btpxy o6mecTBeHOTO 
pa3BHTHe. 3amo He ce npaBexa o6ocHOBaHH h3boah h He ce B3eMaxa 

310 



^ocTarbHHo a^eKBaTHH pemeHHH 3a no,uo6p5iBaHe Ha ynpaBneHnexo? 
npaBexa ce Haft-pa3JiHHHH AoraflKH. Hafi-necTO cpemaHOTO npeanojio^ceHHe 
6eiue, ne p^koboactboto pa36npa CHTyaijHflTa, ho H^Ma CMenocT aa B3eMe 
cbOTBeTHHTe penieHHfl h m H3Jie3e npea napraaTa h o6mecTBOTO c aHajiH3 
Ha flonycHaraTe cjiaGocra, H3BpameHH)i h npecTbnjieHHfl, etc caMOKpHTHKa 

H C peiHHTeJIHH H3BOflH H peHiefflifl. 

J\?i ce o6flCHABaT aonycKaHHTe cjiaGocra h H3Bi>piHeHHTe 6e33aKOHHn 
caMO c KyjiTa kbm JiKHHOcrra Ha e^HH p^KOBOflHTeji 6euie Heo6ocHOBaHo. 
JlnncBanie HHflHBHflyajiHa CMenocT 3a npH3HaBaHe Ha BHHaTa h OTroBop- 
Hocrra Ha KOJieKTHBHHTe opraHH b jinijeTO Ha IIojiht6k)po h npaBHTeji- 

CTBOTO, KaKTO H Ha BCeKH OT HJieHOBCTe Ha BHCHieTO napTHHHO H fli>p»caBHo 

ptKOBOflCTBO. IlapTHHHHTe HJieHOBe, c kohto pa6oTex H KOHTaKTyBax, 
B^pBaxa b cnoco6HOCTra h CTpeMeaca Ha pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe hh aa ycTaHOB^x 
aeMOKpaTHHHHTe MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe, aa npeMaxHaT cy6eKTHBH3Ma h 
florMaTH3Ma b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h b ayxoBHaTa c(|)epa. 
TaKOBa 6euie Bi>3nHTaHHeTO Ha HaineTO noKOJieHHe KOMyHHCTH - # a 
B^pBaMe, ne pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha napraaTa ca Haft-yMHH h Mi>,npH, Hag- 
noHTeHH h 6e3K0pHCTHH ? Haft-npeaaHH Ha aejioTO Ha coijHajiH3Ma, Haft- 
flo6pHTe naTpHOTH h HHTepHaijHOHajiHCTH, Haft. . .Haft. . . Ka3BaM TOBa, KoeTo 
nyBCTBax h BHHCflax ToraBa, a h nocjie b npoflMaceHHe Ha MHoro ixwihh. 

IIo-kt>cho o6ane HHe nocTeneHHO oci>3HaxMe HCTHHaTa othocho Ka- 
necTBaTa Ha bcckh e^HH ot HJieHOBeTe Ha ToraBaumoTO IIojiht6iopo, tcxhh- 

Te CJIOHCHH JIHHHH B3aHMOOTHOHieHHfl, BJiaCTOJIK)6HeTO HM, OTpaHHHeHHTe 

hm 3HaHH)i h JiHncaTa Ha afleKBaTeH ynpaBJieHCKH onHT. He ra ynpeKBaM. 
Te 6axa o6hkhobchh xopa, c hobcihkh cjiaGocra, ho h npHB'bpsaHH kj>m 
onpeaejieHH o6moHOBeimcH h peBomoijHOHHH iichhocth, hhato ep03Hn 
6eine HacxbnHJia b pe3yjiTaT Ha hoboto hm nojioaceHHe KaTO npaKTHHecKH 

HeOipaHHHeHH BJiaCTHHIJH. 

TyK HCKaM aa npHnoMH^ MHCbjrra Ha B. H. JleHHH, ne "hhto e^Ha KJiaca 
b HCTOpH^Ta He e nocrarHajia rocnoflCTBO, ano He e H3#HrHajia cboh 
nonHTHHecKH BOHCflOBe, cboh HejiHH npeflcraBHTejiH, ciiocoGhh ^ a 
opraHH3HpaT flBH^ceHHeTO h aa ro pt>kobo/i#t." B xo^a Ha pa3BHTHeT0 Ha 
o6mecTBOTO Hacrbnnxa abhh npoTHBOpenHfl Me^cay 3HaHH)rra h yMeHMTa, 
kohto npHTeacaBaxa pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha fl'bp^KaBaTa, h o6eKTHBHHTe 
H3HCKBaHH^ 3a BHCOKa npo(j)ecHOHajiHa KOMneTeHTHOCT, kohto nocTaB^me 
HOBOH3rpaaeHaTa ueHTpajiH3HpaHa nuaHOBa HKOHOMHKa. Heo6xo,uHMa 6em e 
CM^Ha b pi>KOBOflHHTe eKHnH Ha napTH^Ta h flfcpacaBaTa. ToBa o6ane TpyzjHo 
ce ocb3HaBanie. ToBa He 6axa HjncaKBH "cbctijh", KaKTO HHe 6axMe ckjiohhh 
aa ch ra npeflCTaB^Me. H aocera ce oraacflM c tojiamo yBaaceHHe ki>m none- 

311 



HeTO OT TAX, 3amOTO BMpeKH BCHHKO Te HMaT OnpefleJieHH HCTOpHHeCKH 

3acjiyra 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha HauiaTa CTpaHa. Te 6axa hochtcjih, ho h 
"^cepTBa" Ha KyjiTOBCKHTe MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe, npaKTHKyBaHH h npHJia- 

raHH nOfl BJIHflHHeTO Ha MHO)KeCTBO 06eKTHBHH H Cy6eKTHBHH (|)aKTOpH h 
yCJIOBHfl. 

06eKTHBHHflT XOfl Ha pa3BHTHeTO Ha CTpaHaTa, peBOJIIOIJHOHHHTe 
COIIHaJIHO-HKOHOMHHeCKH H3MeHeHHfl Iipe3 ni>pBOTO aeceTHJieTHe Ha 

KOMyHHCTHHecKO ynpaBJieHHe h H3rpa^caaHe Ha coijHajiH3Ma H3HCKBanie ot 
ijeHTpajiHHTe opraHH Ha napraaTa h fli>p^caBaTa a^eKBaTHH h HaynHo 
o6ocHOBaHH peiueHH^ no npo6jieMHTe, kohto nocTaBjmie o6mecTBeHOTo 
pa3BHTHe. Heo6xoflHMO 6euie aa ce npeoflOJieaT nocjie,nHijHTe ot Kyjrra kt>m 

JIHHHOCTTa H peiHHTeJIHO RQ CQ OTXBtpjIH CeKTaHTCKO-flOrMaTHHHHHT 

noflxofl h cy6eKTHBH3Mi>T b ynpaBJieHHeTo. 

PeuiHTejiHa pojia Te3H Bi>npocH rzl ce nocTaBAT otkphto H3Hrpaxa 
peuieHH^Ta Ha XX KOHrpec Ha KIICC, cbctoaji ce npe3 AHyapH 1956 r. B 
ocHOBaTa hm CToeuie CTpeMeacbT aa ce npeoaojiesT KaTeropHHHO Bpe^HHTe 
nocjieflHijH ot KyjiTa klm JiHHHOcrra Ha CTajiHH h o6Kpi>^ceHHeTO My b 
Ci>BeTCKHH ci>k)3 h b MOKflyHapoflHHTe OTHOiueHHH. Oco6eHO 3aiueMeTHBam 
6euie "ceKpeTHH^T" flOKJiaa Ha H. C. XpyuiHOB npea 3aKpHTOTO 3ace,ziaHHe 
Ha KoHrpeca. To3H flOKJiaa 3anoHHa aa ce Here Ha 3aKpHTH napTHHHH 
CT>6paHHH h y Hac. HMax bt>3M02choct fla ro nya 3ae^HO c rpyna napTHHHH 
qjieHOBe, 3aBT>pniHJiH CBBeTCKH BHCiHH yne6HH 3aBefleHH^ ? b e^Ha 3ajia Ha 
TpaflCKH^ KOMHTeT Ha napTH^Ta b CocJ)h^. CjiyiuaxMe KaTO XHnHOTH3HpaHH, 
Maxap fla 6axMe nyBajin Bene hhkoh cjiyxoBe 3a HenoBeniKHTe npecrc>- 
njieHHH Ha OrajiHH, Eepna h taxhoto oGicpioKeHHe, 3a KOHijeHTpaijHOHHHTe 
jiarepH, 3a CMtprra Ha mhjihohh HeBHHHH xopa. Qiomham ch KaK 
H3JW30XMe ot 3ajiaTa c Tepa h c flpyrHTe cjiymaTejiH, noBeneTO ot kohto 
no3HaBax ? BKynoM Hac^maxMe Ha neHKH b rpa^cKaTa rpa^HHa h ocTaHaxMe 
TaM flo pa3Ci>MBaHe. HyBaxa ce caMO oT^enHH (J)pa3H, H3pa3flBam;H 
M'bHHTejiHH npe^KHB5iBaHH5i. He Mora #a onnuia jihhhhtc ch npeacHBflBaHHfl 
h npe^cHB^BaHHHTa Ha ocTaHajnrre cjiyuiaTejin... Mi>Ka H3ni>jiBauie cbpiiara 
hh... OcTaBauie yTexaTa, ne bhhobhhtc, hjih noHe hakoh ot tax, ca 
nojiyHHJiH Bi>3Me3flHe. HcTopHjrra aafle 3acjiy^ceHa oijeHKa Ha 'bcjihkhtc 
Boac^OBe" h TexHHTe "3acjiyra". . . 

H TaKa, nofl HaTHCKa Ha o6eKTHBHHTe ycjiOBHH Ha o6mecTBeHOTO 

pa3BHTHe H Ha 06lIjeCTBeH0T0 MHeHHe, BKJUOHHTCJIHO h Ha napTHHHHTe 

opraHH3aijHH ? b HanajioTO Ha anpHJi 1956 r. ce npOBe^e njieHyM IJK Ha 
EKEL Bi>3XBajDiBaH h OTpnnaH, AnpHJiCKHOT njieHyM H3Hrpa HCTOpHHecica 
pojia b pa3BHTHeTO Ha Bi>jirapHH. Ton ce npoBe^e npn 3aKpHTH BpaTH. B 

312 



xe3H ;i;hh ce pa3npocTpaHMBaxa MHoro cnyxoBe h npeanojio^ceHHM 3a octph 
cnopoBe MQyKjjy ynacTHHiiHTe b mieHyMa, 3a npoTHBopenM h cGjibcbiih Ha 
pa3JiHHHH MHeHH^ h oijeHKH Meawy ptKOBOflHTenHTe Ha napraaTa H 
^p^caBaTa. CnoMH^M ch KaK BeflinoK ce pa3xo)K,uaxMe c HBaH Bhachob. Ha 
tn>jia Ha yn. "PaKOBCKH" h yji. "MocKOBCKa" cpeujHaxMe IleKO TaKOB. Toh 
cnoflenH, ne Ha nneHyMa Bt>jiko HepBeHKOB e nofljio^ceH Ha o^cecToneHa 
KpHTHKa, HanpaBeHH ca MHoro npaB^HBH oijeHKH 3a HeroBaTa aefiHOCT h 3a 

^eHHOCTTa Ha LJeHTpaJIHHfl KOMHTeT, npaBHTeJICTBOTO H OXZjeJIHH ptKO- 

BOAHTenH. HMa h MHoro jihhhh Hana^KH. 

- ToBa e, CKopo bchhko me 3HaeTe, noBflHraHKH bok,uh, 3ara,m>HHO Ka3a 
6afi rieKO h noflaae pi>Ka 3a aoBH^c^aHe. 

IU,e HanpaBfl OTKJioHeHHe. rio3HaBaxMe ao6pe IleKO TaKOB, kohto no 
oHOBa BpeMe 6euie npeaceflaTen Ha LJempajiHHfl KoonepaTHBeH ct>k)3. Toh 
qecTO KaHeuie HJieHOBeTe Ha HauiaTa Kare,upa Ha CLBemaHM h 3ace,zjaHHfl b 
ornaB^BaHHH ot Hero ci>K)3. HyBCTBame ce, ne MQyKjsy Hero h Bi>jiko 
^epBeHKOB ijapn B3aHMHO yBa^ceHHe. IIpe3 1957 r. Bt>jiko HepBeHKOB b 
KanecTBOTO ch Ha 3aMecTHHK-npeaceaaTen Ha MHHHCTepcKHfl cbbct npncLC- 
TBa Ha HaijHOHajiHO CLBeujaHHe na U,eHTpajiHHfl KoonepaTHBeH ct>k)3. Cuy- 
iname BHHMaTejiHO, ho necTO ce OTBJiHname h nnnienie h pncyBame Bi>pxy 
jihct xapraa. A3 h MOHTe KonerH npoHBHXMe jno6onHTCTBaxMe KaKBO e 
Ha^pacKaji, cjiea KaTO toh c ycMHBKa npeaa^e JiHCTa Ha 6afi rieKO cjie# 
3aKpHBaHeTO Ha ebBemaHHeTO. OKa3a ce, ne e Hanncaji craxoBe, nocBeTeHH 
Ha rieKO TaKOB... 

Hakojiko flHH cnea cpemara hh c 6afi TLeKO nocjie^Ba o^HiyiajiHO 
ei>o6meHHe nneHyMa h 3a hakoh HeroBH pememifl, CBT>p3aHH c npoMeHH b 
ctcTaBa Ha nojiHT6iopo h ceKpeTapnaTa Ha LJK Ha BKII. Ct>ctoh ce 
3ace#aHHe Ha Hapo^HOTO ci>6paHHe, KoeTO npne ocTaBKaTa Ha Bt>jiko 
HepBeHKOB h H36pa 3a MHHHCTtp-npcuceaareji Ahtoh K)roB. HepBeHKOB 
o6ane ocraHa b ctcTaBa Ha npaBHTejiCTBO KaTO HeroB 3aMecTHHK- 
npe^ceflaTeji naK #0 1961 r., a 3a h3bcctho BpeMe 6eme h mhhhctt>p Ha 
npocBeTaTa h KyjiTypaTa (1957-1958). IIoji3Bame ce c tojiamo yBa^KeHHe, 
BtnpeKH ocipnTe kphthkh cpemy HeroBHTe mcto^h Ha ynpaBJieHHe. 

B CTpaHaTa 3anoHHaxa fla ce npOBOK^aT napTHHHH eb6paHHfl, kohto 
TpM6Bame ^a pa3>iCHflT pemeHHjrra Ha njieHyMa. Te nporanaxa mhoto 6ypH0 

H KpHTHHHO, C OTKpHTO He^OBepHe H HeflOBOJICTBO OT HanpaBCHHTC 

npoMeHH. riapTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl npn Bucuiuz hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT 
npOBe^e CBoeTO cb6paHHe b ayflHTOpHH JSTs 5. ^OKJiaa 3a pa6oTaTa Ha 
nneHyMa H3Hece ^hmhtbp EparaHOB, HJieH Ha IJK, 6hbih aeeii Ha EC/JET, 
Hapo^eH npeacTaBHTen h hjich Ha Bhchim cbbct Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT 

313 



Ilo xapaKTep toh 6eine jni6epajieH h MHoro flo6-bp opaTOp, MaficTop Ha 
cjioboto h nepoTO. EaxMe Bene npHjrrejiH h 6jiH3ocira hh meme aa yKperiHe 
npe3 cjieflBamHTe ro^HHH. A3 6ax b p^koboactboto Ha cb6paHHeTO. 

Pa3HCKBaHHHTa 6axa MHoro ocTpH. H3Ka3aHa 6euie no^Kpena 3a 
pemeHHtfra othocho Bpe^HHTe nocjieamiH ot cy6eKTHBH3Ma h flomairoMa 
b ynpaBJieHHeTo Ha bchhkh c<j)epH Ha o6mecTBeHaTa achhoct. KpHTHKyBaxa 
ce HapyineHHHTa Ha B^TpeuiHonapTHfiHara h nojiHTHnecKaTa aeMOKpaima, 
rpeuiKHTe h HenpaBHJiHHTe peineHHfl Ha MHoro BT>npocH Ha hkohomhhcc- 
koto pa3BHTHe h o6pa30BaHHeTO. Chjiho HeflOBOJicTBo o6ane npeflH3BHK- 
Baxa nojioBHHHaTHTe H3BOflH 3a rpeuiKHTe Ha oTflejiHHTe p^KOBOflHTenn, 3a 
BHHaTa h npecTi>njieHHHTa Ha hakoh ot tax h oco6eHO 3a JiHijaTa, B3ejin 
ynacrae bi>b BtTpeiHHonapTHHHHTe penpecHH. HacTOATejiHO np03Byna 
HCKaHe 3a npoBe>K,aaHe Ha H3Bi>Hpe,aeH napTHeH KOHrpec, kohto aa HanpaBH 
a^eKBaTHH h cmcjih h3bo;jh h aa B3eMe paflHKajiHH peineHHH 3a npeMaxBaHe 
BpeflHHTe nocjieflHijH ot HenpaBHJiHHTe (J)opMH h MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe, 3a 
ocBoGo^K^aBaHe ot ajtbechoct h H3KJiK>HBaHe ot napraaTa Ha bhhobhhtc, 
He3aBHCHMO ot TexHHTe MHHajiH 3acjiyrn. 

^hmhti>p BpaTaHOB 6euie MHoro pa3TpeB02ceH h npefljioacn, pi>kobo- 
flefiKH ce ot yKa3aHHHTa Ha IJK, aa He ce npHeMa TaKaBa pe30JiioiiHfl, a 
B'bnpocbT aa ce peuiH ot bhchihtc napTHHHH opraHH. "MHoro 6ypHO 6eme 
eb6paHHeTO, MHoro 6opnecKH 6axa H3Ka3BaHHOTa, ho bchhko 3aBT>piiiH 
flo6pe. A3 npe^CTaBHx TaKTHHHO pemeroiflTa Ha nneHyMa, 6ax nocpemHaT 
flo6pe ot Cb6paHHeTO h He nojiynnx yKOpn ot 1JK, KaKTO CTaHa c hakoh 
moh KOJiern", cnoflejranie no-KBCHO ^hmhtbp EparaHOB.* 

Hakoh npeKaneHO ocTpH H3Ka3BaHHa Ha cb6paHHHTa Ha flpyra 
napTHHHH opraHH3aijHH o6ane 6axa onpefleneHH ot LJeHTpajiHM komhtct 
KaTO He^onycTHMH h KJieBeTHHHecKH, KaTO onHT aa ce noOTemiT nocrar- 
HaTHTe ycnexH. Ilpe3 cemeMBpH 1956 r. ce cbctoa hob nneHyM Ha LJK, 
kohto noTBi>pflH npaBHJiHocira Ha pemeHPWTa Ha AnpHJicKM nneHyM h 
oflo6pn 6op6aTa Ha LJeHTpajiHHfl komhtct h Ha flpyrarre napTHHHH 3BeHa 
npoTHB onHTHTe Ha KJiacoBM Bpar aa 6i>fle pa3Kone6aHO cuhhctboto Ha 
napTHiiTa h Hapo^a, cpemy onHTHTe b oxzjcjihh 3BeHa Ha napTHHTa aa 6i>,ae 
BHeceH aHTHnapTHeH ,uyx Ha pa3Ji02ceHHe, ape6Ho6yp^coa3Ha pa3nycHaTOCT h 
ecHa(|)mHHa. 

PeanHH jih 6axa Te3H oiiemcH? no Moe MHeHHe Te 6axa chjiho npeyBe- 



* IIpe3 1981 r. 6eme ny6jiHKyBaHa KHHraTa Ha fljdMwrbp BpaTaHOB "CrpeMeacH h 6op6H". Toh mh 
x no^apn c HaOTHc: "Ha Tepa h AHreji HaymeBH c Han-xy6aBH nyBCTBa h 3a cnoMeH ot 
GopnecKHTe roflHHH" (29 iohh 1981 r.). 

314 



jiHHeHH. 3a npeoAOJiflBaHe Ha noconeHHTe 5*BJieHH5i e HeoGxo/piMo, 
noflHepTaBaine ce b peuieHHOTa Ha mieHyMa, ^a ce pa3rpi>ma HCTHHCKa 
KpHTHKa h caMOKpHTHKa b i^Jiara napraa. CnnpaM ce Ha Te3H oijchkh h 
yica3aHHfl, 3amoTO Te HMaxa OTpaaceHHe Bi>pxy AeHHOcira Ha napTHHHaTa 

OpraHH3ai|H5I BT>B BHCIHHfl HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT. IIpe3 cjieABamHTe 

hakojiko roflHHH 3apaflH TaKHBa H3Ka3BaHHfl h npo^BH, 3a flonycKaHe Ha 
"rHHJi JiH6epanH3'bM" 6axa KpHTHKyBaHH h HaKa3aHH pe,mma napTHHHH 
HjieHOBe. Cjiefl 1956 r. a3 6%x h3bcctho BpeMe HJieH Ha pi>kobo,zjctboto h 
ceKpeTap (3aeflHO c rpnrop BaKJineB) Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha 
npeno^aBaTejiHTe bt>b Bhcihha hkohomkhcckh HHCTHTyT (1958-1962) h 
B3eMax ynacTHe b flHCKycHHTe Ha CT>6paHHflTa, kohto H3KJiK)HHxa ot BKH 
hhkoh KOJiern KaTO npo^). Ctohji CyKMaH/pKHeB, /joij. EaxneBaHOB, aoiJ. 
Mhhko Ka3aHfl»cHeB h pp. rio-KT>CHO HaKa3aHHOTa hm 6axa OTMeHeHH ot 
cfcmHTe napTHHHH opraHH, kqhto HacToaBaxa 3a taxhoto HajiaraHe etc 
3anjiaxa aa ce pa3nycHe ijajiara hh napTHHHa opraHH3aijHfl. 

KaK ce oiieHABauie 3HaneHHeTO Ha AnpHJiCKHfl njieHyM npe3 Te3H 
toahhh? LU,e ce cnpa KpaTKO Ha TOBa, 3amoTO no-KT>CHO toh 6enie npea- 
CTaB^H KaTO "poac6a" Ha To^op )Khbkob, hhcto rocno^CTBO b nonHTHKaTa 
Ha napTH5iTa h fli>p5KaBaTa npoflT>JiacH noBene ot 30 roflHHH. HancTHHa 
AnpHJiCKH5iT njieHyM ocb^H h OTXBtpjiH He JiHHHOTa 3a H3rpa)KflaHe Ha 
coitHajiH3Ma, a nopoHHHTe MeTO^H, rpeniKH h cna6ocTH b hchhoto 
oci>mecTB5iBaHe. B H3BecTHa creneH 6axa Bt3CTaHOBeHH ^eMOKpaTHHHHTe 
npHHipmn b ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha napTHOTa h b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha ,m>p)KaBaTa. 

rijieHyMtT 3aflT>JDKH IIOJIHT6lOpO H flpyTHTe pl>KOBOflHH opraHH aa B3eMaT 

MepKH 3a ycbBT>pHieHCTBaHe Ha pa6oTaTa b ochobhhtc ceicropH Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa h b #i>p)KaBHHfl anapaT, 3a noflo6pflBaHe Ha MaTepnajiHOTO h 
KyjiTypHO-o6pa30BaTejiHO nojioaceHHe Ha HaceneHHeTo; BOflemn npHHi^nnn 
Tp)i6Banie ^a CTaHaT yKpenBaHeTO Ha kojickthbhoto ptKOBO^CTBO h 
Bi>3CTaHOBaBaHeTO Ha aeMOKpaTHHHHTe npHHi^nnn npn H3flnraHeTO Ha Kafl- 
pme, cna3BaHeTO Ha 3aKOHHOCTra, pea6njiHTHpaHeTO Ha hcbhhho nocTpa- 
flajiHTe ot penpecHHTe Ha opraHHTe Ha /J'bpacaBHaTa cnrypHOCT. 

IIpe3 Mecei^HTe h ro^KHHTe cjiea AnpHJicKHfl njieHyM 6axa npnera 
peflHi^a BaacHH peineHHa: nocTaHOBJieHMTa Ha U,K Ha EKII h 
MnHHCTepCKH5i ctBeT "3a no-HaTaTbuiHOTO yKpenBaHe h pa3iHHpaBaHe Ha 
TK3C" (iojih 1956); "3a 3a,zjaHHTe h 3HaneHHeTO Ha OTenecTBeHHfl (J)poHT" 
(iojih 1958); "3a pa3uiHpflBaHe npaBaTa Ha pT>KOBOAHTejiHTe Ha 
npeflnpH^TH5iTa h npo(])CT>io3HHTe oprami3aijHH" (anpHJi 1958) h ap. 
rtojio^ceHH 6axa ycnjiHH 3a npeoflOJiflBaHe Ha ceKTaHTCTBOTO h florMaTH3Ma 
b HayHHaTa h KyjiTypHa fleiiHOCT, Ha cy6eKTHBH3Ma h aflMHHHCTpnpaHeTO 

315 



npH taxhoto ptKOBOflCTBO. ToBa CT>3flafle 6jiaronpHOTHH ycjiOBHH 3a 
HanpeatKa Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayKa h noBHniH HefiHaTa pojin h 
OTroBopHOCT b pemaBaHeTO Ha peaima npo6neMH Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h Ha 
OTflejiHHTe CTonaHCKH cy6eKTH (npe/jnpHflTHfl h o6e/jHHeHHfl) Hpe3 HaynHH 
MeroAH Ha aHajiH3 h npHJiaraHe Ha e(J)HKacHH pememifl, a^eKBaTHH Ha 
o6eKTHBHHTe noTpe6HOCTH. IIobhihh ce pojwTa Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe Kaapn, 
Ha BHCiHHTe yne6HH 3aBeaeHH^ h oco6eHO Ha Bhcihha hkohomhhcckh 
HHCTHTyT KaTO Bo^emo yne6eH h HayneH uenrbp. 

"AnpHJicKH^T nneHyM pea6HJiHTHpa 3HaneHHeTO Ha HKOHOMHHeciarre 
KaapH h HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayKa", ineryBaHKH ce Ka3a To/jop 5Khbkob npe# 
CTyzjeHTHTe hkohomhcth. Tpa6Ba aa OTGeneaca, ne cnea AnpHJicKHa 
njieHyM toh MHoro necTO ce cpemame c npe/jcTaBHTejiH Ha co^hhckhh 
napTHeH aKTHB h H3Hac;mie noflpo6HH AOKJiaan no aiayajiHH BtnpocH, 
CBi>p3aHH c HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe, c nonHTHKaTa h pemeHHOTa Ha 
npaBHTencTBOTO h U,K. ToBa yBejiHHaBame HeroBHfl aBTOpHTeT Ha ptKOBo- 
AHTeji c roneMH bt>3mo)khocth. 

KaK ce pa3BHBaxa Te3H npouecn npe3 cjie^BamHTe toahhh e Btnpoc, 
kohto H3HCKBa BHHMaTenHO H3ynaBaHe h o6eKTHBHa npeijeHKa. Mora #a 
Ka^ca, ne no-HaTarbniHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayKa, HefiHHTe 

npHHOCH B pa3BHTHeTO Ha 06meCTB0T0 H nO-KOHKpeTHO BT>B ^OpMHpaHeTO 

Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa nojiHTHKa Ha a^pacaBaTa 3aBHcexa ot MHoro o6eKTHBHH 

H Cy6eKTHBHH (J)aKTOpH. 

ITpo(|). HeaH Cre^auoB 

IU,e ch no3BOJia jxpL H3non3BaM cnoMeHHTe ch 3a e^Ha "H3noBea" Ha 
npo(j). HBaH CTe(J)aHOB ? kohto ct>m 3anHcan npe^H mhoto toahhh, 3a #a 
noKa^ca MexaHH3Ma Ha nonHTHHecKHTe npecneaBaHHH no BpeMe Ha Kyjrra 
kt>m jiHHHOcrra. Ilpotj). HBaH Ore(j)aHOB, kohto no-KbCHO 6eme H36paH 3a 
aKa^eMHK, a npe3 1982 r. nojiynn 3BaHHeTO 'Tepofi Ha Hapo^Ha penyGnmea 
EtnrapHfl", e e^Ha ot ^cepTBHTe Ha CTajiHHCKHfl Tepop b HamaTa cTpaHa. 
Toh 6enie ocb^eH b paMKHTe Ha npoijeca cpemy Tpafino Koctob. 

J\o cpe^aTa Ha 1956 r. He ro no3HaBax jihhho. "3a#OHHo" o6ane HMax 
mhoto flo6pn BnenaTJieHH^ ot HayHHHTe My ny6jiHKaijHH h ot AeHHOcrra My 

KaTO MHHHCTbp Ha (^HHaHCHTe B npaBHTCJICTBOTO Ha TeOprH ,ZjHMHTpOB. 

Pa36npa ce, ot npecaTa 3Haex 3a noBe/jeHHeTO My no BpeMe Ha npoiieca 
cpemy Tpafino Koctob, kocto 6enie ocTaBHJio y MeH HenpHjrrao 
BnenaTJieHHe: toh c totobhoct cb/jeficTBame Ha eb^a c noKa3aHH5i cpemy 
flpyra noflCbaHMH, ho 6enie ohcbhaho, ne HeroBHTe noKa3aHHfl h npH3HaHHfl 
ca 6hjih H3Tpi>rHaTH ot cneacTBeHHTe opraHH Hpe3 rojiflM (J)H3HHecKH h 

316 



M opaneH HaTHCK. 

B noKa3aHHHTa ch HBaH OrecJmHOB 6euie cnoMeHan h hmcto Ha moh 
3eMJiHK reH. nertp At. BpaHneB, kohto 3a Hac h bchhkh 6aTanaHH 6eme 
hcthhckh naTpHOT, HfleajiHCT, KpaiiHO HecreH, o6aflTejieH h xyMaHeH hobck. 
BpaHHeB 6euie 3aBi>pniHJi 4 )H3HKO " MaTeMaTHHecKHH <J>aKyjrreT npH 
Co(j)HHCKHfl fl'bp^aBeH yHHBepCHTeT, B3e fleSHO ynacrae b opraHH3HpaHeTO 
Ha B'bop'b^eHaTa 6op6a npoTHB (|>aniH3Ma h npe3 1943-1944 r. 6eme hjich 
Ha DiaBHHfl ma6 Ha HapofloocBoGoflHTejiHaTa BtcTaHHHecKa apMM 
(HOB A). Cjiea ycTaHOB^BaHeTO Ha Bjiacrra Ha OrenecTBeHHfl cj)poHT 
3aeMauie oiroBopHH ajtb^hocth b MHHHCTepcTBO Ha OT6paHaTa, 3a kocto 
Bene cnoMeHax. IIpe3 1949 r. 6euie penpecnpaH no jii>5kjihbh o6bhhchh5i 3 
ho cjiea 6e3KpaftHH hhkbh3hijhh b npofltJDKeHHe Ha i^jia roflHHa 6eme 
ocBo6ofleH h HantJiHO pea6HJiHTHpaH. 

C npocj). HBaH CTec^aHOB ce 3ano3HaxMe cjiea KaTO H3Jie3e ot 3aTBOpa h 
bchhkh o6BHHeHHfl cpeiuy Hero 6#xa CHera. Toh e npeKapaji 3aa peuieTKHTe 
6jih30 ce^eM roflHHH Ha MOpajieH h (^h3hhcckh TOpM03, oxyjieH 
nonHTHHecKH, MaKap h HantJiHO HeBHHeH. npe3 bchhkoto TOBa BpeMe o6ane 
toh )KHBeeji c Hafle^c^a b Tbp)KecTBOTO Ha HCTHHaTa h c BHpa b roneMHTe 

HfleaJIH, Ha KOHTO CJiyflCHJI H 3a TBp)KeCTBOTO Ha KOHTO 6HJI OTflaJI BCHHKO, 
KOeTO MOn>JL 

Cjiea ocBo6o^cflaBaHeTO My ot 3aTBOpa HBaH Ore(|)aHOB nocTbnn Ha 
pa6oTa KaTO npo(f>ecop bt>b Bhcuihh HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyT h 6eiue 
npneT mhoto paayuiHO ot KOJienrre, ot iicjihh npenoaaBaTejicKH kojickthb. 
^ecTO o6cb^c^axMe c Hero opraHH3aijHflTa Ha yne6HHfl npoijec h caMO- 
CT05iTejiHaTa pa6oTa Ha cryfleHTHTe. Toh HMauie 6oraT onHT, no3HaBauie 
npaKTHKaTa Ha 3anaflHHTe h ctBeTCKHTe yHHBepcHTeTH, c oxoTa cnoflejumie 
CBoeTO MHeHHe h npeflJio)KH fla 6i>flaT ci>3flafleHH (])aKyjrraTHBHH cneijHa- 

JIH3HpaHH KypCOBC 

HBaH Cre(j)aHOB HJieHyBame b e^Ha ot napTHHHHTe opraHH3aijHH Ha 
HHCTHTyTa. B^xMe 3Jie H3HeHa,a;aHH h CMyTeHH, KoraTO y3HaxMe, ne toh 
othobo e H3KJiK)HeH ot napTHOTa no yKa3aHHe Ha U,K h TK Ha BKn. CbmaTa 
ynacT 6euie cnojierana h flpyrme noflCb^HMH b npoijeca cpemy Tpanno 
Koctob. noBOfl 3a TOBa CTaHajio HantJiHO 3aKOHHOTO h HeocnopHMO HCKaHe 
fla hm 6i>fle BtpHaTO HMymecTBOTO, othcto no BpeMe Ha npoijeca. To3H xor 
Ha napTHHHHTe opraHH 6enie onHT 3a cnjiauiBaHe Ha napTHHHHTe HJieHOBe 
cjiea t. Hap. YHrapcKH cbGhtha npe3 eceHTa 1956 r., a no-^ajieHHaTa My 
lien 6enie ^a 6i>flaT cnpeHH 3anoHHajiHTe npoijecn Ha ,a;eMOKpaTH3HpaHe b 
HCHBOTa Ha napTHHTa h o6mecTBOTO, aa 6i>fle ycMHpeHO Ha^HramoTO ce 
He^OBOJiCTBO ot nocjieflHiprre Ha KyjiTa kt>m JiHHHOcrra. CKopo o6ane 

317 



HJieHCTBOTO HM B BKQ 6eme nOBTOpHO BT>3CTaHOBeHO, a HMyiljeCTBOTO hm 

6e Bi>pHaTO huh nacTHHHO 3anjiaTeH0. T03H tkqct ce npHnncBame Ha To^op 
)Khbkob, kohto yac ce 6hji HaMecHJi, 3a aa Bi>3CTaHOBH cnpaBeflUHBoerra. 

IIpe3 eceHTa Ha 1960 r. 3ae,zjHO c HBaH Ore(j)aHOB h KOJierHTe HBaH 
HnneB h HBaH Bhachob noceTHXMe BaTaK c TOKy-mo 3aKyneHHH ot HBaH 
HnneB "Mockbhh". Pa3rjieaaxMe cejiOTO, noceTHXMe ijtpKBaTa-KocTHHija 
Ha acepTBHTe ot AnpHJicKOTO BteraHHe h ToraBamHM MantK h CKpOMeH 
My3efi, nocBeTeH Ha 3arHHajiHTe b 6op6aTa npOTHB $auiH3Ma. 3ano3Hax rn c 
KMeTa, napTHHHH^ ceKpeTap h flpyra jnma. BenepaxMe y nejw mh Mapna 
ToMOBa. no BpeMe Ha BenepflTa npn Hac floftfle CLceflKaTa 6a6a Co(j)Ha, 
MaHKaTa Ha reH. BpaHHeB. 3aBtp3a ce pa3roBOp 3a Hero h ocraHajiHTe ii 
chhobc ^BaMaTa no-MJia^H HBaHOBiyi ocTaHaxa aa HomyBaT y Jiejra, a HHe 
c HBaH CTe(|)aHOB othaoxmc y Hac. TaM toh ce pa3roBopH c 6ama mh h ro 
pa3nHTa 3a noMHHi>Ka h 6ma Ha 6aTanaHH. 

Ha apyraTa cyTpHH HBaH Ore(j)aHOB CTaHa MHoro paHo, onje b 3opH. 
Ycerax, ne ce pa3xo^caa H3 Manias hh flBop. CTaHax h a3. 3aroBOpHXMe ce 
h HeyceTHO H3JM30XMe ot flBopa h TptrHaxMe Ha pa3X0flKa. H3JM30XMe ot 
cejiOTO h noexMe ki>m hhbhtc b nocoKa kt>m MecTHOcrra IJapeB komhh - 
Majn>K Bptx ot xtJiMHCTaTa Bepnra, kohto onacBa ceBepHaTa nacT Ha BaTaK, 
na3H ro ot ceBepHHTe BeTpOBe h ro OTfleiw ot KpacHBOTO BaTauiKO none, 
KoeTO ce npocTHpaine Ha mactoto Ha auemuuK H30BHp. 

3aH3KaHBaxMe MajiKaTa CTpi>MHHHa no ntTeKHTe Meacay hhbhtc, kohto 
no3HaBax KaKTO ynHijHTe Ha BaTaK, tt>h KaTO HMaxMe flBe hhbh b Ta3H nacT 
Ha cejicKOTO 3eMJiHme. CirLHijeTO npi>CKame m>pBHTe ch jtlhh. Beme ome 
xnaflHO, ho mhoto npHATHO. 3anoHHaxa aa ce o6aac,naT noiiHHTe nTHHKH. 
Jltxame MHpnc Ha TpeBa h 6hjikh. BtpBAXMe h MT>nHaxMe, pa^BaHKH ce Ha 
npnpoflaTa. 

BHe3anHO o6ane HBaH Ore(j)aHOB Hapymn 6jia^ceHOTO hh MtnnaHHe. 
Toh cnoaejiH kojiko mhoto ro H3Mi>HBa o6ctohtcjictboto, ne no BpeMe Ha 
pa3nHTa b ci>fla e cnoMeHan hmcto Ha reH. ncrtp BpaHneB, 6e3 H3o6mo fla 
ro e no3HaBaji jihhho h aa e HMan HHKaKBH KOHTaKTH c Hero. no3HaBaji ro 
caMO BH3yajrao, 3Haeji 3a HeroBaTa pojw b aHTH^aniHCTKOTO ABH^ceHHe, a 
ctmo h ne e ptKOBOflHTeji Ha bochhoto pa3y3HaBaHe. 

HeroBHAT pa3Ka3 3Bynenie KaTO H3CTpaaaHa H3noBea. ^Ba-TpH ahh 
npeflH HananoTO Ha npoijeca cpemy Tpafino Koctob toh 6hji noceTeH b 
3aTBOpHHHecKaTa khjiha ot ToraBauiHHH mhhhctt>p Ha B-bTpeniHHTe pa6oTH 
Pycn XpHCT030B, npHflpyacaBaH ot npeflCTaBHTeji Ha HKB^ reH. HepHOB. 
XpHCT030B npeflCTaBHn HBaH OrecJmHOB, Ka3an hhkojiko ayMH 3a 
"o6BHHeHHHTa" cpemy Hero h 3a pojiOTa My b npoijeca. Bepoarao HepHOB 

318 



MHoro floGpe e 3Haen 3a bchhko TOBa b noapoGHOCTH - Ta HajiH KaTO 
np^ CTaBHTejI Ha 3JiOBemHA y6Heij Eepna toh 6hji e^HH ot opraHH3aTOpHTe 

Ha CJieflCTBHeTO H Ha 2CeCT0KHTe HHKBH3HIJHH, eflHH OT "CBHHHHTeJIHTe" H 

BfltxHOBHTenHTe Ha CKajn>neHHTe nojiHTHHecKH oGbhhchhh. 
HepHOB ce o6i>pHaji KbM OrecJmHOB h Ka3aji: 

- A y6e>KfleH, hto Ha cy^e Bbi 6yneTe roBopHTb npaB^y. 

- EflHa CBeraa Hafle>Kfla orpa 3a MHr ci>3HaHHeTO mh - pa3tca3Bame 
CTe4>aHOB ? kohto ToraBa He no/i;o3Hpaji 3a ponaTa h aejiaTa Ha ^epHOB. - 
Mo^ce 6h HCTHHaTa 3a npoijeca e CTaHana flocToaHHe Ha ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha 
napTHHTa, b kocto HHe npo,m>jraaBaxMe aa BapBaMe He3aBHCHMO ot bchhko, 
Tana, KaKTO BflpBaxMe b HauiHTe H#eajiH h b CBO#ra hcbhhhoct. HHe, 
noflCbAHMHTe b npoijeca, MHcnexMe, ne e craHajio HflKaKBO CTpauiHo Heao- 
pa3yMemie, ne TOBa, kocto ce cjiyHBa c Hac He e H3BecTHO Ha napTHHHHTe 

pbKOBOflHTeJIH. 

- Bbi xoTHTe, hto6m % roBopHJi npaB^y? 

- J\di, TonbKO npaBfly, - OTroBopHJi ^epHOB. 

- Ecjih xoTHTe npaB^y, to % BaM ctcaflcy, hto Bee 3to - jio>Kb! 

HepHOB h XpHCT030B B6eceHH BeflHara HanycHajiH KHJiHOTa. Cjiea 10-15 
MHHyTH npH HBaH CTe4>aHOB HaxnyjiH flBaMara Mi>HHTejiH, kohto Bo^ejiH 
cjie^cTBHeTO cpemy Hero. 

- Pa36pax rpeniKaTa ch, 6ax ce 3a6jiyflHJi h nona^Hax b KJionKa. 
no6i>p3ax aa ycnoKoa cjieflOBaTejnrre, ne no BpeMe Ha cb^eGHOTO 
3aceaaHHe me no;wbp)KaM noflnHcamrre Bene noKa3aHHfl h hm oGachhx, ne 
ci>m ce noflBen ot ayMHTe Ha HepHOB 6e3 aa 3HaM koh e toh. Pa3MHHa mh 
ce. Te noB^pBaxa Ha o6emaHH#ra mh... 

EflHH aeH npe^H npoijeca, kohto TpaGBajio m ce npoBe^e b rojwMaTa 
3ana Ha Bochhhh KJiy6 (no TOBa BpeMe npeHMeHyBaH b IJeHTpajieH aom Ha 
HapoflHaTa apMHfl), noacbflHMHTe 6hjih ^OKapaHH TyK h HacTaHeHH b 
npHro^eHH 3a khjihh CTan Ha ropHM eTa>K. npe3 HoujTa cjie^OBaTejiHTe 
othobo noceTHJiH HBaH CTe4>aHOB h My npe^ajiH "nopi>HeHHe" b noKa- 
3amiOTa npefl cb^a aa cnoMeHe reH. BpaHHeB h hakoh flpyra JiHija. H toh 
H3m>JiHHJi TOBa "nop^Hemie"... 

- ToBa mhoto Me H3Mi>HBa, ocoSeHO cera cjiea cpenjaTa c MaflKaTa Ha 
reH. nerbp BpaHHeB. A3 craHax HeBOJieH ynacraHK b e^Ha npoBOKaitna. C 
BpaHHeB He ce no3HaBaxMe. Eax ro BH>Kflaji, ho HHKora He ci>m pa3roBapaji 
c Hero. 

TaKa 3aBi>pniH pa3Ka3i>T Ha HBaH CTe^aHOB b noflHoacneTO Ha MajiKHa 
Bpi>x U,apeB komhh cpefl 6aTaniKHTe hhbh, 3aceTH c KapTO(])H. CjibHijeTo 
6euie Bene bhcoko h HHe Mi>JiHajiHBO ce 3acnycKaxMe no m>TeKaTa KbM 

319 



cejiOTO, 3a m otujiqm npH apyrHTe #BaMa HBaHOBiiH, kohto 3aBapHXMe Bee 
ome aa cnaT, ynoeHH ot hhctha BKyiyx... 

* * * 

HcKaM aa pa3Kaaca ome e#HH cnoMeH, CBi>p3aH c npo(|). HBaH CrecJmHOB. 
npe3 aBiycT Ha 1957 r., TpH ro^HHH npe^H ropeonncaHHfl pasroBOp, c Tepa 
OTH^oxMe Ha TypHCTHHecKH noxofl no MapiupyTa Co(|)hh - EopOBeij - 
Mycana - Ph6hhtc e3epa - Phjickha MaHacTHp - BaHCKO -BejiHHrpafl. Ha 
xnaca "Ph6hh e3epa" 3aBapHXMe npo(J). HBaH Ore^aHOB, kohto 6eme 
TptrHan ot Phjickm MaHacTHp ki>m Bpi>x Mycana. Cjiea Benepa ch 
roBOpHXMe hakojiko naca, flOKaTO ce pa3X02caaxMe b aojiHHaTa Ha e3epaTa. 
Beiue THxa h OTHOCHTejmo Tonjia Hom. HBaH CTe^aHOB 6eiue mhoto flo6i>p 
CT>6ece/i;HHK h pa3roBOpi>T c Hero 6eiue He caMO npHjrreH, ho h MHoro 
nojie3eH 3apa#H 6oraTa My KyjiTypa h eHijHKJioneflHHHHTe My 3Hamifl. 
Pa3Ka3Baiue mh cnoMeHH 3a CTy^eHTCKHTe ch toahhh, 3a pa6oTaTa ch b 

HayHHH HHCTHTyTH B FepMaHHfl, B ArpapHO-HKOHOMHHeCKHfl HHCTHTyT B 

MocKBa noa p^koboactboto Ha BacHJi KojiapOB, KaKTO h bi>b Bhciiihh 

(|)HHaHCOBO-CTOnaHCKH HHCTHTyT B CbHIIJOB. Pa3Ka3HTe CH 3a pa3JIHHHH 

CTapH cjiyHKH toh o6ane yMejio CBi>p3Bauie c pa3ci>»cfleHHH Btpxy hakoh 

aKTyaJIHH B T03H MOMeHT HKOHOMHHeCKH Bl>npOCH. noMHH, He noflpo6HO 

3amHTH Heo6xoflHMOCTTa ot npHJio^ceHHe Ha MaTeisiaTHHecKHTe mctoah b 
HKOHOMHHecKHTe H3CJieflBaHH^. no TOBa BpeMe y Hac ome ce BO^exa 
cnopoBe othocho H3noji3BaHeTO Ha H3rpaaeHHTe c MeTO^HTe Ha 
MaTeMaTHnecKOTO MOflejiHpaHe nporH03H b o6jiacrra Ha CTonaHCKOTO 
njiaHHpaHe. Hhkoh 6i>JirapcKH hkohomhcth TBi>pflflxa, ne Te3H MeTOflH ca 
HenpHJio^cHMH b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha nnaHOBaTa HKOHOMHKaTa Ha HaiuaTa 
CTpaHa. B KpaiiHa CMeTKa, hakojiko toahhh no-KbCHO b yne6HHTe njiaHOBe 
Ha BHH 6axa Bi>BefleHH flHciiHnjiHHH, kohto npHJiaraxa ycneuiHO 

MaTeMaTHHeCKHTe MeTOflH B HKOHOMHHCCKHTe H3CJieflBaHHH. 

C npotj). HBaH Ore^aHOB CTaHaxMe npnaTejiH h ce oraacaxMe c AOBepne 
eflHH kbm flpyr, MaKap m 3ana3BaxMe "npaBOTo" ch Ha kphthhho 
OTHOiueHHe ki>m HaiuaTa o6ma achhoct b HHCTHTyTa. Ta3H Benep b Pnjia, a 
h npe3 cjie^BamHTe roflHHH, HBaH Ore4)aHOB He Ka3a hhiijo 3a CTpaaaHHOTa 
ch no BpeMe Ha cneflCTBHeTO h npoijeca. Hne ei>mo He ro nHTaxMe h 
H36arBaxMe no/i;o6HH pa3roBopn, 3a aa He My npHHHHHM h3jihhihh 
CTpaaaHHH h eMOi^HH. Ycemax o6aqe, ne toh npn^aBa tojdimo MopajiHO 
3HaqeHHe Ha HauieTO yBaacHTejiHO OTHomeHHe h flOBepne. 



320 



TJI AB A VI 

BT>B BHCIIIIW HKOHOMHHECKH HHCTHTYT 

"KAPJI MAPKC" (1952-1962) 

PeKTopHTe npo(|). To/jop HeHOB (1952-1958) h 
aicatf. 5KaK HaTaH (1958-1962) 

npH CT>3flaBaHeTO Ha HHCTHTyTa npe3 1952 r. 3a peKTOp 6euie Ha3HaHen 
npocj). Toflop HeHOB, a HeroBH 3aMecTHHUH CTaHaxa npo<j). ^HMHrtp 

^HMHTpOB, npO(J). ToflOp IIOJDIKOB H flOIJ. HaKO ^OHHOB. TOBa ptKOBOfl. 

ctboto HMauie Tpy^HaTa 3aaana aa H3rpa/tH eflHO hobo BHCine hkoho- 
MHHecKO yne6HO 3aBeaeHHe. Ha m>pBO BpeMe Tp^6Bauie m ce opraHH3Hpa 
aeHHOcrra Ha hobhtc (JmKyjrreTH h KaTe^pH h aa 6i>flaT onpeaejiH TexHHTe 
pT>KOBOflHTejiH. C(j)opMHpaHH 6axa AKaaeMHHeH h (JmKyjrreTHH cbbcth. 
06^BHxa ce KOHKypcH 3a Ha3HanaBaHe Ha npeno/taBaTejiH (npo(J)ecopH h 
^oueHTH) h acHCTeHTH. 3anoHHa H3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha hobh yne6HH njiaHOBe 
3a BCflKa cneuHajiHOCTH, KaKTO h Ha yne6HH nporpaMH, kohto TpaGBame #a 
OTroBap^T Ha hobhtc H3HCKBaHH# kbm cbfltpacaHHeTO h opraHH3auHjrra Ha 
yne6HHfl npouec 3a no/jroTOBKa Ha cneunajiHCTH-HKOHOMHCTH, a^eKBaTHH 

Ha HOBHTe (J)OpMH 5 MCTOflH H MexaHH3MH Ha ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa H 

CTonaHCKHTe npeanpHOTHfl. 

HHCTHTyTCKOTO h (JmKyjrreTHHTe ptKOBOflCTBa ycneuiHO ce cnpaBHxa c 
Te3H CH05KHH 3a/jaHH. Te pa6oTexa HanperHaTO h iiejieHaconeHO, c no3HaBa- 
He Ha npo6neMHTe, KaTO ce ptKOBO/jexa ot 3aKOHa 3a bhcuicto o6pa- 
30BaHHe 5 yKa3aroiflTa Ha BHcmecToamHTe HHCTHTyuHH h ot peajiHaxa 
CHTyaijH^. nocTeneHHO bt>b bchhkh 3BeHa Ha HHCTHTyTa ce ycTaHOBH e^HH 
aKa^eMKHeH cthji Ha pt>kobo,zjctbo, npH kohto pemeHHOTa ce o6ci>5Kflaxa h 
yTBi>p^cflaBaxa ot KOJieKTHBHHTe opraHH Ha ynpaBJieHHe. 

PeKTOpaTbT, hskoh KaTe/tpH h nacT ot aflMHHHCTpaijH^Ta ce yCTaHOBHXa 
b HOBOpeMOHTHpaHaTa crpaaa Ha yji. "Eoapx HocH(f>" N° 14. TaKa 3anoHHa 
nocTeneHHOTO H3rpa)KflaHe Ha MaTepHajraaTa 6a3a Ha HHCTHTyTa, ho b TOBa 
OTHomeHHe HemaTa HanpeflBaxa 6aBHO. 

Ome npe3 ntpBHTe ro^KHH ot cbocto ctmecTByBaHe Bhcuihat hkoho- 

MHHeCKH HHCTHTyT, KOHTO 6eUie HaCJie/JHHK Ha fl06pHTe TpaflHUHH Ha 
CB060/JHHfl yHHBepCHTeT H ^l>p5KaBHOTO BHCHie yHHJIHHje 3a (|)HHaHCOBH H 
aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH HayKH, Ce yTBl>pflH KaTO eflHO ot BO/jemHTe bhcihh 

yne6HH 3aBe/teHHa b CTpaHaTa. 

npocj). Toflop HeHOB HMauie connflHa nojiHTHnecKa 6HorpacJ)H^ h 6eme 
HaTpynaji npe3 roflHHHTe TaKa Heo6xo;i;HMHfl 3a HeroBH* nocT a/tMHHHCTpa- 

321 



THBeH h neAarorHHecKH onHT. 3apa^H cbocto ynacrae b 6op6HTe Ha EKTI 
toh eMHrpHpa b CCCP, Kt^eTO 3aBT>pniBa BHcnie o6pa30BaHHe h pa6oTH 
KaTO npeno^aBaTeji no nojiHTHHecica hkohomha. Cjiea 3aBpi>maHeTo b 
EtJirapHfl pa6oTH b anapaTa Ha LJK h 3a h3bcctho BpeMe e 3aM.-MHHHcn>p 
Ha TpaHcnopTa. AicafleMHHHHflT cbbct Ha BHH ro H36pa 3a npo(|)ecop no 
nojiHTHHecKa hkohomha h toh 6eme Ha3HaneH 3a peKTOp - fljn>)KHOCT, Ha 
kooto ocTaHa flo 1957 r. KaTO pT>KOBO,HHTeji toh HMame bhcokh H3HCKBaHHa 
kt>m flHCiiHnjiHHara b opraHH3aijHflTa Ha yne6HH^ npoijec. ToBa He ce 
Bi>3npHeMaHie e,n;H03HaHHO b hakoh cpe^H Ha aicafleMHHHHfl cbCTaB h 
oco6eHO ot npo<])ecopHTe h ,n;oijeHTHTe, pa6oTHJin npe^H b Cbo6oahhh 
yHHBepcHTeT h b ^BYOAH npn e^HH no-JiH6epajieH pe5KHM ? npn kohto ca 
HMajiH bt>3mo)khoct caMH aa onpe^ejiHT xopapnyivia h pa3nHcaHH)rra Ha 
yne6HHTe 3aH)n™. H3HCKBaHH5rea Ha peKTOpa 3a ao6pa opraHH3aijHfl Ha 
yne6HHfl npoijec Te Hapnnaxa "aflMHHHCTpHpaHe". 

3aMecTHHK-peKTOpi>T no yne6HaTa pa6oTa npo(j). ^hmhtbp Xapa- 
jiaMnneB ^hmhtpob ci>mo HanpaBH MHoro 3a ci>3flaBaHeTO h pa3BHTHeT0 Ha 

BhCHIHA HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT. TOH OCTaHa Ha Ta3H flJTbSKHOCT B 

npo,m>jraeHHe Ha noBene ot 10 roflHHH, c KpaTKH npeKbCBamui. ^hmhtbp 

^HMHTpOB CH CneHCJIH rOJIflM H HeCpaBHHM aBTOpHTeT CbC CBOHTe HayHHH 

ny6nHKaiiHH no pa3JiHHHH npaBHH Bwipocn, cbc CBOHTe 3a,m>ji6oHeHH h 
yBneKarenHH jieicijHH, cbc CBoeTo yMeHHe #a pa6oTH c KOJierHTe h 
CTyfleHTHTe, c Mrbflpocrra h yMa ch. Toh 6euie e^Ha ot BOflenjHTe jihhhocth 
bt>b BHH npe3 ntpBHTe flBa^eceT roflHHH ot HeroBOTO ei>mecTByBaHe. C 
Hero 6axMe MHoro ao6pn npMTejin h pa6oTHXMe jipyyKuo Karo Konera b 
npofli>Ji5KeHHe Ha noBene ot Tpn fleceTHJierafl. 

HanpaBeHOTo npn ocHOBaBaHeTO Ha BHH pa3npeaejieHHe Ha KaTeapHTe 
h xa6njiHTHpaHHTe npeno^aBarejiH b paMKHTe Ha nerapn ^anyjiTeTa c 
TeneHHe Ha BpeMeTO ce OKa3a HepaijHOHajiHO. B HOBOCB3flafleHHTe 
npOMHmjieHO-TpaHcnopTeH h TbproBCKH ^aKyjiTeTH HMame caMO no TpHMa 
xaGnjiHTHpaHH npenoaaBaTejiH, kocto 3aTpy#H5reame aeHHOcrra Ha (j)aicyji- 
TeTHHTe CBBeTH npn B3eMaHeTO Ha penieHHa h oco6eHO npn npoBeacaaHeTO 
Ha KOHKypcn 3a ^oiieHTH h npo(j)ecopH h npn 3anjHTaTa Ha ^HcepTaijHH. 
3aTOBa ce Hajio)KH npecTpyioypHpaHe, npn KoeTO 6axa ci>3flafleHH O6mo- 

HKOHOMHHeCKHHT H OTpaCJIOBOHKOHOMHHeCKHHT (JmKyJITeTH C HOBO 

pa3npe,nejieHHe Ha KareflpHTe h npenoflaBarejiHTe. 

3a HJieHOBe Ha flBaTa hobh (JmicyjrreTHH ctBeTa 6axa H36paHH 3Ha- 

HHTeJieH 6pOH npO(^eCOpH H flOIjeHTH, KOCTO nOBHHIH H3HCKBaHHflTa KbU 

yne6HH)i npoijec h HaynHara aghhoct Ha Kare^pHTe h ^onpHHece 3a 
CB3flaBaHeTO Ha hcthhckh yHHBepcHTeTCKH TpaaniiHH. npe3 cneflBamHTe 

322 



roflHHH 6axa pa3KpHTH hobh KareflpH h jxncixuuimmi, ycbBi>pnieHCTBaHH 
6nxa Bene Bi>3npHeTHTe 4>opMH Ha 3aflOHHO h BenepHO o6yneHHe. Pa3niHpH 
ce HayHHaTa aeftHOCT, npOBeacflaxa ce HayHHO-TeopeTHHHH KOH^epeHijHH. 
(paKyjrreTHTe n^JiHoijeHHO H3m>jiH5iBaxa (jtyHKijHHTe ch Ha opraHH3aTopH 
Ha yne6HH5i npoijec h HayHHO-H3CJieflOBaTejicKaTa aefiHocT ci>o6pa3HO 
H3HCKBaHH5iTa Ha 3aKOHa 3a bhchicto o6pa30BaHHe. 

* * * 

IIpe3 1958 r. 3a peicrop Ha BHH 6eme H36paH aica/i. 5KaK HaTaH, 
kohto ocTaHa Ha Ta3H flJii>^cHOCT b npofli>n^ceHHe Ha #Ba MaH^aTa ^o 1962 r. 
Toil 6eiue e^HH ot HaH-H3BecTHHTe 6i>JirapcKH hkohomhcth h HcropHijH. 
HeroBOTO 6oraTO h pa3HOCTpaHHO HayHHO TBOpnecTBO 6enie nocBeTeHO Ha 
pa3Hoo6pa3HH npo6jieMH: Hai*HOHajiHO-peBOJiioi|HOHHOTO flBHaceHHe npe3 
enoxaTa Ha Bi>3pa>K,naHeTO, CTonaHCKa HCTOpna Ha Ei>jirapH5i ? HCTOpM Ha 

HKOHOMHHeCKaTa MHCbJI, COUiHOJIOTHfl H nOJIHTHHeCKa HKOHOMH5I. IIO-Ba^CHO 

e o6ane aa otGciiokhm, ne toh ycna aa Cb3j&pp ijflJia imcojia ot HayHHH 
pa6oTHHitH. HaynHOTO TBOpnecTBO Ha aKa^. )KaK HaTaH me oeraHe b 
CBeTHHTe CTpaHHitH Ha HCTOpHOTa Ha HKOHOMHHeCKaTa HayKa b Ei>jirapH5i. 

>KaK HaTaH e ynacraHK b 6op6nTe Ha 6i>JirapCKH5i Hapoa npOTHB 
4)aniH3Ma h npeMHHaBa npe3 3aTBOpH h Jiarepn. B roflHmrre npe^H aa CTaHe 
peKTOp toh 6eiue 3aMecTHHK-npeflce,zi;aTen Ha KoMHTeTa 3a HayKa H3KycTBO 
h KyjiTypa (1949-1952) h flHpeKTOp Ha Hkohomkhcckha HHCTHTyT npn BAH 
(1949-1951). Toh 6eine eflHH ot cb3flaTejiHTe Ha Bhchiha hkohomhhcckh 
HHCTHTyT, 6hji e p'bKOBOflHTeji Ha KaTeapa, flT>JiroroflHHieH HJieH Ha 
AKafleMHHHM cbBeT, HJieH h pi>KOBOflHTeji Ha o6ni;ecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKH h 

HayHHH OpraHH3aiJHH B1>B H H3B1>H HHCTHTyTa. 

no xapaKTep )KaK HaTaH 6enie jin6epajiHO HacTpoeH, eraHeH, 
Ao6poHaMepeH 5 Hy»m Ha florMaTH3Ma h 6iopOKpaTH3Ma. KaTO peKTOp toh 
Cb3fla,zi;e flo6i>p ynpaBJieHCKH eKHn, nacT ot kohto 6axa 3aM.-peKTopHTe 
npocj). BecejiHH Xa,zpKHHHKOJiOB, npo(|). HBaH Hjihcb h npocj). AneKcaHfltp 
IlonoB h aeKaHHTe Ha (JmKyjrreTHTe. ToBa p^kobo^ctbo Ha HHCTHTyTa 
nyBCTBHTenHO flonpHHece 3a no-HaTaTBHiHOTO My pa3BHTHe. 

C H3THnaHeTO Ha HeroBH^ MaHflaT npe3 yne6HaTa 1961-1962 r. 
npHKJiioHH h m>pBOTO fleceTHjierae ot ci>3flaBaHe h pa3BHTHeTO Ha BHH. 
ToBa 6axa aeceT roflHHH Ha noji30TBOpHa yne6Ha h HaynHa ^eHHOCT, b xo^a 
Ha KOOTO 6axa npeoflOJieHH mhoto Tpy^HOCTH. H MaKap aa 6axa flonycHara 
HeMajiKO cna6ocTH h rpeniKH, npe3 T03H nepnofl ce ci>3aaae e^HH 
TBOpnecKH HayHHO-neaarorHHecKH kojickthb, kohto ycroi ^a no^roTBH 
noBene ot 10 000 cneitnajiHCTH c BHcme hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe. 



TfeprOBCKHHT H OTpaCJIOBOHKOHOMHHeCKHHT <|>aKyJITeTH 

(1952-1962) 

B npofltJDKeHHe Ha ntpBHTe flBa^eceTHHa roflHHH ot Mosrra npeno- 
flaBaTencKa Kapnepa HMax bi>3mo)khoct m pa6oTfl h b flBaTa (JmKyjrreTa Ha 
BHH KaTO acHCTeHT, ,nioij;eHT h npo(])ecop. 

Ti>proBCKH^T (J)aKyjiTeT HManie 3a 3aflana aa noaroTBfl cneijHajiHCTH b 
pa3JiHHHHTe o6jiacTH Ha Bi>TpeiHHaTa h BtmuHa rbproBHfl. CtCToeine ce ot 
TpH KaTe^pH: HKOHOMHKa Ha BtHiHHara rbproBHfl, HKOHOMmea Ha 
Bi>TpeniHaTa rtproBHfl h Hy^cflH e3Hi*H. ntpBOHanajiHO npeno^aBaTejiHTe 
6flxa Majio6pOHHH ? a caMO TpHMa ot tax 6axa xaGnnHTHpaHH KaTO floijeHTH. 
ToBa, KaKTO Bene OT6e.ra3ax, cepH03HO cm>Bame aeHHOcrra Ha (JraKyji- 
TeTHHfl ci>BeT. BtnpeKH bchhko HauiHflT KOJieKTHB pa6oTeine ^o6pe. ^eKaH 
Ha 4>aKyjiTeTa 6euie .zjoij. IleHHO Pa^KOBCKH, kohto npe^H ^a nocn>nH Ha 
pa6oTa bt>b BHH npe3 1952 r. 6eiue 3aeMaji ptKOBO^HH flJii>^cHOCTH b hakoh 
rbproBCKH opraHH3auHH. Toh npeno,naBame ,micijHnjiHHaTa OpraHH3au;Hfl h 
TexHHKa Ha BtHiiiHaTa rbproBHfl. MaKap ^a My jinncBame onHT b HayHHO- 
neflarorHHecieaTa aeftHOCT, toh HMauie caMonyBCTBHe Ha flo6i>p aflMHHH- 
CTpaTop. 3anoMHHJi cbm ro KaTO npeKOMepHO ce6ejno6HB h HHTpnraHT. 

Pi>KOBOflHTeji Ha KaTe^pa BtHHiHa n>proBHfl 6eme rpnrop nonncaKOB, 
kohto nocrbnH Ha pa6oTa b HHCTHTyTa npe3 1952 r., a npe3 1954 r. 6enie 
H36paH 3a floijeHT. DiaBHOTO HanpaBJieHHe Ha HeroBaTa npeno^aBaTejiCKa h 
HaynHa ^efiHOCT 6eme Me^cayHapoflHOTO pa3^ejieHHe Ha Tpy^a h BtHiiiHaTa 
TbproBHA Ha CTpaHaTa. nocTeneHHO toh ce yTBtp^H KaTO aBTOpHTeTeH 
HayneH cneipiajiHCT b oGjiacrra Ha Me^yHapoflHHTe hkohomhhcckh otho- 
iiieHHfl. npe3 1964 r. CTaHa npo(|)ecop, a b 1971 r. toh 6eme e^HH ot 
ni>pBHTe npenoflaBaTenH, kohto 3amHTHxa rojwMa ^OKTOpCKa flHcepTauHfl h 
nojiynn HayHHaTa CTeneH "^oKTOp Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe HayKH". B3eMaine 
aKTHBHO ynacTHe b flHCKycHH Ha HayHHH KOH(j)epeHijHH. Beme )KejiaH 
neKTOp h HayneH KOHcyjrraHT b HaijHOHajieH Mama6. KaTO hobck 6enie 
eTHHeH, croBOpHHB, MHoro HHHijHaTHBeH, HOBaTOp, naTpHOT h KpaeBefl. 
B3eMame ynacrae b o6mecTBeHHfl )khbot Ha KoneKTHBa KaTO npeaceflaTen 
Ha npo(j)CT>K>3HaTa opraHH3aijHfl h CTaHa e^HH ot HHHijHaTOpHTe h opraHH- 
3aT0pHTe Ha nocrpoflBaHeTO Ha HHCTHTyTCKaTa noHHBHa craHijHfl b c. 
PaB^a. C Hero no^mtp^ax xy6aBH KOJieraajiHH h npHflTencKH B3aHMO- 

OTHOUieHHH. 

,Hpyr Konera, c KoroTO ce c6jhdkhx Be^Hara cnefl nocrc>nBaHeTO mh b 
HHCTHTyTa 6eme ^hmhti>p BacHJieB, npenoaaBaTeji b KaTe^pa BT>Hnraa 
TtproBHH. B cbmaTa KaTe^pa nocn>nHxa Ha pa6oTa KaTO acncTeHTH h 

324 



npenoAaBaTenH Heuio IJapeBCKH, JIhjih KapaKameBa, JIhjih MeneBa, 
TeoprH ^aHOB, Bjia^HMHp CecTpHMCKH h Ap- 3a aBTOpHTeTa Ha Kare^paTa 
MHoro flonpHHece HeyMOpHaTa aeftHOCT Ha npocj). IIonHcaKOB. 

P'bKOBOflHTeji Ha Kareflpa HyacflH e3HijH 6euie B3HCKarejiHaTa, ho ,n;o6pa 
no xapaKTep K)jiKa MapHHOBa - eflHH otjihhch neaaror h opraHH3aTOp. 
HeHHH^T eKHn ot npenoflaBaTejin no pycKH, hcmckh, aHrjiHHCKH, (J)peHCKH ? 
HcnaHCKH h flpyrn e3HijH ycneuiHO ce 3ae c e3HKOBaTa no^roTOBKa Ha 
ciyaeHTHTe, h oco6eHO Ha OHe3H ot cnei^HajiHOCT BtHHiHa rbproBHH. H 
nocTHraxa ao6pH pe3yjrraTH. Eaxa ao6poHaMepeHH h cbpaeHHH, pa6oTexa 
^pyKHO. He Mora fla He OTGejieaca fleHHOcrra Ha Mnxann Eohcb, Mapna 
CretjmHOBa, HaflOKfla noiuneoBa, Cnac HeHOB, npenoaaBaTejin no pycKH 
e3HK; Bepa MaHOBa, Ejih BacHJieBa, npenoaaBaTejin no hcmckh e3HK; 
AapHaHa CorapOBa, ATaHac ^parneB, npenoaaBaTenH no (|)peHCKH e3HK; 
Bejnca AroBa, Pa^Ka /JoflOBa, npeno^aBaTejiH no aHrjiHHCKH e3HK. 

IIpe3 1958 r. TbproBCKHOT h npOMHirnieHO-TpaHcnopTHHOT (JmKyjrreTH 
6axa o6eflHHeHH b eflHH OrpacjiOBOHKOHOMHHecKH 4>aKyjiTeT, b hhhto 
ctCTaB BJiH3axa KaTeapHTe HKOHOMHKa Ha npoMHUuieHocrra, HKOHOMHKa 
Ha TpaHcnopTa, HKOHOMKa Ha BtHHiHara TbproBHfl, HKOHOMHKa Ha 
BtTpeniHara TbproBHA, OroK03HaHHe, npaBHH HayKH, MapKcrotM- 
neHHHH3i>M 5 Hy^KflH e3Hi^H. 3a fleicaH 6eine H36paH floij. HBaH MaTOB, a no- 
ki>cho - floit. XpHCTO KajinropOB. IIpH TOBa cjiHBaHe 6po#r Ha npeno- 
flaBaTejiHTe ce yBejinnn 3HaHHTenHO, pa3HiHpH ce h cbCTaBT>T Ha hobha 
4>aKyjiTeTeH ctBeT, b kohto Bene BJiH3axa 3 npo(J)ecopH h 12 aoijchth. OceM 
npenoflaBaTejiH HMaxa HaynHaTa CTeneH KaHflHflar Ha Hayiarre (ToraBaniHO- 
to ctoTBeTCTBHe Ha cbBpeMeHHaTa THTJia "flOKTOp"). Ta3H peopraHH3aijH)i 
3HaHHTejiHO noflo6pn MHKpoKJiHMaTa h ycjiOBHOTa 3a pa6oTa. Oco6eHO 
6jiaroTBOpHa 6eme fleHHOcrra Ha npo(J)ecopHTe TeHOBCKH h /Jhmhtpob, Ha 
floueHTHTe KajinropOB, IIonHcaKOB, MaTOB h ^aBHfl ,ZJaBHflOB, Ha 
npenoflaBarejiHTe - KaHflHflara Ha HKOHOMHnecKHTe HayKH HBaH Hjihcb, 
HBaH BnfleHOB, Bopnc HbpBynoB, 3apaBKO 3jiaTaHOB, ^HMHTtp BacHJieB ? 
kohto npe3 1960-1961 nojiynnxa Hpe3 KOHKypcn CTaHaxa aoljchth. 

TojieMH 3acjiyrn 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha OrpacjiOBOHKOHOMHHecKH^ (JmKyji- 
TeT h Ha Bhchiha hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT HMa npocj). XpHCTO 
KajinropOB. Toft e e^HH ot Haft-6ejieaaiTHTe 6i>jirapcKH yneHH-HKOHO- 
mhcth etc cepH03eH npHHOc 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHHecKara HayKa h 3a 
no^roTOBKaTa Ha xhhsah cneiinajiHCTH-HKOHOMHCTH. OTJiHHaBame ce etc 

COJIHflHH 3HaHHH H aHaJIHTHHCH yM, OTBOpeH 3a HOBOTO, 6eiHe HHHIJHaTHBeH, 

Ao6t>p opraHH3aTOp 5 pa6oTOcnoco6eH, eraHeH h CKpoMeH. MHoro6poftHHTe 
My HayHHH ny6nHKaijHH ca nocBeTeHH npe^HMHO Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO h 

325 



oprami3aijHflTa Ha npoMHuiJieHocira h ocoSeHO Ha MaiUHHOcrpoeHeTO. 

npo(J). XpncTO KajinropoB 6enie yneH h ne/jaror c Bi>3p05K,neHCKo- 
naTpHOTHneH pyx. Ton o6HHanie GtJirapcKara HCTopM h Hannca MHoro 

pOMaHH, nOBeCTH H pa3Ka3H ? KOHTO OTpa35IBaT pa3JIHHHH Cb6HTHfl h 

nepHOflH ot enoxaTa Ha BT^paayjaHeTo flo HaniH /jhh. B MOATa 6H6jiHOTeKa 
HMa 16 TaKHBa khhiti. B tax ca OTpa3eHH h HeroBHTe BHac/jaHM 3a 
o6moHOBeniKHTe iteHHOCTH - xyMaHH3Ma, B3aHMHOTO yBa^KeHHe H jik>6ob 
MOK^y xopara, TpynojHoGneTO, CBoGo^HaTa H3ABa Ha TBopnecKHTe 3ajionc6H 
Ha HOBeKa. TyK HAMa ,na ce cnnpaM Ha HaynHHTe h xynoacecTBeHHTe 
ny6nHKaijHH Ha npo(|). KannropoB , ho HCKaM /ja o6tpHa BHHMaHHe Ha 
flByTOMHara My KHHra "C6oroM /JBYcDAH" (mji. Ha YHCC, 1994-1995), b 
koato b kooto ce e OTpa3HJia 6oraTa My /jynieBHOCT, onncaHH ca 
TpynHOCTHTe h ycnexHTe, H3pa3eHa e nio6oBTa My kbm Kojienrre, c kohto e 
pa6oTHJi b npofltJiflceHHe Ha 50 ro/piHH bi>b BHH h YHCC. B yBO/ja ki>m 
KHHraTa toh nHHie: "HaKpaa 6hx HCKaji aa npH30Ba 0He3H, kohto ca ynnjin, 
ynaT hjih me ynar b TOBa BHCiue yne6HO 3aBe,neHHe, OHe3H, kohto 
npeno^aBajiH, npeno,naBaT hjih me npenoAaBaT b Hero, bchhkh, kohto ca 

pa60THJIH HJIH pa60T5IT B Hero, KaKTO H BCHHKH OCTaHaJIH, Ha kohto e MHJIO 

BHCineTO o6pa30BaHHe, j\2l npejiHCTAT CTpaHHijHTe Ha Ta3H KHHra. B Hea me 
nponeTaT 3a xopa, cbGhtha h (JmKTH, ot kohto Morar j\a. ce B3eMaT noyKH. . . 
Ono3HaBaHeTO Ha TaKHBa npHMepn, cpaBHHTejiHa p^Ko cnoMeHaBaHH b 
AOKyMeHTHTe hjih b naMeTHHK Ha po.ua 6tJirapCKH, ca H3BOp Ha 
BfltxHOBeHHe h no/tpa^caHHe 3a ceraniHHTe h h^hhtc noKOJiemifl." 

KaTe/jpa "BtTpeuma TbproBHfl" (1953-1962) 

IIpe3 eceHTa Ha 1952 r. bi>b BHH e OTKpHTa cneimajiHocT "HKOHOMmca 
Ha BtTpeniHa TtproBHa", a b ctcTaBa Ha TbproBCKHfl 4>aKyjiTeT e CT>3/i;afleHa 
Kare#pa Bi>TpeiHHa rbproBHa. HeHH npi>B pi>KOBOflHTeji CTaBa j\o\\. HBaH 
MaTOB, kohto nojiyHHJi flOKTOpcKa CTeneH bi>b Bhchicto ynnjinme 3a 
CBeTOBHa TbproBHH bt>b BneHa, a npe^H ^a flOH/je Ha pa6oTa bi>b BHH 6hji 
HanajiHHK Ha ynpaBJieHHe b ^pacaBHHfl komhtct no njiaHHpaHe. 

B Kpaa Ha 4>eBpyapH 1953 r. a3 h HBaH Bn^eHOB ce cpemnaxMe c roi\. 

MaTOB 5 KOHTO HH n03flpaBH C "fl06pe flOHIJIH" H n0flp06H0 HH HH(|)OpMHpa 

3a opraHH3auH5iTa Ha yneGmifl npoijec, 3a yne6HH^ nnaH h pa3nncaHHeTO Ha 
3aH5mMTa npe3 npeflCToamHa ceMecn>p (MapT-K)HH). CpemaTa hh ocraBH y 
MeH mhoto flo6pH BnenaTJieHHfl, kohto Ham>JiHO ce noTBtp^Hxa b xo/ja Ha 



* 3a cnpaBKa bhc. MeneB, Ct. IIpo6jieMH Ha OTpacjioBOHKOHOMiwecKHTe HayKH b Euirapiw. C, 
1987, 59-72. 

326 



CBBMecTHaTa hh pa6oTa npe3 cjie^BamHTe roflHHH. HBaH MaTOB ch ocTana 
;i;o6poHaMepeH h ot3hbhhb, TonepaHTeH, c BHCOKa o6ma KyjiTypa. 

KaTe^paTa OTroBapjmie 3a n<woTOBKaTa Ha CTyaeHTHTe no cneijHaji-. 
Hocrra "HKOHOMHKa Ha BtTpeniHa TBproBHfl" h ocnrypflBanie npenoaaBaHe^ 
to Ha cneiiHajiHHTe flHCUHnjiHHH "HKOHOMHKa h njiaHHpaHe Ha BKipenmaTa 
TbproBH^", "OpraHH3aiiH^ h TexHHKa Ha rbproBHATa", "HKOHOMmca n 
opraHH3ai|H^ Ha o6mecTBeHOTO xpaHeHe" h "OroK03HaHHe". floij. MaTOB 
npenoflaBame flHcijHnjiHHaTa "HKOHOMmca h miaHHpaHe", a xoHOpyBaHHax 
npeno^aBaTeji ^hmhtbp BaijOB - "OpraHH3aijHfl h TexHHKa". 3a npenoaa- 
BaTeji no flHcijHnjiHHaTa "HKOHOMHKa h opramoaunfl Ha o6mecTBeHOTo 
xpaHeHe" 6eme Ha3HaneH Hpe3 KOHKypc XpncTO Xafl^cnHHKOJioB. 

^BaMaTa c HBaH Bn^eHOB Bo^exMe ynpa>KHeHHflTa n ceMHHapnTe no 
,HHCiiHnjiHHHTe "HKOHOMHKa h nuaHHpaHe" h "OpraHH3aijHfl h TexHHKa". 
Cnefl roflHHa 6axMe H36paHH 3a npenoaaBaTejin no Te3H ancijHnjiHHH. 
rii>pBOTO Hemo, KoeTO HanpaBHXMe Be^Hara cjiea H36opa hh 3a acncTeHTH 
6eme aa nperneaaMe yneGmifl nnaH Ha cneijHajiHOCTTa h yHe6rorre 
nporpaMH Ha TpHTe flncijHnjiHHH. HanpaBHXMe npe,zyio)KeHH5i 3a pa3HiH- 
pHBaHe h no,zjo6pflBaHe Ha yne6HHTe nporpaMH h pa3pa6oTHXMe TeMaTHHHH 
nnaHOBe 3a npOBOK^aHe Ha ynpaacHeHHOTa h ceMHHapHTe. H3non3BaxMe 
onHTa Ha npenoaaBaHeTO h opraHH3aijHtfTa Ha yne6HHfl npoijec ot nnexa- 
HOBCKM HHCTHTyT. Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe o6T>pHaxMe Ha H3pa60TBaHeTO Ha 
nporpaMaTa 3a npOBe^caaHe Ha cneijceMHHapHTe 3a H3ynaBaHe Ha na3apnxe 
Ha CTOKOBHTe rpynn (npoH3BOflCTBO, noTpeGHTencKO n>pceHe, B3aHMo- 

OTHOHieHHfl MetfCfly npOH3BOflHTeJIH H TbprOBIJH, CTOKOnpHflBH^CBaHe, 

ijeHoo6pa3yBaHe, rtproBCKa Mpe^ca h CKJia^OBO cronaHCTBO, 4>opMH Ha 
o6cjiy^cBaHe). 

KaTeapaTa OT^ejiH oco6eHO BHHMaHHe Ha ocnrypflBaHeTO Ha CTyzjeHTHTe 
c yne6Ha h HaynHa jiHTepaTypa. 3aeflHO c HeKOJiijHHa KOJiern npe3 TQ3n 
roflHHH HanncaxMe h ny6nHKyBaxMe b ctaBTOpcTBO pe^Hija yne6HHijH. 

B Kpaa Ha 50-Te h HanajioTO Ha 60-Te roflHHH kojickthb'bt Ha KaTe^paTa 
ce yBenHHH c hakojiko acncTeHTH h npeno#aBaTejiH - Teoprn neTpon, 
KpyM AjieKcaHflpoB, Bepa KoBaneBa, HBaH roijeB, kohto 6axa 3aBtpniHJiH 



3aeAHO c KOJierHTe HBaH MaTOB h HBaH BtweHOB HanncaxMe yneGHHUHTe Hkohomukci u 
ruiaHupam na cotfucuiucmmecKama mtpeoeuH. C, 1955 (JJ}i "Hapo/mo npocBeTa") h Hkohomukq 
u njiaHupam Ha mtpeoeuHma. C, 1962 (J\VL "HayKa h H3KycTBo"). B CbaBTopcTBO c ^HMHTtp 
BauoB H3flazioxMe yne6HHK OpeaHwaifun ua e'binpeutHa mtpeoenR. C, 1958 (,ZJH "HayKa n 
H3KycTBo"); b CbaBTopcTBO c ^HMHTbp BauoB h c npeno/jaBaTejiHTe bt>b BHHC - rp. BapHa npocj), 
BacHJi PaHKOB h npocj). Teopni reopraeB: OpeanwaijUH u mexnuKa na etmpeiuHama mtpeoetiH. 
C, 1958 (H,H "Hayna h H3KycTBo"); b CbaBTopcTBO c npocj). TeoprH reopraeB: Opeanmaifwi hq 
etmpeiUHama mtpeoeuH. C. 1965 (^H "HayKa h H3KycTBo"). 

327 



cnemiajiHOCTTa h 6axa HaTpynanH npaKTHHecKH oiiht b pa3JiHHHH 
TbproBCKH npe^npHHTHM h BeflOMcraa. TaxHaTa npo(])ecHOHajiHa flefiHOCT ce 
pa3BHBaine MHoro flo6pe, KoeTO ocnrypH bhcoko paBHHme Ha yneGHo- 
npenoflaBaTencKa h HayHHa aeHHOCT b Kare/jpaTa npe3 cjie^BamHTe roflHHH. 
npHopHTeTHa 3a#ana Ha KOJieKTHBa hh 6axa HayHHHTe H3CJie#BaHHH. 
HjieHOBeTe Ha KaTe^paTa pa6oTexa Bi>pxy TeMH, CBtp3aHH c npo6jieMHTe 
Ha npaKTHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha rtproBHOTa. YcTaHOBHXMe 6jih3kh 

KOHTaKTH CbC CeKIJHfl "TbprOBHfl" Ha HKOHOMHHeCKHfl HHCTHTyT npH 

EAH, KaKTO h c KaTe^pa "BtTpenma TbproBHfl" bi>b BHHC - rp. BapHa. 
ToBa ci>TpyflHHHecTBO o6eflHHH noTemjnajia Ha TpHTe 3BeHa 3a H3flaBaHe 
Ha o6iijh yne6HHijH, KaKTO h 3a cbbmcctho o6ci>^cflaHe Ha pa3JiHHHH 
MOHorpa(|)HH, AHCKycHH no (j)opMHTe h MeTOflHTe Ha npenoflaBaHeTo, 
ynacrae b HayHHH KOH(j)epeHitHH h t. h. 

npe3 T03H nepnofl HayHHO-H3CJie,uoBaTejicKaTa aeflHOCT 6eme b ijeHTbpa 
Ha MoeTO BHHMaHHe. YnacTBax b pe/jHija HayHHH KOH^epeHitHH b CTpaHara, 
opraHH3HpaHH ot BHH, BHHC h BOCH, a ci>mo h b MeayjyHapoflHH 
KOH(J)epeHitHH b npara, MocKBa h JlafinijHr. ny6jiHKyBax MHoacecTBO 
CTaTHH h CTyflHH no aKTyaJIHH TeOpeTHHHH H npaKTHHecKH BMpOCH, a CT>mo 
h TpH MOHorpa^HH. npe3 1958 r. 3amHTHX KaHflH^aTCKa flHcepTaijHa, a 
npe3 1962 r. Hpe3 KOHKypc 6ax H36paH 3a ^oijeHT. ToBa e HaKparKO 
aeceTroflHuiHaTa mh aeflHOCT b KareapaTa. noflo6Ha, a necTO h no- 
ycneuraa, 6eme fleHHOcrra Ha ocTaHajiHTe mh KOJiera. HBaH Bhachob 
3amHTH flHcepTaitHH npe3 1959 r. h CTaHa aoijeHT npe3 1962 r. 

KaTeflpeHHHT KOJieKTHB nOflfll>p5KaiHe TeCHH Bpl>3KH C TbprOBCKHTe 

opraHH3aiiHH b Co(J)hh h CTpaHaTa, H3yHaBame pa3BHTHeTO hm h ra 
noflnoMaraine b peinaBaHeTO Ha pa3JiHHHH KOHKpeTHH BtnpocH, cBtp3aHH c 
ynpaBJieHHeTo, opraHH3aitHOTa h nnaHHpaHeTO, c noBHinaBaHeTO Ha 
KBajiH(|)HKaijH5iTa Ha nepcoHana. CTy^eHTHTe ntK 6axa H3npamaHH Ha 
npoH3BOflCTBeHa npaKTHKa. ToBa o6myBaHe 6eine nojie3Ha 3a flBeTe CTpaHH 
h pa3KpHBaine OHe3H npo6jieMH, Ha kohto Tpfl6Banie ^a ce aKijeHiupa b 
xofla Ha npenoflaBaHeTO h b HayHHHTe hh H3CJie#BaHH5i. Oco6eHO 
njio^oTBOpHO 6euie CBTpygHHHecTBOTO c U,C Ha npo^ecHOHajimm ct>k)3 Ha 
TbprOBCKHTe pa6oTHHijH, c ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha IJeHTpajiHHfl KoonepaTHBeH 
ci>K)3 ? npeflceaaTejiCTBaH npe3 Te3H roflHHH ot neKO TaKOB h Ctoah 



Jlpo6jieMu Ha peHma6unHOcmma e mtpeoeuRma. C, 1959 (ZJH "Hayica h H3KycTBo"); 
T-bpeoeunma u pa3eumuemo Ha Hapodnomo cmonancmeo. C, 1962 (JJpl "Hayica h H3KycTBo"); ( B 
cbaBTopcTBO c Hb. Bh^chob h T. IleTpoB) B'bnpocu na cmoKortpudeuDfceanemo. C, 1961 (fffl 
"Hayica h H3KycTBo"). Bac. ci>mo 6H6jiHorpa<])CKaTa cnpaBKa b AjiMaHaxa Ha YHCC 3a 2005 r., c. 
568-569. 

328 



CK)JieMe30B, H C MHHHCTepCTBOTO Ha BtTpeUIHaTa TbpTOBHfl, ptKOBOfleHO 

nocjie^oBaTejiHO ot Ilejio IlejioBCKH, Pycn XpHCT030B h IleKO TaKOB. 

,3,HCiiHnjiHHaTa "OroK03HaHHe" ce npeno^aBaine ot rou. Kajino HBaHOB 
h rn. ac. PyeH MioKKOflaHCKH. 3ana3HJi ct>m xy6aBH cnoMeHH h 3a #BaMara. 
Jlou. HBaHOB 6euie no-BT>3pacTeH (Ha ok. 50-55 r.), bhchicto ch o6pa3o- 
BaHHe 6euie nojiynnji bt>b BneHa h ffbJiru ro/piHH e 6hji rHMHa3HajieH 
yHHTeji no xhmhjl Beuie flo6T>p ne,a;aror, ho MeTOflHTe My Ha npeno^aBaHe h 
H3HCKBaHH^Ta My 6axa no-CKOpo ywrejiCKH. rio xapaKTep 6euie 
flo6poHaMepeH h npHHi^HneH. HMauie MHoro npMTejiH h3bt>h KOJieKTHBa Ha 
HHCTHTyTa, npe/tHMHo nHcarejiH h acypHajiHCTH. HecTO cjiea 3ace#aHHe Ha 
KaTe^paTa bchhkh KOJiern no HeroBa HHHi^HaTHBa nocemaBaxMe KJiy6a Ha 
)KypHajiHCTHTe h nncaTejiHTe, Kb^eTO Bo^exMe o^chbchh pa3roBopn 3a 
TBOpnecKHTe nocTHaceHHfl Ha OTflejiHH jihhhocth, 3a OTHomeHneTO Ha 
TBOpnecKaTa HHTejiHremiM kt>m e#HO hjih flpyro aKTyajiHO cb6HTHe. 

B Kpaa Ha 50-Te ro^HHH ce CT>3#a#e h Kare,upa "GroK03HaHHe ", koato 
HMame /jo6pa yne6HO-Jia6opaTopHa 6a3a h npHBJiene Ha pa6oTa pe/tnija 
MJiaflH HayHHH pa60THHIJH, kohto BnocjieflCTBne 3amHTHxa AHCepTai^HH n 
CTaHaxa npo^ecopn: Ctohko Ehcb, AH/tpefi AH,upeeB, XpncTO KoacyxapOB, 
MaHOJi Ph6ob h ^p. 

MoeTO ynacTHe b oSmecTBeHO-nojiHTHMecKHH hchbot (1953-1966) 

npe3 T03H nepnofl bt>b BHH necTO ce p^koboactboto h npo(J)e- 
CHOHajiHaTa opraHH3ai^HH npOBOK^axa pa3JiHHHH CT>6paHHfl, cbBemaHHfl h 

TeOpeTHHHH KOH(|)epeHIIHH 5 nOCBeTCHH Ha pa3JIHHHH BMIpOCH, CBtp3aHH c 

opraHH3aiiHHTa Ha yne6HHfl npoijec, paBHnmeTO Ha jie^HHTe h no#ro- 
TOBKaTa Ha CTyneHTHTe. Ome ot HanajiOTO 6ax chjiho BnenaTJieH ot 
epymmHOTa, B3HCKaTejiHOCTTa n eTHHHHTe B3aHMOOTHomeHHfl, kohto pa3- 
KpHBaxa Te3H cb6paHHfl. 3a MeH Te 6axa HCTHHCKa imcojia, koato nocraBfline 
KOHKpeTHHTe npo6jieMH h 3aaaBame onpe^ejieHH H3HCKBaHHHTa kt>m 
KOJieKTHBa. HecTO Ha6jnoaaBaxMe c6jn>CT>ipi Ha MHemwi, kohto pa3KpHBaxa 
pa3HHHHHTe BH5KflaHHH h hhboto Ha HayHHara h ne^arorHHecKa no^roTOB- 
KaTa Ha flHCKyrapamHTe. ToBa 6eme HHTepecHO, 3amoTO no3HaBax yKa3a- 
HHHTa, npenopi>KHTe h H3HCKBaHHOTa Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bncuie o6pa30- 
BaHHe" h Moacex ,ua oijeHfl #okojiko Te ce Bi>3npHeMaT h KaK ce OTpa35iBaT 
Bi>pxy KOHKpeTHaTa achhoct Ha pT>KOBO,mrrejiHTe h Ha HayHHo-ne#aro- 
rHHecKHH nepcoHaji. Oco6eHO nojie3HH 6axa o6ei>)K,zjaHHflTa Ha yneGmmH, 
KoraTO ce flHCKyrapaxa npHHiymHH BMipocH othocho CTpyKTypaTa h 
Cb/jtpacaHHeTO Ha yne6HHfl MaTepnaji, tbh KaTO npe/jCToeine aa 6taaT 
no^roTBeHH yne6HH nocoGna no hobh anciiHnjiHHH ot npeno/jaBaTejiH, 

329 



kohto HflMaxa flocTarbneH onHT. 

Eto eflHH npHMep bt>b Bpi>3Ka c o6ci>)K,naHeTO Ha yne6HHKa no 06ma 
TeopHfl Ha npaBOTO Ha npo<J). MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH. B 3ajiaTa npncbCTBaxa 
MHoro K)pHCTH h hkohomhcth, KaKTO h rpyna npeno,n;aBaTejiH no npaBHH 

AHCIJHnJIHHH B Co(j)HftCKHfl yHHBepCHTCT, KOHTO H3Ka3axa flOCTa KpHTHHHH 

6ejie)KKH no cbfl'bp^caHHeTO Ha yne6HHKa. npo(j). Bacnji 3axapneB He 
ofloGp^Banie, ne b noMarajiOTO ca H3noji3BaHH h 6yKBajiH0 ijHTHpaHH 
npeKajieHO MHoro MHeHHfl Ha flpyrn aBTOpn: 

- A3 HCKaM #a y3Haa KaKBH ca BauiHTe BHacflaHHfl, a He caMO MHeHHjrra 
Ha Apyra aBTOpH, noconeHH b ujrraTHTe. 

npo(J). MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH OTroBOpH, ne nocoHBa MHeHMTa Ha flpyrn 

aBTOpH, 3a fla 3aiIJHTH CBOHTe BHtfCflaHHJI, H 06paTH0 - H3Jiara BH2C#aHM h 

mhchha Ha aBTOpH, c kohto He e cbrjiaceH. Toft cMATanie, ne TaKa ce 
o6oraTABaT 3HaHHOTa Ha HHTaTejiHTe, cbs^aBa ce Harjiaca 3a flHCKycHH h 
CTyneHTHTe ce HacoHBaT kt>m npoyHBaHe Ha flpyrn ny6jiHKaijHH. 06moTO 
MHeHHe Ha 6ojiihhhctboto ot H3Ka3ajnrre ce 6eme, ne TOBa e Heo6xo,nHMO, 
ho caMO b onpe^ejieHH rpaHHijH, h ne He 6nBa yne6HHijHTe aa ce 
npeTOBapBaT c flHCKycHOHHH BMpocH. B CBO^Ta aeftHOCT Ha ne^aror h 
aBTOp ci>m HMan npeflBHfl MHeHMTa h Ha #BaMaTa. 

npH o6ci>^cflaHe Ha flpyrn yqeGmmH, oco6eHO Ha Te3H no cneipiajiHHTe 
(oTpacjiOBHTe) flHcipmjiHHH, ce flHCKyTHpanie no npHHipimiajiHHfl Bi>npoc 
flo KaKBa CTeneH yne6HHijHTe cjie^Ba rzl OTpa35rear pe3yjiTaTHTe ot 
co6cTBeHHTe H3cneflBaHH5i Ha aBTOpa, h aokojiko - ycTaHOBeHH h Bene 
H3BecTHH HayHHH 3HaHH^. C Apyra ayMH 5 CTaBanie BMpoc 3a cbotho- 
nieHHeTO MOKay HayHHO TBOpnecTBO h noBene hjih no-MajiKO MexaHHHHa 
KOMnHJiaipia, koato necTO rpaHHHH c nnaraaTCTBO. B xo^a Ha Te3H cnopoBe 
ce Hano^KH MHeHHeTO, ne HayHmrre H3CJie,HBaHHfl Ha npeno^aBaTejiHTe 
cjie^Ba #a ce H3ynaBaT h AHCKyrapaT b paMKHTe Ha cneijKypcoBe h 
ceMHHapn b cbOTBeTCTBHe c yneGrorre njiaHOBe. 

Ha 06mHTe CT>6paHHfl Ha HHCTHTyTCKHfl KOJieKTHB HMaX BT>3MO)KHOCT J\2i 

ce 3ano3Haa c hakoh KOJiera no-6oraT neaarorHnecKH CTa)K: npo(J). Tahko 
Hop#aHOB, npo4>. MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH, npo(j). Ctohji CyKMaHflflcneB, #ou. 
Mhhko Ka3aHfl^cHeB ? npo$. XpHCTO KajraropOB, j\om. BeHeij IJohcb, npo(J). 
^HMHTbp Hop^aHOB, floij. Bacnji HoneB, npo(j). KocTa IleprejioB, #ou. 
nerbp ABpaMOB h #p. 

B fl-bJiroroflHuiHO npnarejiCTBO npepacHaxa npoc|)ecHOHa.riHHTe mh 
KOHTaKTH c npo(J). Tahko Hop^aHOB, koSto npenoflaBanie HKOHOMHHecKa 
reorpa(J)H5i. Toft ce OTJinnaBanie ct>c chjihha ch H#eajiH3'bM h Bi>3po)K,zi;eHCKO 
po,zi;ojiK)6He 5 6eme eraHeH h 6jiaropoaeH hobck, H3BecreH KaTO npeKpaceH 

330 



jieKTOp h MarbocHHK Ha cjioboto, Jiio6HMeij Ha CTy^eHTH h npeno^aBaTejra. 
^BJira roflHHH toh pa6oTH b o6jiaciTa Ha MeTOflHKaTa h MeTOflOJiorHsnra Ha 
HKOHOMHHecKaTa reorpa(J)H^. BaaceH fljm b HayHHOTo My TBOpnecTBO 3aeMaT 
npo6neMHTe Ha hkohomhhcckoto pafiomipaHe h reorpa^MTa Ha cejiCKOTO 
cTonaHCTBO. B npo^jitfceHHe Ha hakojiko flecerajieTHfl toh oraaBflBame 
pa3HHHHH HaynHH KOJieKTHBH, 6eme rjiaBeH pe^aKTOp Ha en. 'Teorpa^Hfl", 
p'BKOBOflHTeji Ha KaTe^pa, HJieH Ha HayHHH ctBeTH. 

Cjiefl 3aBptmaHeTO mh ot MocKBa m>pBOHaHanHO 6ax HJieH Ha 
napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl npH KHHK h Mhhhctcpctboto Ha KyjiTypaTa, a 
ot 1956 r. - npH BHH. B npo^jraeHHe Ha hakojiko ixwihh 6ax HJieH Ha 
napTHHHOTO p'bKOBOflCTBO h ceKpeTap Ha napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha 
npeno^aBaTejiHTe, koato HMa pe^Hija 3acjiyrn 3a ycneniHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha 
HHCTHTyTa: ta 6eme HHHiiiHaTop 3a BT>Be)K#aHeTO Ha hobh mcto^h h 4>opMH 
Ha o6yneHHe Ha CTyzjeHTHTe h ce rpHacenie 3a no,a;o6pflBaHeTO Ha HayHHaTa 
aefiHOCT h 3a yTB^payjaBaHeTO Ha hcthhckh aKa^eMHHHH Tpa^HijHH b 
ynpaBneHneTO Ha HHCTHTyTa. 

H3BecTHO BpeMe 6ax HJieH Ha HbpBH PK Ha EKH, HJieH Ha 6iopOTO Ha 
CTyaeHTCKH (Ocmh) PK h HJieH Ha TK Ha EKEL TyK H^Ma ^a ce cnnpaM Ha 
noflpo6HOCTH 5 ho HCKaM ,zi;a OT6ejie»ca, ne Hapefl c Mi>ApHTe, qecTHH h 
6e3KOpHCTHH flpyrapH h Konern, b napTHHHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha HHCTHTyTa 
HMaine h hakoh "Henara" xapaKTepH - arpecHBHH KpHTHKapH, florMaTHitH h 

CeKTaHTH. 

Xy6aBH cnoMeHH e ocTaBHJia ctBMecraaTa mh pa6oTa b napTHHHaTa 
opraHH3aitH^ c npocj). HBaH HjineB, npo(J). HBaH Bhachob, npo(J). rpnrop 
BaKJineB, ,zi;oij. TeoprH Hb. IleTpOB, npo(J). IleTbp ABpaMOB, npocj}. Bacnji 
Hohob, npo(J). Ore(|)aH MeneB, npo(J). HHKona BenHKOB, ,zj;oij. ,3,HMHTbp 
KoneB, floii. HBaH Bohcb h ,n;p. 



TJIABA VII 
PEKTOP HA BHH "KAPJI MAPKC" (1962 - 1966) 

AKaaeMHHHOTO p^KOBOflCTBO npe3 MaH^aTHTe 1962-1964 
h 1964-1966 r. 

Cnopea ToraBaniHH^ 3aKOH 3a BHcnieTO o6pa30BaHHe (3BO) pi>KOBo#- 
CTBaTa Ha bhcuihtc ynnjinma h Ha (jmKyjrreTHTe HMaxa MaHflar ot #Be 
roflHHH, a H36opHTe ce npOBOK^axa b Kpaa Ha yneGHara roflHHa. MaH^arBT 
Ha npo(|). >KaK HaTaH H3Tene npe3 iohh 1962 r. AicafleMHHHHflT ctBeT h 
ptKOBOflCTBaTa Ha napTHHHaTa h npo^ctK^HaTa opraHH3aijHH H3flHrHaxa 
MOHTa KaHflHflaTypa h b Kpaa Ha Man 6ax H36paH 3a peKTOp c hbjiho 
eflHHOflyuiHe. Tpa6Ba rzl OT6ejie^ca ? ne ome npH oGcb^cflaHeTO Ha Mo*rra 
KaHflH/jaTypa a3 Hafi-HCKpeHO ch HanpaBHx otbo^. QviymaBaHie Me o6cto- 
HTejicTBOTO, ne ome cbm floiteHT h ne HMa npo(J)ecopH ? kohto MoraT, KaKTo 
CM^rrax, no-flo6pe aa H3m>jiHflBaT peKTOpcKHTe (|)yHKijHH. JJaBax ch CMeTKa 
3a npeflH3BHKaTejiCTBaTa Ha T03H nocT b nepnofl, KoraTO ce npaBeuie oiiht 
3a yctB'bpHieHCTBaHe Ha MeTOflHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa Ha 

(J)OHa Ha eflHO CepH03HO HeCbOTBCTCTBHe MOK/iy 06eKTHBHHTe H3HCKBa- 
HHHTa H peaJIHOTO HHBO Ha HaJIHHHHTe HKOHOMHHeCKH KaflpH. Il03HaBaX H 

npoTHBOpeHH^Ta MOK^y pa3JiHHHH rpynn h jihhhocth b cpczprre Ha npe- 
noflaBaTejiHTe h cjiy^cHTejiHTe, o6ycjiOBeHH Hafi-Bene ot TexHHTe aM6nijHH 
3a no-6i>p30 npo(|>ecHOHajiHO H3pacTBaHe, KoeTO He BHHarH ctoTBeTCTBauie 
Ha TexHHTe o6eKTHBHH KanecTBa h bt>3mo)khocth. Bchhko TOBa cepH03H0 
Me CMymaBanie, ho OTBOfltT mh b Kpaa Ha KpanmaTa He 6euie npneT. 

H Tana, TyK me ce nocTapaa rzl onepTaa fleHHOcrra mh Karo peKTOp b 
npofl'bJi^ceHHe Ha ^Ba MaH^aTa (1962-1964; 1964-1965), KaKTo h lw- 
jiocTHaTa pa6oTa Ha aKaaeMHHHOTO ptKOBO^CTBOTO npe3 T03H nepHOfl. 

npe3 1962 r. moh 3aMecTHHijH h Hafi-6jiH3KH noMomHHijH CTaHaxa 
npocj). ^HMHTbp Xap. ^hmhtpob, floij. Ilerbp ABpaMOB h npo(J). Totk) 
ToTeB. Cjiea npeH36npaHeTO mh 3a peKTOp npe3 iohh 1964 r., 3aMecraHK- 
peKTOpH CTaHaxa aoij. OrecjmH LJaHKOB h aoij. rieTbp ABpaMOB. 

/JejcaH Ha 06moHKOHOMHHecKHfl $aKyjiTeT npe3 1962-1964 r. 6euie floii. 
>KaK Apofto, a 3aM.-,u;eKaH: aoit. BeHeij LJoHeB; flejcaH Ha OrpacjiOBO- 

HKOHOMHHeCKHfl (J)aKyJITeT CTaHa flOIJ. CTe(J)aH I^aHKOB, CbC 3aMeCTHHI(H 

/joij. Ctohko Ehcb h aoij. HBaH Bhachob. Ilpe3 1964-1966 r 3a Reman Ha 
06iu;oHKOHOMHHecKH^ (JmieyjiTeT 6euie H36paH npo(|). XpHCTO MapHHOB, a 
HeroBH 3aMecTHHijH CTaHaxa npo(J). BeHeij LJoHeB h aoij. Jlio6eH BepOB. 3a 
aeKaH Ha OrpacjiOBOHKOHOMHHecKHfl 4>aKynTeT 6euie H3flHrHaT npo(|). HBaH 

332 



MaTOB, ct>c 3aMecTHHiiH npo(J). XpHCTO KajinropOB h ,h;oii. Ctohko Ehcb. 

PeniaBama pojra b acHBOTa Ha HHCTHTyTa Hrpaenie AKa,n;eMHHHHHT 
cbBeT, kohto yTBtp^flaBanie yne6HHTe miaHOBe, onpeflejianie ochobhhtc 
HanpaBJiemifl b HayHHO-H3arie,noBaTejicKaTa h yHe6HO-npenoflaBaTencKaTa 
#eHHOCT Ha KaTe^peHHTe kojickthbh, yTBtpacflaBame pemeHHOTa Ha 
(J)aKyJiTeTHHTe cbbcth 3a npHCb}KflaHe Ha HayHHH creneHH h 3BaHHa. B 
HeroBH^ ctCTaB npH ntpBHfl mh H36op 3a peKTOp Bjnoaxa aoii. IleTbp 
ABpaMOB, ,o;oij. >KaK Apofto, Ron. HBaH Bh^chob, npo(J). Mnxann TeHOBCKH, 
npo(J). HHKOJia BtJieB, npo(|). Khphji rpnropOB, npo(J). /Jhmhtbp /Jhmhtpob, 
#ou. A aBH fl A aBH fl° B ? fl°y- HBaH Hjihcb, npocj). Tahko Hop^aHOB, npocj). 
XpHCTO KajinropOB, npo(J). XpHCTO MapHHOB, aKafl. EBreHH MaTeeB, npocj). 
HBaH MaTOB, aKafl. >KaK HaTaH, npo(J). TpHrop nonncaKOB, npocj). IleHHO 
PaflKOBCKH, anafl. HBaH CrecJmHOB, aou. OrecjmH LJaHKOB, npocj). BeHeii 
L(oHeB, KocTa^HH Hhkojiob (cTy^eHT). 

,3pyr ynpaBJieHCKH opraH 6enie PeKTOpcKO-fleKaHCKHOT cbbct, b kohto 
Bjnoaxa peKTOp'bT, 3aM.-peKTOpHTe, fleKamrre h noMomHHK-peKTOpi>T. Ton 
3aceflaBanie KaTO npaBHJio Be^mac Ha flBe ce^MHijH h TpaGBanie ^a peniaBa 
pa3JiHHHHTe TeKymn BtnpocH, CBi>p3aHH c yne6HaTa h HayHHaTa fleiiHOCT, 
(J)HHaHCHTe ? MaTepnajiHO-TexHHHecKaTa 6a3a, pa6oTaTa Ha aflMHHHCTparaB- 
HHH nepcoHan h t. h. 

^eHHOcrra Ha HayHHO-ne,zjarorHHecKHfl ctCTaB h Ha HHCTHTyTCKHTe, 
4>aKyjiTeTHHTe h KaTe^peHHTe ptKOBOfleraa npe3 T03H nepHOfl HManie flBa 
ochobhh npHopHTeTa: nofloGp^BaHe Ha no^roTOBKaTa Ha Ka^pHTe c BHcnie 
HKOHOMHHecKO o6pa30BaHHe h ycbBtpnieHCTBaHe Ha HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTeji- 
CKaTa pa6oTa b cbotbctctbhc c aKTyajimrre o6mecTBeHH noTpe6HOCTH. 

H flBaTa MaH^aTa npoTeKOxa b paMKHTe Ha neTBtpTHfl neTroflHineH 
Hapo^HOCTonaHCKH njiaH (1961-1966), KoraTO HKOHOMHKaTa Ha CTpaHaTa 
HaBJie3e b nepHOfl Ha hhtch3hbho pa3BHrae. Hapo^HOTO Cb6pamie yTBtp^H 
h e^Ha ^BafleceTroflHHiHa nepcneKTHBa 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha EtJirapHA npe3 
1961-1980 r. IlnaHKr npeflBH^flanie npe3 HeTBtpTaTa neTHJieTKa rz Gi^e 
nocTHTHaTo 50% yBejinneHHe Ha HaijHOHajiHHfl floxofl, HapacTBaHe Ha MaTe- 
pHanHO-TexHHHecKaTa 6a3a ctmo c 50%, 6tp30 pa3BHTHe Ha ManiHHOCTpoe- 
HeTO h XHMHHecKaTa npoMHiujieHOCT, Bt3CTaHOB^BaHe Ha jieicaTa h xpaHH- 
TejiHa npoMHHiJieHOCT, KaKTO h npeBpi>maHe Ha cencKOTO CTonaHCTBO bt>b 
BHCOKonpo^yKTHBeH h peHTa6njieH OTpacbJi Ha HaijHOHajiHaTa HKOHOMHKa. 

OcHOBHHTe 3a^aHH Ha HHCTHTyTa ro rojwMa CTeneH npoH3THHaxa ot 3ajio- 
aceHHTe b nnaHOBHTe ^OKyMeHTH hkohomhhcckh uejin, hhcto H3m>JiHeHHe b 
HeMajiKa CTeneH 3aBHceiue ot cnoco6HOCTra hh r& noaroTBHM BHCOKOKBajm- 
(J)HijHpaHH cneijHajiHCTH, toahh m ocbmecTBAT TaKa acejiaHM 6i>p3 no^eM Ha 

333 



HayKara, TexHHHecKHH nporpec h HayHHorocjieflOBarejicKaTa achhoct. 

AjcafleMHHHOTO pi>KOBOflCTBO Ha BHH B3e peflHija MepKH 3a no#o- 
6pflBaHe noaroTOBKaTa Ha CTy^eHTHTe. EaceroflHO HHCTHTyrbT npHeMame 
okojio 800-1000 hobh CTy#eHH, kohto ce noaroTB^xa b paMiorre Ha 

pa3H006pa3HH CneiJHaJIHOCTH: nOJIHTHKOHOMHfl, <j)HHaHCH H KpeflHT, CHeTO- 

BOflHa OTHeTHOCT, nnaHHpaHe Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO, CTaracTHKa, 

HKOHOMHKa Ha npOMHIHJieHOCTTa, HKOHOMHKa Ha TpaHCnOpTa, HKOHOMHKa 

Ha BT>HinHa TbproBM, HKOHOMHKa Ha Bi>TpeinHaTa n>proBHfl. EpOOT Ha 
ycneniHO flHnnoMHpajiHTe ce BT>3JiH3ame Ha ok. 750-800 pyum. 06mH*T 
cpe^HoroflHineH 6pofi Ha o6ynaBaHHTe CTy#eHTH 6eine okojio 5000, kocto 
He CLOTBeTCTBaine Ha CKpoMHaTa MaTepnajiHa 6a3a Ha HHCTHTyTa. B 
roflHHHTe npe/i;H ^a CTaHa peKTOp TOBa 6eine ^OBeno ro e^HO npeKOMepHo 
3aBHinaBaHe Ha OTHOCHTejiHH^ #jm Ha CTyaeHTHTe Ha 3aflOHHO h BenepHo 
o6yneHHe. TaKa HanpHMep, npe3 1963/1964 yne6Ha ro^HHa o6mMT 6pofi 
Ha CTyneHTHTe e 6hji 4840, ot kohto pe/joBHO o6yneHHe - 1730 (35.5%), 
3aaoHHO - 2648 (55.5%) h BenepHO - 462 (9%). 

HaineTO aKafleMHHHo ptKOBO^CTBO HanpaBH bchhko bt>3mo)kho 3a 
KopHrnpaHeTO Ha TOBa HenpaBHUHO cbOTHOineHHe. 3a iiejrra ce nocTapaxMe 
aa ycT>BT>pineHCTBaMe opraHH3aijHflTa Ha yne6HHfl npoijec, KaTO HMaxMe 
npeflBHA h cneijH^HHHHTe oco6eHOCTH Ha TpHTe $opMH Ha o6yneHHe - 
peflOBHO, 3a#OHHO h BenepHO. 

BenepHOTO o6yneHHe 6eine e^Ha cpaBHHTejiHO HOBa (|)0pMa Ha yne6HHH 
npoijec, koato ce npHJiarauie b paMKHTe Ha cneijHajiHOCTHTe BT>TpeiiiHa 
TbproBHa, cneTOBOflHa OTHeTHOCT h npOMHiujieHOCT h /jaBame ^o6pH 
pe3yjiTaTH b ycjioBHOTa Ha ToraBaniHaTa 6-flHeBHa paGoraa ce^MHiia h npH 
orpaHHHeHHTe bt>3mo)khocth Ha pa6oTHHu;HTe h cjiyacHTenHTe /ja non3BaT 
OTnycKH 3a nocemeHHe Ha jickijhh h no^roTOBKa 3a H3nHTH. OryfleHTHTe 
nojiynaBaxa bt>3mo)khoct rzl nocemaBaT jieKijHH, ceMHHapHH 3aHflTHH h 
KOHcyjiTaitHH c npenoflaBaTejiH bt>b BenepHHTe nacoBe. Bi>3npHeTa 6eme 
no-rojiHMa rbBKaBoer npH HacpoHBaHeTO Ha cecHHTe h CTaHa necTO flBJiemie 
Me^caycecHHHOTO ABABaHe Ha H3nHTH (t. Hap. npeflBapHTejiHH cecmi), no- 
/joGpH ce oGcnyacBaHeTO b yneGHO-KOHcyjrraTHBHHTe nyHKTOBe 3a 3aflOH- 
hoto o6yneHHe, yBejiHHHxa ce nacoBeTe 3a ohhh 3aH#rHfl. 

3a no-flo6paTa pa6oTa ct>c CTy^eHTHTe ot 3a/joHHO h BenepHO o6yneHHe 
ce onpe^enHxa 3aMecTHHK-/jeKaHH h ctoTBeTHH KaHLjenapHH. He Mora #a He 
OT6ejie^ca oco6eHO flo6paTa fleiraocT Ha 3aM.-fleKaHHTe npocj). BeHeij UpHeB 
h npo(J). MnxaHJi Ehcb, KaKTO h Ha 0praHH3aT0pKHTe (cjiyacHTejiKH) HeBeHa 
ApcoBa h EKHMOBa, CTaHajiH jiio6hmkh Ha CTyaeHTHTe 3a BHHMaTenHOTO hm 
OTHOineHHe h mhoto flo6paTa opraHH3aipifl Ha yneGHM npoijec b Te3H flBe 

334 



<|)OpMH Ha o6yneHHe. 

npoai>n^cH ycbBi>pnieHCTBaHeTO Ha yneGHHTe njiaHOBe: b hakoh 
cneuHajiHOCTH 6axa ycTaHOBeHH hobh npo(J)HJiH ? Bi>BeaeHH 6axa hobh 
^HCUHnjiHHH h 6axa peBH3HpaHH ycTaHOBeHHTe xopapnyMH. HHCTHTyrbT ce 

BKJ1K)HH B HIHpOKa flHCKyCHfl othocho ci>3aaBaHeTO Ha HOBaTa Cnei^HaJIHOCT 

HHflceHep-HKOHOMHCTH. Eeme pemeHO b hakoh hkohomhhcckh cneijHaji- 
hocth aa ce yBejiHHH H3ynaBaHeTO Ha noBene TexHHHecKH h TexHOJiora- 
necKH flHcitHnjiHHH, a b cneijHajiHOCTHTe Ha TexHHHecKHTe bhchih yneGmi 
3aBefleHH5i aa ce yBejiHHH npeno,o;aBaHeTO Ha hkohomhhcckh flncijHnjiHHH. 
B cneijHajiHOCT „HKOHOMHKa Ha npoMHimieHOCTTa" 6axa Bi>BefleHH Tpn 
npo4)HJia: ManiHHOCTpoeHe, xhmha h MeTajiypnw, tckcthjiho npoH3- 
BOflCTBO. Ci>3flafle ce h nocTeneHHO ce pa3niHpH KaTe^pa „IIpoMHniJieHa 
TexHOJioraa" c pT>KOBOflHTeji npo(J). TeoprH Bi>jieB, kohto noaroTBH MHoro 
aoG'bp eKHn ot HayHHO-neflaroranecKH Ka/jpH. Pa3HiHpH ce h npeno- 
^aBaHeTO Ha CTOK03HaHHe b flBeTe rtproBCKH cneijHajiHOCTH h ce eb3#a,zi;e 
KaTeapa "OroK03HaHHe", orjiaBeHa ot ,o;oij. Kajino HBaHOB, a no-KbCHO - ot 
npo$. AHflpeS AH/ipeeB, kohto H3MeHH npo(|)HJia Ha KaTe^paTa h pa3ninpH 
Ha6opa ot H3ynaBaHH flncijHnjiHHH. OGopy^BaHH 6axa Ka6nHeTH-jia6opa- 
TopHH 3a npaKTHHecKH 3aH^TH5i npH KaTe^pa "TexHOJionifl" h KaTe^pa 

"CTOK03HaHHe". 

B CbOTBeTCTBHe C pa3IHHp^BaHe Ha BT>HHIHOHKOHOMHHeCKHTe OTHO- 

uieHHe Ha CTpaHaTa b cneijHajiHOCTra "Bi>HHiHa TbproBHa" ce o(f)opMHxa 
£Ba npo(|)HJia: "MeayiyHapoflHH hkohomhhcckh oTHomeHHfl" h "MeayiyHa- 
poflHH BajiyTHO-(|)HHaHCOBH OTHOuieHH^". Tpa6Ba aa OTGejieaca aKTHBHaTa 
flefiHOCT Ha pi>KOBOflHTeji^ Ha Kare^paTa npo(|). rpnrop IIonHcaKOB, kohto 

Cb3flafle eJIHTeH KOJieKTHB H yCTaHOBH TeCHH KOHTaKTH C MHHHCTepCTBO Ha 
Bl>HHIHaTa TBprOBHfl H C fl'bptfCaBHHTe BI>HIHHOTT>prOBCKH OpraHH3aiJHH BT>B 

Bpi>3Ka c npoBe^cflaHeTO Ha HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTejiCKa aefiHOCT h npaKTH- 
necKOTO o6yneHHe Ha CTyaeHTHTe. 06opyflBaH Seine h ^ohctuhqu Ka6nHeT 
3a Hy^K^HTe Ha ny^cfloe3HKOBOTO o6yHemie. 

Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe ce OTflejumie Ha HayHHOTO cbfl'bp^caHHe Ha npeno- 
flaBaHHTe flncijHnjiHHH. B KaTe/jpHTe, (jmKyjrreTHHTe cbbcth h AKa/je- 
MHHHM cbBeT ce HanpaBH 3aai>Ji6oHeH nperjiea Ha npeno^aBaHeTO h ce 
npnexa MeponpHOTHfl 3a noao6p^BaHe Ha HayHHOTO cbfl'bpacaHHe Ha 
yne6HHTe nporpaMH b CbOTBeTCTBHe c noTpe6HOCTHTe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa: 
CTy^eHTHTe Tp^6Bauie aa npHflo6H)iT 3aai>ji6oHeHH 3HaHH5i h aa ycBO#r 
CBBpeMeHHHTe MeTOflH Ha HayneH aHajiH3 Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe ^bjichhh h 
npoijecn, Ha rniamipaHe h nporH03HpaHe b paMKHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO h 
opraHH3ai^H5iTa Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. 

335 



B HaynHHTe H3cneflBaHH5i h oGyneHHexo 3anoHHaxa %a ce H3noji3Bax 
MaTeMaTHHecKH MeTOflH Ha aHajiH3, miaHHpaHe, nporH03HpaHe h Mo^ejiH-. 
paHe. Bt>b bchhkh cneijHajiHOCT 6euie yBejinneH xopapnyMtT no BHcma 
MaTeMaTHKa, a cbfltpacaHHeTO Ha flncijHnjiHHaTa 6euie MOflH(j)HimpaHo b 
CBOTBeTCTBHe c noTpe6HOCTHTe Ha noaroTOBKaTa Ha CTyaeHTHTe-HKOHo- 
mhcth. Bi>Beaoxa ce h hobh MareMaTHHecKH flHcimmiHHH: JlHHeHHa 
ajire6pa, MaTeMaTHHecico nporpaMHpaHe, Teopna Ha BepoOTHocraTe, npH- 
jioacemie Ha HKOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTHHecKH MeTOflH 3a aHanH3 h nnaHHpaHe. 

B Kpaa Ha 1962 r. 6euie cb3aaaeHa KaTeapa "Bncma MaTeMaraKa" c 
pi>KOBOflHTen npo(J). 3flpaBKO CyrapeB, kohto ycneuiHO pa3BH npenoaaBaHe- 
to Ha HKOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTHHecKHTe flHci|HnnHHH h noflnoMorHa noflroTOB- 
KaTa Ha MJiaan npeno^aBaTejiH b Ta3H npnnoacHa o6nacT Ha 3HaHeio. 
BjiaroflapeHHe Ha HeroBHTe ycHJiHfl h Ha OTnycHaraTe cneijHajnmimH b 
qyacGHHa 6eine no^roTBeHO e^HO MJia^o noKOJiemie HayHHO-neaarorHHecKH 
KaapH no npHJioacemie Ha Te3H MeTOfln: HBaH BeneB, KpyM AjieKcaH^poB, 
JIioflMHJi MyTa^nneB, LfceTaH Hohhcb h ap. npoBeaeHa 6eme n HaynHa 
KOH(j)epeHijHfl no BtnpocHTe Ha npnjioaceHneTO Ha CBBpeMeHHH hko- 
HOMHKO-MaTeMaTHHecKH MeTOfln n MoaejiH 3a njiaHHpaHe n aHajin3 Ha 
HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO, b kooto B3exa ynacrae axa^. EBreHH MareeB, 
npocj). HBaH Xaa)KHHBaHOB ? npocj). HnKOJia BtJieB, aoij. HBaH BeneB, npo4). 
PyMeH ^HaKneB, npo(J). BeHeij IJoHeB, aoij. AHren EtHBapOB n ap. 

CtBMecTHO c KoMHTeTa 3a TexHHHecKH nporpec 3anoHHa noaroTOBKa 3a 
H3rpa)KflaHeTO Ha aBTOMaTH3HpaH H3HHCJiHTejieH ijeHTLp. C oraea Ha TOBa 
6axa BtBeaeHH n hakoh hobh flncijHnnHHH: MexaHH3aijHfl Ha OTHeTHOcrra, 
MexaHH3HpaHe h aBTOMaTH3HpaHe Ha o6pa6oTKaTa Ha HKOHOMnnecKaTa 
HH(J)opMai|H5i. Ci>3flaae ce h KaTe^pa "MauiHHHa o6pa6oTKa Ha hkoho- 
MHHecKaTa HH(j)opMaijHfl" c ptKOBOflHTeji ATaHac TaHeB, kohto 3amHTH 

aHCepTai|H5I B MoCKOBCKHfl HHECeHepHO-HKOHOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT. Tofi, 

AHren EtHBapOB, kohto 3amHTH ancepTaijHfl b Mockobckm fltpacaBeH 
yHHBepcHTeT npe3 1965 r., Ctoah Ahkob, Cepren Mhtkob, EBreHH PaaeB h 
flp. ci>3flafloxa HayHHO-npenoflaBaTencKH eioin, kohto ocnrypn KanecTBe- 
HaTa noflroTOBKa Ha eryaeHTHTe no BtnpocHTe Ha MexaHH3aijHOTa h 

aBTOMaTH3ai|H)ITa Ha HKOHOMHHCCKaTa HH(J)OpMai|H^. CtmH^T KOJieKTHB 

nocTaBH HanajioTO Ha npenoaaBaHeTO Ha ejieKTpoHHOH3HHCJiHTenHa Tex- 
HHKa. B HOBOCT>3flafleHaTa cneijHanHOCT "OpraHH3aijHfl Ha ManiHHHaTa 
o6pa6oTKa Ha HKOHOMnnecKaTa HH(|)opMaijHfl" 3anoHHaxa aa ce H3ynaBaT 
anciiHnjiHHHTe Ochobh Ha nporpaMHpaHe Ha EHM, ABTOMaTH3aijHfl Ha 
npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe npoijecn, Teopna Ha CTonaHCKOTO ynpaBJieHHe (bkjiio- 
HHTejiHO KH6epHeTHKa) h ap. 

336 



3a HyacflHTe Ha npeno^aBaHeTO Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe flHcimmiHHH b 
cpe^HHTe cneijHajiHH ynnjinma (TexHHKyMH) 6enie HeoGxo^HMO #a ce 
no^roTBAT ctoTBeTHHTe ne^arorHHecKH Ka^pH. 3a ijejrra kt>m hakoh ot 
cneuHaJiHOCTHTe ce BtBe^e (jmKyjrraTHBHO H3ynaBaHe Ha ne^arorHHecKH 
^HCUHnjiHHH (MeTOflHKa Ha npeno^aBaHeTO, ne^arorHKa, ne^aroraKa Ha 
npeno^aBaHeTO Ha CTeHorpa(|)Hfl h MauiHHonHC h #p.). PtKOBO^HTeji Ha 
T03H npo^HJi 6euie HafifleH /Jhmhtpob, kohto H3Hac5inie xy6aBH jickijhh h 
6eceflH no ne^arorHKa h MeTO^HTe Ha npeno^aBaHeTO Ha HOBonocTbnHJiH 

aCHCTeHTH H flOKTOpaHTH. 

KaTO OTHHTaxMe Heo6xo,zi;HMOCTTa ot MO,nepHH3HpaHe Ha yne6HOTO 
cbfltp^caHHe h 4>opMHTe Ha npeno^aBaHe b ycjiOBHOTa Ha ycKopeH HayHHO- 
TexHHnecKH nporpec, nepHOflHHHO opraHH3HpaxMe ^HCKycHH Btpxy MeTO- 
flHKaTa Ha npeno/jaBaHeTO c ynacTHeTO Ha HayHHO-ne,o;arorHHecKH5i ctcTaB 
Ha HHCTHiyTa. Hakoh ot Te3H ^HCKycHH 6axa npOBe^eHH cbbmcctho c 
BHcniHTe HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyTH b Cbhiijob h BapHa. npoBOK^axa ce H 
MeTOflHnecKH ceMHHapH othocho H3Hac5meTO Ha jieKUHOHHH KypcoBe, npo- 
BeayjaHeTO Ha yHHBepcHTeTCKHTe H3nHTH, Ha ceMHHapHTe h cneijceMH- 
HapHTe. npe3 1964 r. 6euie ny6jiHKyBaH c6ophhkt>t "Mctoahkh Ha ceMH- 
HapHHTe 3aHHTHH b HKOHOMHHecKHTe BY3", b koato ca Cb6paHH H3pa3eHHTe 
no Te3H BtnpocH eraHOBHma. 

Oco6eHO aKTHBHH h npoayKTHBHH b Ta3H ,ueHHOCT 6axa npo(j). Mnxanji 
TeHOBCKH, npo(j). Tahko Hop/jaHOB, npocj). XpHCTO KajinropOB, npo(|). 
IIonHcaKOB, npocj). KocTa rieprejiOB, npocj). Ore(])aH CraHeB, npo<|). J\uMwrbp 
^HMHTpOB, npocj). HBaH MaTOB, npocj). HnKona Bi>jieB, npocj). HBaH 
HopaaHOB, npocj). GrecjraH MeneB, ,o;oij. An6epT ABpaMOB, npocj). HnKOJia 
BejiHKOB h flp. Pe3yjrraTHTe 6axa ,zi;o6pH: noBHnin ce MeTOflnnecKaTa 
B3HCKaTejiHOCT KaKTO cnpflMO cj)opMaTa h ci>,m>p)KaHHeTO Ha jieKUHHTe, TaKa h 
no OTHonieHne aKTHBHOTO ynacrae Ha CTyzjeHnrre b ceMHHapHHTe 3airaTH5i. 
npocj). Mnxanji TeHOBCKH H3Hece hhkojiko jickijhh no "IleflarorHKa h 

nCHXOJIOITDI Ha H3nHTa", KOHTO npe,HH3BHKBaxa O^CHBeHH flHCKyCHH. 

Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe ce OTflejwnie Ha TOBa rzl 6t f zi;aT cbSflaaeHH ycjiOBM 
3a caMOCTO^TejiHaTa pa6oTa Ha CTyaeHTHTe c ijeji (J>opMHpaHe y Tax Ha 
yMeHM h HaBHijH #a neTaT pa3Hoo6pa3HH HayHHH h HayHHononynapHH 
ny6jiHKaiiHH ? j\& ocmhcjiot h oijeHjreaT kphthhho aocrbnHaTa hm HH(j)op- 
MaijHfl. C orjiea Ha TOBa 6axa ny6jiHKyBaHH yne6HHijH h yne6HH noMarana 
noHTH no bchhkh flHcuHnjiHHH, MaKap aa ce Hajio^cn aa npeoflOJieeM 
rojieMH Tpy^HOCTH bt>b Bpt3Ka c taxhoto H3flaBaHe. BnGjiHOTeKaTa Ha 
HHCTHTyTa 6eme nyBCTBHTejiHO o6oraTeHa h Bene pa3nojiaranie c noBene ot 
120 000 TOMa. IIpH H3roTB^HeTO Ha pa3nHcaHH)rra 3a yne6HaTa 3aeTOCT ot 

337 



yneSHaxa 1962/1963 r. HaceTHe CTaHa npHHunn Ha CTyaeHTHTe aa Gt^e 
ocHrypeH noHe e^HH CBo6oaeH ^eH b paMKHTe Ha ceflMHuaTa. AKTHBH3Hpa 
ce fleHHOcrra Ha CTy^eHTCKHTe KptacouH, npOBeac^axa ce h CTyaeHTCKH 
HayHHH KOH(J)epeHUHH 5 nacT ot hhhto MaTepHajiH 6axa ny6jiHKyBaHH. 
CTyaeHTH 6axa npHBjieneHH h b HayHHO-rocjieflOBaTejicKara aeftHOCT Ha 
KareflpHTe. 

B npoijeca Ha noaroTOBKara Ha CTyaeHTHTe BaacHa 3aaana 6e 
npaKTHHecKOTO hm o6yneHHe. B yne6HHTe njiaHOBe 6axa npeflBHfleHH flBe 
npaKTHKH, kohto ce npOBeayjaxa noa HayHHOTO ptKOBOflCTBO Ha KareapHTe 
b ctOTBeTHH npe#npHflTHfl h yHpe^cfleHHH no cneunajran nporpaMH. Te 
aaBaxa ao6pH pe3yjiTaTH. CTyzjeHTHTe ce 3ano3HaBaxa c npaKranecKaTa 
fleflHOCT no TOBa 5 KoeTO H3ynaBaxa, HaTpymaxa hobh 3HaHHfl h ycn^Baxa - 
Maicap h nacTHHHO - aa ce opneHTHpaT KaKBO rn onaicBa cjiea KaTo 
npHKnionaT o6pa30BaHHeTO ch. Ha CTy^eHTHTe ce BT>3Jiarame fla npoynar 
OTflenHH BtnpocH, CB-Bp3aHH c fleHHOcrra Ha npeflnpHjroieTO, opraHH3Hpaxa 
ce KOH^epemjHH, cpemn c ptKOBOflHTenH Ha CTonaHCKH opraHH3auHH h 
Be^OMCTBa. npaKTHKara 3aBi>pniBanie c npe^cTaBflHe Ha oTHeTeH flOKnaa ot 
CTpaHa Ha CTyaeHTa-npaKTHKaHT, kohto Tpa6Banie aa 6T>fle oijeHeH ot 
ctOTBeTHH^ HayneH ptKOBOflHTen. Taica Me»my KareapeHHTe KOJieKTHBH h 
ptKOBOflCTBaTa Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH ce ci>3flaBaxa n nofltfbpflcaxa 
npeKH n B3aHMHO none3HH KOHTaKTH, kohto ynecHHBaxa no#roTOBKaTa Ha 
6i>flen];HTe cneunajiHcra. 

Pa36npa ce, KanecTBeHara noaroTOBKa Ha CTyaeHTHTe ao rojiflMa cTeneH 
3aBHcenie h ot KBajiH^HKaiyiflTa Ha npenoaaBaTejiHTe. CtcTaBtT Ha 
HayHHO-neaarorHHecKHTe Ka^pn bi>b BHH ce 6i>p30 ce yBejinnn c 
MHoaeecTBO MJiaflH npenoaaBaTenn: /JaHanji /JaHaHJioB, Tamo ITaneB, KpyM 
AneKcaHflpOB, 3flpaBKa KoBaneBa, CTaHHni Eohcb, Teoprn ,H,aHOB, JlniwHa 
KapaKanieBa, LfceTaH Hohhcb, Mnxanji ^hhcb, ATaHac TaHeB, Teopra 
BtneB, ^HMHTbp IUonoB, CaBa CaBOB, AHflpefi AHflpeeB, MaHon Ph6ob, 

CTOflH AypHH. HIDK - AHMHTbp ^HMHTpOB, JlHJIflHa HjIHCBa, ^HMHTbp 

TeHOB, Ctoah Ahkob, AHren EtHBapOB, Ha,zje)Kfla JlanoBa, HBaH KnpKOpOB, 
IJohbo Ekhmob h flp. nonaraxa ce rpHaen 3a noBHUiaBaHeTO Ha T^xHaTa 
KBajiH(])HKaijHfl h MH03HHa ot Tax HMaxa bi>3mo^choct aa cnen;HajiH3HpaT B 
CCCP, rTJP, AHrnna, OpaHitna, ilnoHHfl h flp. npeaocTaBflxa ce h 
TBOpnecKH OTnycKH Ha npeno^aBaTenH h acncTeHTH. 

YBejiHHH ce 6poa Ha xaSnjiHTHpaHHTe npenoflaBarejin - aoijeHTH h 
npo(|)ecopH. B Kpaa Ha 50-Te toahhh h HananoTO Ha 60-Te HayHHOTO 3BaHHe 
„flon;eHT" Hpe3 KomeypcH nonynnxa: ^aBHfl /JaBHflOB, )KaK Apofto, HBaH 
HopaaHOB, Jlajno Pa^yjiOB, Toflop AHrenoB, AnGepT ABpaMOB, HnKOJia 

338 



HayMOB, KnpHJi TaTeB, HeflKa IleHKOBa, AjieKcaHfltp reoprneB, OraHHO 
HBaHOB, TpHrop BaKJineB, ATaHac TaHeB, JIio6eH EepOB, Cre^aH MeneB, 
TeoprH IleTpoB , HBaH HjineB BopHC IltpByjioB, 3flpaBKO 3naTaHOB, Jlajiio 
PaayJioB, HBaH Bhachob, AHren HaynieB, Heuio IJapeBCKH, ^hmhtlp 
BacHJieB, HHKOJia Bcjihkob, AHflpefl AHflpeeB h ap. 

B HanajioTO Ha 60-Te (flo 1966 r.) HayHHOTO 3BaHHe npo(|)ecop Hpe3 
KOHKypcH nonyHHxa HBaH MaTOB, XpHCTO KajinropoB, KocTa neprenoB, 
BeHeii IlpHeB, HHKona Bi>JieB, 3flpaBKO CyrapeB, nertp IIIamcapeB, ATaHac 
ATaHacoB, TpHrop nonncaKOB h flp., a npe3 BTOpaTa nojioBHHa Ha 60-Te 
roflHHH: HBaH Hjihcb, )KaK Apofio, HBaH Bhachob, Ahtcji HaynieB, XpHCTO 
XaA^KHHHKonoB, ^HMHTbp BacHJieB, Hemo IJapeBCKH, neHHO PaflKOBCKH, 
Oecj)aH IJaHKOB, JIio6eH EepOB, Toflop AHrejiOB, HBaH Hop^aHOB, BecejiHH 

XpHCTO(j)OpOB. 

Bchhkh Te HMaT onpeaejieHH 3acjiyra b pa3BHTHeTO Ha Bhcihha hkoho- 
MH^ecKH HHCTHTyT h Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa TeopHM b pa3JiHHHH o6nacTH Ha 
HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayKa. Hjikoh ot tax H3m>JiH5iBaxa h ottobophh ynpaB- 

JieHCKH flJTbECHOCTH B flfcptfCaBHHM anapaT KaTO MHHHCTpH H 3aM.-MHHHCTpH, 

cbBeTHHi^H, flHpeKTOpH Ha HayHHH HHCTHTyTH h CTonaHCKH opraHH3au;HH. 
BtnpeKH cpaBHHTenHO ao6pHTe ycnexn b pa3BHTHeTO Ha Kaflpme, 

ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha HHCTHTyTa HeCTO OTnpaBMHie KpHTHHHH 6eJie)KKH KBM 

OHe3H npeno^aBaTejiH, kohto b e^Ha hjih flpyra CTeneH npeHe6perBaxa 
HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTencKaTa ch pa6oTa h 3aKtcH5iBaxa c noflroTOBicaTa ch 3a 
xa6HHHTHpaHe. 

npenoflaBaTejicKHH cberaB npe3 yne6HaTa 1965/1966 r. BT>3JiH3anie Ha 
162 ayniH, ot kohto xa6njiHTHpaHH 6axa 65 (28 npoc])ecopH h 37 aoijeHTH), 
T.e. Te npeflCTaBJiflBaxa ok. 30% ot o6mHfl 6pofi Ha npenoaaBaTejiHTe, Koe- 
to 6euie ao6po cbOTHOineHHe. Ako ot o6maTa hhcjichoct ce H3KJiK>qaT 
npenoflaBaTenHTe ot KaTe^pHTe "0H3Kyjnypa" (5) h "^yacflH e3HijH" (18), b 
kohto no maT He ce npeflBHacflaxa xa6njiHTHpaHH npenoflaBaTejin, h3jih- 
3ame, ne 47% ot npenoaaBaTejiHTe 6#xa xa6HJiHTHpaHH. 

111,0 ce OTHacH so nepcneKTHBHaTa noaroTOBKa Ha HayHHO-neflarorHHecKH 
KaapH, cepH03HO BHHMaHHe 6euie oGtpHaTO Ha acnnpaHTypHTe. noBHiueHH 
6axa H3HCKBaHHMTa KaKTO npH 3aHHCJWBaHeTO Ha hobh acnnpaHTH, TaKa h npH 
onpeaejiHHeTO Ha TeMaTHKaTa Ha 6i>flemHTe flHcepTaijHH, HayqHOTO hm ptKO- 
BOflCTBo h T^XHaTa 3aujHTa. HecTO o6ane caMHTe acnnpaHTH oraaraxa h 
6aBexa 3amHTHTe Ha flncepTaijHHTe ch, kocto ce flT>jDKenie 6hjio Ha 3aeTOCT c 
npenoflaBaTejicKa pa6oTa, 6hjio Ha Heao6po HayHHO ptKOBO^CTBO. 

BTopaTa ocHOBHa 3a/iaHa Ha aKaaeMHHHOTO ptKOBO^CTBO 6enie m 
no^oSpn opramnamiHTa Ha HayHHaTa aeiiHOCT Ha npeno^aBaTejiCKHfl 

339 



KOJieKTHB, koato Tpfl6Baine aa ctoTBeTCTBa KaKTO Ha TeKynjHTe hkoho- 

MHHeCKH IIOTpe6HOCTH, TaKa H Ha KOHKpeTHHTe COIJHaJIHO-HKOHOMHHeCKH 

3aaaHH ? onpeaejieHH ot neTroflHHiHHfl (1961-1966) h flBafleceTroflHHiHHn 
(1961-1980) njiaHOBe 3a pa3BHrae HKOHOMHKaTa Ha CTpaHaTa. Heo6xoflHMo 
6eine aa ce nocTHrae HayHHO peineHHe Ha npo6jieMHTe, CBtp3aHH c 

e(J)eKTHBHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa KaTO IJflJIO, a CMIJO H Ha OTfleJIHHTe 

OTpacjiH h fleiiHOCTH; aa ce noflo6pn CHCTeMaTa Ha ynpaBJieHHe h opraHH- 
3aijHOTa Ha npoH3BOflCTBOTO h rbproBHATa, aa ce yctBtpnieHCTBa nnaHH- 
paHeTo h nporH03HpaHeTO ? chctcmhtc Ha ijeHoo6pa3yBaHe, (J)HHaHCHpaHe h 
MaTepnajiHa 3aHHTepecoBaHOCT Ha TpyaeiijHTe ce h pp. 

Hanarame ce aa noao6pHM nnaHHpaHeTO Ha HayHHaTa pa6oTa hhcth- 
TyTa h aa HacoHHM H3CJieflBaHHflTa Ha npenoaaBaTejiHTe ki>m aKTyajiHHTe 
npo6neMH Ha npaKTHKaTa h noTpe6HOCTHTe Ha HKOHOMHnecKaTa TeopM. 
Pa36npa ce, Hapefl c TOBa Tpa6Banie aa ocnrypHM h Heo6xoflHMHTe MaTe- 
pnajiHH h 4>HHaHCOBH pecypcH 3a H3Bi>pinBaHe Ha HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTejicKa 
flefiHOCT, KaKTO h 3a peajiHOTO H3noji3BaHe h nonyiwpH3HpaHe Ha nocrar- 
HaTHTe pe3yjiTaTH. Eaxa ctCTaBeHH h niHpoKO o6cK>KflaHH roflHimmTe h no- 
Ai>jirocpoHHHTe nnaHOBe 3a HayHHaTa aepraocT, kohto ce cbrnacyBaxa c 
ApyrHTe bhchih hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyTH. CKJiioHBaxa ce ^oroBopn 3a 

H3ni>JIHeHHeTO HM C MHHHCTepCTBa H CTOnaHCKH opraHH3aijHH. 3a CbflCa- 

neHHe, b Ta3H o6nacT BJiacTBame ape6HOTeMHeTO h necTO ce pa3pa6oTBaxa 
MajiKH h He oco6eHO 3HanHMH TeMH 5 kohto o6ane 6i>p3o h necHO ce 
H3ni>jiHflBaxa. BceKH ceMecrtp (J)aKyjiTeTHHTe cbbcth H3CJiyuiBaxa h oijeHH- 
Baxa OTHeTHTe 3a H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha njiaHOBeTe no BCAKa eflHa ot 
pa3pa6oTBaHHTe tcmh. EaceroflHO Ha oGmme ci>6paHHH Ha HHCTHTyra 
AKaaeMHHHH^T cbBeT nocTaBHine Ha o6ci>^cflaHe HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTejiCKaTa 
pa6oTa h B3eManie cbotbcthh peinemifl. CpOKOBeTe 3a H3ni>JiHeHHe Ha 
TeMHTe necTO He ce cna3Baxa nopa^H ronflMaTa ayflHTOpHa 3aeTOCT Ha npe- 
noflaBaTejiHTe. 

riojio^cHTejiHa pojia 3a pa3BHraeTO Ha HayHHaTa fleimocT b HHCTHTyTa 
Hipaenie HayHHO-H3CJieaoBaTejiCKHHT ueHTbp, kohto 6eme noflHHHeH Ha 
pi>KOBOflCTBOTo h c peniemie Ha MnHHCTepcKH CbBeT 6enie nojiynnji npaBO 
aa CKJiioHBa floroBopH 3a OKa3BaHe Ha HaynHa noMom c MHHHCTepcTBa, 
Be«0MCTBa ? HapoflHH ci>BeTH ? CTonaHCKH h o6m;ecTBeHH opraHH3aipra. 
TaKHBa floroBopH iieHrbptT ckjiiohh c EHE, 3aBOfl 14 - JIoBen, 3aBO,n 
"Bejiyp" - JIoBen, OH,3 - Kbp^acajiH, LJeHTpanHo craracTHHecKO ynpaB- 
JieHHe, 3aBOfl "6-th cenTeMBpn" - Co<|)Hfl h mh. ap. HacT ot npHxo#HTe no 
Te3H floroBOpH 6axa H3noji3BaHH 3a nocTpojmaHeTO Ha noHHBHaTa 6a3a Ha 
BHH b c. PaBfla: eflHa CKpoMHa crpa^a, kooto He Moace aa ce cpaBHHBa ct>c 

340 



ceraniHaTa MOztepHa noHHBHa CTamjHfl Ha YHCC. IIohth bchhkh KaTe^pH 
B3eMaxa ynacrae b H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha HayHHH tcmh no jihhhh Ha "HaynHHTe 
nopi>HKH", kohto ce Bi>3Jiaraxa Hpe3 nocpeflHHnecTBOTO Ha HaynHO-H3CJie- 

flOBaTeJICKHfl IjeHTT>p. 

Pa36npa ce, BHH npofl'bJi^caBanie Aa opraHH3Hpa nepnoflHHHO rojieMH 
HaynHH KOH(|)epeHijHH no aiayajiHH npo6neMH Ha HKOHOMHnecKaTa Teopna 
h npaKTHKa, hhhto tcmh OTpa3HBaxa ToraBaniHHTe npe^cTaBH 3a HacoKHTe 

Ha HKOHOMHHeCKOTO H o6mecTBeHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha ET>JirapHfl: Cl>BpeMeHHH 
HKOHOMHHeCKH MeTOflH H MOfleJIH 3a nJiaHHpaHe H aHaJIH3 Ha HapOflHOTO 

cTonaHCTBo; HoBaTa CHCTeMa 3a ptKOBO^CTBO h njiaHHpaHe; OopMH h 
cHCTeMH 3a CTHMyjinpaHe; IIpo6jieMH Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKHTe npoH3Bo,n;- 
cTBeHH OTHonieHHH; H3noji3BaHe Ha ctohhocthhtc KaTeropHH b njiaHH- 
paHeTO Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBo h pp. 

KoH(|)epeHi^HHTe npe,n;H3BHKBaxa MHoro flHCKycnn h ce nocpemaxa c 
roJWM HHTepec, ^okojikoto ^eMOHCTpHpaxa paBHHmeTO Ha HaynHHTe pa3pa- 

60TKH H nOCTH^CeHHH, KaKTO H nOTeHI^HaJIHHTe BT>3MO)KHOCTH Ha HayHHO- 

neaarornHecKHH ctcTaB Ha HHCTHTyTa. CnoMHHM ch ,n;o6pe HayHHaTa 
KOH(|)epeHijHfl "Ilpo6jieMH Ha ycT>BT>piiieHCTBaHeTO Ha ynpaBJieHHeix) h 
njiaHHpaHeTO Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBo", kooto npoBe,n;oxMe b Kpaa Ha 
peKTOpcKH^i mh MaH^aT (1-3 .VI. 1966). 06cT>,n;eHH 6axa peflHija HayHHH 
flOKJia^H no BtnpocHTe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h Kn6epHeTHKaTa, b kohto ce 
pa3rjie^caaxa npo6jieMHTe okojio H3rpa5K,n;aHeTO Ha e^HHHa CHCTeMa 3a 
HKOHOMHnecKa HH(|)opMaijH5i, onTHMH3HpaHeTO Ha CTonaHCKOTO nnaHHpaHe, 
H3noji3BaHeTO Ha Koe(|)HijHeHTHTe Ha ntJiHHTe pa3xoflH b nnaHHpaHeTO h 

HKOHOMHHeCKHH aHaJIH3, npHJIOECeHHeTO Ha CTaTHCTHKO-MaTeMaTHHeCKH 

MeTOflH 3a nporH03HpaHe Ha noTpe6nTencKOTO TbpceHe h pp. HaniHTe 
KOJiera ot flpyraTe hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyTH npoaBHxa rojiflM HHTepec 
kt>m KOH(J)epeHi^HHTa ? Ha kohto npncbCTBaxa n MHoro ptKOBO^HTejin Ha 
CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH h MHHHCTepcTBa. ^,HCKycHHTe no flOKJiaflHTe 6#xa 
mhoto none3HH h HacHTeHH c kphthhhh GejieaocH. 

HayHHaTa npoflyKijM Ha HaniHTe npeno^aBaTejiH ce ny6jiHKyBaxa b 
nopeanijaTa "Tpy^oBe Ha Bhciiihji hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT", kohto 
H3HH3anie b hhkojiko TOMa roflHniHO, ho h TOBa 6enie He^ocTaTtHHO h 

aKafleMHHHOTO ptKOBOflCTBO BOflenie nOCTOHHHH flHCKyCHH C MHHHCTep- 

ctboto 3a OTnycKaHe Ha noBene cpe^cTBa 3a H3,n;aTejicKa fleiiHocT. 

Ilpe3 T03H nepnofl npa3HHK Ha BHH CTaHa 5 Mafi - poayjeHaTa ,n;aTa Ha 
naTpona Ha HHCTHTyTa Kapji MapKC. 3a nptB m>T npa3HHKT>T 6enie 
OT6enH3aH c TbpacecTBeHO ci>6paHHe Ha 5.V.1963 r. b Hapo^HHfl Tea-rap. 

IIpHCbCTBaxa He CaMO CTyfleHTH, HO H 6hBEIH BT>3nHTaHHIJH (hhkoh ot tax b 

341 



MOMeirra 6axa HJieHOBe Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO) Ha HHCTHTyTa h Ha HeroBHn 
npefliuecTBeHHK - CboGoahha yHHBepcnTeT, d>3aafleH npe3 1921 r. IIo to3h 
noBOfl ^HMHTbp IIonoB, ToraBa mhhhctbp Ha (JmHaHCHTe, uieroBHTo 
OT6ejw3a 5 ne Ha TOBa cb6paHHe npHCbCTBaT noBene mhhhctph, ot kojikoto 
Ha 3aceaaHHflTa Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO. Pa36npa ce, c TOBa toh HCKaiue #a 
no^HepTae h rojwMaTa pojw Ha hkohomhhcckoto o6pa30BaHHe. 

BT>3CTaHOBeHa 6euie Tpa/jHijHOTa /ja ce necTBar K)6HJieHTe Ha bhoth 
npoc[)ecopH, pa6oTem;H bt>b Bhcuiha hkohommhcckh^ hhcthtyt. IlbpBHTe 
TaKHBa HecTBaHHH CTaHaxa npe3 1963 r. h 6axa nocBeTemi Ha uiecTfleceT- 
roflHiHHHHHTe Ha aicafl. HBaH CTe(|)aHOB h Ha npocj). MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH. 

OT6ejiH3BaHeTO Ha K)6HJiefl Ha npocj). MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH 6eine HCKpeH 
H3pa3 Ha npH3HaTejiHOCTTa Ha hhcthtytckhh kojickthb 3a HeroBaTa aKTHBHa 
Hapoflonojie3Ha o6mecTBeHO-nojiHTHHecKa, HayHHa h ne/jarorHHecica 
flefiHOCT, 3a HeroBHTe 3acjiyrH npH noaroTOBKaTa h BT>3nHTaHHe Ha xhjulrk 

CneiJHaJIHCTH-HKOHOMHCTH, Ha fleceTKH acnHpaHTH H HayHHH CbTpyflHHI^H. 

npocj). TeHOBCKH HaHCTHHa 6euie e#HH ot HeKOJiimHaTa Hafi-yBa^caBaHH 
npenoflaBaTejiH bt>b BHH. Toft 6euie yneH - H3CJieflOBaTeji h TBOpeij, a b 
HeyMopHaTa ch #eftHOCT KaTO o6mecTBeHHK ce 6eiue yTBi>pflHJi KaTO 
6opnecKa h HenpHMHpHMa jihhhoct. BHHarH ct>m ce BneqaTJWBaji ot 
HeroBaTa HeH3nepnaeMa eHeprHfl h HHHijHaTHBHOCT, ctHeTaHH c 6oraTa 
ayineBHOCT, eHijHKJioneflHHHH 3HaHHa h 3aBH^HO TpyflOJiio6He. Toft He 
6euie Ka6HHeTeH yneH. )Khbotbt My 6euie CBT>p3aH c mhoto nojiHTHnecKH 
ct>6hthji, c mhoto TpyflHOCTH h ycnexH. Toft flo roiwMa CTeneH OTpa35raaine 

^HHaMHHHHH nOJIHTHHeCKH 2CHB0T B HaiHaTa CTpaHa CJiefl IlbpBaTa CBeTOBHa 

BoftHa h 6op6HTe Ha cejiflHHTe h pa6oTHHijHTe npoTHB eiccnjioaTaijHflTa, 3a 
CBo6o«a h fleMOKpaitHH. 

KaTO MJiaflOK MnxaHJi TeHOBCKH ce BKJHOHBa b 3eMeaejiCKOTO abh- 
aceHHe h CTaBa yneHHK h npHBtpaceHHK Ha BO^aqa Ha B3HC AjieKcaHfltp 
OraMGojiHHCKH. ToBa ao rojiflMa CTeneH npeflonpeaejifl HeroBaTa no- 
HaTaTT>uiHa aeftHOCT KaTO 6op6eH o6mecTBeHHK h yHeH-H3CJie^OBaTeji. Ot 
o6HKHOBeH KHHroBOflHTeji Ha IIonyjDipHaTa 6aHKa b po^HOTO ch cejio toh 
ycnjrea ^a ce H3flHrHe ao mhhhctbp b npaBHTejicTBOTO Ha OreHecTBeHna 
4>pOHT h Hapo^eH npe^cTaBHTeji; ot npeflceaareji Ha BT>3,m>p)KaTejiH0 
Apy^cecTBO h peflOBH hjich Ha B3HC - ro oprammijHOHeH ceKpeTap h HJieH 

Ha IIOCTOflHHOTO npHCbCTBHe Ha 3eMefleJICKHfl CT>K)3; OT peflOBH ^cypHajiHCT 

h ny6jiHijHCT - flo pe^aKTOp Ha H3BecTHH mjxamm Karo en. "3eMH h Tpy/j", 
en. "3eMeaejiCKa mhcbji", b. "3eMeaejicKO 3HaMe" n #p. KaTO aKTHBeH 
o6mecTBeHHK n njioflOBHT ^cypHanHCT, Hanncaji noBene ot 1000 damn, 
Toft e npecjie^BaH h 3aTBapHH ot cjmnincTKHTe BJiacTH. rio-KbCHO toh ce 

342 



nocBeTH H3ijflJio Ha HayHHa h npeno/iaBaTencKa aefiHOCT, CTaHa npoc|)ecop 

(1946), flOKTOp Ha lOpHflHHeCKHTe HayKH (1956) H CBC CBOHTe MHoro6poHHH 

ny6nHKaiiHH ch H3BOK)Ba roiwMa H3BecTHOCT b EtnrapHfl h ny)K6HHa... 

Toflop 5Khbkob bt>b BHH (8.XII.1962) 

IIpe3 1962 r. 6eme Bt3CTaHOBeHO necTBaHeTo Ha CTy/jeHTCKM npa3HHK 
Ocmh aeKeMBpH. B HaBenepHeTO Ha npa3HHKa, BenepTa Ha 7.XIL, b 3ajia 
u yHHBepcHaaa" ce npoBe/je n>p)KecTBeHO ci>6paHHe Ha CTy/jeHTHTe h 
npenoflaBaTenHTe ot bhchihtc yneGmi 3aBe/jeHHfl. C TOBa 6eme nojio)KeHo 
HanajioTO Ha eacero^HHTe cpenjH Ha HJieHOBeTe Ha nojnrrGiopo Ha IJK Ha 
BKII etc CTyaeHTHTe, kohto o6ane mhoto 6i>p3o ce npeBtpHaxa b ci>6paHH5i 
3a Bi>3XBajia Ha To/jop )Khbkob, 3a MaHHnyjiHpaHe Ha ery/jeHTCKaTa 
MJiaflOK. Bchhkh peKTOpH 6axMe noicaHeHH b npe3HflHyMa npH HJieHOBeTe 

Ha HOJIHTGlOpO. 

Ci>6paHHeTO ce OTKpH ot ceicpeTap Ha IJK Ha /JKMC. E/uia CTyneHTKa 
no^Hece npHBeTCTBHe, ho ot Hanpe^ceHHe hcbojiho ce o6i>pHa kbm To^op 
)Khbkob c ayMHTe "MHoroyBaacaeMH apyrapio HepBemcoB". 3ajiaTa yTHXHa. 
HacTaHa CMyT. Bchhkh etc 3aTaeH jxbx Bnepnxa ohh kbm }Khbkob, 
onaKBaHKH HeroBaTa peaKiiM. Ton o6ane ce 3acMfl /jo6po)KejiaTejiHO h 
cb6paHHeTO npofltJDKH. B peHTa ch To/jop )Khbkob npHBeTCTBa CTyneHT- 
cxaTa MJiafleac h Ha,m>jiro roBOpn 3a BT>TpeuiHOTO nono5KeHHe Ha cTpaHaTa, 
no^nepTa ycnexHTe cnefl AnpHJiCKM mieHyM, Bpe/jHHTe nocjie/jcTBHfl ot 
Kyjrra ki>m jiHHHOcrra Ha Bt>jiko HepBemcoB, onepTa Heo6xoflHMOCTra ot 

pa3BHTHe Ha fleMOKpaiJHflTa, KpHTHKaTa H CaMOKpHTHKaTa, Heo6xOflHMOCTTa 

ot flo6pe noflroTBeHH Ka/jpH, pojwTa h 3a,uaHHTe Ha BY3. Ton He nponycHa 
fla ce nomeryBa c hcbojiho o6i>pKajiaTa hmcto My CTy^eHTKa h Ka3a: "Eto 
KaKBO chjiho bjihahhc HMa HacaacflaHeTO Ha KynTa kt>m JiHHHOcrra cpe/j 
MnaflOKTa. Hne hhcthhkthbho npo,m>jraaBaMe ^a H3nHTBaMe TOBa bjiha- 
Hne." Toft hjih He d>3HaBame, hjih ^eMOHCTpaTHBHO ce onHTBaine ^a 
npeHeGperae (JmKTa, ne Bene ce ci>3flaBaiHe Kyjrr ki>m HeroBaTa co6cTBeHa 
jihhhoct, ne ce noflroTB^T ycnoBH^Ta 3a rocno^cTBO Ha aBTOpHTapH3Ma b 
ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha fltpacaBaTa h b p^kobo^ctboto Ha napTMTa. 

Cne3 npHKJHOHBaHeTO Ha ci>6paHHeTO bchhkh b 3ajiaTa ce HaflHraaxa, 3a 
fla ce pa30TH#aT. To,nop }Khbkob ci>mo Tpwna kbm H3xo^a. Kt>m Hero 
6tp30 ce OTnpaBH CTyneHTbT KocTa Hhkojiob, ceKpeTapflT Ha KOMHTeTa Ha 
/JKMC npH BHH, npe^cTaBH My ce h Ka3a: 

- /Jpyrapio }Khbkob, Ta3H Benep CTyneHTHTe h npenoflaBaTejnrre ot 
BHH ce ci>6HpaT Ha apyrapcKa cpenja b cajioHHTe Ha xoTen "EajiKaH". Ot 
taxho HMe Bh KaH^ fla npHctCTBaTe Ha Ta3H Benepfl. CTy^eHTHTe- 

343 



hkohomhcth 3acjiyacaBaT Ta3H necT. 

Toflop >Khbkob ce ycMHXHa, orjie.ua ro BHHMaTejiHO h nonHTa: 

- A peKTOptT ctrjiaceH jih e? 

A3 ce 6ax npH6jiH)KHJi klm tax h Ha6jiK)flaBax c H3HeHaaa cMejiaTa noc- 
Ttmca Ha KocTa Hhkojiob, tbh KaTO He 6axMe npeflBH/puiH TaicaBa noKaHa. 

- ,fl,a, pa36wpa ce. IU,e Bh onaKBaMe c pa^ocT h HeTbpnemie - OTro- 
BOpHX a3. 

- A°6pe 5 aKO HMaM bt>3mo)khoct me flofifla. Bwe o6ane He ci>o6maBaftTe 
3a TOBa Moe ctrjiacHe. To HMa ycnoBeH xapaicrep. 

Ilocjie 5Khbkob othobo Tptraa kt>m H3xoaa 5 3aeflH0 etc ceKpeTapa Ha 
U,K Ha BKQ Mhtko TpHropOB, nocjie^BaH ot HJieHOBeTe Ha IIojihtGiopo h 
ceKpeTapHTe Ha L],K Ha /JKMC. 

OcTaHaxMe c KocTa Hhkojiob h 3anoHHaxMe aa ce TioxicaMe: 

- Amh aKO HaHCTHHa flofifle?! 

OTHfloxMe b pecTopaHTa Ha xoTeji "EajucaH" h ce nocTapaxMe fla opra- 
HH3HpaMe Benep^Ta kojikoto ce Moace no-;i;o6pe, 6e3 aa cto6maBaMe 3a 
Bepo^THOTO nocememie Ha To/top 5Khbkob. IIpeflynpeflHX 3a TOBa caMO 
3aMecTHHK-peKT0pHTe h anafl. 5KaK HaTaH. 3ajiHTe Ha pecTopaHTa 6axa 
npa3HHHH0 noflpeaeHH h bchhkh MecTa ce H3m>jiHHxa. PtKOBOflCTBOTO ce 
HacTaHH Ha eflHa ot Macme b KpaftHaTa 3ana. 

HacrwiH onpefleneHH^T nac 3a 3anoHBaHe Ha rspacecTBeHaTa Benep. 
GryfleHTHTe h npenoaaBaTejiHTe Bene npoaBSBaxa HeTBpneHHe. Ci>o6pa3HO 
npeflBapHTejiHaTa nporpaMa, Te onaKBaxa KpaTKO npHBeTCTBeHO cjiobo no 
MHKpo(|)OHa ot peKTOpa, 3a aa 3anoHHe BenepaTa h BecejiHem EaxMe 
noKaHHJiH h apTHCTH. Hwe o6ane ce BtJiHyBaxMe h H3nHTBaxMe K0Jie6aHHe 
flanH fla 3anoHHeM hjih fla H3HaicaMe. BHe3anH0 otkbm 3ajiaTa, koato ce 
HaMHpauie ot CTpaHaTa Ha JIaproTO, ce nyxa 6ypHH ptKonjiacicaHHfl. To^op 
>Khbkob 6euie bjih3t>ji b pecTopaHTa orraM, a He otklm niaBHHfl bxoa, 
KtfleTO ro onaKBaxMe. CTy^eHTHTe Be^Hara ro no3HajiH h, Maicap H3HeHa- 
flami, cTaHajiH Ha Kpaica h c ptKonjiacKaHM 3anoHHanH aa ro npHBeTCTBaT. 
Be^Hara OTH^oxMe fla ro nocpemHeM. Toft ce ptKyBauie etc CTy^eHTH h 
npeno^aBaTejiH, Maxanie c ptKa 3a no3flpaB, KoeTO BfltxHOB^Baiue CTy^eH- 
THTe h Te ome no-CHJiHO ro anjio^Hpaxa. 

B cpe^HaTa 3ajia hakoS HMnpOBH3HpaHO fla^e MHKpo(j)OH Ha To/jop 
5Khbkob. Toft ce Bi>3noji3Ba npOH3Hece KpaTKO h eHTycHa3HpaH0 cjiobo, KoeTO 
hh HanpaBH mhoto chjiho BnenaTJieHHe h 6enie Bi>3T0p)KeH0 anjio^HpaHo: 

- Pa3BHTHeT0 Ha 06meCTB0T0 H 0C06eH0 Ha HKOHOMHKaTa H3HCKBaT fla 

ce yBejiHHH chjiho pojurra Ha HKOHOMHCTHTe b ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha A^pacaBaTa 
h HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO. Ot Bac ce onaicBa mhoto. Bne 6i>flemHTe hkoho- 

344 



mhcth, Tp5i6Ba fla ce noAroTBHTe MHoro ao6pe, 3a aa Moace m ynacTBaTe 
cbc cboa yM h TanaHT, etc CBOHTe 3HaHHH b H3rpa^cflaHeTO Ha coijHa- 
jiHCTHHecKOTO o6mecTBO. HauiH BparoBe ca cy6eKTHBH3Mi>T h BonyHTa- 
pH3Mi>T b ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, kohto ce pa3BHxa npe3 BpeMe 
Ha KyjiTa kbm jiHHHOCira. Pt>kobo,hctboto Ha napTH^Ta h atp5KaBaTa o6#bh 
BOHHa Ha cy6eKTHBH3Ma h me ce ptKOBO^H ot H3HCKBaHH5rra Ha o6eK- 
THBHHTe 3aKOHH Ha o6mecTBeHOTO pa3BHTHe. HKOHOMHHecKaTa HayKa H 
HKOHOMHCTHTe 6axa penpecHpaHH npe3 BpeMeTo Ha KyjiTa. Hne HantJiHO ra 
pea6HJiHTHpaxMe. OTKpHBaMe npocTop 3a pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHnecKaTa 
HayKa h hkohomhcthtc 

Te3H ayMH, kohto flocTa tohho ctM 3anoMHHJi, 6axa BtsHarpa^eHH c 
pi>KonjiflCKaHHfl h "ypa" ot cTyzjeHTHTe h npeno^aBaTejiHTe. 

>Khbkob 6euie CMpOBoayjaH caMO ot Mhtko TpHropOB. Tocthtc 3aexa 
CBOHTe MecTa. A3 npoH3Hecox cjiobo 3a CTyneHTCKHa npa3HHK, no3,zipaBHx 
)Khbkob h rpnropOB c floGpe flouiJiH cpefl HaniM kojickthb. KpaTKO cjiobo 
npoH3Hece h >KaK HaTaH. Ilo BpeMe Ha BenepHTa Toflop )Khbkob pa3- 
roBapanie c npocj). HaTaH h npocj). ^hmhtbp ,2,hmhtpob, a a3 - c M. 
TpHropOB, c kototo 6axMe jie^canH 3ae,u;HO b Co(J)hhckhh ijeHTpaneH 3aTBOp 
h b H,ziipH30BO b Kpaa Ha 1942 h HanajioTO Ha 1943 r. Cjiea 1944 r. ce 6axMe 
BH^aajiH caMO MHMOxoflOM. Cera HMaxMe bt>3mo)khoct #a noroBOpHM 
cnoKOHHO h a3 ce nocTapax %a ro 3ano3Haa HaKpaTKO c hskoh npo6jieMH Ha 
BHcmeTO o6pa30BaHHe. Pa3MeHHXMe h cnoMeHH ot 3aTBOpa, 3a hhkoh o6hjh 
no3HaTH h raxHaTa CBaSa. CTaHa ayua, h 3a CTyzjeHTCTBOTO Ha M. rpnropOB 
b K)pHflHHecKHfl (J)aKyjiTeT npe^H aa nonage b 3aTBOpa 3a KOHcnnpaTHBHa 
aHTH(J)aiHHCTKa flefiHOCT. ^OKaTO npHKa3Baji ct>c cbohtc cb6ece,zi;HHijH ? 
Toflop )Khbkob cjiyuian h HaniM pa3roBOp. BHe3anHO toh ce o6tpHa ce 
kbm MeH: 

- H a3 6ax CTy^eHT b lOpHflHHecKM CTy^eHT, ho (J)hkthbho ? 3a m 
npHKpHBaM HejieranHaTa ch aeHHOCT, HMax h cTyqeHTCKa KHH)KKa, kohto 
M05Kex aa H3noji3BaM npe# nojiHijeftcKHTe BJiacTH. 

Hne c Mhtko rpnropOB CMyTeHO ce 3aorjie^cflaxMe ? KaTO ce nonyB- 
CTBaxMe ry3HH ? ne He ynacTBaxMe b pa3roBopa Ha )Khbkob c >KaK HaTaH h 
/],HMHTbp ^hmhtpob. Tpa6Ba fla OT6ejie)Ka, ne )Khbkob npoaBH tojihm 
HHTepec othocho no^roTOBKaTa Ha CTyzjeHTHTe, peopraHH3aijH5iTa Ha hko- 
HOMHHecKOTO o6pa30BaHHe, HaynHaTa fletiHOCT Ha HHCTHTyTa h Bpt3KaTa Ha 
o6yneHHeTO h HayHHaTa aefiHOCT c npaKTHKaTa. Toh cno^ejin mhcjih 3a 
HeoGxo^HMOCTra aa ce ycT>BT>pnieHCTBa ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 
kooto 3aHanpea Tpa6Ba aa ce pa3BHBa bt>3 ocHOBa Ha BHeap^BaHe aocth- 
flceHMTa Ha HayHHO-TexHHHecKHa nporpec; no^HepTa Heo6xo,u;HMOcTTa ot 

345 



no/jroTOBKa Ha HayHHO-TexHHHecKH h hkohomhhcckh Kappa h ce H3Ka3a 
nono^cHTejiHO 3a pa3iiiHpflBaHeTO Ha MaTepnajiHO-TexHHHecKaTa 6a3a Ha 
BHH. HaKpaa ro H3npaTHXMe c 6ypHH ptKonjmcKaHHfl h "ypa" ot CTy- 
fleHTHTe h npenoflaBaTenHTe. ^,oftfle pea Ha CTyaeHTCKHTe yBecejieHHfl. . . 

He Mora fla He cnrGejieaca, ne oqe no TOBa BpeMe a3 nocTeneHHO 6hx 
3anoHHaji fla oci>3HaBaM, ne e 3anoHHajio yTBtpayjaBaHeTO Ha hgthhckh 
Kyjrr kt>m JiHHHOCTTa Ha Toflop )Khbkob. CMflTax o6ane, ne CTaBa flyMa 3a 

BpeMeHHO ABJieHHe, 3a eflHH HeOCB3HaT peiJHflHB OT MHHaJIOTO, H He Ta3H 

TeHfleHUH5i me 6tfle npeo/jojiflHa ot caMM 5Khbkob, kohto 6e3 CBMHeHHe 
7i;o6pe CT>3HaBauie BpeflHTe ot Kyjrra ki>m JiHHHOCTTa 3a Hapo^a h 3a 
KOMyHHCTHnecKaTa napTM, o6eflHH5reama xmumH eHTycnacTH-HfleajiHCTH, 
kohto HCKpeHO BflpBaxa b HfleajiHTe Ha coijHajiH3Ma. 

PflflKO o6ane MHHaBame aeH 6e3 b cpe/jcTBaTa 3a MacoBa HH^opMaima 
fla ce no5iB^T nopeflHHTe Bi>3XBajiH Ha HeroBaTa aeftHOCT, Ha HeroBHTe hhh- 

IJHaTHBH. BCHHKO 3HaHHMO B oGlIjeCTBeHOTO pa3BHTHe npe3 60-Te TOflHHH 

HeH3MeHHO ce CBi>p3BaiHe c HeroBOTO hmc MacoBO ce Hacaacflanie npeflera- 
BaTa 3a HeroBHfl ,zjeMOKpaTH3T>M, 3a 6jiH3KHTe My Bpi>3KH My c TpyaemHTe 
ce, c HHTejiHreHijH5iTa ? c ptKOBO/jHTejiHTe Ha /jpyrHTe coimajiHCTHHecKH 

flfcptfCaBH, H npeflH BCHHKO C Te3H Ha GbBeTCKHfl CT>K)3. HerOBH5IT aBTOpHTeT 

HenpeKBCHaTO HapacTBame. Ha npaKTHKa o6ane bt>b bchhkh paBHHiija Ha 
ynpaBneHHe h bi>b bchhkh c(])epH Ha acHBOTa 3anoHHa aa ce yTBtpacaaBa 

eflHH aBTOpHTapeH CTHJI Ha pI>KOBOflCTBO ? KOHTO flOnpHHece 3a O(])OpMflHeT0 

Ha KynT kt>m JiHHHOCTTa Ha To^op 5Khbkob KaTO pi>KOBOflHTen Ha napTHHTa 
h /j'bpacaBaTa. npecjieflBarourra cpemy HHaKOMHCJieujHTe npoflfcjraaBaxa, 
MaKap h b 3HanHTenH0 CMeKHeHH 4>opMH ? napTHHHH nneHOBe ce H3- 
KnioHBaxa ot BKn 3a H3Ka3BaHe Ha kphthhhh mhchha othocho fleficTBHHTa 
h noBeaeHHeTO Ha bhchihtc pT>KOBO,HHTejiH, 3a flonycKaHH cnaGocra b pa3- 
BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa H b oGujecTBeHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha cTpaHaTa. 

^eMarorcKH ce HacbpHaBame KpHTHKaTa kt>m h b HH30BHTe 3BeHa, a h 

KT>M HflKOH BHCHIH KaflpH, CTaHaJIH "HeyfloGHH" no HflKaKBH npHHHHH. 

To,nop )Khbkob h o6Kpi>^ceHHeTO My, KoeTO toh no/jMeHjmie nepHO/jHHHO h 
Bi>pxy KoeTO yMeno npexBtpjumie OTroBopHOCira 3a bchhkh cboh HeyaaHHH 
penieHHfl h fleftcTBHa, cbcpeflOTOHHxa ijanaTa BJiacT b fltpacaBaTa h 
napTH^Ta b cboh pwje He Genie necHO aa ce pa3ra,zjaHT xo^OBeTe Ha Toflop 
3Khbkob 3a m>JiHO ycTaHOBABaHe Ha jiHHHaTa My BJiacT. Toh h o6Kpi>)Ke- 
HHeTO My ch cjiyacexa aocTa yMeno c npHBH^eH #eMOKpaTH3T>M, pa3/i;aBaHe 
Ha HarpaflH h npHBHJierHH, ci>3flaBaHe Ha hobh #jn>)KHOCTH, npOBeayjaHe Ha 

MHOroGpOHHH HHHIJHaTHBH, HflKOH OT KOHTO HaHCTHHa 6flXa oGoCHOBaHH H 

HeoGxoflHMH h aaBaxa #o6pH hkohomhhcckh pe3yjrraTH, pa3peuiaBaHKH 

346 



Ba)KHH BtnpocH Ha pa3BHTHeT0 Ha KyjnypaTa, o6pa30BaHHeTO n HayKaTa. 
Pa36npa ce, 3acjiyrHTe 3a bchhkh ycnexH BeflHara 6axa CBi>p3BaHH c To,nop 
)Khbkob. 

HoeaTa CHCTeMa 3a ynpaejiemie Ha HapoAHOio CTonaHCTBO 

Ilpe3 eceHTa Ha 1962 r. Hapo^HOTO ci>6paHHe H36pa hobo npaBHTencTBO 
c npeflceaaTeji To,nop 5Khbkob (m>pBH cexpeTap Ha UK Ha BKIT), kohto, 
BtnpeKH 3JionojiyHHHfl npHMep Ha Bt>jiko HepBeHKOB, CLCpeflOTOHH ijajiaTa 
fli>p5KaBHa h napTHHHa BJiacT b cboh ptije. OyHKijHHTe Ha MHHHcrbp- 
npeflceaaTeji toh H3ni>jiH5iBa b npofltjraeHHe Ha 6jih30 10 toahhh (ao 
1971), a Ha ynpefleHHfl cneijHajmo 3a Hero nocT npeflceaaTeji Ha 
^i>p^caBHH^[ CLBeT Ha HPB toh ocTaHa b npofltjraeHHe Ha ome 18 toakhh. 
He 6hx ce Han>p6HJi aa oijeHfl eflH03HaHHO KaKBO Seine Bt3fleHCTBHeTO Ha 
TOBa ctcpeAOTOHaBaHe Ha BJiacT Btpxy ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha fltpacaBaTa h 
o6mecTBOTO b HauiaTa CTpaHa. Oaicr e, ne Bcaica 3HaHHMa HHHijHaTHBa, 
BCHKa Hflea, bcako npefljioaceHHe hjih peineHHe, CBi>p3aHH c o6iijoto pa3- 
BHTHe Ha EtJirapHfl b npoatjraeHHe Ha 6jih30 TpH aecerajieTHH ce pa3- 
pa6oTBaxa h npeflCTaB)ixa ot HMeTo Ha To#op 5Khbkob. C Ta3H mhcbji He 
HCKaM #a OTpexa HantJiHO HeroBaTa pojia h 3acjiyrn Ha ptKOBOflHTen, 
KaKBHTo toh HecLMHeHO HMame. 

E^Ha ot ocHOBHHTe 3a^aHH npe# npaBHTencTBOTo 6euie /ja no/jo6pn h 

yCbB1>pIHeHCTBa £T>p}KaBHOTO ptKOBO/JCTBO Ha HapO^HOTO CTOnaHCTBO Hpe3 

npeMHHaBaHe klm hobh (|)opMH h MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe. CtmecTBy- 
BamaTa no TOBa BpeMe CHCTeMa He OTroBapame Ha oGeKTHBHHTe ycjioBHa h 
H3HCKBaHH^[ Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h Bene Genie Henwia aa peniaBa e^eicraBHO 
3aaaHHTe, nocTaBeHH b HeTBtpTM neTroflHineH Hapo^HOCTonaHCKH njiaH 
(1961-1965) h ^HpeKTHBHTe 3a £BafleceTro,zjHinHOTO pa3BHrae Ha hkoho- 
MHKaTa (1961-1980). Cnopea caMM T. 5Khbkob, "Ta3H CHCTeMa He ci>3flaBa 
Bene #0CTaTbHH0 ycjiOBHfl 3a ycKopflBaHe Ha TexHHHecKna nporpec, 3a no- 
ntJiHO pa3rpi>iii;aHe HHHijHaTHBaTa Ha Tpy^oBHTe kojickthbh, 3a nocTaBAHe 
ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO Ham>JiHO Btpxy HaynHa ocHOBa. 
ITopa^H TOBa ta nopaayja npOTHBOpeHHfl, HenpHCtmH Ha coijHajiH3Ma, 
3a6aB)i no-HaTaTbiHHOTO My pa3BHTHe." 2 

3anoHHa oGctacflaHe h pa3pa6oTBaHe Ha HOBa CHCTeMa 3a pt>kobo#ctbo 
Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO. Mhoto npenoflaBaTejiH ot Bhcihha hkoho- 
MHHecKH HHCTHTyT B3exa fleHHO ynacTHe KaKTO b Hay^HH H3CJie,zjBaHH5i no 
KOHKpeTHH Bi>npocH ? Tana h npn TeopeTHHHOTO H3)icH^BaHe Ha npHHipniHTe 



2 >Khbkob, T. H36paHH ebHHHemw. T. 12, c. 391. 



347 



h MexaHH3MHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHHecicaTa CHCTeMa. Eto 3anjo Tyx 
me ce otkjioha flOHaKtfle ot KOHKpeTHHTe ch cnoMeira, 3a fla H3Ka)Ka 

MHeHHeTO CH OTHOCHO H3pa6oTBaHCTO H BHeflpflBaHe Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa 3a 
ptKOBOflCTBO Ha HapOflHOTO CTOnaHCTBO, TbH KaTO B npOfl'bJDKeHHe Ha 

noBene ot flBe aecerajieTHfl HMax bt>3mo)khoct aa pa6oT^ 3a ycbBtp- 
HieHCTBaHeTo Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO b peflHija o6nacTH. 

IIpe3 BTOpaTa nonoBHHa Ha 50-Te roflHHH b HKOHOMHHecicaTa HayKa h 
jiHTepaTypa 3anoHHaxa aa ce noflBABaT mhchh^ 3a HeoGxo/jHMOCTTa ot 
ycbBtpHieHCTBaHe Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha Hapo/jHOTO CTonaHCTBO, ot ci>3- 
aaBaHe Ha no-rojiflMa MaTepnajiHa 3aHHTepecoBaHOCT (o6iijecTBeHa, KOJieK- 
THBHa h jiHHHa), ot pa3iiiHpflBaHe npaBaTa Ha fltp^caBHHTe h Koonepa- 
THBHHTe npeanpH^TH^, ot npeMaxBaHe Ha ape6HaBOTo BeflOMCTBeHO one- 
KyHCTBO Has CTonaHCKaTa /jeHHOCT. 3aroBopH ce no-CMejio 3a yctBtpmeH- 
CTBaHe Ha njiaHHpaHeTO h 3a npeMaxBaHe Ha npeKOMepHHfl ijeHTpajiH3T>M 
npH onpeflejwHe Ha nnaHOBHTe noica3aTejiH. ToBa CTaBauie aocTa crpaxjiHBo 
h npeflna3JiHB0 b ctBeTCKaTa JiHTepaTypa, ho Ta3H TeHfleHijHfl 6enie mhoto 
no-OTneTJiHBO H3pa3eHa b nyGjiHKaiiHH Ha yneHH ot YHrapHa, Hexocjio- 
BaKHH h riojinia. IIo^BHxa ce hobh TeoperanHH nocTaHOBKH 3a H3MeHeHM 
Ha ycTaHOBeHHTe npHHiinnn 3a H3ipa>KflaHe Ha coijHajiH3Ma. B eBponefi- 
CKHTe coijHajiHCTHHecKH CTpaHH 3anoHHa eflHO nocTeneHHO ocBoGomaaBaHe 
ot florMHTe Ha CTajiHHCKH^ coiiHajiH3i>M b oGjiacrra ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa h Ha o6m;ecTBOTO. IIo ctmecTBO TOBa 6enie eflHa no3a- 
KbCHJuia peaKu;Hfl Ha HeraTHBHHTe jrejieHM b pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 
eflHH H3pa3 Ha ,h;t>ji6okoto He/joBOJicTBO, kocto Bene ce nyBCTBaine ot 

BJIOUiaBamOTO Ce CLCTOflHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa Ha Cl>BeTCKHfl CT>K>3 H flpy- 

rHTe counajiHCTHHecKH CTpaHH. OGeKTHBHa 6euie Heo6xOflHMOCTTa OT 
flI>Jl60KH, KOpeHHH npoMeHH. 

Ilofl BJiH^HHe Ha Te3H o6hj;h TeHfleHiiiHH, b EtJirapHfl 3anoHHaxa aa ce 
pa3pa6oTBaT pa3JiHHHH acneKTH Ha pa3BHTHeTO Ha CTOKOBO-napHHHOTO 
o6ptmeHHe ? pojurra Ha TbproBHATa h Ha na3apHHTe othouichh^. 3a TOBa 
cnoMorHaxa h hhkoh pemeHHfl Ha njieHyMHTe h KOHrpecHTe Ha KQCC. B 
tax ce aaBaxa hobh, Maicap h He ebBceM achh nocTaHOBKH, kohto Bee no- 
CMejio 6axa /jopa3BHBaHH ot bh/jhh cbbctckh hkohomhcth b nenaTa. ToBa 
CTaBaiue RonnKbjie h nopaflH bjihahhcto Ha 3ana/jHaTa HKOHOMHHecica 
mhcbji h nofl BnenaTJieHHeTO Ha npaKTHHeciarre ycnexn Ha KanHTajiH- 
CTHnecKaTa HKOHOMHKa, kooto ntJiHoijeHHO npHJiarauie pe3yjiTaTHTe Ha 
HayHHO-TexHHHecKaTa peBOJiioiiHJL IlojiBHxa ce h kphthhhh oiichkh Ha 
coijHajiHCTHHecKaTa CHCTeMa, Ha Mo^ejia Ha ptKOBOflCTBO Ha Hapo/jHOTO 
CTonaHCTBO, Ha BJiacTBajiHTe flOToraBa npeflcraBH 3a TeMnoBeTe Ha hkoho- 

348 



MH^ecKO pa3BHTHe npe3 npexo^HHfl nepHOfl h no-cneijHajiHo Ha TeMnoBeTe 
Ha HHflycTpHajiH3aijHOTa Ha cencKOTO CTonaHCTBO. 

B HKOHOMHHecKaTa mhclji ce yceTH e^HH cbok nojn>x, kohto o6ane 
3ann>XHa 3a h3bcctho BpeMe cjie/j YHrapcKHTe ct>6htha npe3 jiatoto Ha 
1956 r., 3a aa ce BT>3po,HH othobo h aa 3anoHHe aa Ha6npa hobh chjih npe3 
60-Te ro/jHHH, MaKap h Ha npHJiHBH h otjihbh. npeflJioflcemiflTa 3a 
yc'LB'bpnieHCTBaHe Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa o6ane h no TOBa 
BpeMe ce CBOK/jaxa ao MeTO^HTe Ha ynpaBJieHHe, ^o ycbBT>pnieHCTBaHe Ha 
Bene BT^npneTHTe MexaHH3MH, kohto abho He aaBaxa onaKBaHHTe pe3yji- 

TaTH H 3aTOpM035IBaxa pa3BHTHeTO Ha HapOflHOTO CTOnaHCTBO. BT>3npHeMa- 
HeTO Ha HflKOH HOBH MeTOflH B CHCTCMaTa Ha nJiaHHpaHeTO, CTHMyjIHpaHeTO, 

(JjHHaHCHpaHeTo h ap. aaBaxa cna6 pe3yjrraT. OcHOBHa npenxa 3a pa3BHTHe- 

TO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa 6flXa CTaJIHHHCTKHTe no npOH3XO,H H JiyX flOTMH, KOHTO 

ce 6axa BKOpeHHJiH ,m>Ji6oKO cpea ynpaBJWBamHTe Ka^pH h CTpyKrypH, 

KaKTO H Cpefl yHeHHTe-HKOHOMHCTH. 0CB0605KflaBaHeT0 OT Te3H flOTMH 

cTaBauie mhoto TpyzjHO, flopn KoraTO 6axa ohcbhahh TAXHaTa a6cypflHOCT h 
Bpe^HOTO hm BJiHflHHe BT>pxy peajiHOTo pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe npo- 
uecn h Bi>pxy ijfljioTO o6nj;ecTBO. To3H npoijec Ha OTpe3B^BaHe 
AonT>JiHHTejiHO ce 3aT0pM03flBanie ot npHBH^HHTe ycnexH Ha hkohomhkhtc 
Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKHTe cTpaHH, KoraTO ce cbnocTaB^xa TexHHTe #octh- 
aceHHfl c paBHHmeTo Ha npeflBoeHmrre h HLpBHTe cjieflBoeHHH roflHHH. Ha- 
meTO noKOJieHne chjiho BflpBanie b npe^HMCTBaTa Ha coijHajiHCTHHecKHfl 
CTpoii h HHe 6axMe ckjiohhh rzl OT^aBaMe bchhkh HeycnexH Ha Henpa- 
BHJiHHTe MeTOflH Ha ynpaBJieHHe h Ha Hecnoco6Hocrra Ha ynpaBJieHCKHTe 

KaflpH, Ha aBTOpHTapHH^ H TOTaJIHTapHH^ pOKHM. 

CnoMH^M ch, ne cjiea CeflMM (1958) h oco6eHO cjiea Ocmha (1962) 
KOHrpec Ha BKn To/top >Khbkob 3anoHHa Bee no-aKTHBHO #a ce 3aHHMaBa c 
Bi>npocHTe 3a yebBT>pnieHCTBaHe Ha p^kobo^ctboto Ha Hapo^HOTO 
CTonaHCTBO. Cjiea 1958 r. ce npoBe^oxa pe,mma MeponpHflTM 3a ycbB'bp- 
meHCTBaHe Ha ,m>p)KaBHHTe opraHH Ha ynpaBJieHHe, Ha CTonaHCKHTe opra- 
HH3aijHH, ci>3flaBaxa ce OKpT>3H h o6hj;hhh h t. h. npeycTpoficTBOTO o6ane 
ce cBOK^auie rjiaBHO ao CTpyKTypHH npoMemi, kohto cjia6o 3acaraxa 
peajiHHTe MexaHH3MH Ha ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. OcJmijHajiHO ce 
npoKJiaMHpauie HeoGxoAHMOcrra ot npeMaxBaHe (hjih OTCJia6BaHe) Ha 
ijeHTpajiH3Ma, pa3uiHp^BaHe caMOCTOflTejiHocrra Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH- 
3aitHH h np., ho Ha npaKTHKa ijeHTpajnmijHflTa ce 3acnjiBame h TOBa 
Aoni>jiHHTejiHO ae(J)opMHpame ynpaBJieHCKHTe CTpyKTypH. 

XapaKTepHO 3a noflxo^a Ha To^op )Khbkob h o6Kpt)KeHHeTo My 6eme 
H3Bi>puiBaHeTO Ha nocTO^HHH peoprammijHH, kohto Ha jiyMU ce npaBexa b 

349 



HMeTO Ha noBHinaBaHe e^eKTHBHOcrra Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h /jeMOKpa- 
TH3HpaHe Ha o6mecTBOTo, ho 6e3 aa ce nocrarHaT Ham>jiHO onpe/jejieHHTe 
ijejiH h 3aaaHH. IIpe3 npojierra Ha 1963 r. HanpHMep ce npoBe^e njieHyM Ha 
LJK Ha EKU, nocBeTeH Ha BMpocHTe 3a ycLBtpmeHCTBaHeTO Ha pt>kobo#- 
ctboto Ha Hapo^HOTo CTonaHCTBO. EtaeTHTe ot njieHyMa peineHHfl o6ane 
3acaraxa rjiaBHO BtnpocHTe Ha MeTO^HTe h CTHJia Ha atpacaBHOTO h 

napTHHHO pT>KOBOACTBO. BwipOCH H peiHCHHfl, n03HaTH £0 BTpT>CBaHe OT 
yne6HHIIHTe H 3aHHMaHHflTa B napTHHHHTe KpT>)KOIIH. 

npe3 OKTOMBpn 1963 r. To^op )Khbkob BHaca AOKJiaaHa 3anHCKa ao LJK 
Ha BKII h IIpaBHTejicTBOTO "3a HOBa CHCTeMa Ha njiaHHpaHeTO h 

pT>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha HapO£HOTO CTonaHCTBO". ElOpOTO Ha MHHHCTepCKIW 

CBBeT npe3 jrayapH 1964 r. npHeMa peineHHe 3a o,zjo6p5raaHe npHHiinnHHTe 
nojioaceHM Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa h 3a 3anoHBaHe Ha hkohomhhcckh 
eKcnepHMeHT 3a BHeapflBaHe Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa b hakoh onpe/jejieHH 
OTpacjiH h npeanpHHTH^. Ci>3flaBa ce pa6oTHa rpyna, koato npepacTBa b 

KOMHCHfl npH MHHHCTepCKHH clbct 3a BHeflpflBaHe Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa. 

KoMHCHOTa h ynpaBJieHCKHTe eKHnn Ha npe/uipHflTHflTa, cTonaHCKHTe 
o6eflHHeHH^[ h MHHHCTepcTBa b npo/i;T>JDKeHHe Ha mhoto toahhh pa6oTHxa 
ynopHTO 3a no^o6p5iBaHe h BHeapflBaHe Ha CHCTeMaTa. 

IlaK npe3 eceHTa Ha 1963 r. To^op )Khbkob, noa bjihahhc Ha noflBHjnrre 
ce npe/yioaceHHfl b apyrHTe coijHajiHCTHHecKH CTpaHH 3a no-peniHTejiHH 
H3MeHeHHH h MexaHH3MH Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h pa3iHH- 
pjraaHe Ha CTOKOBO-napHHHHTe othohichha, CBHKa CBBemaHHe Ha okojio 20- 
25 hkohomhcth b 3ace/i;aTejiHaTa 3ana Ha MHHHCTepcKHfl cbbct. npncbc- 
TBaxa AnocTOJi nameB, npeflceaaTeji Ha J\UK, Mhhio MmneB, npeaceaaTeji 
Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpyzja, KHpHJi HecropOB, npe#ce#aTeji Ha B^jirapcKa 
Hapo^Ha 6aHKa, npo^. Kpi>CTbo ,H,o6peB, AHpeKTOp Ha Hkohomhhcckhh 
HHCTHTyT npH BAH, rpHina OnjiHnoB, 3aM.-npeflceaaTeji Ha J\UK, aoii. 
^aBHfl ^aBH^OB, aoii. HBaH HjineB, aoit. TeoprH IleTpOB, /Jhmhtbp 
EaacaapOB, 3aM.-MHHHCTbp Ha ^HHaHCHTe, Emhji XpHCTOB, floij. AHren 
HayineB (moa mhjioct), peKTOp Ha Bhchiha hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT, 
pT>KOBO#HTejiH Ha hakoh CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH H ap. 

Ha TOBa CBBemaHHe HMax bt>3mo2choct ,zja Ha6jnoflaBaM noBeaeHHeTO Ha 

To^Op )KHBKOB H HerOBOTO yMeHHe m H3nOJI3Ba 3HaHHHTa, "M03T>HHOTO 

BemecTBo", KaKTO toh ce H3pa3H, Ha rpyna hkohomhcth. Toh HanpaBH 
KpaTKO H3Jio^ceHHe ? b KoeTO OT6ejifl3a, ne ceraniHaTa CHCTeMa Ha pi>KO- 
BOflCTBO Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO Bene He e npnroflHa aa peinaBa hobhtc 

3aflaHH ? He Tfl He CbOTBCTCTBa Ha 06eKTHBHHTe yCJIOBHfl H H3HCKBaHHfl, 

o6ocHOBa Heo6xoflHMOCTra ot HOBa, KopeHHO ycbBT>pHieHCTBaHa CHCTeMaTa 
350 



h onepTa ocHOBHHTe HanpaBJieHHa h npHHiinnH, Btpxy kohto 6h cjie^Bano 
#a 6i>fle H3rpaaeHa m HaKpaa toh hh npH30Ba kbm cbo6oaho o6ci>)KflaHe 
Ha cbmHOcrra, HacoKHTe h npHHijHnHTe Ha Ta3H HOBa CHCTeMa Ha hko- 
HOMHHecKO ynpaBJiemie. 

^HCKycHHTe HaHCTHHa hh 3aceraaxa npaKTHnecKH bchhkh Btnpocn Ha 
MexaHH3MHTe Ha ynpaBneHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa: nnaHHpaHeTo, craMy- 
nnpaHeTo, CHHXpoHH3HpaHeTO Ha fl'bp^caBHHTe h o6mecTBeHHTe HHTepecH c 
Te3H Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH h oTflenHHTe Tpy^emn ce, ijeHOBaTa 
nojiHTHKa h i^eHoo6pa3yBaHeTO ? flanbHHaTa CHCTeMa, nenaji6aTa h HeflHaTa 

pOJIfl B pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, CaMOCTOHTeJIHOCTTa Ha CTOnaHCKHTe 

cy6eKTH h B3aHMOOTHOHieHHHTa hm c Gio/jaceTa, cTonaHCKaTa CMeTKa h jip. 

CtBeujaHHeTO npo,m>ji)KH nerapH ahh. HanpaBH mh MHoro ao6po 
BnenaTJieHHe, ne To^op 5Khbkob cjiyinaine c BHHMaHHe h flopn Hactp- 
qaBauie no-JiH6epajiHHTe MHemifl. Toh He npeKtCHa HHKoro. IIoHflKora 
nocTaB^uie Btnpocn hjih npaBeine KpaTKH H3Ka3BaHHH no OTflenHH 
BWipocn, kohto ctmo HacbpnaBaxa kbm no-CBo6oflHO MHCJieHe, a Tom>T My 
6euie np0HH3aH ot ,no6po)KejiaTejiHocT, cepH03HOCT h 3arpH^ceHOCT no 
o6ci>^cflaHHTe BtnpocH. YHacTHHijHTe b ctBemaHHeTO H3Ka3axa pe,mma 
npoTHBOpeHHBH mhchhh, ho toh He OTflaae otkphto npe^noHHTaHHe Ha 
HHKoe ot rax. Tpa6Ba ^a OTGejieaca, ne ToraBa 6axa HanpaBeHH «o6pe apry- 
MeHTHpaHH npefljio^KeHHH 3a nacTHHHO JiH6epajiH3HpaHe Ha CTonaHCKOTO 
ynpaBJieHHe, ho bchhko ocTaBame b paMKHTe Ha ycTaHOBeHHTe aotmh Ha 

MapKCH3Ma-neHHHH3Ma H fleMOKpaTHHeCKHfl IieHTpaJIH3'bM ? KOHTO, KaKTO 

noKa3a caMHHT achbot, He no3BOJiH m ce H3Bi>pniH KOpeHHO npeycTpoiicTBO 

Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. 

B Kpaa Ha HeTBi>pTOTO 3aceaaHHe To^op 5Khbkob, ineryBafiKH ce, Ka3a: 
- Tp^6Ba aa 3aBT>pniHM 3aceaaHHeTO. ToBopHXMe, flHCKyrapaxMe 
MHoro. Mhoto BtnpocH ce H3HCHHxa, flpyrn ce nocTaBHxa h Tpa6Ba «a ce 
AOH3flCHflBaT, naKa hh flocTa pa6oTa. Hafi-Ba5KHOTO e, ne jihmhtbt mh 3a 
Ka(J)eTO CBtpuin! - h 3anoHHa aa ce CMee etc cboa chjich rjiac. 

Toh HanpaBH o6o6maBamo H3Ka3BaHe, b kocto B3e OTHonieHne kbm 
bchhkh pa3HCKBaHH BMpocH, KaTO ce CTapaeme aa o6eflHHH ^okojikoto e 
bi>3mo^cho pa3JiHHHHTe MHeHHfl. 3aceraa h aKTyajiHaTa no TOBa BpeMe TeMa 
3a o6eKTHBHHTe HKOHOMHHecKH 3aKOHH, h ce enpa oco6eHO noflpo6HO Ha 
cbmHocrra Ha 3aKOHHTe 3a CTOHHOcrra h 3a nnaHOMepHOTO h nponop- 
UHOHajiHO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. 5Khbkob ce nocTapa «a o6ocHOBe 
Heo6xoflHMOCTTa ot KOMnneKCHa eKcnepHMeHTajiHa npoBepKa Ha HOBaTa 
CHCTeMa 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa b rpynn npeflnpHATHfl h 

OpraHH3aiJHH OT BCHHKH HKOHOMHHeCKH OTpaCJIH. HMeHHO BI>3 OCHOBa Ha 

351 



pe3yjiTaTHTe ot eKcnepHMeHTa TpaGBaine aa ce Cb3,n;a,n;e HopMaraBHaia 
ypefl6a 3a B'bBOKflaHeTo Ha Ta3H HOBaTa CHCTeMa. 

Cues okojio Meceii 6enie pa3rjiaceHa flOKJiaflHa 3anncKa Ha To^op 
)Khbkob flo HJieHOBeTe Ha IIojihtGiopo Ha U,K h HJieHOBeTe Ha npaBH- 
TencTBOTO. B Hea 6axa npeflcraBeHH HacoKHTe 3a ci>3,zjaBaHeTO Ha HOBaTa 
CHCTeMa 3a nnaHHpaHe h ynpaBJieHHe Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO. 

Tpa6Ba aa OTGejieaca, ne b noaroTOBKaTa Ha Te3H hkohomhhcckh 
pe(J)opMH ce BKJiiOHHxa rojiflM 6pofi npeno/jaBaTejiH ot Bhcihhh hkoho- 
mhhcckh HHCTHTyT (aKafl. EBreHH MaTeeB, npocj). )KaK Apofto, npo$. 
Teoprn IleTpoB, npo(j). XpHCTO KajraropoB, npo(|). Mnxanji TeHOBCKH, 
npo(|). rpnrop rionncaKOB, npo(J). CTe(J)aH OraHeB, npo(J). Mhhko PycHHOB, 
npo(J). KocTa rieprejiOB, npo<|). rpnrop BaKJineB), a hakoh ynacTBaxa b 
cneiinajiHO ci>3flafleHaTa onepaTHBHa rpyna h b KoMHCHflTa no HOBara 
CHCTeMa 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO. 

TaKa HanpHMep, npocj). ^aBHfl ^aBHflOB (3aBeacflam Kareapa, a no-KtcHO 
h peKTOp Ha BHH), kohto pa6oTeuie no npo6jieMHTe Ha ycbBi>pnieHCTBaHe 
Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO h noBHinaBaHe e(J)eKTHBHOCTTa Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, b 
npofli>Ji^ceHHe Ha ro#HHH 6euie HJieH Ha KOMHCHATa, 3aM.-MHHHCTbp Ha 
KTP3, npeflceaaTen Ha komhcha npn ^p^caBHH)! cbbct, Hapo^eH npeflcra- 
BHTeji, flHpeKTOp Ha HHCTHTyTa no coiinajiHO ynpaBJieHHe (HCY). 

IIpe3 1963 r. Ha pa6oTa bi>b Bhcihhh hkohomkhcckhh HHCTHTyT KaTo 
acHCTeHT h npenoaaBaTeji no njiaHHpaHe Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO nocn>- 
nn CTaHHiu Bohcb - eflHH ot aBTOpHTe h 0praHH3aT0pHTe 3a Bi>Be5KflaHe Ha 
HOBaTa CHCTeMa 3a hkohomhhccko ynpaBJieHHe. BeflHioK no Tejie(J)OHa mh 
ce o6aflH fl-p HHKOJia MaHOJioB, rjiaBeH ceKpeTap Ha MHHHcrepcKHfl ctBeT, 
h mh ei>o6mH, ne CTaHHiu Bohcb me 6i>fle Ha3HaneH 3a CKipyflHHK Ha 
MHHHCTbp-npeflceflaTejw To/jop )Khbkob. 

- Heo6xoflHMO e tbocto ebrjiacne, 3a m ocTaHe aa pa6oTH b HHCTHTyTa 

no CbBMeCTHTeJICTBO. 

A3 Bi>3pa3HX, ne KaTeapaTa mhoto ueHH Bohcb h mhoto jxbpyKu toh fla 
npofli>JDKH npenoflaBaTejiCKaTa ch aeiiHOCT h cbocto o6emaBaino HayHHO 
pa3BHTHe. HaKpaa 3aKJiK>HHX, ne 3a aa #aM cbrjiacne e Heo6xoflHMO no TOBa 
fla ce np0H3HecaT AKaaeMHHHHHT cbbct h KaTe^paTa. 

B Kpan Ha Kpaniu;aTa Bohcb 6enie Ha3HaneH 3a cbTpygHHK b MnHHCTep- 
ckha ci>BeT, a KaTe^paTa no njiaHHpaHe ce nocTapa aa CMflafle ycjiOBHa toh 
aa npofli>JDKH npenoflaBaTejicKaTa h HayHHaTa ch fleftHOCT. Ejiaroflapemie 
Ha yMa, TpyflOjnoGneTO h 0praHH3aT0pCKHTe ch KanecTBa toh 3acjiyaceHO ce 
H3flnrHa j\o nocTOBeTe Ha 3aM.-npeflceflareji Ha Mhhhctcpckhh cbbct h npefl- 
ceaaTeji Ha /J'bpacaBHHfl komhtct no njiaHHpaHe, CTaHa h Hapo^eH npefl- 

352 



cTaBHTeji. Hapea c TOBa, toh 6euie H36paH 3a npo(J)ecop h CTaHa peKTOp Ha 
AKaaeMHaTa 3a o6mecTBeHH HayKH h coimajiHO ynpaBJieHHe (AOHCY). 

B KOMHCH^Ta no HOBaTa HKOHOMHHecKa CHCTeMa ynacTBa h npocj). HBaH 
Hjihcb KaTO 3aM.-MHHHcrbp h 3aM.-npe,nce,zi;aTeji Ha /J'bpacaBHHfl komhtct no 
miaHHpaHe. Ton ce yTBi>pflH KaTO bujxqh CTonaHCKH pi>KOBOflHTeji h yneH, 
BnocjieflCTBHe 3aeMauie nocTOBeTe Ha saM.-npeaceflaTeji Ha MnHHCTepCKHH 
CT>BeT h npeflceaaTeji Ha J\Kn, 6eme peKTOp Ha BHH h 3aBe^yi;am KaTeflpaTa 
no miaHHpaHe Ha HapoflHOTO cronaHCTBO, HJieH-KopecnoHfleHT Ha BAH. 

npo(|). HBaH BHfleHOB pa6oTH no BtnpocnTe Ha ijeHoo6pa3yBaHeTO KaTO 
npe^ceflaTeji Ha KoMHCHOTa no ijeHHTe npn MnHHCTepcKHH ctBeT. Ton HMa 
rojieMH 3acjiyrn 3a ycbBtpmeHCTBaHeTO Ha ijeHoo6pa3yBaHeTO npn 
ToraBaniHHTe ycjiOBHfl Ha pa3BHrae h ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. 

H36op Ha hobo aKa^eMHHHO pt>kobo/ictbo (1966) 

Ha 1. VI. 1966 r. npHKJiiOHH btophht mh flBenwmieH MaHflaT KaTO peK- 
Top Ha Bhchiha HKOHOMHHecKH HHCTHTyT "Kapji MapKc". B npo/p>JDKeHHe 
Ha Te3H nerapn roflHHH aica,zi;eMHHHOTO hh pi>KOBOflCTBO paGoTeiue BCeOT- 
flaifflo h 6e3KopHCTHO ? 3a aa onpaBflae flOBepneTO Ha HHCTHTyTCKM kojick- 
thb. YcHJiHOTa hh He 6axa Hanpa3HH h HHCTHTyrbT npofltJDKH aa ce yTBtp- 
ayjaBa KaTO e^HO ot Hafl aoGpHTe bhchih yne6HH 3aBeflemifl b CTpaHaTa. 

Ha 6.VI.1966 r. ce npOBe/je ci>6paHHe Ha xa6HJiHTHpaHHfl ctCTaB Ha 
HHCTHTyTa. 3a peKTOp eflHHOflyniHO 6enie H36paH npoc[). KnpHji rpnropOB, a 
3a 3aM. peKTopn: npo(J). J\uMUTbp XapajiaMnneB /Jhmhtpob h npocj). Cre<j)aH 

LtaHKOB. HOBOTO pfcKOBOflCTBO BCTMIH B flJIl>)KHOCT OT HaHaJIOTO Ha K)JIH. 

npe3 BTOpaTa nojioBHHa Ha iohh 1966 r. 3aMHHax 3a JleHHHrpafl 3aeflHO 
c MJiaflHfl, TanaHTJiHB h eHeprHHeH npeno^aBaTeji no nojiHTHKOHOMHfl 

HHKOJia BeJIHKOB. EflXMe TOCTH Ha OHHaHCOBO-HKOHOMHHeCKHH yHHBepcH- 

TeT "H. Bo3HeceHCKH" h jihhho Ha peKTOpa npocj). JlaBpHKOB h 3aM.-peKro- 
pHTe npo(J). MojinaHOB h npocj). TapaceBHH. 3ano3HaxMe ce c ynpaBJieHHeTO 
Ha yHHBepcHTeTa h c opraHH3aijHOTa Ha HayHHaTa h npeno^aBaTejicKa 
fleiiHOCT. HMaxMe h npHjrraaTa bt>3mo)khoct fla pa3rjie,n;aMe 3a6ejie)KH- 
TenHOCTHTe Ha JleHHHrpaa, aa ce Hacjiaac^aBaMe Ha CBeTJiHTe Jieran Homn, 
KaKTO h aa ce 3ano3HaeM etc ceMeftcTBaTa Ha npocj). JlaBpHKOB h npocj). 
MojinaHOB. 

npe3 cenTeMBpn 1966 r., T.e. flBa Meceija cjiea ocBo6o)KflaBaHeTO mh ot 
peKTopcKHfl noer, BtnpeKH peniHTejiHHa MH OTBOfl, 6flX H36paH 3a m>pBH ceK- 
peTap Ha Ocmh pafioHeH komhtct Ha EKn, kohto o6eflHH5iBaHie h ptKOBOfle- 
me napTHHHHTe opraHroaijHH Ha bhchihtc yne6HH 3aBeaeHH b Co(J)hh. ToBa 
flOBepne noKa3Banie ao6paTa oijeHKa 3a pa6oTaTa mh KaTO peKTop: 

353 



npe/i;cToeine mh m ynacTBaM b pemaBaHeTO Ha hobh cjioachh npo6jieMH. 

* * * 

B CBOHTe 6Horpa(J)HHHH Gejie^KKH ce onHTax HaKpaTKO aa onepTan 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha BHH h Ha HeroBHTe HayHHO-neaarorHHecKH icaflpH npe3 
nepHOfla, KoraTO 6ax peKTOp. Pa36npa ce, mohtc oijchkh ce ocHOBaBaT Ha 

TOraBaiHHHTe yCJIOBHfl, BT>3MO>KHOCTH H H3HCKBaHHfl. IIpe3 TC3H rOflHHH a3 

pa6oTHX ctBMecTHO c eflHH BHCOKOKBajiH(J)HUHpaH eKHn, kohto HanpaBH 
MHoro 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha HHCTHTyTa, npeoflojw MHoro TpyflHocra h ce 
CTpeMeuie aa /jencTBa c /jeMOKpaTHHHH MeTO/jH b ayxa Ha /i;o6pHTe aica- 
fleMHHHH Tpa/jHijHH. H /jocera c 6jiaroaapHOCT ch cnoMH^M 3a ctBMecTHara 

HH pa60Ta CT>C 3aMeCTHHK peKTOpHTe npO(J). ,fl,HMHTT>p Xap. ^HMHTpOB, 

npo(j). Cretan LJaHKOB, npocj). Ilerbp ABpaMOB; c /jeicaHHTe h 3aM.- 
fleKaHHTe npocj). HBaH MaTOB, npocj). rpnrop nonncaKOB, npocj). XpHCTo 
KajinropoB, npocj). XpHCTO MapHHOB, npo(J). }KaK Apofto, npocj). Jlio6eH 
EepOB, npocj). BeHeij IJpHeB, npoc|). MnxaHJi Ehcb. 

Toji^Ma noMom mh oica3axa ptKOBOflHTejiHTe h cjiyacHTemiTe ot aflMH- 
HHCTpaTHBHHTe 3BeHa Ha HHCTHTyTa. Pa6oTHX c flBaMa mhoto cnoco6HH 
noMomHHK peKTOpH BacHJi AHrejicKH h HBaH JIhhkob. H /jBaMaTa 6axa 
/i;o6pH a^MKHHCTpaTopH. AHrejicKH 6eine e^HH ot ct3flaTejiHTe Ha BHH. 
HHHUHaTHBeH, B3HCKaTejieH h TOJiepaHTeH, toh no3HaBauie b fleTafijiH 
^HHaHCOBOTO h MaTepHanHOTO nojioHcemie Ha HHCTHTyTa h ycneuiHO 
pa6oTeuie 3a pa3pemaBaHe Ha TeicymHTe npo6jieMH. Ho-klcho toh npeMHHa 
Ha OTroBopHa pa6oTa b CHCTeMaTa Ha BtHiHHaTa TbproBM. C j\o6po ch 

CnOMHflM CJ)HHaHCHCTHTe ^HMO IJaHKOB H KoCTa BjiaflHMHpOB, CLTpyfl- 

HHHKHTe Ha peKTOpara, cjmKyjrreTHTe h KaTeapHTe CnaceHa MnjiymeBa, 
HeBeHa ApcoBa, EKHMOBa, AHeBa, PaftHa HojieBa, Kara naBJiOBa, 3axapH 
Eep6epoB, 3opa EopncoBa, TeHOBeBa TopaHOBa, 3aBe>K,a;amHTe 6h6jiho- 
TeKaTa M. AjieKcneBa h CyjiTaHKa UleBHKOBa h mhoto flpyra. 

HcKaM aa OTGejieaca, ne KaTO peKTOp ce CTpeM^x aa pa6oTa c MaKCH- 
MajiHa OTfla/jeHOCT, aa npoaBABaM kphthhhoct h caMOKpHTHHHOCT, aa 6i>fla 
TOJiepaHTeH h /jeMOKpaTHneH, aa H36arBaM koh^jihrthtc 

KaTO ujaTeH h KaTO xoHopyBaH npeno/jaBaTeji-neHCHOHep pa6oTHX bt>b 
BHH-YHCC b npo/i;'LJi5KeHHe Ha ijenH 53 roflHHH ot MapT 1953 ^o Mafi 
2006 r. npe3 OT^ejiHH nepno/jH ot CBOjrra aeiiHOCT 3aeMax p^kobo^hh 
flji'b^KHOCTH h3bt>h HHCTHTyTa, ho BHHarH etc ctpijeTO h flymara ch 6ax 
nacT ot HHCTHTyTCKHfl hh KOJieKTHB. Pa/jBax ce Ha ycneuiHaTa aenHocT Ha 
cjie^BamHTe peKTOpn: npocj). KnpHJi rpnropoB, npocj). ^aBHfl ^aBHflOB, 
npocj). HBaH HjineB, npoc|). rpnrop BaKJineB, npocj). Mnxanji CaBOB, npocj). 

354 



^aHaHJi flaHamiOB, npocj). Ctoh^hh CaBOB, npo^). MnxaHJi ^hhcb, npo(|). 
Jlajno Pa/jynoB, npo(|). KaMeH Mhpkobhh, npo(|). BopHCJiaB BopHCOB. npe3 
T03H fltjrbr nepHO/j, 6ejifl3aH c pe3KH nojiHTHHecKH h hkohommhcckh 
npoMeHH, Bhciuhji hkohomhhcckh HHCTHTyT ce npeBi>pHa b yHHBepcHTeT 
3a HaipiOHajiHO h cbctobho cronaHCTBO, pa3BH ce h ce yTBtp/jH KaTO Hafi- 
ycneuiHHH yHHBepcHTeT 3a noflroTOBKa Ha bhcuih hkohomhhcckh Ka^pH. 
ToBa 3a6ejie5KHTejiHO pa3BHTHe e 3aKOHOMepeH pe3yjrraT Ha ycHJiMTa h 
TBOpnecKH)i Tpy/j Ha hakojiko noKOJieHHfl npeno/jaBaTejiH. 



TJIABA VIII 

B KOPH^OPHTE HA A/JMHHHCTPAIJIDITA 

(1966-1975 r.) 

npHKJiioHHX peKTOpcKHTe ch 3afli>Ji^ceHHa c HyBCTBO Ha o6jieKHeroie h c 
ycemaHe 3a H3ni>jiHeH fltJir. Cera c pa^ocT Moacex aa npofltiDKa HayHHo- 
neaarorHHecKaTa ch aeiiHOCT bi>b Bhciiiha hkohomkhcckh HHCTHTyr. 
3anoHHa xy6aBOTO jihto Ha 1966 r. IIpeMHHax kbm e^HH no-cnoKoeH h 
pa3MepeH phtbm b fleHHOcrra ch KaTO npenoflaBaTen. Eax CBOpraroraaTop h 
flOKJiaflHHK Ha HayHHonpaKTHnecKa KOH(])epeHUHfl no BtnpocHTe Ha 
ycLBtpmeHCTBaHe Ha CHCTeMaTa 3a ynpaBneHHe h 3annamaHe b TtproB- 
CKHTe opraHH3aitHH 5 koato ce npoBe^e b HanajiOTO Ha oktombph. To3H 
pa3MepeH phtbm Ha pa6oTa o6ane MHoro CKOpo 6e HapynieH. 

ITbpBii cenpeTap Ha Ocmh (CTyaemrcKH) PK Ha BKII 

(OKTOMBpH-fleKeMBpH 1966) 

IIpe3 eceHTa Ha 1966 r. flOToraBaniHHflT ntpBH ceKpeTap Ha Ocmh PK Ha 
BKII 6eme npeMHHan Ha flpyra pa6oTa h a3 6ax H36paH Ha to3h nocT, 
BtnpeKH MoeTO HectrjiacHe. Mothbhtc 3a TOBa 6axa, ne clm hjich Ha 
BiopoTO Ha PK h flo6pe no3HaBaM pa6oTaTa Ha KOMHTeTa, a KaTO 6hbhi 
peKTOp clm HaacHO c MexaHH3MHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHe h npoGneMHTe Ha bhc- 
niHTe yne6HH 3aBe,neHHfl h 3aflaHHTe Ha TexHHTe napTHHHH opraHH3aijHH. 
Ocmh PK Ha BKII oGeflHH^Bame h ptKOBOfleme fleHHOcrra Ha napTHHHHTe 
opraHH3aijHH Ha npenoaaBaTejiHTe h CTy^eHTHTe bt>b BHcniHTe yneGmi 3aBe- 
fleHH^ h HayHHHTe HHCTHTyTH npH BAH b Co(J)Hfl. ^eHHOcrra Ha KOMHTeTa 
6enie cnoacHa h MHoro OTroBOpHa. HjieHOBeTe Ha PK h Ha 6iopoTO Ha PK 
6axa aBTOpHTeTHH npenoflaBaTejiH h cryneHTH. CtTpynHHijHTe Ha KOMHTeTa 
ei>mo 6axa flo6pe noflroTBeHH, onHTHH opraHH3aTopH h nponaraHflHcra, 
kohto flo6pe no3HaBaxa fleHHOcrra Ha napTHHHHTe opraHH3aijHH. 

IIpe3 HoeMBpn 1966 r. ce npoBe^e IX KOHrpec Ha BKII, b hhoto 
pa6oTa ynacTBax KaTO ^ejieraT. IlapTHHHHTe opraHH3aijHH Ha pafioHa B3exa 
ynacTHe KaKTO b npeflBapHTenHOTO oGcL^caaHe Ha KOHrpecHHTe pemeHM, 
Taica h b taxhoto pa3^CHaBaHe h H3m>jiHeHHe. KoHrpeetT ^aae nojio^cH- 
TejiHa oijeHKa 3a o6mecTBeHO-HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa h 
KOHCTaTHpa, ne e HanpaBeHa "HOBa Kpanxa b H3rpa^cflaHe Ha MaTepnajiHO- 
TexHHHecKaTa 6a3a Ha coijHajiH3Ma", ne "HameTO o6mecTBO ca HaMHpa Ha 



356 



no-BHcma cTeneH Ha CBoeTO pa3BHTHe". 

HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe npe3 OTHeTHH^ nepHoa (1961-1965) 6euie 
oueHeHO KaTO MHoro AoGpo. KoHrpectT yTBtp/jH h rjiaBHHTe 3a#aHH npe3 
cjie^BamaTa neTHJieTKa (1966-1970). OrpoHTejiCTBOTO Ha coijHajiHCTHnec- 
koto oGmecTBO Tpa6Bame /ja npo/jtJDKH Hpe3: no-HaTarbiHHOTO H3rpa)K- 
#aHe Ha MaTepHajmo-TexHHHecKaTa 6a3a KaTO b HaM-roji^Ma CTeneH ce 

H3nOJI3BaT HHTeH3HBHHTe (j)aKTOpH; BHeap>iBaHe Ha nOCTH)KeHHflTa Ha 

HayHHO-TexHHHecKaTa peBOJiioijHfl; noaroTOBKaTa Ha KBajiH(|)Hu;HpaHH 
cneiiHanHCTH; pa3BHTHe Ha HayHHOH3CJie#OBaTejicKaTa pa6oTa h pa3BHTHe 
Ha HaynHH 6a3H h ijeHTpoBe; pa3BHTHeTO Ha HayicaTa h o6pa30BaHHeTo; no- 
HaTarbHiHOTO ycbBtpuieHCTBaHe Ha CHCTeMaTa Ha pt>kobo,zjctboto Ha 
HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBo; pa3BHTHe Ha oGmecTBeHHTe OTHonieHHa; pa3iHHpfl- 
BaHe Ha #eMOKpaTH3Ma b ynpaBJieHHeTo; no/i;o6p>iBaHe H/jeftHO-nojiHTHHec- 
KaTa pa6oTa Ha napTHOTa h H3flHraHe pojwTa Ha napTHHHHTe komhtcth h 
opraHH3aitHH; H3pa6oTBaHe Ha HOBa KOHCTHTyijHfl h jip. 

Te3H 3a#aHH pecJmeKTHpaxa npaKO Btpxy fleHHOcrra Ha HauiHfl pafioHeH 
KOMHTeT h Ha napTHHHHTe opraHH3an;HH bi>b BHCiHHTe yne6HH 3aBefleHH^[. 
Cnefl KOHipeca napTHHHHTe opraHH3aijHH 3ae/i;HO etc ctoTBeTHHTe HayHHO- 
neaarorHHecKH kojickthbh Tp^6Bame aa H3pa6oT#r nnaHOBe 3a H3m>jiHeHHe 
KaKTO Ha KOHipecHHTe peuieHHfl, Taxa h Ha JJtpHcaBHHfl nnaH 3a pa3BHTHe Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa, HayKaTa h no^roTOBKa Ha KBajiH(j)HijHpaHH Ka^pn ci>o6pa3Ho 
npo(|)HJia Ha bhchihtc yneGmi 3aBe;i;eHHfl, Karejjpwre h /jpyrcrre hm 3BeHa. 

111,0 ce OTHacfl ao KOHrpeca, H3Ka3BaHMTa Ha #eneraTHTe 6axa cnoKOH- 
hh, flenoBH, noHAKora h b pyx Ha KOHCTpyKTHBHa KpHTHKa. H^Mame 

"cGjTBCblJH", OCTpH KpHTHHHH 6eJie^CKH HUH o6BHHeHHfl KbM KOHKpeTHH 

ptKOBOflHTejin, KaKTO no BpeMe Ha npeflHiHHHH VIII KOHrpec. H3Ka3BaHHOTa 
3anoHBaxa h 3aBtpHiBaxa c Bi>3XBajia Ha HCTOpHHecKOTO 3HaneHHe Ha 
AnpHJiCKH^ njieHyM Ha LJK Ha BKTI h Ha „apxHTeKra Ha anpHJicKaTa jihhha 
Ha napTHHTa" - KyjiTbT kt>m JiHHHOcira Ha To/top )Khbkob Bene yKpenBanie 
h ce yTBtp^caaBame. 

3aMecTHHK-npe,nceAaTeji Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpy^a h pa6oTHaTa 
3anjiaTa (1967) 

Ha 3 1. XII. 1966 r. etc ccmchctboto mh 6axMe b IIjiob,zi;hb, 3a aa 
nocpenjHeM HOBaTa roflHHa 3ae^HO c mohtc po^HTejiH h etc ceMeficTBOTO 
Ha 6paT mh Ejiaroa. Pa3rbpHax b. "PaGoTHHnecKO Aeno" h b KonoHKaTa 3a 
0(J)Hi];HajiHH BecTH c rojiaMa H3HeHa,u;a nponeTox, ne c YKa3 N« 996 Ha 



* )Khbkob, T. H36paHH ct>hhhchhh. T.12, c. 111. 

357 



npe3H#HyMa Ha HapoflHOTO ci>6paHHe ot 29 fleieeMBpH aoij. Rann^ 
J],aBHflOB ce ocBo6o^cflaBa ot /yrDKHOcrra 3aMecTHHK-npe^ceflaTeji Ha 
KoMHTeTa no Tpyzja h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa (KTP3) nopa^H npeMHHaBaHe Ha 
flpyra pa6oTa, a Ha T03H nocT ce Ha3HanaBa aoij. AHreji ITeTpoB HaymeB. 
IlopaflH npa3HHijHTe He Moacax Be^Hara «a nojiyna HH(j)opMaiiHfl 3a hoboto 
mh Ha3HaneHHe: 3amo, no nne npefljioaceHHe, c KaKBH mothbh h np. 

Cjiea hakojiko flHH J\zbhr J\zbhrob (moh npMTeji h KOJiera ot BHH), 
cjiea KaTO ce h3bhhh, ne He ycraji CBoeBpeMeHHO «a Me yBe/joMH, Me 
HH(|)opMHpa 5 ne no penieHHe Ha U,K h npaBHTejicTBOTO ce 3aKpHBar Meac/iy- 
Be^OMCTBeHaTa komhcha h Pa6oTHaTa rpyna no HOBaTa CHcreMa 3a 
pi>KOBOflCTBO Ha HapoflHOTo CTonaHCTBO n ot 1.1.1967 r. ce ci>3#aBa Komh- 
cm no HOBaTa cHereMa npn MHHHCTepcKHfl cbbct. 3a hchh npeflceaareji e 
Ha3HaneH Tpnuia OnjinnoB, 3aM.-npeaceaaTeji CTaBa JIzbhr J\zbhrob, a 
ceKpeTap - CTaHHin Bohcb. 

- Ha 3aceaaHHe Ha CeKpeTapnaTa Ha U,K Ha BKI1 npe#jio)KHx Ha 
ocBo6ofleHaTa ot MeH ajtb^khoct 3aM.-npeaceflaTen Ha KTP3 aa 6i>aem 
Ha3HaneH th. npe/yio^KeHHeTO 6eme npneTO, ho MMax bi>3mo)khoct aa Te 
HHc|)opMHpaM 5 ni>K n He onaKBax, ne pemeHMTa TaKa 6i>p30 me 6i>aaT 
o6^BeHH. 06ocHOBax npczyioaceHHeTO ch c TOBa, ne th HMani HeoGxo^H- 
MaTa noflroTOBKa no BtnpocHTe Ha opraHH3aijHflTa, CTHMyjinpaHeTO h 
3annamaHeTO Ha Tpyaa. ,ZJo6pe no3HaBam TapH(|)HaTa Mpeaca h maraaTa 
Ta6jiHija. TIpenoflaBam h noflroTB^ni. cneijHanHCTH. H Hafi-Ba^cHo: «o6pe 
no3HaBani ochobhhtc nono^Kemifl h pe^HijaTa HopMaTHBHH ^OKyMeHTH Ha 
HOBaTa CHCTeMa 3a p^kobo^ctbo Ha HapoflHOTo CTonaHCTBO, B3eManie 
ynacTHe npn oGctacflaHHOTa, opraHH3Hpanie HayHHonpaKTHnecKH KOH^e- 
pemjHH, HMani ny6jiHKaijHH no Te3H Bwipocn. npo6jieMHTe, kohto me 
pemaBani, ca cjioechh. Th me OTroBapain 3a nocjieflmrre flse ayMH Ha KTP3, 
t. e. 3a pa6oTHaTa 3anjiara - nonieryBa ce J\zbhr. - IIJe pa6orain c ^o6pe 
noflroTBeHH cneiinajiHCTH. MHoro ot BtnpocHTe, kohto pemaBa KTP3 ca h 
o6eKT Ha o6ci>)KflaHe h peniaBaHe ot Komhcha no HOBaTa CHCTeMa npn 

MHHHCTepCKHfl CBBeT. 

HaTaTi>K JIzbvlr mh onnca TeKynjHTe h npeflCToanjHTe 3aaaHH Ha KTP3, 
Bi>3Mo^cHOCTHTe Ha OTflenHHTe cneipiajiHCTH ot eKHna, c kohto mh npefl- 
CToeme aa paGom 

B CBOTBeTCTBHe c H3HCKBaHHHTa Ha YcTaBa Ha BKn Ha nneHyM Ha 
PanoHHHfl KOMHTeT 6ax ocBo6ofleH ot fljn>)KHOCTTa m>pBH ceKpeTap. 

B e^HH CTy^eH AHyapcKH aeH Ha 1967 r. ce abhx npn npeaceflaTena Ha 
KTP3 Mhuio MniueB. Ilo3HaBaxMe ce, ho He 6axMe paGorajiH 3ae^HO. Ton 
Me HHCTpyKTHpa 3a pa6oTaTa mh, 3ano3Ha Me c ^BaMaTa mh KOJiern 3aM.- 

358 



npeflceaaTejiH AHren U,aHKOB (ntpBH 3aMecTHHK-npeflceflaTen ? kohto Hafi- 
o6mo Ka3aHO OTroBapanie 3a noflroTOBKara, KBajiHcJjHKaijHflTa h npeKBajin- 
(])HKamifl Ha pa6oTHaTa CHJia b pa3JiHHHHTe OTpacjiH Ha Hapo^HOTo 
cTonaHCTBo) h npo(J). KocTa JSy jiqb (3aBe^Kflam Bi>npocHTe Ha opraHH3a- 
ilMTa Ha npoH3BOflCTBOTO h Tpyaa), c rjiaBHH)i ceKpeTap Cb6ho MaHyHJi- 

CKH, C flHpeKTOpH H flpyTH ptKOBOflHH CJiy)KHTeJIH B KOMHTeTa. 

TaKa 3anoHHa MO#ra fleiiHOCT b KTP3. 3ano3Hax ce c KOJieKTHBa Ha 

OTfleJIHTe H CeKTOpHTe, C KOHKpeTHHTe hm 3a^aHH ? C HOpMaTHBHaTa flOKy- 

MeHTaijHH Ha maraaTa h TapncJmaTa pec|)opMa. Komhtctbt Tpa6Bame Te- 
ni>pBa aa H3pa6oTH hakoh HHCTpyKijHH, npaBHJia h yKa3aHH)i, #a onpcuejin 
KaTeropHHTe Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHroaijHH cbbmcctho c MHHHCTepcTBaTa h 
ApyniTe Be^oMCTBa. IIpe3 4>eBpyapH ce cbctoh HaijHOHajiHO ctBemaHHe Ha 
KoMHTeTa Ha Tpy^a h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa c opraHHTe no Tpy^a h pa6oTHara 
3anJiaTa b MHHHCTepcTBaTa h no-rojieMHTe CTonaHCKH opraHH3an;HH. E#hh 
ot "ocTpHTe" Btnpocn, kohto ce o6ct}Kflaxa ? 6eme pec])opMaTa Ha pa6oT- 
HaTa 3anjiaTa h (J)opMHTe h MexaHH3MHTe Ha 4>opMHpaHe h pa3npe#ejieHHe 
Ha 4>OHfl "Pa6oraa 3anjiaTa". HMaine ocHOBaTejiHH kphthhhh 6ejie)KKH, ho 
h TaKHBa, kohto H3HCKBaxa oGmhcjiahc Ctc ctrjiacne Ha M. MnnieB 
HanpaBHX H3Ka3BaHe Ha BTOpHH aeH, kocto no Moe MHeHHe 6eine #o6pe 
npneTO. Ycnflx aa ycTaHOBA KOHTaKT c ynacTHHijHTe b KOH(])epeHijHflTa, Koe- 
to mhoto Me yjiecHH b 6tflemaTa mh pa6oTa c tax. 

AKTHBHaTa mh pa6oTa 3anoHHa c mhoto cpemn c npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha 

MHHHCTepcTBaTa, C TJiaBHH flHpeKTOpH H flHpeKTOpH Ha CTOnaHCKH o6e#H- 

HeHHH h npeanpHOTHfl, b xo/ta Ha kohto o6ci>5KflaxMe h peinaBaxMe pa3- 
jihhhh Btnpocn h nocTeneHHO H3pa6oTHXMe hhkoh flOKyMeHTH (npaBHJia, 
yKa3aHH^ h mctoahkh), cBtp3aHH etc 3aBtpuiBaHe Ha pe(j)opMaTa Ha 
EflHHHaTa maraa Ta6jiniia h EflHHHara Tapncjma Mpe)Ka. 

OcBeH TOBa, KoMHTeTbT H3pa6oTBame hjih yTBtpsKflaBame b paMKHTe 
Ha CBOHTe npaBOMomHH npe^CTaBeHHTe My flOKyMeHTH h HopMaTHBHH 
aKTOBe h noflroTBflme npoeKTOpenieHHfl Ha Mhhhctcpckhh ctBeT. 3ae#HO 
etc cneiinajiHCTH ot KOMHTeTa npOBe^K^axMe pa6oTHH cpenjn b pa3JiHHHH 
npe^npHHTHH, 3a aa npOBepHM e^eKTHBHOcrra ot npHJiosKemieTO Ha HopMa- 

THBHH flOKyMeHTH, o6ci>)KflaXMe npOCKTH 3a HOBH MeTOflHKH, yKa3aHHfl, 

npaBHJia h np. 

Tp^6Ba aa OT6ejie>Ka BHCOKOKBajiH^HUHpaHaTa pa6oTa Ha mohtc KOJiern 
ot KOMHTeTa KptcTio IIonoB, 3aBi>pniHJi BHcme o6pa30BaHHe b cneijHaji- 
Hocrra "HKOHOMHKa Ha Tpy^a" h 3amHTHJi ancepTaiiHH B Mockobckha HKO- 

HOMHHeCKH HHCTHTyT, a CbHJO BjiaflHMHp EHHflepOB, EteTKO IleTKOB H 

flpyrn. 

359 



^eHHOcrra Ha KTP3 no H3in>jiHeHHe Ha 3a#aHHTe, cBi>p3aHH c yctBtp. 
nieHCTBaHe Ha opraHH3aijHflTa Ha pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa, 4>opMHpaHe h 
peryjiHpaHe Ha (j)OH£ "Pa6oraa 3anjiaTa" h onpe#ejwHeTO Ha hh^hbh- 
AyajiHaTa pa6oTHa 3annaTa ce H3BT>pniBanie bt>3 ocHOBa Ha penieHHH h 
yKa3aHH^ Ha MHHHCTepCKHfl ctBeT h KoMHCHHTa no HOBaTa cnereMa 3a 

pT>KOBO£CTBO Ha HapOflHOTO CTOnaHCTBO, KaKTO H B 3aBHCHMOCT ot noTpeG- 

HOCTHTe Ha MHHHCTepcTBaTa, BeflOMCTBara h CTonaHCKHTe h Apyrnre 
opraHH3an;HH. Pa6oTaTa b TOBa OTHonieHne 6enie orpoMHa h pa3Hoo6pa3Ha. 

MHoro ot BtnpocHTe ce peniaBaxa etc cbrjiacneTO Ha npeflceaaTejm 
Mnnio MnnieB, flpyrn ce pa3rjie)Kflaxa ot KOJiernyMa, a no-3HanHMHTe ce 
BHacaxa 3a peniaBaHe ot MnHHCTepCKHH ctBeT. MnHHCTepcTBaTa h bcaom- 
CTBaTa ctmo BHacaxa b MnHHCTepcKH cbbct cboh npe/uioaceHHfl, kohto 
Tpa6Banie #a ce ctrjiacyBaT c KTP3. HMax BnenaTJieHHe, ne HflMame 
3aceaaHne hjih penieHne Ha MnHHCTepcKHa ei>BeT, KoeTO /ja He H3HCKBa 
MHeHne ot KTP3, Han-Bene mo ce oraacfl ,zjo BtnpocnTe Ha paGoraara 
3anjiaTa. Mhoto ot Te3H Btnpocn HMaxa h (JjyH^aMeHTajiHO 3HaneHHe h 
H3HCKBaxa BHHMaTejiHO npoyHBaHe, 3a #a ce B3eMaT o6ocHOBaHH peineroifl. 
npe/i;ce/i;aTenaT MnnieB HManie 6oraT opraHH3au;HOHeH onm, rbpceine h 
Bi>3npneManie hobh n HKOHOMnnecKH o6ocHOBaHH peineHHa, HManie fltp- 
5KaBHHnecKO OTHonieHne kt>m peniaBaHHTe Btnpocn. Manap nomncora ^a 
npoflBABanie eMoijHOHajiHOCT, toh ce OTHacame c AOBepne kt>m MeH h 
cneiinajincTHTe. 

3aMecTHHK-npe/i;ceaaTejinTe AHreji LJamcoB n npocj). KocTa ^yjieB 6axa 
CT>3aajiH #o6pn eKnnn n yenenmo H3m>jiH5iBaxa CBOHTe 4>yHKimH n 3a#aHH. 
Te HMaxa aKTHBHO n no3HTHBHO OTHonieHne n kt>m mos ceKTOp Ha aenHOCT. 

KoMHTerbT ynacTBanie aKTHBHO n b pa6oTaTa Ha KoMHCHsrra no Hoea- 
Ta CHCTeMa 3a pt>koboactbo Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO Hpe3 cboh 
cneiinanncTH Ha bchhkh paBHHma Ha o6cb)K/i;aHe Ha HopMaTHBHHTe 
AOKyMeHTH h peinemui. KaTO npaBHJio a3 ynacTBax caMO bt>b (J)HHajiHHTe 
3aceaaHHa no npneMaHeTO hm, KaTO ce erpeMflx #a 6T>,na o6ocHOBaH b 
CBOHTe npe/jjioaceHHfl h ^a aonpHHeca 3a CKyjaBaHeTO Ha 6a3HpaHH Btpxy 

06eKTHBHH KpHTepHH H peaJIHCTHHHH no CBOHTe IjeJIH HOpMaTHBHH 

AOKyMeHTH, kohto #a CTHMyjiHpaT CTonaHCKHTe cy6eKTH npH pa3KpHBaHe 
Ha pe3epBH 3a noBHniaBaHe e^eKTHBHOcira hm. B MHoro6poftHHTe 3ace- 
flaHH^ h flHCKycHH ynacTBaxa KptCTio IIonoB, Bna/jHMHp EnHflepOB, IleTKO 
IleTKOB h rpyna cneiinajracTH ot KoMHTeTa b 3aBHCHMOCT ot xapaKTepa Ha 
o6ci>}KAaHHTe Bwipocn. 

KoMHCH^Ta no HOBaTa CHCTeMa HManie onpe/tejieH Kptr ot (^ymemffi, 
npaBa h 3afli>ji5KeHH5i. Tpa6Ba #a OT6ejie)Ka o6ane, ne ts ce CTpeMeine ,ua 

360 



pa3iiiHpflBa npaBara ch, aa H33eMBa 4)yHKijHH h 3aflaHH ot MHHHCTepCTBaTa 
H Be^oMCTBaTa, aa H36arBa flopH KOHTpojia Ha MnHHCTepctcHfl ctBeT h Taica 
ce npeBptmauie b napanejieH Ha npaBHTencTBOTO opraH. Pa36npa ce, 
KOMHCHHTa pa6oTeuie flHHaMHHHO h flaae 3HaHHTejieH npHHOc 3a yctBtp- 
uieHCTBaHe ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha HapoaHOTO CTonaHCTBO. HefiHHTe pemeHHA 
o6aHe necTO He ce nocpeujaxa flo6pe ot BeflOMCTBara h CTonaHCKHTe 
opraHH3aitHH ? Tbfi KaTO He BHHara 6axa ao6pe o6ocHOBaHH h nocTOHHHO ce 
H3MeHHxa hjih noflMemixa. H3pa6oTBaxa ce hobh h hobh flotcyMeHTH, ho 
jinncBame flocTaTbneH aHajiH3, flonyctcanie ce tojdim cy6eKTHBH3i>M b 
ouemcHTe h penieHMTa. Cnea KaTO ce npeijeHH, ne KOMHCHOTa e H3m>JiHHJia 
CBoeTO npeaHa3HaneHHe ? ta 6eme 3aicpHTa Ha 1.1.1968 r. 

IlO TOBa BpeMe HMaX BT>3MO)KHOCTTa fla pa60Tfl H nOfl ptKOBOflCTBOTO HO 

2Khbko 2Khbkob, ntpBH 3aM.-npeflceflareji Ha MHHHCTepcKHfl ctBeT, npH 
H3roTB)iHeTo h o6ci>)K£aHeTO Ha Ba^cHH flOKyMeHTH no BtnpocHTe Ha opraHH- 
3auHHTa ? CTHMyjiHpaHeTO h 3amiamaHeTO Ha Tpy^a, oao6p>iBaHeTO Ha Mo^ejiH 
h MexaHH3MH 3a CTHMyjinpaHe fleHHOCTra Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aipiH. 

BnponeM, KaTO npeaceaaTeji Ha KoMHCMTa no e^eKTHBHOcrra h peHTa- 
6HJiHociTa Ha HKOHOMHKaTa )Khbko 5Khbkob no ctmecTBO ptKOBO/tenie 
pa6oTaTa Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO b HKOHOMHHecicaTa o6jiacT. lOpncr no 
o6pa30BaHHe, toh HMame orpoMeH onHT h no3HaBame mhoto /jo6pe 6tJirap- 
ckoto CTonaHCTBO. Beme pa6oTHJi KaTO mhhhctbp Ha BtHiHHaTa TbproBM, 
npe/tceaaTeji Ha ^tpacaBHHfl komhtct no miaHHpaHe, 3aM.-npe/jceaareji Ha 
MC c OTroBOpHOCTH b o6jiacTra Ha BtHiHHara h BtTpeniHaTa TtproBM. 
Beme yMeH h epy^HpaH fltp^caBeH ptKOBO^HTeji c peanHCTHHeH h nepc- 
neKTHBeH norjie/t. BceKH Btnpoc, kohto Tpa6Banie aa peinaBa, toh 
H3ynaBaine BHHMarejiHO, noapo6HO, KOHcyjiTHpame ce c npocjiecHOHajiHCTH, 
He o6HHame niyMOTeBHitaTa, kooto 6eme 3anoHHana ^a ce npeBptma b cthji 
Ha To/top )Khbkob h o6Kpi>)KeHHeTO My. 

)Khbko )Khbkob HMa roiWM npHHOC B HKOHOMHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha 
CTpaHaTa npe3 60-Te h 70-Te roflHHH. Toh He caMO B3eMame aKTHBHO 
ynacTHe b onpeaeiwHeTO Ha HacoKHTe Ha HKOHOMHHecKaTa nojiHTHtca, ho ce 
npoTHBonocTaBfline Ha cy6eKTHBH3Ma h BOJiyHTapH3Ma, rbpcenie h Haci>p- 
naBauie BHe/tpaBaHeTO Ha e(J)eKTHBHH MexaHH3MH 3a ynpaBJieHHe, CTpeMenie 
ce aa ocnrypn no-rojwMa caMOCTOOTejiHOCT Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH, 
fla cM^a^e CTHMyjiH 3a no-ec|)eKTHBHa CTonaHCKa aeftHOCT, ^a ctneTae 
HHTepecHTe Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH h fltpacaBaTa. C jspym jsyMu, 
BHHMaTejiHO, ho h peniHTejiHO toh pa6oTeme 3a KopeHHO H3MeHeHHe Ha 
HKOHOMHnecKHTe MexaHH3MH ? flOKOJiKOTO TOBa 6enie bt>3mo)kho npn 
ToraBaniHHTe ycjiOBM. 

361 



CnoMHAM ch eflHH cjiynaH, kohto pa3KpHBa B3aHMOOTHOUiemiHTa 
MeyKjxy Toflop 2Khbkob, XChbko >Khbkob h TpHina <X>hjihiiob h Harae- 
flHO fleMOHCTpHpa noHe Haercma ot crana h MeTOflHTe Ha pa6oTa blb 
BHcniHTe eTaacn Ha napTHHHOTO h a^p^aBHOTO p^koboactbo. 

npe3 eceHTa Ha 1967 r. b KoMHTeTa no Tpyaa h pa6oTHaTa 3annara no 
yKa3aHne Ha MnHHcrepcKHfl cbbct h KoMHCHHTa no HOBaTa CHCTeMa Ha 
p^KOBOflCTBo Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO noflroTBHXMe npoeKT Ha MO/jen 3a 
opraHH3aiiH^[ Ha pa6oTHaTa 3annaTa. IIpoeKTBT 6enie cbrnacyBaH b ochobhh 
jihhhh c KoMHCHHTa, RKH, MO, KTP3 h flpyra BeflOMcraa h opraHH3aijHH. 
Eaxa B3eTH h cboGpaaceHHjrra Ha MHoro CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH. OcraBa- 
nie HepenieH o6ane eflHH cnopeH BBnpoc, kohto neacenie b caMara cbpije- 
BHHa Ha MeTOflHKaTa: KaK aa ce o6pa3yBa h perynnpa fyonn "pa6oraa 
3annaTa" Ha CTonaHCKHTe opramoaijHH. 0(|)opMHxa ce rbq mhchha - Ha 
rpnnia (DHJinnoB h hakoh ot HJieHOBeTe Ha KoMHCHjrra, ot e/jHa crpaHa, h 
Ha npeflCTaBHTejnrre Ha ocTaHajiHTe H36poeHH BeflOMcraa, ot flpyra. 

npe^H aa 6i>flaT npeflCTaBeHH 3a o6cb)KflaHe b MnHHcrepcKHfl cbbct, 
cnopHHTe Bi>npocH Tp^6Banie aa ce oGcvurr npn }Khbko >Khbkob c ijeji ^a 
ce HaMepH Hafi-npaBHJiHOTO penieHHe. E/jhh cbGotch aeH b Ka6nHeTa Ha 
}Khbko }Khbkob ce cb6paxMe ,ZJaBHfl ^aBHflOB (3aMecTHHK Ha TpHnia 
(DHJinnoB), Knpnn 3apeB (3aM.-npeflceflareji Ha RKU) h moh mhjioct. 
YTOHH5iBaxa ce nocjieflHHTe npOTHBOpenH* h H3MeHeHHfl b npoeKTa Ha 
floieyMeHTa, npeflH toh aa 6i>fle BHeceH b MnHHcrepcKHa cbbct. Cnea KaTO 
BHHMaTenHO nperneaa TeKCTa h ch h3hchh ajiTepHaTHBHHTe BapnaHTH, 
}Khbko >Khbkob ce CBBp3a no TenetJDOHa c To^op }Khbkob. ^OKJiaflBa My 
HaKpaTKO cbniHOCTTa Ha npoeKTa h cnopHHTe nojioaceHHfl, h noacena w ce 
npoBeae cpema c Hero 3a OKOHHarenHO pa3peniaBaHe Ha npo6neMa. Cpe- 
mara 6enie onpe^ejieHa 3a noHe/jejiHHK cnefl 06513. B noHeaejiHHK cyTpHHTa 
6ax H3BHKaH b Ka6nHeTa Ha }Khbko 5Khbkob. TaM othobo 3aBapnx ^aBHfl 
^aBHflOB h KnpHJi 3apeB. }Khbko }Khbkob ce o6i>pHa kbm Hac: 

- Eh, apyrapH, npeKapax e/jHa 6e3CbHHa Hon;. HeKa ome BeflHtac 
o6mhcjihm bchhkh nono)KHTejiHH CTpaHH h HeflocTaTBUH Ha noflBHJiHTe ce 
BapnaHTH no hakoh BBnpocn Ha npoeKTa 3a nocTaHOBJiemie. Tpa6Ba fla 
npneivieM ao6pe o6ocHOBaH, pa6oTem flOKyMeHT. 

Hne TpHMaTa 3aaBHXMe, ne He ce KOJie6aeM, MaKap TOBa, KoeTO ce 
npefljiarame, aa He npeflCTaBJi^Banie naHaijea, koato aa penin BeflHtflc 
3aBHHarn npo6neMHTe Ha MarepHanHaTa 3aHHTepecoBaHOCT h aa ocnrypH 
flo6pn CTHMynn 3a e(J>eKTHBHO pa3BHTHe Ha CTonaHCKaTa aeHHOcr. 

Cnefl o6ha ce abhxmc b 3aceflaTejiHara 3ajia ao Ka6nHeTa Ha To^op 
}Khbkob. 3a m>pBH m>T H^Bax TyK. npHCbcraaxa >K. }Khbkob, AnocTOJi 

362 



IlaineB (npeaceaaTen Ha flKII), J\uMHTbp IlonoB (mhhhctbp Ha 
(J)HHaHCHTe) ? Mhiho Mhihcb, TpHina OnjinnoB, npocj). PiBaH rionoB (npefl- 
ceflaTen Ha KoMHTeTa 3a HayKa h TexHHHecKH nporpec), /JaBHfl ,U,aBHflOB 5 
KHpHJi 3apeB h hakoh CBTpyzjHHijH Ha IJK h MC. 

Toflop }Khbkob BJie3e c 6i>p3a noxo^Ka, 3acTaHa Hanejio Ha KpT>rnaTa 
Maca, orjie^a npHCBCTBamHTe, ocTaBH npe# ce6e ch e^Ha nanKa h OTKpH 
3aceaaHHeTO. Toft 3a*BH, ne Bee ome He BH^caa MomeH MexaHH3i>M 3a 
cTHMyjiHpaHe, ne Bee oqe He ce npe^jiara jioct, kjiioh kbm ci>3flaBaHe Ha 

3aHHTepeCOBaHOCT, K05ITO fla OCHiypH e(|)eKTHBHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHO- 

MHKaTa. Hy^cHa e ijajiocraa CHCTeMa ot MexaHH3MH 3a CTHMynnpaHe h 

ptKOBOflCTBO Ha HapOflHOTO CTOnaHCTBO. H3Ka3a H H5IKOH CT>06pa)KeHHfl 3a 

no-HaTaTbiHHOTO ycbB'bpnieHCTBaHe Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa. HaKpaa hh 
ocBeflOMH, ne HMa cpema h npeflJio^cH Ha )Khbko )Khbkob «a noeMe 
npeflceflaTejicTBOTO, 3a aa ce H35ICH5IT npeflJio^ceHH^Ta h r& ce BHece 
ctoTBeTHO penieHHe 3a o6ci>5KflaHe b MC. OcraHax c BnenaTJiemie, ne 
Toflop )Khbkob HMa hakoh ci>o6pa>KeHH5i KaKTO othocho o6xBaTa Ha 
AOKyMeHTa, Taica h no npeflJiaraHHTe BapnaHTH. IIo-KbCHO ce y6eflHx ? ne 
HeroBH5iT e^HHCTBeH CTpeMOK e bchhko hobo aa ce CBi>p3Ba c HeroBOTO 
HMe, aa H3rjie)Kfla KaTO pe3yjiTaT Ha HeroBaTa HHHi^HaTHBa. 

rioBene ot npHCBCTBamHTe h H3Ka3anHTe ce noflKpennxa npoeicra h 
npeaJio^KHxa cboh CBoGpaaceHH* 3a pa3iHHp5iBaHe Ha HeroBH* o6xBaT. 
Oco6eHO CHJiHa no^Kpena nojiynnxa npefljio^ceHH^Ta 3a Bi>Be)KflaHe Ha 
MHoro4>aKTOpHaTa CHCTeMa npH onpe^ejiflHeTO Ha 3anjiaTHTe h npn 
aTecTHpaHeTO Ha pT>KOBOflHTejiHTe h cneijHajiHCTHTe. 

rpHina Ohjihiiob, kohto o6hkhobcho ao6pe o6ocHOBaBaine cbohtc 
BH^cflaHH^ h npefljio)KeHHfl, cera bh^hmo HepBHHHeuie h necTO npeicbCBaine 
H3Ka3BamHTe ce. Toft #eMOHCTpHpa HeB f b3,m>p>KaHOCT flopH cnpaMO )Khbko 
)Khbkob, KaTO ce o6i>pHa ki>m Hero Ha 6i>Jirapo-pycKH e3HK c ayMHTe: 

- A3 Te6e H3npaBfl npe# nojnrrGiopo, th ca6oTHpani HOBaTa CHCTeMa! 

ToBa npeflH3BHKa hcjiobkoct h Bi>3MymeHHe y npHCBCTBamHTe. )K. 
)Khbkob He My o6i>pHa BHHMamie, caMO ro norjieflHa, noBflHraftKH 
roneMHTe ch bokah h npofli>Ji)KH cnoKOHHO pa6oTaTa ch KaTO npeflceflaTen 
Ha cbBemaHHeTO. Toft HanpaBH eflHO 3aKJiK)HHTejiHO H3Ka3BaHe, b kocto 
aa^e npenopi>KH 3a no#o6pflBaHe Ha ^OKyMeHTa ci>o6pa3HO H3pa3eHHTe 
MHeHM h npefljioaceHM. 

ITpoeKTbT, pa3iHHpeH no o6xBaT h noflo6peH, 6eme o6cb#eH ot 
npaBHTejicTBOTO h IJC Ha EITC h 6enie o6HapoflBaH KaTO IIocTaHOBJieHHe 
JVo 44 Ha IJK Ha BKn h MnHHCTepcKH* cbbct ot 14 oktombph 1967 r. "3a 
noBHinaBaHe peHTaGHJiHocrra h e^eKTHBHOcrra Ha HKOHOMHKaTa". B Hero 

363 



ce nocoHHxa h ochobhhtc HacoKH 3a no,ao6paBaHe Ha MeTO^HTe 3a 
o6pa3yBaHe Ha floxo^HTe h peryjiHpaHe Ha (|)OHfl "Pa6oraa 3anjiaTa". 

KojieKTHBi>T Ha KTP3 pa6ora MHoro 3a H3m>jiHeHHe Ha TOBa nocTa- 
HOBJieHHe mo ce oraaca ao pa3flejiHTe 3a pa6oraaTa 3anjiaTa: H3fla^oxa ce 
HHCTpyKijHH, pa3pa6oTBaxa ce mctoahkh, npaBexa ce nocToaHHH KopeKijHH, 
OKa3Baine ce MeTOflHHecica noMoni; Ha opraHHTe no Tpy#a b MHHHCTepcTBara 
h npe,anpHOTHOTa, kohto cbmp H3pa6oTBaxa h npHJiaraxa cboh cneiyft|)HH- 
hh MO^ejiH h npaBHJia. 

Ilofl pi>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha npo(j). KocTa ^yjieB b KTP3 6eine pa3pa6oTeHa 
MeTOAHKa 3a KOMnjieKCHa oueHka Ha opramoamiHTa Ha npoii3Bo/v 
ctboto h Tpyaa b npeAnpiiHTHHTa. Mhuio MnineB ycna ^a y6eflH Toflop 
5Khbkob, rpHina OHJiHnoB h flpyra pi>KOBOflHTejiH b toji^moto 3HaneHHe Ha 
Ta3H MeTOflHKa, h no cneijHajiHO Bi>3Mo^cHOCTHTe Hpe3 aHajiH3H aa ce pa3- 
Kpn^T roneMHTe pe3epBH h Hpe3 nporpaMH 3a H3noji3BaHHTe hm aa ce 
noBHUin b Han-rojuiMa CTeneH ecj)eKTHBHOCTTa Ha CTonaHCKHTe npe^npiw- 

THfl H Ha HKOHOMHKaTa KaTO IJflJIO. 

Bjiaro^apeHHe Ha eHeprHHHaTa aeflHOCT Ha Mhuio MnuieB h KocTa 
flyjieB npHJio^KeHHeTO Ha MeTO^HKaTa CTaHa iteHTLp Ha napTHHHaTa h 
fli>p}KaBHa fleiiHOCT b oGjiacrra Ha opraHH3aijHaTa Ha npoH3BOflCTBOTO. 
H^Ma #a onncBaM myMOTeBHijaTa, koato npo,m>Ji>KH okojio eflHa roAHHa, a 
e4)eKTi>T ot npHJio^ceHHeTO Ha MeTO^HKaTa ce H3HHCJiHBauie Ha ctothuh 

MHJIHOHH. BflpHO e, He Ta3H MeTOflHKa flaBaUie Bl>3MO)KHOCT 3a pa3KpHBaHe 

Ha pe3epBH, ho He 6nBauie aa ce npeyBejinnaBa MHoroKpaTHO OHaKBaHMT 
ot Hea e^eicr. OrpOMHMT anapaT Ha MHHHCTepcTBaTa, Ha CTonaHCKHTe, 
HaynHHTe h npoeKTaHTCKH opraHH3ai<HH ce bkjiiohh b pa3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha 
nporpaMH h npoeKTH. OpraHH3HpaHH 6axa MHoro6poflHH KypcoBe 3a 
no^roTOBKa Ha cneijHajiHCTH, HanpaBeHH 6axa XHJiaaH aHajiH3H h npoeKTH 
3a noflo6p5iBaHe Ha opraHH3auHOTa Ha npoH3BO#CTBOTO h Tpyaa, KaTO ce 
aaBaxa Heo6ocHOBaHH pa3Hera 3a MHoroKparao noBHUiaBaHe Ha np0H3- 
BOflHTejiHociTa Ha Tpy,aa, KoeTO mano aa flOHece Ha Hapo^HOTO cto- 
naHCTBO noBene ot 1 MHJinapfl JieBa. 

Bi>b Bcaica cboa pen Toflop )Khbkob roBOpeuie 3a TOBa "nyao Ha 
Hy#ecaTa", kocto 6euie H3pa3 Ha HeroBHa cy6eKTHBH3T>M h BonyHTapH3i>M, 
3am;oTO XHJiaflH xopa ce OTBJiHHaxa ot npaicaTa hm aeftHOCT, ot peuiaBaHeTO 
Ha flencTBHTenHHTe npo6neMH Ha npoH3BOflCTBOTO h HKOHOMHKaTa. LU,e 



AHajiH3 Ha nojio>KHTejiHHTe n HeraTHBHHTe CTpaHH Ha npurcaraHHTe no TOBa BpeMe Mo^ejin 3a 
o6pa3yBaHe h pa3npe,zjejieHHe Ha 4>ohw "Pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa" HanpaBHX b CTaTHfl, ny6jiHKyBaHa b en. 
Tpyd u j/eww, 1967, kh. 10. 

364 



Hapyma xpoHOJioraaTa Ha H3Jio)KeHHeTO. IIpH npneMaHeTO Ha fltp^aBHHH 
6kotkct h njiaHa 3a pa3BHTHeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa npe3 1968 r. Mhhio 
MHineB npeflJioacH onaKBaHHfl flon'bJiHHTejieH MHJinapfl JieBa #a ce bkjiiohh 
KaTO onaKBaHH npnxoflH. Cjiea ^HCKycHH Ha 3ace,uaHHe Ha MHHHcrepcKHfl 
cbBeT no npeflJio)KeHHe Ha 5Khbko 5Khbkob ce peuiH KaTO npnxoflH no Ta3H 
jihhhh fla ce bkjiiohh b GioaaceTa eflHa no-MajiKa cyMa, ho tk 6eme nocTa- 
BeHa b OT^ejieH pa3fleji h TpaGBame aa ce OTHHTa KaTO nperontJiHeHHe Ha 
nJiaHOBHTe noKa3aTejiH. Cnea KaTO flHCKycHATa no T03H Btnpoc nprocjiiOHH, 
^HMHTbp IIonoB ce nouieryBa: 

- A3 cbm m>pBHOT MHHHCTbp Ha (^HHaHCHTe, kohto He npHeMa npefl- 
jiaraHHTe My npnxoflH 3a yBejinneHHe Ha GioflaceTa. 

IIpe3 OKTOMBpH hjih HoeMBpH 1967 r. 6eme HacponeHO ct6HpaHe Ha 
cTonaHCKHfl aKTHB c flOKJiaflHHK Toflop DKhbkob, KoeTO TpaGBame fla ce 
npoBeae b 3ajia 'Teoprn Khpkob". Hhkojiko #hh npeAH CT>BemaHiieTo 
6flXMe noBHKami b KaGimeTa Ha To/jop 2Khbkob b crpaaaTa Ha 
MiiHiiCTepcKiiH KaftiiHeT. npHCbCTBaxMe: Mhhio MnmeB, AHren IJamcoB, 
npo4>. ,0,yjieB h moh mhjioct. 

Toflop )Khbkob Ka3a, ne HCKa fla ce noctBeTBa othocho hakoh momchth 
ot flOKJiaaa, kohto me H3Hece npea HaijHOHajiHOTO cbBeujaHHe. Tofi noconn 
ocHOBHHTe B'bnpocn, kohto me 3acerHe, h onpeaejin EtejiHTe Ha 
CBBemaHHeTo: aa ce Mo6njiH3HpaT ycHJiHATa Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aiiHH 
h pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe hm 3a pa3KpHBaHe Ha pe3epBH 3a yBejinnaBaHe 
e(|)eKTHBH0CTTa h npoH3BOflHTejiHociTa Ha Tpy#a, KaTO Te cjieflBa aa ce 
HMaT npeflBHfl npH CBCTaBflHeTO Ha njiaHa 3a pa3BHraeTO Ha HKOHOMHKaTa 
npe3 1968 r h npe3 cjieflBaujHTe ro/jHHH. Ka3a oiu;e, ne e onpeaejiHJi flBa 
ochobhh BMpoca, kohto 3a ntpBH ni>T ca pa3pa6oTeHH Ha Teopna h 
npaKTHKa b HauiaTa CTpaHa: 1.) MeTOflHKaTa 3a KOMnjieKceH aHajiH3 (3a 
koato Bene cnoMeHax) h 2.) MHoro(])aKTOpHaTa CHCTeMa 3a 3anjiamaHe Ha 
Tpyna. Toft noHCKa HameTO MHeHHe no Te3H Btnpocn KaTO ptKOBOflHTejin 
Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpy^a h pa6oraaTa 3anjiaTa. Bchhkh npHctcTBamn 
Oflo6pHxa KpaTKOTO H3Jio^ceHHe h cneEtnajiHO noanepTaxa rojiflMOTO 3Ha- 
neHHe Ha Btnpoca 3a ocnrypflBaHe Ha ao6pa opraHH3aE[Hfl no H3pa6oTBaHe 
Ha ctOTBeTHH aHajiH3H h npoeKTH no npe,o;npHflTHfl, o6e,zjHHeHHfl h 
MHHHCTepCTBa. A3 ctmo ce H3Ka3ax b noflKpena Ha npeflJioflceHHTe hh 
ochobhh nojio)KeHH^ Ha floicnafla, ho ch no3BOJinx ^a HanpaBfl cjie^HaTa 
6ejie)KKa: 

- ,H,pyrapio DKhbkob, HCKaM aa Bh npe/i;na3fl ot flBe nocTaHOBKH, flBe 
OEteHKH, kohto noconnxTe KaTO npHHOc b TeopMTa h npaKTHKaTa. 
KoMnjieKCHH^T aHajiH3 3a paBHHmeTO Ha opraHH3aE[HflTa Ha npoH3BOfl- 

365 



ctboto h Tpyaa ce H3noji3Ba b MHoro CTpaHH. Toii e nocT05meH MeToa Ha 
pa6oTa b cbBpeMeHHHTe CTonaHCKH h npoeKTaHTCKH opraHH3aijHH. 
H3noji3BaHeTO My flaBa h me #aBa #o6pH pe3yjiTaTH h y Hac, ho He 6HBa 
/ja ce npoBeacaa KaMnamiHHO, a KaTO nocTOHHeH h Heo6xo#HM eneMeHT 
ot fleiiHOCTTa Ha ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha npe/jnpHOTHflTa h CTonaHCKHTe, 
HayHHHTe h flpyra opraHH3aijHH. He 6HBa /ja ce onaKBaT TaKHBa roneMH 
pe3yjiTaTH ? KaKBHTO ce o6flBJiBaT ot hjikoh hkohomhcth, Te ca MHoro- 
KpaTHO yBenHHeHH. MHoro(J)aKTOpHaTa cHCTeMa 3a onpe/jejDme Ha 
HHflHBH/jyajiHHTe 3anjiaTH e ci>mo OT^aBHa H3BecTHa, ome b HananoTO Ha 
XX BeK. Ta e onncaHa h b yneGHHimTe h cera ce H3non3Ba y Hac, ho aoc- 
Ta orpaHHneHO. BaHiaxa no^Kpena Ha Te3H #Be HanpaBJieHHA b ynpaBJie- 
HHe Ha CTonaHCKaTa aeiiHOCT me fla/je MHoro roneMH pe3yjrraTH, me 

nOBHHIH OTrOBOpHOCTTa Ha CTOnaHCKHTe p^KOBO/JHTeJI. 

To/top >Khbkob cjiyuianie BHHMaTenHO h pHcyBanie Btpxy jihct xapra*. 
Toh bh^hmo ce CMyTH, 3amoTO nornoKflanie kt>m Mhhio MnmeB h Kocra 
/JyjieB, kohto My 6axa BHyniHJiH H3Ka3aHHTe npefl Hac npe^H MajiKO mhcjih. 
rio-HaTarBK AHren IJaHKOB otkphto no^KpenH MoeTO MHeHHe. 

HaKpan 5Khbkob hh GnaroaapH, Ka3a ome hakojiko ayMH h 3aKpn 
3ace/i;aHHeTO. Homhk, ne ToraBa mh HanpaBH MHoro j\o6po BnenaTJieHHe 
flo6po^cenaTenHOTO My OTHomeHHe kt>m bchhkh, kohto npncbCTBaxa Ha 
cpemaTa. 

* * * 

B KoMHTeTa no Tpyaa h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa npeicapax e^Ha ro/mna. 
Pa6oTaTa mh 6enie cjioaoia h coimajrao OTroBopHa. HMax Ha pa3nojio^ceHHe 
MHoro floGtp eiaffl ot cneimajiHCTH h 32lqj\uo c tax 6hx b nocTOHHeH 

KOHTaKT C npaKTHHeCKH BCHHKH MHHHCTepCTBa, C fleCeTKH CTOnaHCKH 

o6e/i;HHeHHH h ctothijh npeanpHHTH^. Pa6oTexMe apyacHO, /mcKyrapaxMe h 
b noBeneTO cjiynan HaMHpaxMe npaBHJimrre pemeHHfl. TIo TOBa BpeMe HMax 
bt>3mo5khoct #a ono3Haa MHoro yMHH p^KOBOflHTenH ot HaijHOHajieH H 
Be^OMCTBeH Mama6 5 cpemHax ce c MHoro TpyaoBH kojickthbh, kohto 
pa6oTexa 3a H3rpaac,naHeTO Ha e^Ha /i;o6pe (J)yHKijHOHHpama HKOHOMHKa, Ha 
e^HO coimajiHO cnpaBefljiHBO oGmecreo. 

Pa6oTex Ao6pe h c p^koboahha eKHn Ha KTP3, Haneno c npeflceaaTejifl 
Mhhio Mhhicb, KOJienrre AHren IJaHKOB h KocTa AyneB, rnaBHHfl ceKpeTap 
MaHynjicKH, c Kpi>CTbo TIonoB, Bjia/jHCJiaB EHH/jepOB h mh. ap. Bchmkh Te 
HMaxa pa3JiHHHH xapaKTepH, ho 6axa /i;o6poHaMepeHH h B3eMaxa npHCbpije 
fleHHOCTra Ha KOMHTeTa. 

TIo Moe MHeHHe Mhuio Mhhicb ycneniHO ce cnpaBmie etc 3a,m>Ji)Ke- 

366 



HHHTa ch KaTO npe,n,ce,ii,aTeji Ha KOMHTeTa h KaTO mhhhctbp Ha Tpyna h 
coiiHajiHHTe rpnacH, a no-KT>CHO h KaTO npeaceflaTeji Ha U,C Ha E^jirapcKHTe 
npo(J)ecHOHajiHH ct>k)3h. IIo xapaKTep o6ane toh 6eme #ocTa eMoijHOHaneH 
h pa3flpa3HHTeneH 5 o6HHame #a ce oGrpaac^a c npoTOKHpaHH ot Hero 
KaflpH. Kt>m MeH ce OTHacame c yBaaceHHe h flOBepne, BT>npeKH pa3JiHHHHTa 
bt>b BH^c,zi;aHH^Ta hh no hakoh BT>npocH. He noMHfl cnynaH ,n;a He ce e 
ci>o6pa3HJi c moh npe/yioaceHHfl. IIpe#ocTaB5mie mh uiHpoKa caMOCToa- 
TejiHOCT h a3 HHKora He ro no#Be#ox. 3a ^onycKaHH rpeuiHH pemeHHH 
noeMax BHHaTa Bi>pxy ce6e ch. KoraTO HanycHax h 6ax Ha3HaneH 3a ni>pBH 
3aMecTHHK-MHHHcrbp Ha Hapo^HaTa npocBeTa, toh mh fla^e npomaneH o6a# 
c pi>KOBOflHHH eKHn Ha KOMHTeTa, Ka3a mhoto xy6aBH ayMH h mh no#apH 
rojiHM CTeHeH nacoBHHK. IIo-kt>cho npn BCflKa Hauia cpenja toh ce 
oTHacauie c rojiflMO yBaaceHHe kt>m MeH. KoraTO 6ax Ha3HaneH 3a mhhhctt>p 
Ha Tpy#a, toh 6euie npeaceflaTen Ha U,C Ha BIIC h BHHarn mh 0Ka3Bauie 
no^Kpena, BCJiyuiBauie b mocto MHeroie, necTo Me KaHeuie Ha cbBenjaHHfl 3a 
o6ci>^cflaHe Ha BtnpocH ot B3aHMeH HHTepec 3a #BeTe Be^oMCTBa. 

ITi>pBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTtp Ha Hapo^iiaTa npocBeTa (1968) 

B ntpBHTe #hh Ha 4>eBpyapH 1968 r. 6ax H3BHKaH b Ka6nHeTa Ha )Khbko 
5Khbkob, Kt^eTO 3aBapHX h ceKpeTapa Ha U,K Ha BKQ BeHenHH KoijeB. 
Cjiea KaTO ce no3ApaBHXMe, KoijeB ci>o6ii^, ne CeKpeTapHan>T Ha U,K e 
B3en peuieHHe #a 6i>fla Ha3HaneH 3a m>pBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHcn>p Ha 
HapoflHaTa npocBeTa h He me oiTOBapflM ochobho 3a bhcuicto o6pa30BaHHe. 

A3 Bi>3pa3HX MHoro peuiHTejiHO. )Khbko DKhbkob o6ane Ka3a, ne 
peuieHneTO Tpa6Ba ^a ce H3m>jiHH h flontJiHH, ne e ^OBOJieH ot #oce- 
raniHaTa hh cBBMecraa pa6oTa. 3a 3aMecTHHK-npeflce#aTeji Ha KTP3 6hji 
npeflJio^cHJi HBaH Hjihcb, /jocerameH 3aM.-npeflceaaTen Ha ^KTT. 

3a MHr ch noMHCJiHX KaKBO CBBna^eHHe: TpHMa npHATejiH - npot]). 
/JaBH^OB, a3 h Hjihcb - b paMKHTe Ha TpH roflHHH 3aeMaxMe nocjie^o- 
BaTenHO Ta3H ,u;jri>)KHOCT... 

HaTaTi>K o6ci>flHXMe 3HaqeHHeTO h OTroBOpHOCTTa Ha npeflCToamaTa 
mh pa6oTa, o6emaxMe ch B3aHMHa noMom h CLTpy^HKHecTBO h np. 
H3Jifl30x ot Ka6nHeTa Ha )K. }Khbkob HarbaceH h pa3TpeBoaceH. CKOpo 6euie 
ny6jiHKyBaH YKa3 N° 95 ot 8.II.1968 r. Ha IIpe3HflHyMa Ha Hapo/jHOTO 
ci>6paHHe 5 c kohto o(J)HUHajiHO 6hx Ha3HaqeH 3a m>pBH 3aMecTHHK- 
MHHHCTBp Ha Hapo^HaTa npocBeTa. C Tbra ce c6oryBax c KoneKTHBa Ha 
KTP3 h HeroBOTO ptKOBO^CTBO h H3ni>nHeH c TpeBoacHH npeflHyBCTBHH ce 
5ibhx b MnHHCTepCTBO Ha Hapo^HaTa npocBeTa, 3a aa noeMa HOBaTa ch 

flJTDKHOCT. 

367 



C MHHHCTbpa npo(j). TaHHO TaHeB ce no3HaBax ot MHoro ro^HHH. Tog 
6euie HaTpynaji Sorar ynpaBJieHCKH oiiht b anapaTa Ha IJK h KaTo 
Ai>jiroroflHineH 3aM.-MHHHCTbp h mhhhcti>p Ha HapoflHaTa npocBeTa. Eaxivie 
ce cpemajiH MHoro m>TH, 3ae;jH0 6axMe oGcb^c^ajiH h peuiaBajiH 
pa3Hoo6pa3HH BMpocH Haft-Bene Ha bhcihcto hkohomhhccko o6pa30BaHHe. 
IIo xapaKTep TaHHO 6euie aeMOKparaHeH h jjopH npeKajieHO JinSepajieH, 
floGpoflcejiarejieH, eraHeH, aeecnoco6eH h yMeeuie aa pa6oTH c xopaTa. C 
e^Ha ayMa, toh npHTeacaBanie MHoro xy6aBH KanecTBa KaTo hobck h 

pl>KOBOAHTeJI. 

B MHHHCTepcTBOTO OTroBapax 3a pa6oTaTa Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bnciiie 
o6pa30BaHHe" ? flHpeKipw "Hayica", nojiyBHcniHTe (yHHTejicKH) yHHJinma, 
(j)HHaHCHTe h KanHTajiHOTO CTpoHTejicTBO. IU,o ce OTHacfl flo apyrHTe 3aM.- 

MHHHCTpH, BHCTpa ABpaMOBa OTrOBapHHie 3a OCHOBHOTO H CpeflHOTO 

o6pa30BaHHe ? a Ahh CnaHneBa 3aBe^cflanie cpejjHOTO cneijHajiHO o6pa- 
30BaHHe. H flBeTe HMaxa MHoro ao6pH KanecTBa h ycneniHO H3m>jnDreaxa 
3afli>Ji^ceHHHTa ch. 

YcHJiH^Ta Ha pT>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO h Ha ynpaBJieHHe 
"BHCine o6pa30BaHHe" 6axa HaconeHH kt>m TOBa m cbaeftcTBaT 3a 
H3m>JiHeHHe Ha ocHOBHHTe 3aaaHH Ha bhcihhtc yne6HH 3aBeaeHHH: onra- 
MajiHa opraHH3aijHfl Ha yHe6HO-Bi>3nHTaTejiHaTa pa6oTa h Ha HayHHO- 
H3CJie^0BaTejicKaTa aeftHOCT, ci>o6pa3HO HapacTBaujHTe H3HCKBaHHfl kbm 
noflroTOBKaTa Ha cneijHajiHCTH c BHCiua KBajiH(j)HKaiuifl. B pa6oTara ch 
Tp^6Banie aa ce pt>koboahm ot penieHHHTa Ha J\qbqtu^ KOHrpec Ha EKII, ot 
penieHHeTO Ha njieHyMa Ha IJK Ha EKII ot MapT 1967 r. "3a no-HaTara>iiiHo 
ycKopflBaHe Ha HayHHO TexHHHecKHH nporpec" h ot npneraTe npe3 iojih 
1968 r. "Ochobhh HacoKH 3a no-HaraTbuiHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CHCTeMaTa 3a 
ynpaBJieHHeTo Ha HauieTO o6mecTBo". MHHHCTepcTBOTO h bhchihtc yne6HH 
3aBe;jeHHfl HMaxa njiaH 3a H3m>JiHeHHe Kaicro Ha 3ajioflceHHTe b Te3H 
nporpaMHH flOKyMeHTH 3aaaHH ? Tana h Ha pe/uma KOHKpeTHH npo6jieMH, 

CBT>p3aHH C OCHOBHHTe fleHHOCTH Ha BY3. 

3aeflHO ci>c CBTpyzjHHitHTe Ha YnpaBJieHHeTo h /jHpeKijHflTa pa6oTexMe 

C HyBCTBO Ha OTTOBOpHOCT Haft-BeHe BT>pXy "BeHHHTe" 3a^aHH Ha BHCHieTO 

o6pa30BaHHe: noflo6p^BaHe Ha ctA'bpflcaHHeTO h ycT>Bi>piiieHCTBaHe 
MeTOflHTe h cpe^cTBara Ha o6yneHHeTo; no/i;o6pflBaHe Ha HayHHOH3CJie- 
AOBaTejiCKaTa pa6oTa h H3m>JiHeHHe Ha njiaHa 3a 1968-1969 r.; no^roTOBKa 
Ha HaynHH h npenoflaBarejiCKH Ka^pH 3a BHCuiHTe yne6HH 3aBe#eHHJi, b 
kohto no TOBa BpeMe HManie okojio 80 000 CTy^eHTH h Haa 6 400 
npenoaaBarejiH (532 npo(J)ecopH ? 759 floiieHTH h 4750 Hexa6HJiHTHpaHH, 



368 



x.e. xa6HJiHTHpaHHTe npeno^aBaTejiH 6axa cpe^HO 22%*, kocto 6euie 
HeflocTaTtHHo); H/jeiiHO-nojiHTHHecKOTO Bt3nHTaHHe Ha cry/jemme; 
noflo6pHBaHe Ha MaTepHajiHO-TexHHHecicaTa 6a3a, ocoGeHo mo ce oraacfl /jo 
o6me^cHTH^ 5 CTOJiOBe, noHHBHH craHijHH, 6ajiHeocaHaTopHyMH h pp. 

npe3 OKTOMBpH 1968 r. npOBe/joxMe HamiOHajiHo cbeeiuaHiie no 
npoSjieMHTe Ha BiicmeTO o6pa30Bainie. H3Hecox floioia/j, b kohto 
HanpaBHX aHajiH3 h oijemca Ha H3BtpiHeHaTa paGoTa. IlocTaBeHH 6axa oc- 
HOBHHTe 3a^aHH 3a yne6HaTa 1968)1969 r. h cneflBamHTe ro/jHHH. npneTa 
6eine ao6pe pa3BHTa h o6ocHOBaHa nporpaivia 3a noflo6pHBaHe pa6oTaTa Ha 
BHCiHHTe yne6HH 3aBe,zjeHHfl. 

npOBe^e ce h ei>BemaHHe etc CTyaeHTHTe otjihhhhijh. IlocemaBax 
BHCiHHTe yneGHH 3aBe,zjeHHfl h ce cpemax c ptKOBOflCTBaTa h KoneKTHBHTe 
Ha npenoflaBaTejiHTe h CTyaeHTHTe. 

IIpe3 k)jih 1968 r. bi>b BapHa ce npOBe/je OKero/jHaTa cpema-ebBeiija- 
HHe Ha ,m>p^caBHHTe opraHH 3a bhcihcto o6pa30BaHHe Ha CTpaHHTe hjichkh 
Ha CbBeTa 3a HKOHOMHHecKa B3aHMonoMom (CHB). 

Bhx ptKOBOflHTeji h Ha 6tJirapCKaTa fleneraijHfl b pe/jOBHaTa ro/jnuiHa 
KOH(|)epeHijHfl Ha K3HECKO b IlapH^c. 

IIpe3 aBiycT 1968 r. b Coc|)hh ce npOBe^e CBeTOBeH MJia^oKKH $ecTH- 
Baji, b hhhto opraHH3aiiHH B3exa ynacrae MHHHCTepcTBOTO Ha npocBeTaTa h 
BHCiuHTe yne6HH 3aBe^eHH. 

OcBoGoyK^aeaHeTO mh ot /jjti>hchoct. npe3 ntpBHTe #hh Ha aeKeMBpH 

OKOJIO 21 H. 6flX Ome B MHHHCTepCTBOTO. H03B1>HH MH HBaH Bh/JCHOB H 

npeajio^cH aa ce bh^hm cneniHO b HeroBHH Ka6nHeT. TyK 3aBapHX h HBaH 
HjineB. ^BaMaTa mh pa3Ka3axa, ne Ghjih Ha cpema npn >Khbko )Khbkob, 

KbJXQTO npHCbCTBaJI H TeOprH MaHeB, 3aM.-MHHHCTLp Ha (J)HHaHCHTe. 

5Khbko >Khbkob npOBeji Tejie(J)OHeH pa3roBOp c BeHejiHH KoijeB, kohto 
H3HCKBaji ot Hero aa noflnnnie H3npaTeHO My peuieHHe 3a ocbo6o)k- 
aaBaHeTO mh ot 3aeMaHaTa ajtiokhoct. )Khbkob Ka3aji, ne Me no3HaBa KaTO 
ynacTHHK b aHTH^auiHCTKOTO flBH5KeHHe h fltJiroroflHiueH HJieH Ha 
napTHHTa h HacTOHBan, ne KoijeB Tpa6Ba m H3CJiyuia mohtc o6flCHeHHfl. B 
KaKBO Me o6BHHHBaji KoiieB o6ane ^BaMara He pa36pajiH. Ka3ax hm, ne He 
cbm ocBeflOMeH no Btnpoca, ho npeflnojioacnx, ne Moace 6h bchhko TOBa e 
CBtp3aHO c eflHO Moe H3Ka3BaHe Ha napTHHHO ci>6paHHe. 

Ha cjieflBamnn rqh b9h. cyTpnmra 3aeflHO c hhkojiko 4>HHaHCHCTH ot 
MHHHCTepcTBO ce abhxmc b MHHHCTepcTBO Ha 4>HHaHCHTe aa 3amHTaBaMe 



* B hhkoh yne6HH 3aBeaeHHH KaTO BMEH h BXTH b Co4>hx h Byprac T03H npoueHT 6eme ome 

nO-HHCBK. 

369 



6io,zpKeTa Ha MHII 3a 1969 r. 3aceaaHHeT0 ce pi>KOBOfleuie ot ,m>jiroro- 
AHniHHfl 3aM.-MHHHcn>p reoprn MaHeB, c KoroTO ce no3HaBaxMe ce flo6pe. 
Toh TpeBO^CHO Me norjieacflaine. Tp5i6Baine m h3achhm nocne^HHTe 
npoTHBOpennfl Meamy cneijHajracTHTe Ha ^BeTe MHHHCTepcTBa. A3 B3eMax 
OTHOiueHHe no BceKH HepemeH c 6KWKeTa pa3xo^. Teopra MaHeB npOHBH 
ABeH nH6epanH3i>M h npne noBene ot mohtc npe;yio)KeHHfl, KoeTO HanpaBH 
BneHaraeHHe Ha eKHna My. A3 pa36npax, ne no T03H HaHHH toh abho 
HCKanie #a mh noicaace CBosnra no/pcpena h cojiHflapHOCT. 

Cjiea hakojiko oth ce cpemHax c }Khbko }Khbkob. IIorjieacflaHKH 
nanKaTa npe^ ce6e ch, toh 3anoHHa HanpaBo: 

- B H3Ka3BaHe Ha ci>6paHHe ch HaKi>pHHJi aBTOpHTeTa Ha ottobophh 

napTHHHH H fll>p^CaBHH p'bKOBOflHTeJIH, H nO-KOHKpeTHO Ha flp. U,OJia 

^parofiHeBa. YnoTpe6Hji ch h H3pa3a "Pn6aTa ce BMHpHCBa ot rnaBara". 

HH(J)OpMHpaH Me TOHHO. 

Pa3Ka3ax My, ne ci>m npncbCTBan Ha othcthoto ci>6paHHe Ha nap- 
THHHaTa opraHH3aijH)i npn ynpaBJieHHe "Bncme o6pa30BaHHe". H^koh ot 
npHCbCTBaniHTe ce H3Ka3axa, ne b ynpaBJieHneTO h bt>b bhcuihtc yne6HH 
3aBe^eHH5i e CT>3flaaeHa cpaBHHTejiHO flo6pa opraHH3aiiHfl 3a npneMaHe Ha 
HOBHTe CTyaeHTH, ho Bee onje HMa npe^cTaBHTejiH Ha no-BHcnin ptKO- 
BOflHTejiH, kohto npaB^T onHTH aa xo^aTancTBaT. 

B CBoeTO H3Ka3BaHe a3 B3ex OTHomeHHe h no T03H Btnpoc. Ka3ax, ne 
cjiy^cHTejiHTe b ynpaBJieHneTO Tpa6Ba aa cna3BaT yKa3aHMTa, a KoraTO HMa 

HCKaHHfl OT BHCHIH ptKOBOflHTCJIH - fla TH H3npamaT npH 3aM.-MHHHCTbpa 

hjih MHHHCTBpa. HMa h cjiynan, KoraTO ce H3noji3Ba hmcto Ha OTroBOpeH 
pi>KOBOflHTeji ? 6e3 toh aa HMa OTHomeHHe. H aaflox npHMep: HHCTpyjcrop Ha 
OT^en b U,K Ha EKII, kohto npHCLCTBanie Ha ci>6paHHeTO, npe^aji Ha 
xapTHHKa aaHHH 3a KaH^H^aT CTyaeHTica, noncKaji m ce HanpaBH "cnpaBKa" 
h Ka3aji ? ne TOBa e fltmepn Ha niocj^opa Ha Upjia ^paronneBa, ko*to Moace 
6h H3o6mo He 3Hae 3a cjiyHaa. TaKa ce 3JienocTaB^T e^HH hjih flpyra 
pT>KOBOflHTenH. Cjiy^KHTejiHTe b ynpaBJieHHeTO Tpa6Ba cjichat 3a CTpHK- 
thoto cna3BaHe Ha npaBHJiaTa 3a npneMaHe Ha KaHflHflar-CTyneHTHTe bi>b 
BY3. H3noji3Bax h Hapo/maTa noroBOpKa "Pn6aTa ce pa3Bajia ot rnaBaTa", 
kooto 6eme ynoTpe6eHa ot To^op )Khbkob b H3Ka3BaHeTO My npefl 
KOH^epeHima Ha ,ZJhmhtpobckh* PK Ha BKII caMO hakojiko ahh npeflH 
HaineTO ci>6paHHe. A nofl "niaBa Ha pH6ara" HMax npeflBHfl pi>KOBOflCTBaTa 
Ha ynpaBJieHHe "Bncme o6pa30BaHHe" h Ha mhhhctcpctboto. 

HaKpaa npeflnojio^cnx, ne HHCTpyKTOpi>T Ha OT^ejia "Hayica h o6pa30Ba- 
HHe" e HanpaBHJi flOKJiaflHa 3anncKa, ho He 3Haex KaKBO e hchhoto cbfl'bp- 
^caHne. Ka3ax Ha )Khbko )Khbkob, ne mhoto yBaacaBaM LIpjia ^paronneBa 

370 



Karo floeroeH napTHeH h fl'bpacaBeH ptKOBOflHTen, Hapo^Ha repOHHH. 

IlocjieABa cpenja c BeHenHH KoijeB, Ha koato npncbCTBaxa mhhhctt>p 
TaHHO TaHeB h 3aBeac,zjamHflT OT/jeji "HayKa h o6pa30BaHHe" b E[K Ha BKn 
TeoprH ATaHacoB. KoijeB Ha6i>p30 Me o6bhhh, ne cbm 3JienocTaBHJi 
napTHHHH h fli>p5KaBHH pi>KOBOflHTejiH h KaTo flOKa3aTencTBO nponeTe 
flOKJiaflHaTa 3anncKa Ha HHCTpyKTOpa. Bi>3pa3HX cpemy KBajiH(|)HKaijHJiTa, 
qe cbm 3JienocTaBHJi hakoto h o6hchhx TOBa, KoeTO 6nx h3jio)khji Bene b 
pa3roBOpa ch c >Khbko >Khbkob. IIocoHeHHOT ot MeH npHMep bt>b Bpi>3Ka c 
Upjia /JparoHHeBa, Ham>jiHO OTroBapanie Ha HCTHHaTa. Hpes Hero HCKax aa 
npeana3H ot 3JienocTaB^He hakoh HaniH ptKOBOflHTenH. H3Ka3BaHeTO ch 
HanpaBHX Ha napTHHHO ci>6paHHe h Ham>jiHO cna3HX ycTaBHHTe h 

MOpaJIHH H3HCKBaHHfl. 

BnenaTJiH Me cy6eKTHBH3MT>T h rpy6ocrra Ha BeHenHH KoijeB, kohto 
KaTO ceKpeTap Ha E[K Ha EKI1 no BtnpocHTe Ha nponaraH^aTa, H3KycT- 
boto h HaynaTa 6enie Bi>3npHeji e^HH no^HepTaHO aBTOpHTapeH cthji - 
Han-nary 6eH npn ptKOBOflCTBOTO Ha Te3H aeHHOCTH. "KaKBO HanepeHO h 
caM03a6paBHJio ce ry6epHaTOpne", MHCJiex ch a3 cnea npHKJiioHBaHeTO 
Ha cpemaTa. HHMa e 3a6paBHJi pa3roBOpa, kohto BOflHXMe npe3 4>eBpyapH 
b Ka6HHeTa Ha )Khbko )Khbkob, HHMa e 3a6paBHJi cpenwre h HH^opMa- 
UHHTe 3a pa6oTaTa Ha bhchihtc yne6HH 3aBe;jeHHfl, kohto My npeflcraBflx, 
3a HaijHOHanHOTO ctBemaHHe 3a bhcuicto o6pa30BaHHe npe3 oktombph, Ha 
KoeTO npHctcTBa, H3Ka3a ce h aaae aoGpa oijeHKa 3a pa6oTaTa hh... 

Mhhhctbp TaHHO TaHeB, BepeH Ha cboa jin6epajiHO,zjeMOKpaTHHeH 
cthji, 3ana3H MtnnaHHe. Ilo-KtcHO y3Hax, ne oijeHKaTa Ha noBe^eHHeTO h 

MOTHBHTe 3a OCBo6o)K,aaBaHeTO MH Ca 6HJIH TeHfleHIIH03HO H3MeHeHH ? 

chjiho nonHTH3HpaHH h rapHHpaHH c xapaKTepHHTe nOMn03HH 06BHHe- 
hha, H3non3BaHH npn noflo6HH cjiynan 3a 3JienocTaBflHe Ha "npOBHHHJin 
ce" napTHHHH nneHOBe. Taxa h He ycnax o6ane aa ce 3ano3Haa c TeKCTa 
Ha pemeHHeTO h c mothbhtc 3a ocBo6oac,aaBaHeTO mh. 

0(|)HIJHaJIHO 6flX 0CB060fleH OT nOCTa ntpBH 3aM.-MHHHCTbp Ha 

HapoflHaTa npocBeTa c YKa3 N° 1085 ot 17 aeKeMBpH 1968 r. h HanycHax 
MHHHCTepcTBOTO oropneH He ot 3ary6aTa Ha £jn>)KHOCTTa, a ot nojin- 
THnecKaTa oijeHKa, kohto He OTroBapjmie Ha aenHociTa h noBeaeHneTO 
mh KaTO HJieH h Aeen; Ha napTHHTa. YBepeH 6hx, ne TOBa e cy6eKTHBHa 
oiieHKa Ha BeHenHH KoijeB h Teopra ATaHacoB, a He Ha napTHHTa h 

HeHHOTO ptKOBO^CTBO. C6oryBaX Ce CBC CBTpyflHHIJHTe Ha MHHHCTep- 

ctboto c yBaaceHHe h c hchoto CB3HaHne, ne ^octohho h ycneniHO cbm 
H3ni>jiHflBan cbohtc 3afli>Ji5KeHHH. 

HanycHax fljrbacHocrra h c e^Ha Ha^eacaa, c e#HO pOMaHTHHHO onaK- 

371 



BaHe, He HeoGocHOBamrre o6bhhchh5i h mothbhtc 3a ocBo6o^KflaBaHeio 
mh CKOpo me 6i>aaT npH3HaTH no,n HflicaKBa (J>opMa 3a HeocHOBaTejiHH. 

Bt>b BHH, KaTe/jpa "Bvrpeiima n>proBHH (1969-1974) 

Han-nocjie Moacex ,ua ce Bi>pHa kt>m HopMajiHaTa ch npeno,uaBaTeji- 
CKa h HayHHa ^eHHOCT. npe3 cjie^BamHTe hakojiko toothh ny6jiHKyBax 

CaMOCTO^TeJIHO HJIH B CtaBTOpCTBO HflKOJIKO KHHrH, KaKTO H peflHIja 
CTy^HH H CTaTHH.* 

B3ex ynacTHe n b pe^Hija HayHHonpaKTnnecKH H3CJie,UBaHHfl. IIo 
floroBOp c HHHTOX npH MBT 3ae^HO c npo(J). KpyM AjieiccaHflpoB 
pa3pa6oTHXMe TeMaTa "npo6jieMH Ha opraHH3aijHflTa n ynpaBJieHHeTO Ha 
TbproBHATa" (1969). Othobo c npocj). KpyM AjieKcaH^poB no ^oroBop Ha 
HayHHOH3CJie,zjoBaTejicKHfl ceKTOp npH BHH c OKp^acHHa Hapo^eH cbbct - 
MnxaftjiOBrpafl pa3pa6oTHXMe TeMaTa "nporao3HpaHe Ha TBproBHjrra b 
MnxaftjioBrpaflCKH OKptr npe3 nepno^a 1971-1990 h ^o 2000 r." (1970). C 
aBTOpcKH KOJieKTHB no .uoroBOp Meayjy HHC npH BHH h MBTY 
pa3pa6oTHXMe TeMaTa "nporao3a 3a noTpe6HOCTHTe ot pa6oTHa CHJia b 
cHCTeMaTa Ha BtTpeniHara rtproBH* ao 1990 h 2000 r." h "Mo,ueji 3a 
noaroTOBKa h noBHUiaBaHe Ha KBajin(|)HKaijHflTa Ha bhcihh, cpe^HH h 

H3ntJIHHTeJICKH Kaflpn". 

H3Hecox flOKJiaflH npea pe;uma HayHHH h HayHHonpaKTnnecKH 
KOH(J)epeHijHH, kohto KaTe/ipaTa npoBe^e b Cofynn, npara, MocKBa h pp. 

YnacTBax b no^roTOBKaTa Ha nacT ot nporpaMaTa 3a noBHUiaBaHe 
5KH3HeHOTO paBHHme Ha Hapofla, CTaHajia H3Becraa KaTO ^eKeMBpHHCKa 
nporpaMa Ha IJK Ha BKn 3a noBHUiaBaHe acH3HeHOTO paBHHme (1972). 
3ae,gHO c rpyna eKcnepTH pa6oTHXMe no Ta3H nporpaMa no,n p'bkoboa- 
ctboto Ha CaBa ,ZIi>Ji6okob (3aBe)K,uam OT^eji Ha LJK) b e^Ha BHJia Ha LJK b 



* B ctaBTopcTBO c npo<j>. HBaH Bh^chob h jion. TeoprH TTeTpoB H3,zjafloxMe ochobho npepa6oTeH 
yne6HHK Hkohomukci u opeanmaijUH Ha ehmpetuna mhpeoeun (T. 1-2, 1970-1971); ny6jiHKyBax 
MOHorpa<|>HflTa Ilompe6umejiHama Koonepcufux u wepajtcdaHe Ha cotfuajiu3Ma e HPE ("Hayica h 
H3KycTBo", C, 1972) h KHHraTa HpodneMu na opeanwaifUHma u KOHtfeHmpatfunma Ha e-bmpewHa- 
ma m-bpeoetiH (b ctaBT. c npocj). K. AneKcaH^poB, "HayKa h H3KycTBo", C, 1971), KaKTO h CTy- 
AHHTe "ripo6jieMH Ha o6pa3yBaHeTO h pa3npeAeJieHHeT0 Ha floxo^HTe Ha npezinpHflTHflTa h opra- 
HH3aaHH Ha pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa" {Haynnu mpydoee Ha BHH, 1968), "Hobh momchth b cbmHocrra 
h pa3BHTHeTO Ha TbproBHflTa" (b: Ompacjioeu uKOHOMimecKU npodneMU, "HayKa h H3KycTBo", C, 
1973, rji. VIII), "MapKCHCTKo-jieHHHCKOTO yneHHe 3a cbmHocrra Ha ncnpeHTejiHaTa Koonepamra" 
(HayHHu mpydoee na BHH, 1972), 'TTpoGjieiviH Ha H3noji3BaHeTO h pa3npeflejieHHeTO Ha (Jjoha 
"pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa" b TbproBciarre npe,iinpH5n™ (HayHHu mpydoee Ha BHH, 1969), "TbproBHtfTa b 
pa3BHTOTO coanajiHCTHHecKH o6mecTBo" (en. BhmpewHa m-bpeoeun, 1971, kh. 5), „KoHijeHTpamw 
Ha KOonepaTHBHaTa TbproBHfl" (en. BtmpeuiHa mtpeoeuH, 1972, kh. 3, 1972), "3a H3MeHeHHflTa b 
co6cTBeHOCTTa Ha noTpe6HTejiHaTa Koonepamra" (en. Hapodna Koonepatfun, 1973, kh. 1). 

372 



BoHHa. B to3h eKHn BJiH3axa ome npocj). TpHrop BaKJineB, npocj). ATaHac 
JIiotob, npoc|). KpyM AjieiccaHflpoB, npocj). HBaH Bhachob h ap. 

Ctc 3anoBe,u; Ha mhhhctbp IleKO TaKOB 6nx KOMaHflHpOBaH 3ae,n;HO c 
3aM.-MHHHCTbp Mapna 3axapHeBa h npeflceflaTena Ha npo(])CT>K)3a Ha 
rbproBCKHTe pa6oTHHi(H Tepofl ByflHHOB b BepJiHH, By^anema h MocKBa, 
3a fla H3yHHM TaMouiHaTa CHCTeMa 3a no^roTOBKaTa Ha TbproBCKH KaflpH. 
Bi>3 ocHOBa Ha HaGjiioaeHH^Ta ch HanpaBHXMe ^OKJiaa c npe/yioaceHHfl 3a 
noAo6pHBaHe Ha no,n;roTOBKaTa Ha cpeflHH h H3m>JiHHTejicKH KaflpH b 
cpeflHHTe yne6HH TbproBCKH yHHJiHiija (TexHHKyMH), kohto cnaaaxa kt>m 
cHCTeMaTa Ha Mhhhctcpctboto Ha BtTpeuiHaTa TtproBHfl h ycjiynrre. 

IIo jihhhh Ha flpyacecTBOTO 3a pa3npocTpaHeHHe Ha HayHHH 3HaHM 
'Teoprn Khpkob" npH LJK Ha BKII h Ha U,C Ha npo(j)CT>K)3a Ha rbproBCKHTe 
pa6oTHHijH 6ax noKaHeH aa H3Heca cepHH ot jigkhhh b njieBeH, ^Im6oji 9 
Crapa 3aropa, Ta6poBO ? Bhahh h ap. 

npe3 1972 r. 6%x H36paH 3a ptKOBOflHTen Ha KaTeapa "BtTpeiiiHa 
TbproBim", KbRQTO pa6oTHXMe ycneuiHO c npocj). HBaH BH^eHOB, npocj). 
KpyM AjieiccaHflpoB, aoij. TeoprH neTpoB, npocj). XpHCTO Xa,zpKHHHKOJioB, 
npoc|). U,BeTaH Hohhcb, j\oj\. Bepa KoBaneBa, ,zi;oii. Po3a AjieiccaH/ipoBa, ,zi;oii. 
HBaH ToijeB h ap. 

ToBa 6enie e^HH ot Haft-cnoKOHHHTe h TBOpnecKHTe nepno/m npe3 
i^HJiaTa mh HayHHO-ne^arorHHecKa fleHHoer. 

* * * 

no TOBa BpeMe HMax bt>3mo)khoct aa HanpaBfl ,u;ocTa b noji3a Ha CBoeTO 
poflHO mhcto. npe3 aBrycT 1968 r. noceTHXMe BaTaK 3ae,n;HO etc ctnpyraTa 
mh Tepa, TaHO LJojiob, ntpBH 3aM.-npe,n;ceflaTeji Ha MnHHCTepCKM cbbct, h 
reH. ATaHac CeMepaaoieB, HanajiHHK Ha reHepajiHHH ma6 Ha BHA h 
Hapo^eH npeflCTaBHTeji ot mccthm H36npaTejieH pafioH. Henocpe^cTBeHO 
Ha 3anoHHajiaTa fla ce ocj)opMfl CTpoHTejiHa njioma^Ka TaHO LJojiob ce 
3ano3Ha c npoeKTa 3a H3rpa^c,u;aHe hobiih ijeHTbp Ha BaTaK c njioma^a, 
KyjiTypHHH aom, My3ea h a^MKHHCTpaTHBHaTa crpa^a. OrpoHTejicTBOTO 
Bene 6enie 3anoHHajio, ho ome He 6eiue bkjhohcho b JJtpacaBHHfl 
HapoflHOCTonaHCKH njiaH h He 6eine ocnrypeHO c c|)HHaHCHpaHe. Cbctoa ce 
HMnpOBH3HpaHa cpeuja c rpyna 6aTanaHH Ha 6pera Ha CTapa peica, kooto 
Tpa6Banie aa Gt^e noKpHTa ot 6t,n;emHfl njioma^. OTnpaBeHH 6axa ocTpn 
KpHTHHHH 6ejie)KKH KtM o6m;HHCKHTe h fltpflcaBHH opraHH 3a 3a6aB5IHeTO Ha 

CTpOHTeJICTBOTO. TaHO LJOJIOB OfloGpH KpHTHHHHfl TOH Ha H3Ka3BaHHHTa. 

Ton Ka3a 5 ne atp^caBaTa me ocnrypH Heo6xoflHMHTe cpe^CTBa h HCTOpH- 
necKHOT BaTaK me eraHe e^HO 6naroycTpoeHO h hkohomhhcckh npe- 

373 



yciiflBamo cejinme. 

- Bne o6ane, BauiHTe pT>KOBOflHTejiH h ijmoto HacejieHHe Tpa6Ba ^a 
pa6oTHTe aKTHBHO 3a H3BT>puiBaHe Ha CTpoHTencTBOTO. HaceneHHeTo 
Tp^6Ba aa fla^e h 6e3njiaTeH Tpya. He 3a6paBHHTe HapoflHaTa noroBopKa 
"Eor flaBa, ho b Komapa He BicapBa". JIhhho me cjie^H (^HHaHcnpaHeTo h 

H3m>JIHeHHeTO Ha CTpOHTeJICTBOTO - 3aBT>pHIH CJIOBOTO CH TaHO U,OJIOB. 

B MecTHOcrra "Jlpji6oK flOJi" b EaraimcoTO none ce ct>ctoa pa6oTeH 
o6flfl c pT>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha o6iijHHaTa. npHctcTBaxa h npeACTaBHTenn Ha 
OKpi>^CHHH KOMHTeT Ha BKIT (Cnac TocnoflOB) h Okpt>)khh^ Hapo^eH cbbct 
(KocTa TynapoB). 06ci>,zpixa ce Bi>npocH 3a hkohomhhcckoto pa3BHTHe Ha 
3anaaHHTe Poflonn. TaHO LJojiob nopi>Ha Ha Tepa aa cjie^H KaK me ce 
H3m>jiHflBaT HeroBHTe yKa3aHHH 3a BKJiioHBaHe Ha ctpohtcjictboto b 
fl,i>p5KaBHH^ njiaH 3a 1969 h cjie^BamHTe toahhh, a Ha reH. ATaHac 
CeMepfl)KHeB KaTO HapoaeH npeflCTaBHTen - #a cjie#H xo^a Ha CTpon- 
TejiHHTe pa6oTH. IIpe3 eceHTa Ha 1968 r. rpyna p^koboahtcjih HanpaBHXMe 
o4>HUHajiHaTa m>pBa Konna Ha ctpohtcjictboto. 

Hobhht ijeHTbp Ha BaTaK 6enie npHKJHoneH h otkpht bt>b Bpi>3Ka etc 
CToroflHHiHHHara ot AnpHJicKOTO BtCTamie b BaTaK Ha 17.V.1976 r. Ot 
HMeTO Ha IIpaBHTejicTBOTO Ha TBp^cecTBOTO cjiobo np0H3Hece TaHO LJojiob. 
A3 ci>mo npHCbCTBax KaTO 6aTanaHHH h KaTO mhhhctbp Ha Tpyzja h 

COIIHaJIHHTe TpH^CH. 

Tp^6Ba aa OT6ejie^ca rojmMara eHeprafl h 6e3KopHCTHOCT Ha bchhkh 

npeKH pT>KOBOflHTeJIH Ha CTpOHTejIHHTe pa60TH ^HMHTBp XaA^cneB, HBaH 

Ctohkob, JIio6eH XpHcneB (kmct npe3 1971-1973 h ceKpeTap Ha BKn npe3 
1973-1982), Ilerbp reopraeB KepejiOB (3aM.-KMeT npe3 1971-1974 h kmct 
npe3 1974-1983), /Jhmhtbp BnaroeB (ceKpeTap Ha o6mHHaTa npe3 1966- 

1977), KaKTO H Ha ,fl,HMHTI>p Tep3HHCKH, /jHMHTbp T. BpaHHeB, ^HMHTLp T. 

Bo^caHOB, AHren EoacaHOB, npo(j). AHren rp03flHH, Ahtcji KaBp^KOB, 
^HMHTbp Ct. Ki>HeB h mhoto flpyra o6iijecTBeHHijH Ha BaTaK. He Mora fla 
noflMHHa h roneMHTe 3acnyrH Ha Hapo^HHTe npeflCTaBHTejiH reH. ATaHac 
CeMepfl)KHeB h reH. CjiaBHO Tpi>HCKH. 

Bt>b Bpi>3Ka c 97-roflHHiHHHaTa Ha AnpHJicKOTO Bi>cTaHHe 6ax onpeae- 
neH 3a flOKJiaflHHK Ha n>p)KecTBeHOTO cb6paHHe-MHTHHr b BaTaK Ha 
17.V.1973 r. Ha T03H aeH ce OTKpH HCTOpHHecKMT MeMopHan b MecTHOcrra 
BerjiHuiKH xapMaHH b 3anaflHara nacT Ha rpa^a, nocBeTeH Ha 576-Te 
GaTanaHH, h36hth Ha TOBa mjicto ot TypcKHTe 6airoi6o3yijH. 



374 



Ili>pBii 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTi>p Ha TbproBHHTa h ycjiyrHTe 
(1974-1975) 

B HanajiOTO Ha iojih 1974 r. KaTe^pa "BtTpeiima rtproBM" cbbmcctho 
c HayHHOH3CJie,noBaTejiCKH^ hhcthtyt no n>proBHfl h o6njecTBeHo xpaHeHe 
(HHHTOX) h I^eHTpajiHH^ komhtct Ha npoc|)CT>K)3a Ha TtproBciarre pa- 
6othhijh npoBe/joxMe Hayna KOH(])epeHijHfl, nocBeTeHa Ha 20-ro,HHiiiHHHaTa 
Ha ycTaHOB5iBaHe Ha Hapo/jHO/jeMOKpaTHHHaTa BJiacT h Ha pa3BHTHeTO Ha 
Bi>TpeiHHaTa TtproBM npe3 T03H nepHOA. npHctCTBaxa mhhhctbpt>t Ha 
Bi>TpeiHHaTa rbproBHfl h ycjiynrre TeoprH KapaMaHeB, 3aM.-MHHHCTi>p 
npcxj). TpHrop BaKJineB, ptKOBO/jHTejiH h cneijHajiHCTH ot fltpacaBHH h 
KOonepaTHBHH opraHH3aijHH. B npotfbJDKeHHe Ha /jBa £eHa 6axa HanpaBeHH 

MHO^CeCTBO flOKJiaflH H H3Ka3BaHHfl. A3 H3HCCOX OCHOBHHfl flOKJia/J Ha TdVia 
"OCHOBHH MOMeHTH B pa3BHTHCTO Ha BtTpeUIHa TbpTOBHfl (1944-1974 r.)". 

Cjiea o6eflHaTa noHHBKa KOH^epeHipiflTa npoffLJiacaBame, ho mhhhctbp 
KapaMaHeB He ce noaBH. IIojiynHX 6ejie^cKa c noicaHa aa ora,na b Ka6HHeTa 
My. He3a6ejw3aHO HanycHax KOHcJjepeHijHflTa h ce abhx npH Hero. 

- AHrejie, TOKy-mo ce BptmaM ot IJK Ha napTMTa. Ha 3ace/jaHHe Ha 
CeKpeTapnaTa e npneTO peineHHe aa Gtaein Ha3HaneH Ha fljnoKHocrra 
ni>pBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHcrbp Ha rtproBHATa. 3HaM, ne TOBa e H3HeHaaa 3a 
Te6. A3 ct>m aoBOJieH ot peinemieTO. IIo3HaBaMe ce ao6pe. IU,e pa6oTHM 
ycneniHO. HMa peineHHe 3a 3aM.-MHHHcn>p #a 6i>,zje Ha3HaneH npocj). AHren 
Ohkhhh, a TpHrop BaKJineB ce ocBo6o)K,naBa ot ajtb^khoct. 

^oroBOpHXMe ce #a 3ana3HM peiueHHeTO b TafiHa ro o(|)HijHajiHOTO My 
pa3rjiacflBaHe, a MHHHCTbptT /ja HaMepH ctoTBeTHa (|)opMa /ja ci>o6mH Ha 
TpHrop BaKJineB 3a ocBo6o)K,zjaBaHeTO My. Pa36paxMe ce ctmo othobo /ja 
ce bh/jhm Ha cjieflBamH5i /jeH. 

3a nope^eH m>T 6%x H3£HrHaT Ha pi>KOBOflHa ajtb^khoct 6e3 m 6i>fle 
noTLpceHO npeflBapHTejiHOTO mh ctrjiacHe h 6e3 ot moa CTpaHa /ja e 6hjio 
H3pa3eHO ^cejiaHHe /ja ce 3aHHMaBaM c a^MHHHCTpaTHBHa aeiiHOCT. H KaKBa 
cnynaHHOCT: fla 6 r bjxar Ha3HaneHH eflHOBpeMeHHO £BaMa 3aMecTHHK- 
MHHHCTpH c hmcto AHreji, h flBaMaTa ot BaTaK, h flsaMaTa npo(J)ecopH h 

6HBIHHpeKTOpH... 

BtpHaX Ce B HHCTHTyTa H OTHOBO 3aeX MeCTOTO CH B pfcKOBOflCTBOTO Ha 

KOH(|)epeHiiHflTa. Cea^x ot JDraaTa CTpaHa Ha TpHrop BaicnieB h ce 
nyBCTBax MHoro Heyao6HO. TpHinaTa 6euie h ocTaHa ao Kpaa Ha ^KHBOTa ch 
moh HaH-,no6'bp npiwrreji. YTeinaBax ce c TOBa, ne He 3aeMaM HeroBOTO 
macto: fljn>^CHOCTTa Ha m>pBH 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCir>p 6euie OBaKaHTeHa OT 
XpHCTaKH Kbhcb, kohto 6e npeMHHaji Ha flpyra pa6oTa. 



375 



IIpH cjie/jBamaTa hh cpeuja mhhhcti>p TeoprH KapaMaHeB npefljioacn #a 
3anoHHa pa6oTa Be/jHara, 3anjoTO 3aMHHaBan etc ceMeficTBOTO ch Ha 
noHHBKa. CtrjiacHX ce. Gbctoa ce KpaTKa onepaTHBHa cpema Ha ptKOBo^- 

CTBOTO, Ha KOflTO 6flXa yTOHHeHH MOHTe (J)yHKIIHH h 3aaaHH: max #a 
p^KOBOflfl HKOHOMHHeCKHfl 6jIOK Ha MHHHCTepCTBOTO, KOHTO BKJIIOHBame 

njiaHHpaHeTO, 4>HHaHCHTe ? ijeHHTe, HHHTOX, yne6HHTe 3aBe,n;eHHfl. H3J1- 
CHHXMe Hafl-Hajie^cainHTe TeicyinH 3aaaHH. 3aM.-MHHHCTpHTe CjiaBHo 
IlenieB, IlaHHO KteaHOB, HjinaHa Ka3aKOBa h TeoprH Ebthmob 3ana3Baxa 
CBOHTe pecopn. H nerapHMaTa 6axa onHTHH cneijHajiHCTH h MHoro ,uo6pe 
no3HaBaxa pa6oTaTa ch. OcTaHa aa ce onpeaejiOT 3a,uaHHTe Ha npo(|). AHreji 
cDhkhhh, kohto oiije He 3Haenie 3a Ha3HaneHHeTO ch. 

TpyAHO h HeHy^cHO e aa onncBaM pa6oTaTa, koato H3BT>pniBax. LLJe 
nocona caMO ochobhhtc HanpaBJieHHa, no kohto pa6oTeuie MHHHCTepcTBOTo h 

no KOHTO a3 HMaX KOHKpeTHH 3affbJDKemi% KaTO HaCT OT eKHna Ha MHHHCTtpa. 

Ilpe3 ni>pBHTe ,iihh b mhhhctcpctboto ce OTfla/i;ox Ha H3ynaBaHe Ha 
TeKymHTe 3aflann h ce cpeujHax c ptKOBO^HTejiHTe Ha Ha6jnoflaBaHHTe ot 
MeH OT^ejiH. Be^Hara 3anoHHaxa rzl Bt3HHKBaT BtnpocH, kohto Tpa6Baiiie 
fla ce peniaBaT. B TbproBHHTa HflMa cnoKoiicTBHe, npo6jieMH Bi>3HHKBaT 
BceKH nac h H3HCKBaT pemeHHfl no EyuiaTa Bepnra ot Mara3HHHTe npe3 
CKJiaflOBeTe, flHpeKijHHTe h ynpaBJieHH^Ta pp MHHHCTepCTBO. He 6nBaine 
#a no3BOJi5iBaM TeKyujHTe Btnpocn ^a 3a6aBOT peuiiaBaHeTO Ha ochobhhtc, 
npnopHTeTHH npo6jieMH h achhocth. Heo6xoflHMO 6enie fla ycTaHOBH 
npe^ejiHO e(J)HKaceH cthji h MeTOfl Ha pa6oTa c ptKOBOflHTejiHTe h cneijHa- 
jiHCTHTe, aa onpeflejia npnopHTeTHHTe 3aflann Ha OT#ejiHTe h flpynrre 
3BeHa b MHHHCTepcTBOTo, 3a kohto OTroBapax. CneutnajiHCTHTe h apyrHTe 

HH CbTpyflHHIIH HMaxa fl06pa KBaJIH(J)HKa]J(Hfl, HO TeXHHTe 3HaHH5I Tp5l6Ba- 

uie aa ce pa3iHHpOT, h rz ce BKsnpHeMaT h npHJiaraT b no-rojiflMa cTeneH 
HOBHTe MexaHH3MH 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha TBproBHjrra, 3a pa3BHTHe Ha 
CTOKOBO-napHHHOTO o6pT>memie. 

Heo6xoflHMO 6enie m ycTaHOBH npeaejiHO ao6pH B3aHMOOTHonieHHa c 
pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha rojwM 6pon TbproBCKH opraHH3au[HH c pa3Hoo6pa3Ha 
fleiiHOCT h noflHHHeHOCT. TyK Tpa6Ba m nocona hakoh flamm, kohto 
CBH^eTejicTBaT 3a o6eMa h pa3Hoo6pa3HeTO Ha ptKOBOflHHTe aeiiHOCTH Ha 
MBTY. B CHCTeMaTa Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTo npe3 1974 r. pa6oTexa noBene ot 
200 000 pa6oTHHE(H h cjiyaoiTejiH, kohto ce Tpyuexa b okojio 29 000 
Mara3HHa h 22 000 3aBeaeHH^ 3a o6mecTBeHO xpaHeHe. Ctokoo6opott>t 
Bi>3JiH3aHie Ha noBene ot 5 MHJinapfla jieBa. 

Hapea c npeKHTe mh 3a#T>jmeHHfl, Tpfl6Bame 6tp30 aa ycTaHOBfl h 

OnTHMaJIHH fleJIOBH KOHTaKTH C pfcKOBOflCTBaTa Ha OHe3H MHHHCTepCTBa, 

376 



BeflOMCTBa n CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH, kohto HMaxa np^KO nnn kocbcho 
oTHomeHHe kt>m aenHOCTTa Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO. 

OcHOBHa 3aaana Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO 6eme aa ce ocHiypH H3m>n- 
HeHHeTO Ha nnaHa 3a TbproBCKaTa aenHOCT npe3 1974 h 1975 r., c flpyrn 
flyMH - fla pa6oTH 3a 3a#OBOJiflBaHe noTpeGHOCTHTe Ha HaceneHHeTO ot 
ctokh h ycnyrn npH bhcoko paBHHiije Ha o6cny)KBaHe b TbproBCKaTa 
Mpeaca. ToBa H3HCKBaine orpoMHH ycnnna ot CTpaHa Ha p^koboactboto Ha 
MHHHCTepcTBOTO, Ha pi>KOBO#HTejiHTe h paGoranijHTe b TbproBCKHTe opra- 
HH3aijHH h npe#npHOTHflTa Ha MecTHaTa npOMHHijieHOCT h ycnyrnTe, Ha 
xHJiaflHTe cjiy^KHTenH b TbproBCKaTa Mpe5Ka. Bee ome cbiijecTByBanie 
cepH03eH flHcGajiaHc MeyKjsy npe^naraHeTO Ha ctokh h ycnyrn h noTpe6- 
HOCTHTe Ha HaceneHHeTO. IIoKa3aTenHTe Ha nnaHa 3a pa3BHTne Ha 
TbproBHOTa b HaijHOHajieH ManjaG npe3 1974 r. 6axa H3m>JiHeHH ycneuiHo: b 
fli>p)KaBHaTa h KoonepaTHBHaTa rbproBCKa Mpe)Ka 6axa npoflaaeHH ctokh 3a 
7.5 MHJiHap^a jib., cpemy okoho 6.8 Mnnnap^a npe3 1973 r. 

,ZJpyra ocHOBHa 3aaana npea p^kobo^ctboto Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO h npe# 
oTflenHTe, kohto pi>KOBO#ex, Genie H3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha npoeKTonnaHa 3a 
pa3BHTHeTO Ha TbproBCKaTa aenHOCT no bchhkh HanpaBneHna n noKa3aTejin 
3a 1975 r. (nocne^HaTa roflHHa Ha mecTaTa neTnneTKa) n 3a nepno^a 1976- 
1980 r. (ce^MaTa neTnneTKa) b HaiinoHaneH, pernoHaneH n Be^oMCTBeH 
MamaG n no TbproBCKH opraHH3aiinn 5 a TaKa ebiijo n Ha nnaH 3a pa3BHTne 
Ha MecTHaTa npOMnmneHOCT n ycnyrnTe. 

B ocHOBaTa Ha nnaHa 6enie OT^eneHO oco6eHO BHHMaHne Ha: 

1 . 06eMa n CTpyKTypaTa Ha CTOKOo6opoTa Ha apeGHO c ijen npeMaxBaHe 
nnn HaMan^BaHe Ha flncnponopiinnTe MOK^y rbpceHe n npe/yiaraHe Ha 
hakoh ctokh. IlpeflBH5Kflauie ce o6ui;hht ctokooGopot aa HapacHe c 45- 
50%, a CTOKooGopoTbT Ha HexpaHHTenHHTe ctokh m ce yBennnn c ome no- 
bhcokh TeMnoBe; 

2. YcbB'bpHieHCTBaHe, MOflepmoaunfl n peKOHCTpyKiina Ha TbproBCKaTa 
Mpe^ca n CKna^OBOTO CTonaHCTBO, cneiinanroaiinfl n yeapHBaHe Ha 
TbproBCKaTa Mpe5Ka, B^BOK^aHe Ha HOBa TexHonorna n MexaHH3npaHe Ha 
o6pa6oTKaTa Ha ctokobhtc noToiin; 

3. PaijHOHanHO H3non3BaHe Ha Tpy^OBHTe pecypen, no^roTOBKa Ha hobh 
H3m>nHHTencKH n bhchih Kaapn, ycbBtpnieHCTBaHe Ha opraHH3aiinflTa n 
CTHMynnpaHeTO Ha Tpy#a; 

4. IloBHniaBaHe KynTypaTa Ha o6cny)KBaHe Ha noTpeGnTennTe, no- 
ninpoKO H3non3BaHe Ha caMoo6cny)KBaHeTO, pa3uinp^BaHe npo#a)K6aTa Ha 
naKeTHpaHH ctokh h t. h. 

Ilono5KeHH 6axa yennna 3a no,zjo6pflBaHe HayHHOTO o6cny)KBaHe Ha 

377 



ivmaTa CHCTeMa Ha MHHHCTepCTBOTO, Ha bchhkh HeroBH no^ejieHHe h 3BeHa. 
Heo6xo#HMO 6eme aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha HayHHOH3CJie#OBaTejicKaTa h BHe^pH- 
TejicKa flefiHOCT Ha HayHHHa hhcthtyt no rtproBHa h ycjiyrHTe (HHBTY) 
h HHEPA, a Ta*ca ci>mo yeraHOBflBaHe Ha TpafiHH Bpi>3KH c rtproBCKHTe 
opraHH3ai^HH 3a BHeapaBaHe Ha HayHHHTe pa3pa6oTKH h npeflJioaceHHa, 
onpeaejMHe Ha HayHHHTe tcmh h 3aaaHH ? cpoKOBeTe Ha H3m>jiHeHHe h 
BHeap^BaHe. CrpeMeacbT hh 6eme ^a nocTHrHeM ycbB^pmeHCTBaHe Ha hko- 
HOMHHecKHTe MexaHH3MH 3a ynpaBJiemie, H3pa6oTBaHe Ha hobh tcxho- 
jiorHH, H3ynaBaHe Ha noTpe6HTejicKOTO rtpceHe Hpe3 H3noji3BaHe Ha hko- 

HOMHKO-MaTeMaTHHeCKH MeTOflH H MOfleJIH, yCbBl>pIHeHCTBaHe KOHI^eHTpa- 

ijHjrra h cneijHajiH3aijHflTa Ha TbproBCKHTe opraHH3aijHH h TtproBCKaia 
Mpeaca h #p. 

Pa3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha npoeKTa Ha neiro,zjHniHHfl njiaH (1976-1980) ce 
ocbmecTBABanie ycneuiHO h npofl'bjraH ^a ce ocbmecTBABa h npe3 BTOpaia 
nojiOBHHa Ha 1975 r. B HeroB ynacTBaxa tojmm 6pofi pT>KOBO£HTejiH h 

Cnei^HaJIHCTH OT CHCTeMaTa Ha MHHHCTepCTBOTO. 

B nnaHa, b njiaHOBHTe noKa3aTejiH ce OTpa3flBaiiie LuuiaTa MHorocipaHHa 
flefiHOCT Ha MHHHCTepCTBOTO, HeroBHTe Bt3MO)KHOCTH ? ycnexH h HeycnexH b 
ocbmecTBABaHe Ha fli>p5KaBHaTa nojiHTHKa 3a pa3BHTHe Ha TbproBHATa h 
CHa6flHBaHe Ha HacejieHHeTO cbc ctokh, 3a pa3uiHpflBaHe Ha ctokobo- 
napHHHOTO o6pT>meHHe h noBHmaBaHe ponHTa Ha TbproBHOTa b pa3BHTHeT0 
Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h MarepHajiHOTo 6jiarononyHHe Ha HacejieHHem 

* * * 

Ha 19.XII.1974 r. Tpa6Bame ^a OTGejieacHM /JeH* Ha TbproBCKHTe 
pa6oTHHi^H. IIo T03H noBO# 6eme npeaBH^eHO r& ce OTKpHe HOBaTa crpa^a 
Ha LJeHTbpa 3a H3CJie#BaHe h ejccnepHMeHTHpaHe Ha onaKOBKH h aM6ajiaflc 
(HHEPA). To3H i^eHTtp 6e ci>3aaaeH cbc cpe^cTBa, npe^ocTaBeHH ot mok- 
#yHapo,zjHaTa opraHH3aijHfl npH OOH K)HH,ZJO. Mhhhctbp T. KapaMaHeB h 
3aM.-MHHHcrbpi>T npocj). A. Ohkhhh OT^aBaxa tojdimo 3HaneHHe Ha T03H 
i^eHTbp h nojiaraxa MHoro rpHacH 3a HeroBOTO pa3BHTHe. Ha OTKpHBaHeTO 
Ha LJeHTbpa npnci>CTBaxa To/jop 2Khbkob h CTamco To^opoB. npefl 
crpa^aTa Ha LJeHTbpa ce npOBe^e Majn>K MHTHHr. To#op )Khbkob npoH3He- 
ce KpaTKO cjiobo h npepjBa neHTaTa. TocTHTe pa3rjie#axa 3ajiHTe Ha IJeHTb- 
pa, noKa3aHH hm 6axa cbopi>^ceHHHTa h anapaTypaTa. Cjie# TOBa 3a 0(|)HijHaji- 
HHTe rocra 6eme fla^eH 065m b pecTopaHT "PonoTaMo". Ha ni>T kt>m pecro- 
paHTa noceTHXMe h Mo^epHO o6opy#BaHHJi Mara3HH "YHHBepcaM", H3ipaaeH 
KaTO o6pa3eij 3a 6i>£emoTO pa3BHTHe Ha TbproBCKara Mpeaca b CTOJBmara. 

Ha o6fl#a npHCbCTBaxa h 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTpHTe (a3, CnaBHO nenieB, 

378 



npo(|). AHren Ohkhhh, IlaHHO HBaHOB, HjiHjma Ka3aKOBa, TeoprH Ebth- 
mob), KaKTO h ptKOBOflHTejiHT Ha YBO reH. Hjihh KameB, kohto 
BHHMaTenHO Ha6jnoflaBanie oGcnyacBaHeTO. MHHHCTbptT pa3Ka3a 3a pa6o- 
xaTa Ha mhhhctcpctboto h 3a TpyflHOCTHTe, kohto cpemaMe, 3a Heo6xo- 
^HMOCTTa ot yBenHHaBaHe Ha npoH3Bo,ucTBOTO Ha noTpe6HTejicKH ctokh, 3a 
nocTOAHHO yBenHHaBamna ce flHc6anaHC MOKfly ctokobhtc 4>OHflOBe h 
nJiaTe^cocnoco6HOTO TbpceHe Ha HacejieHHeTo, 3a Heo6xoflHMOcrra aa ce 
yBejiHHaT KanHTanHHTe BJioaceHHfl 3a CTpoHTencTBO Ha hobh yHHBepcajiHH h 
flpyra Mara3HHH h CKJiaflOBe, 3a Mo;jepHH3aijHfl Ha TbproBCKaTa Mpe^Ka h 
BHeapflBaHe Ha ctBpeMeHHa TexHHKa h jxp. 

Toflop ^Chbkob ro H3CJiynia BHHMaTejiHO h o6ema, ne etc CTaHKO 
ToflopoB me CT>/i;eHCTBaT 3a pemaBaHe Ha nocTaBeHHTe BMipocn, ho 
noflnepTa, ne MHHHCTepcTBOTO Tpa6Ba aa pa6oTH aKTHBHO h cbBMecTHO c 
flpynrre MHHHCTepCTBa h CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH. 

3anoHHa odejxbT. IloflHecoxa 606 nop6a. 

- ft, BHHcre, TOBa e npeicpacHO - Ka3a Toflop 5Khbkob h 3anoHHa aa ce 
cMee. - Bne MHoro «o6pe CTe oiraTHajiH moh BKyc. 

- Hne - oiroBopH KapaMaHeB - Moace 6h He no3HaBaMe flocTan>HHO ao6pe 
noTpe6HTejicKOTO TBpceHe Ha Hapoaa, ho 3HaeM TOBa Ha ptKOBOAHTejiHTe. 

- RoKbjue flOKapaxMe cejicKOTO CTonaHCTBO, aa HflMa aocTarbHHO 606 
Ha na3apa, «a BHacflMe 606, KapTO(|)H h necbH, kohto 6axa ocHOBHaTa xpaHa 
Ha Hapofla - Ka3a DKhbkob h 3anoHHa 3apa3HTenHO «a ce CMee, a bchhkh 
ocTaHanH ro nocjie^BaxMe. 

Ilo BpeMe Ha o6^a CTaHa flyMa h 3a Hapo^HHH jieHHTeji Ilerbp 
^hmkob. Moace 6h KapaMaHeB HapoHHO noflXBaHa T03H pa3roBop, 3a aa 
HaMepH c^opMa h noBOfl aa noMorHe Ha jieHHTejui. Ton pa3Ka3a, ne ycneniHO 
ce e neKyBan npn Hero h noncKa no^KpenaTa ot DKhbkob, 3a «a ce H3«afle 
KHHraTa My, kohto e mhoto ueHHa h ce rtpen ot xopaTa, ho HAMa 
no^flpt^cKa ot MeflHitHHCKHTe opraHH. DKhbkob cnoaejiH, ne ce oraacfl 
nojioacHTejiHO ki>m Jiene6HHTe mctoah Ha /Jhhkob, kohto 6hji nperjieaaji 
OHHHTe My fli>Ha h ycTaHOBHJi, ne me 5KHBee jxbJiro. 

- TaKa ne a3 me 5khbch jUbJiro. Hanpa3H0 hakoh mh Tbpcexa 3aMecTHHK 
npe^H roflHHH, KoraTO 6ax onepnpaH - 3aKJiK>HH )Khbkob. 

Teoprn KapaMaHeB, KaKTO ce nonara npn TaKHBa cjiynan, BflHraa toct 
3a rocTHTe. 3a Moe ynyflBaHe, toh H3pene TaKHBa xBajie6cTBeHH ayMH no 
a^pec Ha To^op 5Khbkob, KaKBHTO flOToraBa He 6ax nyBaji. Teoprn 6eme 
MaficTOp Ha cjioboto. >Khbkob cjiyniame c npHBH^Ha ckpomhoct, ho 
BHflHMO CMeme ot y^OBOJicTBHe. 

Kbm Kpaa Ha o6*ma DKhbkob nonHTa HMaMe jih ome HflKaKBH Bi>npocH 

379 



ot cjiy)«e6eH xapaKTep. KapaMaHeB ce Bi>3noji3Ba ot TOBa h noMOJiH ^a ce 
npofli>Ji}«H npaBOTO Ha MHHHcrtpa no H3KJiK)HeHHe ^a pa3peuiaBa npoaa^c6a 
Ha Majii>K 6pofi jieKH aBTOMo6HJiH h3bt>h onpe#ejieHHfl pea Ha Jinija c 
oco6eHH 3acjiyrH h npH H3BT>Hpe,zjHH o6cTOOTejiCTBa. TaKHBa npaBa npe^H 

6HJI HMaJI MHHHCTbp IleKO TaKOB. 

)Khbkob ce o6tpHa kbm MHHHCTBp-npeaceflaTejia: 

- CraHKO, mhcjih, ne MOflce fla ce pa3peuiH, ho no H3KJiK)HeHHe h b 
MajiKH KOJinnecTBa. Xafifle cera aa bt>pbhm, Hne Tpa6Ba ^a pa6oTHM, a 
ApyrapHTe MoraT n& ocTaHaT. 

06mo B3eTO ocTaHax c flo6pn BneHameHHfl ot noBe#eHHeTO, pa3- 
roBOpHTe, pa3CT>^cfleHHaTa Ha To#op )Khbkob. 

* * * 

^enHOCTTa mh b MnHHCTepcTBOTO Ha TBproBH^Ta h ycjiyrHTe 
npoAi>Ji^KH e^Ha ro/jmia, npe3 kooto pa6oTnx HanperHaTO c e#HH flo6tp 
pi>KOBOfleH eKHn, c HaHajiHHiiHTe Ha oxzjejiH h cneiinajiHCTHTe, c mhoto 

pT>KOBOflHTeJIH Ha TbpTOBCKaTa fleHHOCT OT OKpT>^CHHTe HapOflHH CbBeTH H 

Ha OTflejiHH TbproBCKH opraHH3au;HH ? ct>c ceKpeTapn Ha L{K Ha BKII 
(rpnnia OnnnnoB h CaBa /J,t>ji6okob) ? 3aBeae,zjamH oxzjenH h cbTpyzjmmH Ha 
UK Ha BKn. 

HMax bt>3mo)khoct fla nocera OKpi>^cHH h flpyra rpa^OBe, aa ce cpemaM 
c KOJieKTHBH Ha TbproBCKH npeflnpHOTHfl, #a ono3Ha^ h no^noMorHa 
T^XHaTa flefiHOCT. Mhhhctcpctboto npoBe^e hakojiko HaijHOHajiHH h 
pernoHajiHH cbBemaHHfl, b kohto B3ex ynacrae c flOKJia^H h H3Ka3BaHM. Ha 
Te3H cbBemaHHfl o6hkhobcho ynacTBaxa Tpnuia OnjinnoB h TaHO LJojiob. H 
ABaMaTa npaBexa H3Ka3BaHHa, b kohto ^aBaxa h ocTpo kphthhhh GejieaocH 
3a pa6oTaTa Ha TbproBCKHTe opraHH3aijHH. 

HanycHax fljrbacHOCTTa Mhhhctcpctbo Ha BT/rpeuraaTa n>proBM h 
ycjiyrHTe ct>c cbHcajiemie. Eax o6HKHaji pa6oTaTa ch, e^ce^HeBHOTO Hanpe- 
}«eHHe h BHflHMHTe pe3yjiTaTH ot ycHJiH^Ta, kohto nojiarax. 



380 



TJIABA IX 

MHHHCTtP HA TPY^A H COIJHAJIHHTE TPH^CH 

(16.VI.1975-18.VII.1976) 

H nPE£CE£ATEJI HA KOMHTETA 

no TPy^A H PABOTHATA 3AnJIATA 
(18.VI.1976-1.VIII.1981) 

IIpH To/jop 2Khbkob. Ha3HaHaBaHero mh 3a mhhhcti>p Ha Tpy#a h 
COUHaJIHHTe rpii/KH 

Ha 5.VI.1975 r. 6ax H3BHKaH ,n;a ce xbx b tca6HHeTa Ha To,n;op 5Khbkob, b 
crpaaaTa Ha U,K Ha BKIT. Eeme ci>6oTa, 12 h. 06aflHx ce Ha mhhhctbp 
TeoprH KapaMaHeB. 06ci>flHXMe Bt3MO>KHaTa npHHHHa 3a npeflCToamaTa 
cpema, ho Tatca h He HaMepHXMe o6acHeHHe 3a Hea. 3a npi>B m>T Tpfl6Baine 
^a ce cpemHa c 5Khbkob HacaMe. /Jo T03H momcht 6xx o6myBan c Hero 
caMO b paMKHTe Ha pa3JiHHHH KOJietcTHBHH MeponpHjroifl. 3am>THX ce KbM 
Ka6HHeTa My c nyBCTBO Ha TpeBora. npeflnojiarax, ne Me BHKa no HflicaKBH 
cjiy^ce6HH Bi>npocH, ho ce ny^ex 3anjo HCKa ,n;a pa3roBapa c MeH, a He c 
MHHHCTbpa. Ot H3BecTHO BpeMe MHHHCTepcTBOTO 6eme noflnoaceHO Ha 
KpHTHKa 3apa^H HeflocTHra Ha hakoh ctokh 3a noTpeGjiemie Ha BtTpeuiHHfl 
hh na3ap. Ot cboa CTpaHa HHe Bo^exMe HCTHHCKa 6HTtca c HKOHOMHnecKHTe 
MHHHCTepcTBa h CTonaHCKHTe o6eAHHeHiw 3a yBejiHHaBaHe npoH3BOflCTBO h 
AOCTaBKaTa Ha pa3JiHHHH ctokh. OcBeH TOBa HMame h onjiaKBaHHA no 
noBOfl rojieMH KonnnecTBa HenpoaafleHH ctokh, kohto 3ane^caBaxa b 
CKJiaaoBeTe Ha npoH3BOflHTejiHTe h b TbproBCKaTa Mpeaca: TejieBH30pH, 
paflHoanapaTH, o6jieKJia h ap. 

C Te3H mhcjih 3aKpannx no yji. "Co(|)HHCKa KOMyHa" (ah. "EaTeH6epr"), 
npeKoenx njioma^a h bjubox b crpaaara Ha U,K Ha BKIT. CeKpeTapKaTa Me 
nocpenjHa, OTBopn MeayjHHHaTa BpaTa h a3 ce 030Bax b Ka6nHeTa Ha To^op 
)Khbkob. 

- Ooo, 3flpaBenTe - Ka3a To^op 5Khbkob, kohto CTaHa ot KpecjioTO h 
Tp'brBaHKH ki>m MeH nocoHH c pi>Ka MacHHKara ot jWBaTa CTpaHa Ha BpaTaTa, 
pi>KyBa ce h ceflHa. A3 nocne^Bax npHMepa My h 3aex e#HO ot Kpecjiara. 

- E, KaK Bl>pBOT pa60THTe B MHHHCTepCTBOTO? 

- 06iijo B3eTO £o6pe, 3anoHHa npoijec Ha CTa6HJiH3aijHfl Ha na3apa mo 
ce oraacfl flo kojihhcctboto h KanecTBOTO Ha ctokhtc Bee ome o6ane 
CTpyKTypaTa Ha ctokobhtc ^OHflOBe He OTroBapa Ham>jiHO Ha nocTOAHHO 

HapacTBamHTe KanecTBeHH H3MeHeHH5i Ha nnaTe^cocnoco6HOTo TtpceHe Ha 
HaceneHHeTO. 

381 



3anoHHax ,na oSflcmraaM npHHHHHTe 3a TOBa. 

- ,ZJo6pe, ,no6pe. A KaK ctoh BtnpocbT c npo^aacGaTa Ha TejieBroopn? 
HMa onjiaKBaHe ot 3aBOfla, ne He ce npo^aBaT, ne rtproBCKHTe npe#npHfl- 
raa He th H3KynyBaT, CT>3,naBaT ce Tpy#HOCTH 3a nporaBOAHTejiHTe. Te He 
MoraT #a nnacHpaT npo^yKiiHOTa ch. 

H3HeHa,nax ce, ne toh mh 3a^aBa Taia>B KOHKpeTeH 3a Hero Bi>npoc. 
3anoHHax #a oGacHHBaM, ne e HOpMajrao na3api>T m flocrarHe j\o ereneH Ha 
HacHiqaHe c onpeaejieHH ctokh h TOBa m AOBe,ne ,no nocTeneHeH cna# Ha 
npo,na^c6HTe. no#o6eH e cjiynafl c TeneBH30pHTe y Hac. 3a aa He HaMaueaT 
npoH3Bo,zi;cTBOTO h npo,na)K6HTe e Heo6xo,nHMO aa ce npHCTMH kbm 
npoH3BOflCTBOTO Ha hobo noKoneHHe TeneBH30pH ? npe^HMHO ijBeTHH, m ce 
npeMHHe kt>m npo^aacGa Ha Kpe.mrr, 3a aa ce CTHMyjiHpaT noKynKHTe, m ce 
HaMajurr ueHHTe Ha hjikoh CTapH MapKH TeneBH3opH. HaTaxtK pa3Ka3ax 
KaKBo ce npaBH b KanHTajiHCTHHecKHTe CTpaHH npH TaKHBa cnynaH, onncax 
h onHTa Ha YHrapHa h CtBeTCKHH ct>k)3, KT>,neTO ce Ha6nioflaBa ci>moTo 
flBJieHHe Ha na3apa Ha TeneBH30pH h apyrn ctokh. 

- ^o6pe. Bnaro^apH 3a HH(|)opMaijHflTa. ,ZJoBOJieH cbm. Bne c MHHHCTbpa 
He ce TpeBoaceTe. A3 npoHBHX HHTepec. He flaBaM oijeHKa 3a B3aHMOOTHo- 
meHHflTa bh c npoH3BOflHTejiHTe. Pa6oTeTe cnoKOHHO. H3roTBeTe npea- 
Jio^ceHHe cbBMecTHO c flpyraTe Be^oMCTBa h, aKO e Heo6xoflHMO, BHeceTe 
npoeKT 3a peiueHHe b npaBHTejicTBOTO. He pa3rjiaoiBaHTe HaniaTa cpema. 

3a pa3roBopa cno^ennx c Teopra KapaMaHeB. Toh H3Ka3a MHeHHe, ne 

MOECe 6H HflKOH e HH(j)OpMHpaJI 3KhBKOB 3a Tpy^HOCTHTe C npOH3BOflCTBOTO 

h npo^a5K6HTe Ha TejieBH30pHTe E#Ba no-KbCHO o6ane y3Hax KaKbB e 6hji 
hcthhckhht noBOfl 3a cpemaTa. MoeTO HMe e ^Hrypnpajio Hapea c 5-6 
flpyrn KaHflH^aTypH 3a mhhhctt>p Ha Tpyaa h coimajiHHTe rpH5KH. 3Khbkob e 
noHCKaji #a Me bh^h h m flo6ne jihhho BnenaTJieHHe 3a MeH. C flpyra flyMH, 
noKaHeH ct>m 6hji Ha "orjiea" h HaniHjrr pa3roBop 3a TejieBH30pHTe e 6hji 
caivio npeTeKCT 3a TOBa. 

EflHa ce^MHiia no-KbCHO, othobo b ci>6oTa, nocjie^Ba HOBa cpema c 
To#op }Khbkob. no BpeMe Ha 3aceflaHHe Ha KonernyMa Ha mkhhctcpctboto 
nojiynnx ci>o6meHHe aa ce %b% npH Hero. B CTajiTa Ha ceKpeTapKaTa My 
3aBapHx AceH JJoGpeB, 3aM.-MHHHCTbp Ha Tpyaa h coimajiHHTe rpHHOi. 
CeKpeTapKaTa hh noKaHH h HHe ^BaMaTa BjmoxMe b Ka6nHeTa. 

- 3,npaBeHTe MJiafle5KH! - Ka3a )Khbkob h cbc hkqct hh noKaHH Ha 
MajiKaTa Maca 3a^ BpaTaTa. - Cera Bac bh onaKBa cepH03Ha pa6oTa. Bne, ap. 
HaymeB, no peiueHHe Ha nojiHT6iopo me 6i>fleTe Ha3HaneH 3a mhhhctbp Ha 
Tpy^a h coi^najiHHTe rpH)KH. noBene ot #Ba Meceija TOBa bc^omctbo HflMa 

MHHHCTLp. A BHe 5 flp. ^06peB ? CTaBaTe ni>pBH 3aMeCTHHK-MHHHCTbp. 

382 



- AMa, flp. )Khbkob, mojm Bh ce... ToBa e H3HeHa/ta 3a MeH. A3 HMaM 
Be qe flpyr npocjmji Ha pa6oTa. 06HKHax a h HaBiurcox b npoGneMHTe Ha 
cerauraaTa ch achhoct - 3anoHHax aa nejrrena o6tpKaHO a3. 

- ,H,o6pe CMe oGmhcjihjih h npeijemuiH HemaTa. HflMa aa Kpna, ne 6axa 
npeflno^ceHH hakojiko KaHflHflaTa. CnpaxMe ce Ha Bac. Cpemy Bac HflMame 
BMpa^ceHH^ ot coHfla)KHTe 3 kohto HanpaBHXMe etc 3aHHTepecoBaHHTe 

yHpe5KfleHHH H JIHIja. 

Ilpe3 TaBa BpeMe flOHecoxa Ka(|)e h kohak. C AceH /JoGpeB TpeBO)KHo ce 
cnorne^cflaxMe. 

- Xaiifle, Ha3flpaBe 3 «a bh e necraTo! 
3Khbkob BflHrHa nauiaTa h ce nyKHa c Hac. 

- ,H,Hec noflnncBaM yKa3 3a Ha3HanaBaHeTO bh. Ymho h ycneniHO aa 
pa6oTHTe. YKa3aHH5i HflMa fla bh ,zi;aBaM, HMaTe ch ptKOBOflHTenH. 

Ton o6ane npofltJDKH «a roBopH. Ka3a, ne HMa MHoro BtnpocH, kohto 
TpflGBa fla ce pemaBaT, H3rbKHa rojiflMaTa pojia Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO 3a 
e(J)eKTHBHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha Tpy^a, 3a 3amiamaHeTO, 3a noaroTOBKaTa Ha 
H3m>JiHHTejicKHTe KaapH, 3a coijHajiHOTO ocnryp^BaHe... 

- Ha flBe Hema HCKaM #a bh o6tpHa BHHMaHHe. ITbpBO - aa na3HTe 
HHTepecHTe Ha fltpacaBHara xa3Ha. IIpH Bac me HflBar MHoro xopa. Ottobophh 
h MHoro OTTOBOpHH jnma me HCKar, me bh 3annauiBaT ? me ce onHTBaT m bh 
3a6jiy^cflaBaT ? 3a rzl nojiynar 3a bcaomctboto ch no-rojieMH 3anjiarH, no-rojraM 
4>oha pa6oTHa 3anjiara, no-neKH nnaHOBH 3aaaHHfl, no-rojwM maTeH ctcTaB. 
JSpbyxre ce mi>)kkh. BoiOBaiiTe 3a o6ocHOBaHH nnaHOBH 3aaaHH^ h 3a BHCOKa 
npoH3BOflHTenHOCT Ha Tpyzja, pa3KpHBajrre h oGocHOBaBanre pe3epBHTe b TOBa 
OTHomeHHe. Te ca roneMH. IU,e HMaTe MOOTa ntnHa noflKpena. Ako bh XBajraT, 
ne CTe flo6pH h pa3flaBaTe Heo6ocHOBaHO neKH nnaHOBH noKa3aTejra h bhcokh 
3annaTH ? 3HaHH jiohio paGoTHTe. BTOpo. E[a3eTe ch oco6eHO ot xHTpHTe 
ptKOBOflHTejiH, kohto ce 6op)iT 3a neKH nnaHOBe h Ha Ta3H ocHOBa ce onHTBaT 
fla ch cnenejwT (|)ajiuiHB aBTOpHTeT. B TOBa OTHomeHHe HMa flBaMa oco6eHO 
jit^GiHBH niona - npOfltiDKH >Khbkob h 3anoHHa «a ce CMee... 

Ton Ha30Ba (JmMHJiHHTe Ha flBaMa mhhhctph. Ta3H oijeHKa 3a tax mhoto 
Me H3HeHaaa ? 3amoTO 6eme h3bcctho, ne Te ca noKpoBHTencTBaHH ot Hero, 
ne ca nacT ot HeroBM aHxypaac h mhoto jiobko ro MaHHnyjiHpaT h 
H3non3BaT. Chjiho Me 03a,naHHxa ayMHTe, kohto toh, ntpBHOT ceKpeTap Ha 
U,K Ha BKTI h fltpacaBeH niaBa, H3pene 3a tax, BHflflxa mh ce rpy6n h 
Ben3eByncKH. IIpczuiojiotfCHX, ne ce meryBa. 

>Khbkob ce c6oryBa h hh no5Kena yenex. Ka3a, ne me noflnnme yKa3 3a 
Ha3HanaBaHeTO hh, kohto me 6tfle ny6nHKyBaH b noHeaejiHHK hjih 
btophhk. IlapTHHHO-npaBHTejicTBeHa flejieraijHfl 3aMHHaBajia b ny>K6HHa h 

383 



3aT0Ba 6i>p3aji aa ype^H hakoh Bwipocn. 

H3JW30XMe c AceH ,H,o6peB ot Ka6HHeTa 3aMa>iHH. Ce^HaxMe b e^Ho ot 
4)oafieTaTa b Kopnaopa. noMMHaxMe, cnorjioKaafiKH ce o6i>pKaHH. 3a AceH 
HeroBOTO noBHineHHe b MHHHCTepCTBOTO, KbRQTO pa6oTeme, He 6eme oco- 
6eHa H3HeHaAa. Ho Ha MeH mh npeacToeme HOBa pa6oTa, hobo nojioaceHHe b 

ai>p5KaBHaTa fiepapXHfl, HOBH (JjyHKLJHH H OTTOBOpHOCTH, HOBH B3aHM0- 

OTHomeHHH. H to 6e3 aa HMaM npoTeiojHH h HenocpeacTBeHH aenoBH Bpt3KH 
c BHcniHTe napTHHHH h flT>p)KaBHH pi>KOBOflHTejiH. KaK meme Me npHeMe 
P'bkoboactboto Ha npaBHTencTBOTO h oco6eHO MHHHCTbp-npeaceaaTejiHT 
CTaHKO ToaopoB, kohto iiohth He Me no3HaBame? A apyrnre mhhhctph? Ho 
Hafi-MHoro ce BMHyBax KaK meme aa Me nocpemHe KoneKTHB'bT Ha 

MHHHCTepCTBOTO. H03HaBaX MHOTO OT CneitHaJIHCTHTe H p'bKOBOflHTejIHTe 

TaM, Bee naK npean hhkojiko roaHHH 6ax 3a KpaTKO 3aM.-npeaceaareji Ha 
ToraBamHHfl Komhtct no Tpyaa. TpeBoacex ce KaK me pemaBaM npo6jieMHTe 
Ha MHHHCTepCTBOTO, KoeTO 3a 6jih30 asa Meceija 6eme ocTaHano 6e3 

MHHHCTbp, KOJIKO MHOTO Tpya H yCHJIHfl Ulfi Ca Hy2CHH, 3a #a HaBJUBa B HOBH 

3a MeH Bi>npocH. EaHOBpeMeHHO Me o6xBaHa h HOCTajirafl no pa6oTaTa mh b 
MnHHCTepcTBo Ha BT>TpeniHaTa TLproBHfl. BaxMe 3anoHHajiH no HOBOMy aa 
pemaBaMe mhoto ot npo6jieMHTe, a h ao6pe ce pa6oTeuie "noa naatp" KaTo 
T03H Ha Teopra KapaMaHeB - eaHH eHeprHHeH ptKOBoaHTeji, kohto Hapea c 
TOBa 6euie eraHeH h bhcoko KyjiTypeH hobck. 
AceH Me no6yTHa. 

- Xanae aa CTaBaMe. He ce TpeBoacn. IU,e ce cnpaBHM. 

Bi>pHax ce b MHHHCTepCTBOTO Ha BT>TpeuiHa TbproBM. Pa6oTHOTO 
BpeMe Bene 6euie MHHajio h He 3aBapnx TaM hhkoto. OTnpaBHX ce ki>m 
bkbuih. ,H,OKaTO Kpanex no yjiHijHTe H3nHTBax TpeBora, a He paaocr. 
Pa3Ka3ax Ha ctnpyraTa ch noapo6HO 3a cpemaTa c Toaop )Khbkob. 

- Ton - Ka3a Tepa - MHHajiaTa ci>6oTa abho Te e noBracan, 3a aa nojiynn 
HenocpeacTBeHO BnenaTJieHHe ot Te6. ToBOpH ce, He toh ce cpema jihhho c 
Ha3HanaBaHHTe ot UK KaapH. 

Cjiea MajiKO Tejie(J)OH'bT h33bi>h^. 06aan ce Teopra BnaaHKOB, kohto 
6eme 3aBOKaam aenoBoacTBOTO Ha LJK. Ci>o6hj;h mh, ne Toaop }Khbkob e 
noanncaji yKa3 3a Ha3HanaBaHeTO mh 3a mhhhctt>p Ha Tpyaa h coimajimrre 
rpHHCH. HaB>ipHO b noHeaejiHHK me ce nyGnmcyBa b nenaTa. no3apaBH Me h 
mh noHcena ycnex. 

IlT>pBHTe flHH B MTCr 

C yKa3 JSTs 1101 ot 16.VI.1976 r. ^pHcaBHHflT cbbct Me Ha3HanH 3a 
MHHHCTbp Ha Tpyaa h coijHajiHHTe rpH^CH. Cnea hakojiko ahh 3anoHHax 

384 



H3ITI>JIHeHHeT0 Ha CBOHTe HOBH (|)yHKIJ[HH. Ilpefl pT>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha 
MHHHCTepCTBOTO - 3aMeCTHHK-MHHHCTpHTe, TJiaBHHfl CeKpeTap, pT>KOBO,HH- 

xeJiHTe Ha ynpaBJiemifl h ^HpeKiiHH, 6ax npefleraBeH ot TaHO LJojiob, m>pBH 
3aM.-npeflce,naTeji Ha Mhhhctcpckhh cbbct. 

QviymaBanie Me oGctohtcjictboto, ne BcrtnBaM b aji'b^khoct 6e3 aa cbm 
ce npeflCTaBHJi Ha npeRceaareiw Ha MnHHCTepcKHfl cbbct CTaHKO To^opOB 
h 6e3 j\di ci>m nojiyHHJi yKa3aHH)i ot Hero. ToBa CTaHa e,HBa cjiea 
3aBpi>maHeTO My ot nocememieTO b hhkojiko eBponencKH CTpaHH c nap- 
THHHO-npaBHTejiCTBeHaTa aejieraijHfl. Toh nonra He Me no3HaBanie. npe3 
m>pBHTe MeceijH nyBCTBax H3BecTHa c,m>p)KaHOCT b HaniHTe B3aHM0- 
OTHonieHH)i. CtrjiacHO pa3npe/i;ejieHHeTO Ha 3a,nT>ji)KeHHflTa Me^c^y HJieHO- 
BeTe Ha ptKOBO^CTBOTO Ha npaBHTejiCTBOTO, 3a pa6oTaTa Ha MTCX 
oTroBapame saM.-npeaceaaTejDiT Ha MC KnpHJi 3apeB, kohto 6enie h 
npeflce^aTeji Ha ^'bpacaBHM komhtct no rniamipaHe. EhbpBOHaHajiHO no 

BCHHKH BMpOCH, KOHTO 6)IXa OT KOMneTeHIJHOTa Ha npaBHTejICTBOTO, a3 

AOKJiaflBax Ha Hero. KoHTaicrbT mh cbc CTaHKO To^opOB 6euie orpaHnneH. 
Ha e^Ha cpema nonnTax: 

- ,fl,pyrapio To^opoB, Ha koto aa aoKJia^BaM BtnpocHTe 3a peniaBaHe ot 

npaBHTejICTBOTO? 

- KaK Ha koto, Ha mch! - OTroBopH toh. 

H TaKa 3anoHHax aa flOKJia^BaM Henocpe^cTBeHO Ha Hero. 

B npoijeca Ha ebBMecraaTa hh pa6oTa Me»my Hac ce ycTaHOBHxa mhoto 
Ao6pH B3aHMOOTHomeHH)i Ha flOBepne h cthhhoct. CTaHKO To^opoB HManie 
npeKpacHH KanecTBa Ha ptKOBO^HTeji ot HaiiHOHaneH Mama6. Toh 6euie 
peajmcT, yMeenie m pa6oTH c MHHHCTpHTe h cneiyiajiHCTHTe, 6i>p30 ce 
opneHTHpaine, 6eme ny^cfl Ha BOJiyHTapH3Ma h cy6eKTHBH3Ma, yMeno 
HacoHBauie npaBHTejICTBOTO kt>m B3eMaHe Ha npaBHJiHH peinemifl, a^eic- 
BaTHH Ha H3HCKBaHH^Ta Ha HKOHOMHKaTa h o6mecTBOTO. Hapea C TOBa, TOH 
yMejio H36^rBanie npOTHBOpenHOTa, BHHarn noeMauie OTroBopHOCT 3a 
B3eTHTe pemeHHfl h ynpaBJieHCKH #eHCTBHfl. 

Pa36npa ce, a3 npofl'bJi^caBax m HH(j)opMHpaM b ctoTBeTCTBHe c ycTaHO- 
BeHHTe npaBHJia h KnpHJi 3apeB, ot kototo nojiynaBax yKa3amifl, cvjefi- 
CTBHe h pemeHHfl ci>o6pa3HO HeroBHTe cjiyaceGHH KOMneTemjHH. YBaaeaBax 
ro KaTO e^HH mhoto aoG'bp, ycnemeH pT>KOBOflHTeji. Mhoto ot BtnpocHTe 
MTCr peuiaBauie ctrjiacyBaHO hjih cbbmcctho c ^KII, kohto b pe,mma 
cjiynan HManie BOflenja pojw. 

npe3 ntpBHTe ,hhh 6^30 ce 3ano3Hax c ochobhhtc h TeKymHTe 3a,naHH. 
BHHMaTejiHO pa3npe,nejiHXMe pa6oTaTa Me^c^y HJieHOBeTe Ha ptKOBOfl- 
ctboto. 3aMecTHHK-MHHHCTpHTe AceH ,ZJo6peB, HBaH CojiaKOB, rierbp 

385 



HaneB, AjieiccaKOTbp AHamieB, TeoprH reopraeB h rjiaBHHJiT ceicpeTap 
JleBHO MaHyHJiCKH 3ana3Hxa aoceraniHOTO pa3npeflejieHHe Ha dpyuKujiu H 
OTroBopHocTH. Pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha ynpaBJieHHHTa h pa6oTemHTe b thx 
cneijHajiHCTH 6axa BHCOKOKBajiH^HijHpaHH cneiyiajiHCTH. IlepcoHajiHH 
npoMeHH He 6axa HanpaBeHH. 

3anoHHaxMe ycHJieHa pa6oTa no H3m>JiHeHHe Ha 3aaaHHTe 3a 1975 r., 
KaKTO h no noflroTOBKara Ha npoeKTonjiaHa 3a ce^MaTa neTHJienca (1976- 
1980). npe3 cenTeMBpH Ha Cb6pamie Ha KOJieKTHBa H3Hecox flOKJia^ "3a 
noBHmaBaHe pojurra h OTTOBOpHocrra Ha Mhhhctcpctboto Ha Tpy#a h 
coi^HajiHHTe rpH^cn 3a ycneniHO H3m>jiHeHHe Ha cjiyaceGHHTe 3aaaHH". 
HanpaBHX KpHTHHHa oijeHKa, ocHOBaHa Bi>pxy onnTa mh ot pa6oTaTa npe3 
npeflmecTBaniHTe hakojiko Meceija, onepTax TeicymHTe h npnopirreTHHTe 
3aflann npe3 Ta3H h cjie#BamaTa roflHHa, npe^CTaBHX cbohtc H3HCKBaHHH 3a 
H3noji3BaHe Ha no-e(^eKTHBHH $opMH h mctoah Ha pa6oTa Ha 
ptKOBOflHTenHTe n cneimajiHCTHTe. 06i>pHax BHHMaHHe h Ha ^aicropHTe, 
kohto H3HCKBaxa peuiHTejiHO noao6p^BaHe pa6oTaTa Ha mkhhctcpctboto. 
IferioaceHHTe b flOKJia^a npHHiinnn ce CTpeMflx #a cna3BaM b CBOflTa no- 
HaTarbuiHa flefiHOCT KaTO pi>KOBO,mrreji Ha Mhhhctcpctboto, a no-KtCHO h 
Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpyzja h pa6oraaTa 3anjiaTa. 

3aKpiiBaHe Ha MTCr h CT>3AaeaHe Ha Komhtct no Tpyaa 
h paGoTHaTa 3anjiaTa 

npe3 anpHJi 1976 r. ce ct>ctoa XI KOHipec Ha BKTI. Bhx H36paH 3a 
KaHflHflaT-HJieH Ha IJK Ha BKII. Ha 30.V. ce npoBe^oxa H36opH 3a Ce^MO 
HapoflHO ci>6paHHe. Eax H36paH 3a Hapo^eH npeflcraBHTeji ot XapMaH- 
jihhckh H36npaTeneH paiioH. 

npe3 k)hh ce cbctoh m>pBaTa cecHfl Ha Ce^MOTO Hapo^HO CT>6paHHe, 
KoeTO H36pa hobo npaBHTejiCTBO c npeflceflaren CTaHKO To^opoB. Hakohko 
ijeHTpajiHH Be^oMCTBa 6axa 3aKpHTH (Mhhhctcpctbo Ha cHa6/viBaHeTO h 
fli>p^caBeH pe3epB ? ^tpacaBeH komhtct no CTaHflapTH3aijHfl h pp.). 3aKpHTO 
6eme h Mhhhctcpctboto Ha Tpyzja h coijHajiHHTe rpnacH. YHyflBaHeTO mh 
6eme rojiflMO. 3a TOBa peuieHHe y3Hax b 3ace;jaTejiHaTa 3ajia Ha Hapo^HOTO 
CT>6paHHe. 

rio-rojiHMaTa nacT ot (^yHKiyiHTe Ha 3aKpHTOTO MTCT npeMHHaxa kt>m 
HOBOCb3flafleHHH KoMHTeT no Tpyaa h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa (KTP3), 3a hhhto 
npeflceaaTeji 6ax Ha3HaneH c yKa3 N° 873 Ha ^pacaBHHfl cbbct Ha HPB ot 
19.VI.1976r. 

C nocTaHOBJieHHe Ha MnHHCTepCKM cbbct N° 56 ot 27.VII.1976 r. 6axa 
onpe^ejieHH CTpyKTypaTa h npaBHJiHHKBT 3a (|)yHKijHHTe h 3aflaHHTe Ha KTP3: 

386 



"1. Ot MTCr ce npexBtpjMT aeHHOCTH - ynpaBJieHHe "IleHCHH" kt>m 
MHHHCTepcTBO Ha (|)HHaHCHTe; ynpaBJieHHe "CoijHajiHH rpuTKu kt>m Mhhh- 
cTepcTBO Ha HapoflHOTO 3flpaBe; 3aKpHBa ce IJeHTbpa 3a o6mecTBeHa 
np0H3B0flHTejiH0CT Ha Tpy^a. 

2. OrpyKTypa: (1) LJempajiHO ynpaBJieHHe, (2) OKptacHH ,m>p)KaBHH 
ynpaBJieHHe (O,0,HT), (3) HayHHOH3CJie,noBaTejicKH HHCTHTyT no Tpyna c hh- 
(|)OpMaitHOHeH ijenrbp, (4) Ba3a 3a o6yneHHe Ha HyayjecTpaHHH npaKTHKaHTH. 

06maTa HHCJieHOCT Ha nepcoHajia Ha KTP3 - 1020 6poa, b t. h. 3a U,Y h 
HHHT - 220 6p., bkji. 3 3aM.-npe,ace,naTejiH, rnaBeH ceKpeTap h 5 AHpeK- 
TopH. riepcoHajitT, 3aeT b Ba3aTa 3a npoH3BOflCTBeHOTO oGynemie Ha npaK- 
THKaHTH, He ce BKJiiOHBa b o6maTa hhcjichoct, a ce onpe^ejiH OKeroflHO ot 
npe^ceflaTejiH Ha KTP3. 

3. KTP3 e opraH Ha MHHHCTepcKHH cbBeT c c[)yHKijHOHajiHa KOMneTemr- 
hoct, kohto npoBOK^a napTHHHaTa h fltp^caBHaTa nojiHTHKa b oGjiaerra Ha 
opraHH3aiiHHTa ? HopMHpaHeTo, 3annamaHeTO h CTHMyjinpaHeTO Ha Tpyaa, 
pa6oTHaTa CHJia, npo(J)ecHOHajiHaTa no^roTOBKa h noBHinaBaHe KBajiH(])HKa- 
UH^Ta Ha H3ni>JiHHTejicKHTe Ka,npH, KaKTO h npn H3pa6oTBaHe Ha HopMara- 
BHTe b o6jiaciTa Ha Tpy^oBOTO 3aKOHOflaTejiCTBO 

KTP3 octmecTBHBa CBOflTa fleiiHOCT no pa3pa6oTBaHeTO, peryjinpaHeTO, 
KOOpflHHHpaHeTO h KOHTpojiHpaHeTO Ha BtnpocHTe Ha Tpy,na h pa6oTHaTa 
3annaTa b TepHTOpnajieH pa3pe3 Hpe3 0,ZJHT, b hhhto ctcTaB ca h 6iopaTa 
no paGoTHaTa CHJia." 

3a 3aM.-npe#ce,aaTejiH 6axa Ha3HaHeHH: AceH ,3,o6peB (no-KbCHO 
HeroBH^T nocT Ha m>pBH 3aMecTHHK-npe,nce,a;aTeji 6eme 3aeMaH nocjie,no- 

BaTeJIHO OT KptCTBO IIonOB H ,fl,HMHTbp BpaacajicKH), HBaH C0JiaK0B ? 

rieTLp IleTpOB h AjieKcaHfltp AHaHHeB, kohto 6enie h npe^ceflaTeji Ha 
ApGnTpa^cHaTa komhcha no Tpy^oBHTe cnopoBe. 

KoMHTertT no Tpy^a h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa HManie #o6pa CTpyKiypa, 
kohto ao6pe ctoTBeTCTBanie Ha BMJioaceHHTe My c[)yHKijHH h 3a#aHH. 

PtKOBO^HTeJIHTe H CneiJHaJIHCTHTe 6^Xa BHCOKO KBaJIH(|)HIJHpaHH KaflpH, c 

flo6pa no,o;roTOBKa 3a H3Bi>pniBaHe Ha onpe^ejieHHTe hm ^eHHOCTH. 

CnoMeHH h pa3Ci>>K^eHHH 3a fleiiHOCTTa Ha MTCr h KTP3 

KaKTO OT6eji5nax, pa6oTaTa mh Karo mhhhctt>p (ot iohh 1975) h 
npeflce^aTeji Ha KTP3 (ot iohh 1976) npoTHnanie npn HanperaaTH ycjioBHfl 
- 3aBi>pniBaHe H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha njiaHa 3a nocjie^HaTa ro^HHa Ha lIJecTaTa 
neTHJieTKa (1971-1975) h ce no^roTBHine hobhht neTro^HineH njiaH 3a 
o6mecTBeHO-HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa npe3 1976-1980 r. 
ripe3 nocjie^HaTa ro^HHa Ha IlIecTaTa neTHJieTKa 6nxa ny6jiHKyBaHH mhoto 

387 



AOKyMeHTH h peineHH^ 3a ycLBtpineHCTBaHe CHCTeMaTa 3a ynpaBJieHne, 3 a 
no-e(J)eKTHBHO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 3a BHeap^BaHe Ha HayHHO-TexHH- 
necKHTe nocTnacemifl, 3a 3acHJiBaHe caMOCTOATejiHOCTTa h caMoynpaBJie* 
HHeTO Ha CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3au;HH. 

HapoflHOTO ci>6paHHe npne "3aKOH 3a eflHHHHfl njiaH 3a o6mecTBeHo- 
HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HapoflHa peny6jiHKa EtJirapra npe3 
Ce^MaTa nerajieTKa (1976-1980)." PeineHMTa Ha XI KOHrpec Ha BKII h Ha 
CeflMOTO HapoflHO ci>6paHHe, KaKTO h mhofo flpyrn npaBHTejicTBeHH 
flOKyMeHTH h pemeHHfl onpe^ejinxa ochobhhtc HanpaBJieHH* 3a paGoia h 
3aaaHH Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpy^a h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa b nepHO.ua no 1981 r. 

HflMa aa npaBA ntJieH nperjiea Ha nocTHrHaTOTO, a me OT6ejieaca 

OTflejIHH fleifflOCTH, KaKTO H HflKOH BneHaTJieHHfl, CBI>p3aHH CtC CtBMeCT- 
HaTa MH pa60Ta C HflKOH BHCOKOnOCTaBeHH pfcKOBOflHTCJIH, KOHTO C KOHTO 

ce cpemax b pa3JiHHHHTe HHBa Ha fli>p)KaBHO ynpaBJieHHe npH H3m>jiHe- 

HHeTO Ha CBOflTa fljn>)KHOCT. 

Cpema c To,zjop 2Khbkob. ,3,ain>Ki>T Bi»pxy paSoTHaTa 3anjiaTa. B 

Kpaa Ha ntpBHa mh pa6oTeH nen KaTO mhhhctbp Ha Tpy^a h coiinajiHHTe 
rpH^KH otbophx )Kenfl3HaTa Kaca b Ka6HHeTa mh h TaM ce HarbKHax Ha eflHO 
CTporo noBepHTejiHO peineHHe Ha I1ojiht6iopo Ha E(K Ha EKH, c kocto Ha 

MHHHCTBpa Ha (J)HHaHCHTe H Ha MHHHCTtpa Ha Tpy#a H COIJHaJIHHTe rpHHCH 

ce BT>3Jiaranie #a BHecaT b MnHHCTepcKHa cbbct npoeKT 3a peineHHe 3a 
OTMHHa Ha "flanbKa Btpxy 3anjiaTHTe" (?). OnpeaejieHHOT cpOK 3a 
BHacjmeTO Ha TOBa npoeKTOpeineHHe 6eme OTMHHaji OT^aBHa. 

ToBa peineHHe mh ce bh^ a6cypflHO. IlpeMaxBaHe Ha flantKa 6h 
03HanaBajio npnxoflHTe b ,m>p)KaBHHfl 6io,zpKeT m HaMajieaT c noBene ot 800 

MJIH. JIB. rOflHHIHO, KaTO HMaMe npeflBHfl, He npHpaCTBT Ha HaiJHOHaJIHHH 

Aoxofl npe3 1974 r. BT>3JiH3ame Ha okojio 900 mjih. jib. 3aex ce c npeKHTe ch 
3afli>ji)KeHH5i h bi>3jio}khx Ha e^HH 3aM.-MHHHCTbp h rpyna cnei^HajiHCTH fla 
npoynaT ^okojiko peajiHO e e^HO TaKOBa peineHHe h aa HanpaBAT cbotbct- 
HHTe npefljio)KeHH5i. MHeHHeTO Ha KOMHCHjrra 6eine, ne TaKOBa peineHHe e 
Heo6ocHOBaHO b paMKHTe Ha ctmecTByBamHTe chctcmh Ha 3anjiani;aHe h Ha 
coiinajiHO noflnoMaraHe, Ha neHCHOHHaTa h flaHi>HHaTa CHCTeMa. ToBa Moace 
m CTaHe npn e/uia KopeHHa pecj)opMa Ha Te3H chctcmh h Ha ocTaHajnrre 
MexaHH3MH 3a o6pa3yBaHe h pa3npe/i;ejieHHe Ha aoxoahtc 

CBI>p3aX Ce C MHHHCTfcpa Ha (J)HHaHCHTe ^HMHTtp IlonoB. Ton CBIIJO 

Genie b HeaoyMeHHe, tt>h KaTO hhto Genie B3en ynacrae b o6ei>)K#aHeTO Ha 
T03H Btnpoc, hhto e 6hji HH^opMHpaH npeflBapHTejmo, a y3Han 3a bchhko 
TOBa ot H3npaTeHOTO My peineHHe Ha ITojihtGiopo. Ton H3o6iijo He ce 6eine 
3aHHMaBaji ome c H3m>nHeHHeTO Ha Ta3H 3aflana. 

388 



- ^laKax aa Ha3HanaT hob mhhhctt>p Ha Tpyna h cbbmcctho aa B3eMeM 
oxHOineHHe - nonieryBa ce toh. 

HH(|)opMHpax CTaHKO ToflopoB h KHpHJi 3apeB 3a MHeHHeTO Ha jxbqtq 
MHHHCTepcTBa. H flBaMaTa Me noctBeTBaxa 3ae,nH0 c ^hmhtbp rionoB aa 
HanpaBHM o6ocHOBaHO npe/yioaceHHe 3a penieHHe b MnHHCTepcKHfl cbbct. 
Ho flajni MoacexMe m noHCKaMe OTMjma Ha penieHHe Ha riojiHT6iopo? 

OnHTax ce m oGacha TOBa h Ha TpHHia OnjinnoB, kohto 6euie ceKpeTap 
Ha U,K Ha BKn no HKOHOMHHecKHTe BtnpocH h 6euie ynacTBaji b npneMaHe- 
to Ha TOBa penieHHe, a 3ae,nHO c TOBa HCKax aa y3Haa ot KaKBO e apryMeH- 
THpaHO to h koh ca HeroBHTe BHOCHTejiH, 3a aa pa3roBapiiMe c tax npe/m 
^BeTe MHHHCTepcTBa aa H3TOTBOT CTaHOBHme no Btnpoca. Toh o6ane caMO 
noBflHTHa paMeHe h He B3e OTHOinemie, Hemo HenpHctmo 3a Hero. Pa36pax, 
ne cnoflejra HaniHTe apryMeHTH. ^hmhtt>p rionoB KaTO M'bfl'bp hobck h 
onHTeH MHHHcrbp, noe sa/^JiaceHHeTO ^a ype^H cpema c To/top 5Khbkob, c 
kototo 6eine h 6jih3i>k npmrreji. BpeMeTO o6ane MHHaBaine, a rionoB Bee 
npoTaicame opraHH3HpaHeTO Ha T03H pa3roBop c «i>p5KaBHH5i rjiaBa. 

EflHH He^ejieH ^eH B3ex penieHHe rzl npeo^ojiea CTecHHTejiHocrra ch h 
caM m ce aba npH To/top 5Khbkob. 3a m>pBH m>T max «a noncKaM cpema c 
Hero no cboa HHHimaTHBa. B noHeaejiHHK, om,e npe^n HanajioTO Ha 
pa6oTHH^ ,neH ? b 7.30 h., Ha6pax Tejie^OHHM HOMep Ha )Khbkob. HaAHBax 
ce, ne me ce o6a#H cenpeTapKaTa My. Hyx o6ane mi>)kkh rjiac. 

- Ajio, H3BHH)iBaM ce, ne ce oGaayjaM TOJiKOBa paHO. Mhoto Bh mojih m 
Me 3annineTe 3a cpema c jjp. To,a;op 5Khbkob. 

npe^H aa ce npe^cTaB^ h ^a Kaaca noBO^a 3a cpeuwa, rjiacbT OTCpema 
nonHTa: 

- Kofi ce o6aac.ua? 

- Mhhhctt>pi>t Ha Tpy^a AHreji ^aynieB. 

- A, ^ayin. . . Ha Tejie<j)OHa e 5Khbkob. KaKBO HMa? 
CMyTHX ce mhoto. 

- Mojia «a Me H3BHHHTe. He Bh no3Hax no Tejie(J)OHa. OnaKBax, ne me 
ce o6a^H Bain cbTpynHHK. 

- Cera MoaceTe jih ^a flofifleTe? EnaTe cjiea 30 MHHyTH. 

^Ba^eceT MHHyTH cjiea pa3roBopa Bene 6ax b CTaaTa Ha ceKpeTapKaTa 
My h o6achhx, ne 5Khbkob Me e noBHKaji 3a pa3roBOp. Cjiea MajiKo BpaTaTa 
Ha Ka6nHeTa ce OTBOpH h orraM H3Jie3e jjpyr noceTHTeji. CeKpeTapKaTa 
HaflHHKHa BtTpe h mh ^a^e 3HaK aa BJi>i3a. 

- fl,o6pe flointJi. 

)Khbkob mh fla^e 3HaK h ce^HaxMe Ha no3HaTa mh Bene MajiKa Maca. 

- E, Ka3Baii ? KaKBO Te BT>JiHyBa. 

389 



IIocTaBHX Ha MacaTa peineHHeTO Ha IIojiht6k)po h e^Ha Ta6jiHija c 
itH(])pH. HaKpaTKO npepa3Ka3ax KaKBo ce HCKa ot Hac h ce nocTapax aa My 

oGflCHfl KaKBH HKOHOMHHeCKH H COIJHaJIHH nocjie^HitH Mo^ce #a HMa 

npHJio^ceHHeTO Ha TOBa pemeroie: HeoGocHOBaHO HapacTBaHe Ha paGoTHaia 
3anjiaTa ? HapymaBaHe Ha GanaHca Me^cay njiaTe)Kocnoco6HOTO TbpceHe Ha 
HacejieHHeTO h npefljiaraHeTO Ha ctokh h ycjiyra, HaMajiHBaHe Ha 
H3TOHHHitHTe Ha (J)OHflOBeTe 3a coitfiajiHO ocHiypHBaHe h ae(J)opMHpaHe Ha 
pa3npeflejieHHeTO hm. Bhx OTGejmaji Te3H cboGpaaceHHfl b 5-6 nyHKTa. 
)Khbkob cjiymame BHHMaTejiHO h ocoGeHO ce Hanperaa, KoraTO noconnx 
itH(J)pOBOTO H3pa>KeHHe Ha TOBa ? 3a KoeTO CTaBame flyMa: okojio 800 mjih. 
jib. HaManeHHe Ha npnxoflHTe Ha fli>p)KaBHH>i 6iofl^ceT npH okojio 900 mjih. 
jib. HapacTBaHe Ha HaimoHajiHHH floxofl npe3 1974 r. CrpeMax ce #a 6i>aa 
npe^ejiHO aceH, ToneH h KpaxtK, ho 6ax no^roTBeH ^a My flaM h no- 

nOflpo6HH H3flCHeHH5L 

- Ham>jiHO ct>m cbrjiaceH c Bannrre oG^chchhh h npe#Jio)KeHHfl. 
OneBHflHO e, ne peineHHeTO Ha IIojiht6k>po He e oGocHOBaHO. Tpa6Ba ^a ce 
OTMeHH. Ho, Ka)*ceTe mh KaTO hkohomhct, flaH'bimTe He ca jih ocTartK ot 
4>eoflajiH3Ma, 4>eoflajiHa KaTeropHa? MoraT jih Te #a cb^cHTejicTBaT etc 

COItHaJIHCTHHeCKara HKOHOMHKa? 

3anoHHaxMe nojnroiKOHOMHHecKH pa3roBop 3a cbmHocrra na Rawbume 

B pa3JIHHHHTe o6meCTBeHO-HKOHOMHHeCKH (|)OpMaitHH. 06flCHHX, He 

flaHi^HTe He ca CBi>p3aHH caMO c e#HH onpe^ejieH o6ujecTBeH cipofi, ne Te 
ycneniHO oGcjiy^cBaT h KanHTajiH3Ma, h coitHajiH3Ma. /JaHT^HTe He npenar, 
a cbfleiicTBaT 3a e(J)eKTHBHOTO pa3BHrae Ha coitHajiH3Ma b HauiaTa cipaHa, 

HO BCHHKO 3aBHCH OT TOBa flOKOJIKO BT>3npHeTaTa flaKbHHa CHCTeMa e 

afleKBaraa Ha CHCTeMaTa 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. H3noji3Bax 

aBTOpHTeTa Ha H3BeCTHHfl CbBeTCKH HKOHOMHCT H MHHHCTBp Ha (J)HHaHCHTe 

b CCCP no BpeMe Ha BejiHKaTa OTenecTBeHa BOHHa ApceHHH 3BepeB h ce 
no30Bax Ha MHCBjrra My ne flaHT>u;HTe jiecHO ce npeMaxBaT, ho mhoto 
Tpy^HO ce BtBe^cflaT h 3aTOBa npe^H ^a ce B3eMe TaKOBa pemeHHe Tpa6Ba 
cto m>TH fla ce noMHCJiH. 

- J\di, Taica e. B peniemiflTa 3a HOBaTa CHCTeMa 3a ynpaBJieHHe Ha 
HKOHOMHKaTa ome npe^H 10 r. e nocTaBeHa 3aaanaTa 3a yebBtpuieHCTBaHe 
Ha aaHT>HHaTa CHCTeMa. 

- HaB^pHO Tpa6Ba ^a ce o6ct>ah ome BeflKbtfc peineHHeTO Ha 
IIojiHTGiopo - Ka3ax a3. YMHUDieHO He ynoTpe6nx ayMaTa "^a ce otmchh", 
tt>h KaTO He CMeex ^HpeKTHO j\& HanpaB^ TaKOBa npefljio^ceHHe. 

- CHHTaiiTe peineHHeTO 3a OTMeHeHO. A3 me HMaM HHHitHaTHBara. 
YBe^OMeTe 3a TOBa MHHHCTbpa Ha (|)HHaHCHTe h ap. CTaHKO To^opoB. 

390 



Pa3flenHXMe ce. 5Khbkob Me H3npara ro BpaTaTa. OcTaHax c MHoro 
r ao6pH BnenaTJieHHe ot noBeaeHneTO My. OTHomeHHeTO My 6euie 
BHHMaTenHO, toh 6tp30 ce opneHTHpa n noe oitobophoct. BtnpeKH TOBa 
oGane, Bnocjie^cTBHe a3 He ce peniaBax #a ce ABflBaM jihhho npH Hero, 3a #a 
rbpcfl cb^eHCTBHe. npeanoHHTax ,ua ce oGptiijaM kt>m CTaHKo To^opoB. 
CTpeMHX ce aa cna3BaM cjiyaceGHaTa cyGop^HHaijHfl h eTHKa. HanpaBHX 

CaMO HHKOJIKO H3KJIK)HeHHfl B TOBa OTHOIIieHHe. 

* * * 

OcHOBeH ceKTOp b paGoTaTa Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO h KTP3 Genie 
cb3flaBaHeTO h e$eKTHBHOTO H3noji3eaHe Ha TpyaoBHTe pecypcn 

(paGoTHaTa CHJia) Karo Han-flHHaMHHHara nacT ot npoH3BOflHTejiHHTe chjih. 
Ot thxhoto kojihhcctbo, KanecTBO h CTpyKTypa jip rojniMa CTeneH 3aBnc#r 
MamaGHTe h TeMnoBeTe Ha oGmecTBeHO-HKOHOMnnecKOTO pa3BHTne, TeMno- 
BeTe Ha yBejinnaBaHe Ha HaijHOHajiHHfl floxoa h noBHiiiaBaHeTO Ha ^ch3hcho- 
to paBHHme. KaTO OTHHTaxMe TOBa h b H3HbJiHeHne Ha nporpaMHTe h 
peuieHH^Ta Ha LJK Ha BKIT h npaBHTencTBOTO, 3aeflHO c kojickthbhtc Ha 
MHHHCTepcTBOTO h KTP3 paGoTHXMe npe3 T03H inecTroflnineH nepnoa b 
cne^HHTe HanpaBJieHna: 

- yctBtpHieHCTBaHe paGoTaTa no cbCTaBAHe Ha aoGpe oGocHOBaHH 
GanaHcn Ha Tpy^OBHTe pecypcn bt>3 ocHOBa Ha afleKBaran MeTO^HKH, 
cbrnacyBaHH c ,3,Kn, IJCY n flpyrnTe Be^OMCTBa n CTonaHCKn opraHH- 
3ai^nn; 

- no^roTOBKa n noBnmaBaHe KBajin^HKaijHflTa Ha H3m>jiHHTejiCKHTe 

KaflpH H CneitHaJIHCTH B CbOTBeTCTBHe C H3HCKBaHHflTa Ha HKOHOMHKaTa, 

HayHHO-TexHHHecKHfl nporpec, hobhtc TexHOJiornn h npoH3BOflCTBa 5 Hayn- 
HaTa opraHH3aijM Ha Tpy#a h ynpaBJieHHeTo. 

- ocnrypHBaHe Ha paGoranijH h cneijnajiHCTH 3a BaacHH CTponTejran h 
npOH3BOflCTBeHH oGeKTH h npe/jnpnflTHfl. 

H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha Te3H 3a#aHH H3HCKBauie tojihmo HanpeaceHne, BHHMa- 
TejieH aHajiH3 npn H3roTBflHeTO Ha nnaHOBHTe pa3HeTH, CBCTaB^He Ha 
nporpaMH 3a noziroTOBKa Ha ii3rn>jiHinejiCKn Kazipn 3a bchhkh bh/jobc 
fleiiHOCTH h cneijnajiHOCTH, h H3m>JiHeHneTO hm, npeoflOJijraaHe Ha 
npoTHBOpeHMTa Me»my J\KR h KTP3 ot e^Ha CTpaHa, h MHHHCTepcTBara, 
Be^oMCTBaTa, CTonaHCKHTe h flpyrn opraHH3au;HH ot flpyra. CneijnajiHCTHTe 
Ha MTCr h KTP3 h Ha HayHHOH3CJieflOBaTejiCKHH HHCTHTyT no Tpy#a noa 
pi>KOBOflCTBOTO Ha 3aM.-MHHHCTi>pa (Bnocjie/jcTBne 3aM.-npeaceaaTejiH) 
HBaH ConaKOB n etc cb/jencTBneTO Ha cneijnajincTHTe ot opraHHTe no 
Tpyzja b MHHHCTepcTBaTa n CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHHTe oGnjo B3eTO 

391 



ycmrcaxa ^a HaMepOT onTHMajiHHTe peinem^. Oco6eHO rojieMH ycnjina 
H3HCKBaine H3pa6oTBaHeTO h o6ocHOBKaTa Ha njiaHOBHTe noKa3aTejiHTe no 
Tpy.ua KaTO Hepa3flejiHa nacT ot ro^HinHHTe h neTroflnniHHTe njiaHOBe 3a 
o6mecTBeHO-HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe Ha CTpaHaTa. 

Moace «a ce Kaace, ne MTCT h KTP3 cbBMecrao c p^KOBOflCTBara Ha 
MHHHCTepCTBaTa o6mo B3eTO ycneniHO peiuaBaxa KOHKpeTHHTe BMpocH, 
CBi>p3aHH cbc CTa6HJiH3HpaHeTO Ha paSoTHaTa ciuia: HHCJieHOCT, KBajin- 
(^HKaitH^, opraHH3aijHa Ha Tpyzja h 3amiamaHeTO, KaTeroproaiyifl, oxpaHa 
Ha Tpyaa, ycjioBM 3a aoni>JiHHTejiHH BMHarpaac.neHHfl 3a Bpe^HH ycjioBHa 
Ha Tpyn Ha no-3HanHTejiHHTe HaijHOHajiHH o6eKTH. 

* * * 

Ha MTCr h KTP3 6axa Bi>3JiaraHH peflHija OTroBopHH 3a^aHH no 
npeflBapHTejiHOTO cbrjiacyBaHe Ha njiaHoeeTe Ha MHHHCTepCTBaTa h 
CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH no TaKHBa noKa3aTejiH KaTo: o6mecTBeHa npo- 
H3BO^HTejiHOCT Ha Tpy^a, HHCJieHOCT Ha nepcoHajia, fyonR pa6oTHa 3anjiara, 
opraHH3aijHfl Ha Tpy^a, oxpaHa Ha Tpy.ua, coiyiajiHOTO ocnrypflBaHe, neHcnn 
h flpyra Tpy^oBH noKa3aTenH. MTCr h KTP3 6axa rjiaBeH onoHeHT Ha 
CTonaHCKHTe h apyrHTe MHHHCTepcTBa h Be^oMCTBa no Bene noconeHHTe h 
no pe,mma flpyrn noKa3aTejin. Hape^ c TOBa, /J'bp^aBHHHT komhtct no 
njiaHHpaHe ci>mo B3eMauie OTHomeHne kbm TeSn BMpocH n Hocenie 
OTroBOpHOCT 3a TflXHOTO npneMaHe h H3m>jiHeHHe 3ae#HO c MTCr h KTP3. 

H3m>jiHeHneTO Ha Ta3H 3aaana 6enie #o6pe opraHH3HpaHo: aHanH3Hpax- 
Me Heo6xoaHMaTa HH(j)opMaiiHfl, H3flCHflBaxMe cfmKTOpHTe, kohto BJinaexa 
Bi>pxy CBOTBeTHHTe noKa3aTejin 3 pa3KpHBaxMe pe3epBHTe 3a taxhoto no/jo- 
6paBaHe, o6ocHOBaBaxMe rn, KaTO ce ci>o6pa3flBaxMe c peajiHHTe bi>3mo>k- 
hocth 3a H3noji3BaHeTO hm. no noKa3aTejiHTe ce Bo^exa flHCKycnn cbc 
cneitnajincTHTe Ha MHHHCTepCTBaTa n Be^oMCTBaTa. P^koboactboto Ha 
MTCr n KTP3 ce cpenjanie c p^KOBOflCTBara Ha .npyrHTe MHHHcrepcTBO, 
BO^exa ce nojie3HH flHCKycnn n ce Tbpcexa peajincTHHHH e^eKTHBHH peineHHH. 

npe3 eceHTa Ha 1975 r. npaBHTejicTBOTO 3anoHHa o6ci>5KflaHeTO h 
npneiviaHeTO Ha njiaHa 3a pa3BHTne Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO npe3 1976 r. 
h Ha neTnwmiHHfl njiaH (1976-1980). Ha e#HO ot m>pBHTe 3ace,zjaHM Ha 
MnHHCTepcKH cbBeT no Te3H Bi>npocH Tpa6Banie aa B3eMa OTHomeHne KbU 
npoeKTO-njiaHa no Tpyaa n HHCJieHoerra Ha nepcoHajia, 3aeT b oT^enHHTe 
OTpacjin Ha Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO. 06njHTe noKa3arejiHTe Ha njiaHa no 
Tpyaa 3a 1976 r. Ha HaijHOHajiHO paBHnme ce npneMaxa ot bchhkh 
ynacTHHiiH b 3aceaaHneT0 3 ho HJieHOBeTe Ha npaBHTejicTBOTO He 6axa 
nocTHTHajin pa36HpaTejicTBO othocho KOHKpeTHaTa hhcjichoct Ha nepco- 

392 



HaJia Ha MHHHCTepCTBaTa h Be^OMCTsaTa h BceKH jxbpyKQUiQ Ha CBOHTe 
npe,HJio)KeHHfl. Bo^exa ce Ham>jiHO HopMajiHH ahckychh 

HMax cnopoBe caMO c TpHrop Ctohhkob, mhhhctbp Ha CTpoHTejicTBOTO 
h apxHTeKTypaTa. Toh ce H3Ka3Banie c BJiaereH h KaTeropnneH toh, He 
^cejiaenie #a ce ci>o6pa3flBa c (|)aKTHTe. HameTO MHHHCTepcTBO h /JKII /j0Ka3- 
Baxa, ne b CTpoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aijHH ot CHCTeMaTa Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO Ha 
CTpoHTejicTBOTO h apxHTeKTypaTa (MCA) npoH3BO/jHTejiHOCTTa e MHoro 
HHCKa, opraHH3aijHflTa Ha Tpy^a He OTroBapa Ha H3HCKBaHH>iTa, Koecj)HijH- 
eHTbT Ha H3noji3BaHe Ha TexHHKaTa e hhcbk, He ce H3m>jiHflBaT KOHKpeTHHTe 
pemeHHfl Ha E(K Ha BKQ 3a noBHinaBaHe e^eKTHBHOcira Ha CTpoHTejicTBOTO. 
Bt>3 ocHOBa Ha aHajiH3 Ha CBOTBeTHHTe noKa3aTejiH cnenjiajiHCTHTe no Tpy/ja 
ycTaHOBHxa, ne 6poaT Ha 3aeTHTe b CHCTeMaTa Ha MCA Ha^BHinaBa peajiHHTe 
noTpe6HOCTH c 20 000 ayuiH, ne HMa 3HaHHTejiHH pe3epBH 3a yBejiHHemie Ha 
npoH3BoaHTejiHOCTra Ha Tpyaa h e^eKTHBHoerra Ha CTpoHTejicTBOTO npe3 
BMeacaaHe Ha HaynHa opraHH3aijJDi Ha npoH3BoacTBOTO h Tpy/ja. 

KaTO HrHopHpame noKa3aTejiHTe, cbrnacHO kohto ce onpefleiwiiie hh- 
cjieHOCira Ha nepcoHana, rpnrop Ctohhkob ot cboa CTpaHa HacTOflBame 
toh aa ce yBejiHHH c ome 20 000 ayniH. CTaHaxa #HCKycHH, kohto npepac- 
Haxa b npepeicaHHfl Meacay Hac #BaMaTa. /JncKycHOTa hh MOflcenie #a 3aBi>p- 
hih cicaH,zi;ajiHO, ho kohc|)jihkti>t 6euie noTyuieH ot CTaHKO To^opOB, kohto 
HaMepH noflxoflfliHH ayMH aa cmckhh npoTHBOpeHHOTa h aa HanpaBH e#HO 
KOMnpoMHCHO o6o6meHHe. 

B npoijeca Ha o#o6peHHeTO h H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha nnaHa no Tpy#a b MCA 
Me^cay MeH h Ctohhkob ome hakojiko ni>TH H3nnyBaxa cepH03HH nporaBO- 

peHHfl, npH KOHTO HeH3MeHHO CH npOJIHHaBaUie HeTOBHflT CHJIOB, "KOMaH- 

flHpcKH" cthji Ha noBeflemie. B KpaiiHa cMeTKa TOBa aoBe^e h #o jiHHHa 
HaMeca ot CTpaHa Ha To/jop 5Khbkob. 

B m>pBHTe #hh Ha cenTeMBpn 1976 r. ot 16 h. b e^HH ot canoHHTe Ha 
UK Ha BKI1 ce cbCToa cbBemamie, na KoeTO npncbCTBaxa p^KOBO^HTejiHTe 
Ha E(K h MC, npeace^aTejiH h ceKpeTapn Ha Okpt>)khh Hapo^HH CBBeTH, 
MHHHCTpn. 06cTaHOBKaTa 6enie aenoBa. To/top 5Khbkob BJiese b 3anaTa c 10 
mhh. 3aKbCHeHHe, npnapy)KeH ot TpHrop Ctohhkob. Be^Hara 3ae MecTOTO 
ch Ha Tpn6yHaTa ? OTKpn 3ace#aHHeTO h 3anoHHa #a roBopn no npo6jieMHTe 
Ha H3ni>jiHeHHe Ha peuieHHjrra Ha XI KOHrpec h Ha IOjickha njieHyM (1976) 
Ha E(K Ha BKn. Ton o6i>pHa noBene BHHMaHHe Ha TeKymme 3a#aHH no 
H3m>JiHeHHe Ha nnaHa 3a 1976 (m>pBaTa ro^HHa Ha ce^MaTa neTHJieraa), h 
no-cnei^najiHO Ha npnGnpaHeTO Ha cencKOCTonaHCKaTa peKOJiTa. 3aceraa h 
Bi>npoca 3a H30CTaBaHeTO b ctpohtcjictboto Ha roneMH HaijHOHajiHH o6eK- 
th, KaTO HanpaBH hakoh kphthhhh GejieaocH. E#Ha ot npHHHHHTe 3a TOBa 

393 



H30CTaBaHe cnopea Hero ce fltiraajio Ha HeflocTartHHaTa hhcjichoct Ha 
pa6oTHaTa ptKa. 

- KoMHTerBT no Tpyaa h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa He cwjencTBa Ha 

MHHHCTepCTBO Ha CTpOHTeJICTBOTO 3a OCHiypflBaHe Ha KBaJIH(|)HItHpaHH 

pa6oTHHijH h cneijHajiHCTH, He aaBa ctrjiacneTo ch 3a yBeunnaBaHe 
HHCJieHocrra Ha nepcoHana. H aKO npocj). HaynieB, xa... xa ... xa..., He 
ocnrypH Heo6xo/i;HMHfl nepcoHan Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTO (othobo cmax), me 
My OTHeMa npo(|)ecopCKOTo 3BaHHe! 

5Khbkob npofltjran /ja ce CMee... HacTaHa TnniHHa, hjih noHe Taica mh ce 
CTpyBanie b T03H momcht. TptM ot acho He6e. Ctc CMexa ch toh HaBapHo 
HCKauie aa no/jcicaace, ne ce nieryBa. Ho Ta3H niera 6enie rpy6a, npocTauiKa. 
Toflop 5Khbkob npofltJDKH pe*rra en, KaTO nocTaBH pa3JiHHHH 3aflaHH Ha 
ynacTHHitHTe b ebBemaHnem 

H3BecTHO e, ne rpnacaTa 3a npHBJinnaHe Ha paGoTHHijn b erpoH- 
TejicTBOTO e fleuo npe/jn bchhko Ha CTpoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aijHH h Ha MCA. 
Pa36npa ce, KTP3 CT>mo HManie KOHKpeTHH 3aflT>Ji^ceHH5i 5 kohto H3ni>ji- 
HflBanie ycneniHO b tacho cbTpymmnecTBO etc CTpoHTejiHHTe o6eflHHeHHfl, 
MCA h MHTI. HanpaBeHHTe aHanH3H h pa3He™ noica3Baxa, ne 6pOOT Ha 
3aeTHTe b CTpoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aijHH ot cnereMaTa Ha MCA HyBCTBHTejmo 
HaflBHHiaBa onpe/jeneHara etc ctoTBeTHHTe nuaHOBe nncjieHOCT Ha nep- 
coHana. CTaHa mh tt>)kho, ho He TOJiKOBa 3apafln uieroBHTaTa HanaflKa klm 
MeH h KTP3, a 3apaflH 3a6jiyflara, b kooto 6enie H3naflHaji Toflop 5Khbkob. 
Toh MHoro «o6pe no3HaBanie HeflocTarbijHTe b pa6oTaTa Ha MCA h 
CTpoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aijHH, b MHoro flOKJiaflH rn 6enie nocoHBan, aHajnon- 
pan h KpHTHKyBaji. npeanojiaraM, ne HenocpeflCTBeHO npe^n ctBemaHHeTO 
rpnrop Ctohhkob ce e nocTapan m ro e 3a6jiyflH h e onpaBflan HeflocTaxb- 
iwre b pa6oTaTa Ha CTpoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aijHH c Heflocrar Ha paGoraa pi>- 
Ka. OTroBopHocrra 3a TOBa e npexBtpjinn Ha KTP3 h HeroBna npeaceflaTen. 
HeKOJiernanHHTe h Heo6ocHOBaHH Hana/jKH Ha Ctohhkob cpemy MeH 
HaMHpaxa pa3JiHHHH npoaBJieHna h acho pa3KpHBaxa HeroBna Mopan. 

Toflop 5Khbkob npHBtpniH penTa ch h noKaHH npHctcTBamHTe aa ocra- 
HaT Ha KOKTefiji, kohto toh e opraHH3npaji no cjiynan po^caeHH^ ch rqu. A3 
HanycHax 3ajiara. 

3aBtpHax ce b Ka6HHeTa ch h ce 3aex c TeicymaTa ch pa6oTa. Cjiea oko- 
jio nac no Teue^oHa ce o6a^H CTaHKO ToaopOB h Me noKaHH Ha pa3roBOp. 

- AHreue, KaKBH ra 3a6tpKBa rpnrop Ctohhkob! KaKBO /ja npaBHM? 3a 
MeH n Te6, KaKTO n 3a apyrnTe Konern e acho 3a KaKBO CTaBa Btnpoc. 
HcKaHeTo Ha Ctohhkob 3a yBennnaBaHe Ha nepcoHana e nrpa. A 3amo 
Toflop )Khbkob ce noanaBa Ha Ta3H nrpa, KoraTO n toh caMHAT e 3aflB5reaji, 

394 



ne b cipoHTejiHHTe opraHH3aitHH ot CHCTeMaTa Ha MCA HMa h3jihuti>k ot 
xhjWJH pa6oTHHijH h cneiyiajiHCTH, ne Te He ce H3noji3BaT paijHOHajiHO, ne 
HHMa Ao6pa opraHH3aijH5i Ha Tpyna hm? 

CTaHKO ToflopOB BK^fltxHa h ce CBi>p3a no Tene<|)OHa c rpnrop Ctohhkob. 

- 3amo nocTBnBain TaKa 6e, rpnrope? KaKBO HCKam, kojiko ntm cMe 
pa3nie)K/jajiH Btnpoca 3a HHCJieHocrra Ha nepcoHana Ha MHHHCTepcTBOTo?! 

Ctohhkob 3anoHHa fla ce onpaB^aBa, ne toh He 6hji nocTaBHJi TaKa T03H 
Bi>npoc, ne Toflop 5Khbkob He ro e pa36paji, ho ne HaHCTHHa HacTOHBa m ce 
yBejiHHH HHCJieHocrra Ha nepcoHajia. 3anoHHa hcthhckh na3apjn>K Meacay 
ABaMaTa. HaKpaa CTaHKO To/jopOB ce ctrnacn b Mkhhctcpckhh ctBeT aa 
6wje BHeceHo npeflJioaceHHe 3a yBejiHneHHe Ha nepcoHajia b CTpoHTenHHTe 
opraHH3aijHH b CHCTeMaTa Ha MCA c okojio 2000 - 3000 ayuiH, npe/jHMHO 
MaiicTOpH 3aBapHHijH h nuiocepH, KaKTo h ptKOBOflHTejiH. Toh 3aTBOpH 
Tejie(J)OHa h BK^txHa. MaKap h c HeoxoTa, toh Tp5i6Baine /ja ce H3m>jiHH 
npenoptKaTa Ha To^op 5Khbkob. 

- ^aBa ce He hhcjichoct, /jp. To,u;opoB, a "mt>ptbh /jyuiH", - Ka3ax a3 - 
3amoTO Te Bee e/jHO MMa aa Gt^aT Ha3HaneHH. ^tpacaBaTa me njiaTH o6ane 
3a TOBa c ")khbh napn" - okojio 20 mjih. jib. ot (|)oha "pa6oraa 3amiaTa", c 
kohto Ctohhkob me npHKpHBa nacT ot cbohtc He6jiaronojiyHHfl, MaKap h 
BpeMeHHO, h me yTBtp^c^aBa "aBTOpHTeTa" ch cpea cboa nepcoHan. 

H flBaMaTa ce 3acM5ixMe, ho c ropHHBHHa. To3H cjiynafi mh noKa3a 
^BynnHHOTO OTHomeHHe Ha Toflop 5Khbkob kt>m rpnrop Ctohhkob. Qiom- 
hhx ch h yKa3aHHOTa, kohto aaae Ha MeH h AceH ,H,o6peB npn 
Ha3HanaBaHeTO mh 3a mhhhcti>p Ha Tpy^a h coimajimrre rproKH... 

Hakojiko Meceija cnefl Te3H ct>6htm Ctohhkob 6eine Ha3HaneH 3a 

MHHHCTBp Ha 3eMefleJIHeTO. MHHHCTbp Ha CTpOHTeJICTBOTO CTaHa npo(J). 

HBaH CaKapeB (1977-1981), c kototo pa6oTHXMe mhoto ho3hthbho. 

* * * 

/JtpacaBHHTe opraHH no Tpyaa, kohto ptKOBO^ex, iiejieHaconeHO h 
KOMnneKCHO pa6oTexa 3a e^eKTHBHO H3noji3BaHe Ha pa6oTHaTa CHJia Hpe3 
CT>3^aeaHe Ha HayHHa opramnauHH Ha Tpy^a, HopMHpaHe h oxpaHa Ha 
ipyaoBHTe flefiHOCTH, paijHOHajiHOTO H3noji3BaHe Ha pa6oTHOTO BpeMe, 
orpaHHnaBaHe Ha TeKynecTBOTo, e(|)eKTHBHOTO H3noji3BaHe Ha npoH3BO/j- 
CTBeHHTe (JjoHflOBe. Bi>3 ocHOBa Ha 3aai>Ji6oHeH aHanH3 ce npaBexa o6ocho- 
BaHH npeajio^ceHH^ 3a pemeHM, hakoh ot kohto ce pa3rjieflc/jaxa b 

MHHHCTepCKH^ CtBCT H Ce 0(|)OpM5IXa B nOCTaHOBJieHHfl H flpyrH HOpMaTHB- 
HH flOKyMeHTH, KOHTO CTaBaxa 3a,m>JI)KHTeJIHH 3a MHHHCTepCTBaTa H CTO- 

naHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH. YnacTBaxMe h b H3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha npoeKTO-flOKy- 

395 



MeHTH c no-rojiflMa 3HaHHMOCT, kohto ce npHeMaxa KaTO pemeHHfl Ha I]jc 
Ha BKII, MHHHCTepcKH ctBeT h U,C Ha BFIC. CaMHAT KTP3 ci>mo H3,zjaBaiiie 
pa3JiHHHH MeTOAHHecKH yKa3aHH)i ? kohto HMaxa 3aAi>Ji5KHTejieH xapaKTep 3a 
CBOTBeTHHTe opraHH Ha Tpy^a. 

B Kpaa Ha anpHJi 1977 r. b 3ajia 'Teoprn Khpkob" KTP3 npoBe^e 
HaunoHajiHa KOH^epeHUHH, Ha koato H3Hecox £OKJia# Ha TeMa "3a 
peuiHTejiHO H3AHraHe paBHHmeTO Ha opraHraaijHflTa h HopMHpaHe Ha Tpy^a 
npe3 nepHoaa Ha Ce^MaTa nerajieTica". npHctcTBaxa TpHina OnjinnoB, 
Mhhio MnnieB (npeAce/jaTeji Ha IJC Ha EIIC), mhhhctph h 3aM.-MHHHCTpH 
ot CTonaHCKHTe MHHHCTepcTBa, npeaceaaTejiH Ha OHC, ptKOBO^HTejiHTe Ha 
O/JHT, pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha ynpaBJieHMTa h oT^ejiHTe "Tpya h pa6oraa 
3anjiaTa" npn MHHHCTepcTBaTa h no-KpynHHTe CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH 5 
HayHHH pa6oTHHUH ? o6mo noBene ot 400 ayuiH. Flo AOKJia^a s HXa 
HanpaBeHH mhoto H3Ka3BaHHfl, Bnocjie^cTBHe toh 6eme H3£a#eH h 
pa3npocTpaHeH ot KTP3 3a cjiyace6HO non3BaHe. 

npe3 cenTeMBpH 1977 r. 6eme ny6jiHKyBaHa flOKJia^Ha 3anncKa Ha 
Toflop )Khbkob "3a yctBtpnieHCTBaHe njiaHOBOTO pt>kobo#ctbo Ha hko- 
HOMHKaTa h coijHajiHCTHHecKaTa opraHH3aijHH Ha Tpy^a". npe3 anpHJi 1978 
r. ce npOBeae HauHOHajma KOH^epeHUHH Ha BKII c AOKJiafl Ha To^op 
)Khbkob "3a yctBtpHieHCTBaHe coijHajiHCTHHecicaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha Tpyzja 
h Ha njiaHOBOTO pt>kobo#ctbo Ha HKOHOMHKara" H ABaTa ^OKyMeHTa HMaxa 

CT>meCTB€HO 3HaHeHHe 3a aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha CTOnaHCKHTe MHHHCTepCTBa, 

Be^oMCTBa h opraHH3aijHH 3a no-HararbniHOTO H3pa6oTBaHe Ha npoeKTH 3a 
npaKTHnecKOTO h ec|)eKTHBHO npHJio^ceHHe Ha HayHHara opraHH3aijHflTa h 
ynpaBJieHHe Ha Tpy^a. 

Ha 19.V.1978 r. 6enie npOBe^eHO ci>BemaHHe Ha aKTuea Ha KTP3, Ha 
KoeTO H3Hecox flOKJiaa "npeACT05imHTe 3aaaHH Ha KoMHTeTa no Tpy/ja h 
pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa 3a H3m>jiHeHHe Ha penieHHOTa Ha HaLjHOHajiHara 
KOH^epeHiyra Ha BKII 3a ycBBtpmeHCTBaHe Ha coipiajiHCTHHecKara op- 
raHH3ai(H)i Ha Tpy^a h njiaHOBOTO pt>kobo#ctbo Ha HKOHOMHKaTa." 

LU,e ch no3Bomi #a 0T6ejieaca, ne ptKOBo^HTejiHTe h cneipiajiHCTHTe Ha 
KTP3, O/JHT h opraHHTe no Tpy^a b MHHHCTepcTBaTa, BeaoMCTBara, 
CTonaHCKHTe h HaynHH opraHH3aimH H3BtpuiHxa 3HanHTejiHa aghhoct no 
ycBBtpnieHCTBaHe Ha opraHH3aiptfrra Ha Tpy^a. 

* * * 

Flo yica3aHHe Ha IJK Ha BKII h MHHHCTepcKH^ ctBeT KTP3 cbbmcctho c 
MHHHCTepcTBaTa, CTonaHCKHTe h HaynHH opraHH3aijHH pa3pa6oTH nporpa- 
Ma 3a peryjrapaHe h HaMajiHBaHe HHCJieHOCTTa Ha aflMHHHCTpaTHBHO- 

396 



ynpaejieHCKHH nepcoHaji (AYII). HHCJieHocrra Ha AYII Ha MHHHCTep- 
dBaTa BeflOMCTBaTa h CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH ce onpeaejiH bt>3 ocHOBa 

Ha 060CH0BaHH flHHaMHHHH HOpMaTHBH, KOHKpeTH3HpaHH CnOpefl CbOTBCT- 

HHTe OTpacnH h coijHajiHH flefiHocTH, Ha B'bBOKflaHe Ha hobh reHepajiHH 
cxeMH 3a ynpaBJiemie, ycbBtpmeHCTBaHe opraHH3aiiHflTa Ha npoH3BOfl- 
ctboto h Tpy^a h Ha flpyrn cbmecTBeHH no,zjo6peHHfl b TexHOJionurra Ha 
npoH3BOflCTBeHH^[ h ynpaBJieHCKHa npcmec. Mhhhctcpckhht cbbct o^o6pH 
nporpaMaTa c IIocTaHOBJieHHe N2 49 ot 1976 r. IIpe,a;BH)Kflame ce HHCJie- 
Hocrra Ha AYII aa ce CBe^e ,zjo 155 000 ayniH npe3 nepnoaa 1976-1978 r. 
OTHOCHTejiHHHT fl^ji Ha AYII cnpflMO o6mM 6pofi Ha 3aeTHTe jnma aa ce 
HaMajiH ot 13% npe3 1976 r. Ha 9% npe3 1978 r. 

3a KOHTpoji no H3m>JiHeHHe Ha nocTaHOBJieHHeTO h nporpaMaTa ce 
cb3flafloxa IJeHipajiHa fli>p^caBHO-o6mecTBeHa komhcha c npe^ceflaTeji 
CTaHKO ToflopoB, komhchh npH OHC, p-bKOBO^eHH ot npe^ceflaTejiHTe Ha 

OHC, KOMHCHH npH MHHHCTepCTBaTa C npeflCeflaTeJIH MHHHCTpHTe, KaKTO H 

komhchh b npe^npHHTHHTa h o6eflHHeHHflTa. Ha KTP3 6eine BKSJioaceHO ^a 
6"bfle rnaBeH opraHH3aTop h Koop^HHaTop Ha Te3H pe(J)opMH. KtenbJiHeHHeTO 
hm ce H3Bi>pHiH Ha TpH eTana b CTonaHCKHTe npeflnpHflrae, b ynpoKfleHHATa 
h MHHHCTepcTBa h b HaijHOHajieH Mama6. MaKap h cbnpoBOfleHO c Tpyn- 
hocth h Hapynieroifl, H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha nporpaMaTa no«o6pH CTpyKTypme 
Ha ynpaBJieHHe, aonpHHece 3a ycbB'bpuieHCTBaHe opraHH3aitHOTa Ha ipyzja, 
3a BT>Be)KaaHe Ha no-CBB'bpnieHH ynpaBJieHCKH TexHOJiorHH, 3a noBHinaBaHe 
KBajiH(J)HKaitHHTa Ha p^koboahtcjih h cneitnajiHCTH. YBOJiHeHMTa, npe- 
MecTBaHH^Ta h Ha3HaHaBaHHjrra Ha cjiyacHTejiHTe ce H3Bi>pniBaxa bt>3 ocho- 
Ba Ha KOMnjieKCHa aTecTaijHfl, eberaBeHa no onpe^eneHH npaBHJia. BiopaTa 
no pa6oTHaTa cnjia npH OJ\WT cbbmcctho cbc 3aHHTepecoBaHHTe opraHH- 
3au:HH cbCTaBHxa nporpaMH 3a HacoHBaHe, HacTaHABaHe h noBHmaBaHe 
KBajiH(J)HKaiiH5iTa Ha ocBo6ofleHHTe cjiy^KHTejiH ci>o6pa3HO noTpeGHOCTHTe 

Ha HapOflHOTO CTOnaHCTBO. 

BiopOTO Ha MHHHCTepcKM cbBeT h IJeHTpajiHaTa komhchh nepnoflHHHO 
o6cb}Kflaxa flOKJiaflHTe Ha npeflceflaTejia Ha KTP3 no H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha 
nporpaMaTa h npneMaxa cbotbcthh peineHM. OcoGeHO BHHMaHHe h 
CTporocT no Bi>npocHTe Ha CbKpameHMTa npo^BH CTaHKO ToflopOB. Cpe« 
o6mecTBeHOCTTa o6ane ce npojran HeraTHBHO OTHonieHHe cnpflMO nporpa- 
MaTa; hakoh pi>KOBOflHTejiH He nponycKaxa cjiynan «a H3pa3flT CBMHeHHe 
bt>b BT>3MO)KHOCTTa th ^a 6i>fle peajiH3HpaHa. 

B Kpaa Ha iojih hjih HanajioTO Ha aBrycT 1978 r. OraHKO ToflopOB mh ce 
o6a«H no Tejie(J)OHa ot BapHa h mh Hape^H «a ce aba Ha 3ace/xaHiie b 
^Bopeua b EBKCHHorpa/x Ha cjieflBamnfl rqh b 10 h. cyTpHHTa. TpaGBaine 

397 



fla flOKJiaflBaM 3a H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha nporpaMaTa 3a HaMajieHHe Ha AYII. Ha 
cyTpHHTa Ha cjieflBamHfl jxqu npHCTHraax b EBKCHHorpaa 3aeflHO c npocj). 
CTec[)aH CraHeB, npeaceflaTeji Ha KoMHTeTa no eflHHHa CHCTeMa 3a co- 

IJHajIHO HH(|)OpMaiIH5I. 

Ha 3aceaaHHeTO npHCBCTBaxa To/jop 5Khbkob, CTaHKO To/jopOB, rpHma 
OHJinnoB, KHpHJi 3apeB ? rpnrop Ctohhkob h flpyrn, kohto He ct>m 3anoM- 
hhji. Toflop 5Khbkob Ka3a hakojiko jxyMU 3a 3HaneHHeTO Ha Ta3H nporpaMa h 
OT6ejM3a ? ne h /jpyr m>T ca 6hjih npaBeHH TaKHBa ci>KpameHHfl, kohto He ca 
aajiH fli>JiroTpaeH pe3yjiTaT. IIpefljio^cH mh aa flOKJiaflBaM 3a xo/ja Ha 
pe(J)opMaTa. 

IIoflpo6HO pa3Ka3ax 3a H3BT>pineHOTO flo T03H MOMeHT. 3anoHHax c 
H3CJieflBaHH^Ta ? kohto 6axa ycTaHOBHJin e^Ha nocTO^HHa Teujxemijix kt>m 
e^ceroflHO Heo6ocHOBaHO HapacTBaHe Ha HHCJieHocrra Ha AYII. ITpe3 
HiecTaTa neTHJieTKa (1971-1975) o6hjmt 6pofi Ha 3aeTHTe b HapoflHOTO 
CTonaHCTBO 6enie ce yBejiHHHJi 10%, a 6poOT Ha AYTI - c 25% (okojio 100 
000) 5 BKJiiOHHTejiHO h 6po#r Ha pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe - c 40%. IIpe3 1976 r. 
HHCJieHOCTTa Ha AYII 6eme flocrarHajia 6jih30 14% ot o6maTa hhcjichoct 
Ha 3aeTHTe b Hapo^HOTO CTonaHCTBO. npH pa3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha nporpaMaTa 

6eiHe BKfflpHeT HOpMaTHBHO-flHHaMHHHHflT nOflXOfl. Bl>3 OCHOBa Ha 

H3CJieflBaHH5i Ha cneijnajiHCTH ot pa3JiHHHH Be^oMCTBa h HayHHH opraHH- 
3ai^HH 6axa ycTaHOBeHH flHHaMHHHH HopMaTHBH 3a Ci>OTHonieHHeTO Meacfly 
AYII h 6poa Ha 3aeTHTe b pa3JiHHHHTe flefiHocra h CTonaHCKH opraHH- 
3ai^HH. Ha Ta3H ocHOBa 6eme onpeaejieHO HHCJieHocrra Ha AYn 3a TpH 
roflHHH (1976, 1977 h 1978) aa flocrarHe 9% ot o6maTa hhcjichoct Ha 
nepcoHajia b Hapo/jHOTO CTonaHCTBO. nporpaMaTa ce ocBmecTBABauie Ha 
TpH eTana, KaTO 3a BceKH ot tax HMame onpe/jejieH HopMaTHB 3a Banca 
CTonaHCKa opraHH3aijHfl, MHHHCTepcTBO h BeflOMCTBO. Ha BceKH eTan ce 
H3Bi>pHiBaHie ycT>BT>pmeHCTBaHe Ha ynpaBJieHCKaTa CTpyKTypa, npHJiarame 
ce HayHHa opraHH3aijHfl Ha ynpaBJieHCKHfl Tpya, yci>Bi>pnieHCTBaHe opra- 
HH3ai^H5iTa Ha npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe npoijecn, noBHiuaBaHe KBajiHc|)HKauHflTa 
Ha nepcoHajia, aTecTHpaHe Ha cny)KHTejiHTe h np. Ci>KpamaBaHeTO Ha 
nepcoHajia ce H3BT>puiBauie no onpeflejiemi HopMaTHBH cjiea cbOTBeraa 
noflroTOBKa, a He cthxhhho. 

,fl,OKJiafl , i>T mh 6eme KpHTHHeH, nocTapax ce aa nocona cjia6ocTHTe h 
He/jocTaTbijHTe, ^onycKaHH noHTH ot bchhkh Be/joMCTBa, MHoro6poHHHTe 
HapymeHH^ h HaHHHHTe 3a taxhoto npeoflOJi^BaHe. no^nepTax rojwMaTa 
pojm Ha napTHHHHTe komhtcth, Ha LJempajiHaTa /n>p)KaBHO-o6mecTBeHa 
komhcha, Ha KOMHCHHTe npH MHHHCTepcTBaTa, Ha opraHHTe no Tpyaa npH 

MHHHCTepCTBaTa H CTOnaHCKHTe OpraHH3ai|HH ? Ha HayHHHTe HHCTHTyTH. 

398 



Pe3yjiTaTHTe 6axa flo6pH h 3aflaHHTe, nocTaBeHH b nporpaMaTa, 6axa 
H3ni>JiHeHH. /Jo k)hh 1978 r. 6axa ocBo6oaeHH okojio 140 000 cjiyacHTenH h 
6>ixa CBKpaTeHH noBene ot 155 000 pa6oTHH MecTa. HHCJieHocrra Ha AYII 
flOCTHrHa 9% ot o6iu;hh 6pofi Ha 3aeTHTe. Ooha „Pa6oraa 3amiaTa" Ha 
ocBo6oaeHHTe 6euie H33eT ot 6io,zi;)KeTa. B pe3yjiTaT Ha HKOHOMrorra no 
jihhha Ha (|)OHfl "Pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa" pa3xo^HTe Ha Gio^^ceTa npe3 roflHHHTe 
Ha ce^MaTa neTHJieTKa maxa fla HaMajieflT c noBene ot 1 MHHHapfl jieBa. 

Ci>o6hj;hx ei>mo, ne OKOHHaTejiHHOT flOKJiaa 3a H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha 
nporpaMaTa me 6i>,zje o6ci>aeH Ha 3ace^aHHe Ha Mhhhctcpckhh cbbct npe3 

CenTeMBpH-OKTOMBpH . 

npo(|). CrecJmH CTaHeB npe^cTaBH no#po6HO CTaTHCTHHecKHTe ^aHHH 3a 
ctKpameHH^Ta Ha cjiy^cHTejiH h pa6oTHH MecTa no OTpacjiH, achhocth, 
MHHHCTepcTBa h CTonaHCKH opraHH3aitHH 3a m>pBHTe ABaTa eTana h 
noTBT>pflH onepaTHBHHTe aaHHH 3a 1978 r., kohto a3 6ax nocoHHJi. 

3aaaBaxa ce BMpocH, CTaHKO To^opoB HanpaBH o6ctohho H3Ka3BaHe. 

ToflOp 3KHBKOB TOBOpH 3a Heo6xOflHMOCTTa OT e(|)eKTHBHO p^KOBOflCTBO Ha 

CTonaHCKaTa h coijnajiHa aeftHOCT, 3a noBHinaBaHe OTroBopHOcrra Ha 
ynpaBJieHCKHTe Ka^pH. 

- J\di 6jiaroflapHM Ha flpyrapnre 3a HH(|)opMaijHflTa. OneBrmHo nporpaMa- 
Ta ce H3nbJiH5rea ao6pe. . . A 6enie jih H3o6mo hco6xoahmo aa TpeBoacHM apy- 
rapHTe - AoGaBH toh, orjieac^aHKH npHCbCTBamnre, h 3aKpn 3ace,zjaHHeTO. 

H3Ji^30XMe 3aeflHO c Tpnuia OnjinnoB. B flBopa hh Hacraraa 3Khbkob h 
ce o6i>pHa kbm OnjinnoB: 

- rpnuia, noKaHeTe apyrapHTe Ha o6^a. 

- ToBa Bene HanpaBHX, OTBi>pHa toh. 
06^flBax cbc ceMeiicTBOTO Ha OnjinnoB... 

* * * 

no HHHi^HaTHBa Ha MTCr h Ha Mhhhctcpctbo Ha 3eMeaejineT0 h 
xpaHHTejiHaTa npoMHinjieHOCT (M3XII), h no-cneijHajiHO Ha ArpapHO- 
npoMHinjieHH KOMnneicc, pi>KOBOfleH ot Touio ^^caM6oB ? pa3pa6oraxMe 
npoeKT 3a opraHinamiH h 3aiuiaiiiaiie Ha Tpy#a Ha MexaHH3aTopHTe b 
cejicKOTO CTonaHCTBO. Ta 3acflrame no^roTOBKaTa n npeno^roTOBKaTa Ha 
KaapH, CT>3flaBaHeTO Ha 6a30BH 3BeHa b AIIK, /J3C h TK3C, noao6p^BaHeTO 
Ha npoH3BOflCTBeHHTe h 6nTOBHTe ycnoBM. ,H,>KaM6oB 6eme flo6i>p opra- 
HH3aT0p h H3BecTeH cneijHajiHCT no MexaHH3aijHfl Ha cencKOCTonaHCKHTe 
pa6oTH. HMeHHO toh 3ano3Ha To^op )Khbkob c npoeKTa. 

Toflop 3Khbkob opraHH3Hpa no T03H BMpoc CBBemaHHe, KoeTo ce 
npoBe^e b e^Ha BHJia Ha BnTonia. IIpHCBCTBaxa KHpHJi 3apeB, TaHno 

399 



KptCTeB (MHHHCTbp Ha M3XII), Emhji XpHCTOB, Toflop Eoachhob, cexpe- 
TapH Ha OK Ha BKII h npeflceaaTejin Ha OHC Ha hakoh OKpi>3n 
(Toji6yxHHCKH ? XacKOBCKH h BnaHHCKH) h jspyru pi>KOBoaHTejiH h cne- 
iIHajiHCTH. IIpoeKTbT 3a nporpaMaTa 6enie aoKJiaaBaH ot JXmaMftoB. Tog 
noKa3a MHoro cxeMH, nepTe^cH, Ta6jnniH, Hpe3 kohto OHarjieflHBaxa npe#- 
jiaraHHTe pemeHMTa h onaKBaHHTe pe3yjiTaTH. Toaop >Khbkob 6eine sbho 
flOBOJieH h HanpaBH hakoh npeflJioaceHM 3a pa3niHpflBaHe Ha nporpaMaTa. 
H3Ka3axa ce ome Emhji XpHCTOB h Toflop Eoachhob 

B pe3yjiTaT Ha TOBa ctBemaHHe ce no^BH IIocTaHOBJieHHe Ha U,K Ha 
BKII, MC, LJC BIIC h LJK Ha ^KMC "3a H3flHraHe pojurra Ha MexaHH- 
3aT0pHTe h no,a;o6pflBaHe H3noji3BaHeTo Ha TexHHKaTa b cencKOTo cto- 
naHCTBo" (Ks 22 ot 25.111.1976). 

* * * 

BaacHa h npHopHTeraa 3aflana Ha KTP3 6eiue ycT»BT>puieHCTBaHeTo Ha 
CHCTeMaTa 3a 3anjiamaHe Ha Tpy^a KaTO (JmKrop 3a noBHinaBaHe Ha 
aoxo^HTe, noBHinaBaHe npoH3BoaHTejiHOCTTa Ha Tpyaa, BHeapflBaHe Ha 
HayHHO-TexHHHecKHJi nporpec h hobhtc TexHOJiorHH b np0H3B0,n;cTB0T0 5 
e(J)eKTHBHOTO H3noji3BaHe Ha MaTepHajiHHTe h TpyaoBHTe pecypcn. 

KTP3 pa3pa6oTH h BHece npoeKTOpeineHHe b MHHHCTepCKM ctBeT 3a 
noao6p^BaHe opraHH3aijHflTa Ha pa6oraaTa 3anjiaTa h 3a ycbB-bpineHCTBaHe 
Ha EaHHHa maraa Ta6jiHija h EaHHHa Tapncjma Mpe^ca, kohto Tpfl6Banie #a 
ce npHBeaaT b cbOTBeTCTBHe c H3MeHeHHOTa b xapaKTepa h e^eKTHBHoerra 
Ha Tpyaa, b KBajiH(J)HKaijH5iTa Ha Kaflpme, b cbOTHonieHH^Ta Meacay bhcoko 
h hhcko KBajiH^HijHpaHHH Tpy/j, Ha Te^KKHfl h jieKM Tpyfl. BaaceH ejieMeHT 
ot npoeKTa 6enie CTpeMeacbT kt>m Hafi-T^CHO o6Bi>p3BaHe Ha HapacTBaHeTO 
Ha ocHOBHHTe 3anjiaTH c KOHKpeTHHTe TpyaoBH pe3yjiTaTH. IIpeaBH^cflaxa 
ce hobh npHHu;HnH Ha KaTeropH3aijHfl, #om>jiHHTejiHH BT>3Harpa^cfleHH^ 3a 
ycjiOBH^Ta Ha Tpyn; h ap. 

Benie npneTO IIocTaHOBJieHHe JVs 5 Ha IJK Ha EKII, MC h LJC Ha BIIC 
"3a ycbBT>pnieHCTBaHe opraHH3aiiH5rra Ha pa6oraaTa 3amiaTa", KoeTO BJie3e 
b cHJia ot 1.1.1977 r., ho npHJiaraHeTO My 3aBHceine h ot roTOBHOcrra Ha 
CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aiiHH no onpe^ejieHH hkohomkhcckh ycjiOBH^ h noKa- 
3aTejin. ToBa 3a6aBH HeroBOTO H3m>jiHeHHe, tbh KaTO ot CTonaHCKHTe opra- 
HH3aiiHH ce H3HCKBanie aa CB3flaaaT no-«o6pa opraHH3aiiHfl Ha npoH3BOfl- 
ctboto h Tpyaa, aa BHe/jp^BaT hobh TexHOJiorHH, aa noBnmaT npo- 
H3BOflHTejiHociTa Ha Tpyaa h np. 

Pe<|>opMa Ha iieHHTe h Ha maTHHTe h Tapn^HHTe 3anjiaTH. B 
neTroAHniHH^ njiaH 3a o6mecTBeHO-HKOHOMHHecKOTO pa3BHTHe (1976-1980) 

400 



geine nocTaBeHa 3a#aHaTa CTonaHCKHTe KOMnneKCH #a 3apa6oTMT Ha ntJiHa 
cTonaHCKa CMeTKa, ^a ce ycHJiH peryjinpaujoTO Bi>3fleHCTBHe Ha (|)HHaHCH- 
paHeTO h KpeflHTHpaHeTO, #a ce noBHUiH pojurra Ha Ljemrre 3a CTHMyjiHpaHe 
na npoH3BOflCTBOTO h Ha TexHHHecKHH nporpec, #a ce ycbB^pmeHCTBa 

CHCTeMaTa Ha (J)a6pHHHO-3aBO,HCKHTe IjeHH B CbOTBeTCTBHe C 06eKTHBHHTe 

ycJioBHfl, m ce npHCTbnH kbm HaMajieHHe h npeMaxBaHe Ha cy6cHflHHTe, ^a 
ce yBejiHHH CTHMyjiHpamaTa pojia Ha pa6oTHaTa 3anjiaTa h m ce npoBe^e 
pe(J)opMa Ha maraaTa h TapH(j)Ha CHCTeMa. 

npe3 eceHTa Ha 1979 r. no pemeHHe Ha MHHHCTepcKHfl cbbct ce 
cb3#a,ne paSoTHa rpyna, b hhhto ci>CTaB BJiH3axa p^KOBOflHTejin h 
cneijHajiHCTH ot J\KU, KTP3, MO, IJCY, cbTpyflHHijH Ha U,K Ha BKH h Ha 
U,C Ha EIIC, kohto ceKpeTHO Tpfl6Bame aa pa3pa6oTH npoeKT 3a npHBe^caa- 
He Ha ijeHHTe ^a e^po h ape6HO b CbOTBeTCTBHe c o6eKTHBHHTe hkohomh- 
HecKH ycjiOBH^ h m ycbBT>pHieHCTBa CHCTeMaTa Ha 3amiamaHe Hpe3 
npoBOKflaHe Ha pe(|)opMa Ha maTHHTe h TapH(|)HH 3anjiaTH. 

TpynaTa 3anoHHa pa6oTa bt>b BHJiaTa Ha MC b MecTHoerra "EejiHTe 
6pe3H" Kpafi KHJixeeBO. EflHa no,nrpyna, pT>K0B0fleHa ot npo(|). HBaH 
BHfleHOB, npeaceflaTeji Ha KoMHCHOTa no ijeHHTe npn MC, 3anoHHa 
H3pa6oTBaHeTO Ha npefljioaceHHfl 3a npoMAHa Ha ijeHHTe. flpyra noarpyna, 
pi>KOBOfleHa ot MeH, Tp^6Bauie aa H3pa6oTH npoeKT 3a pe(J)opMHpaHe Ha 
pa6oTHHTe 3anjiaTH. YHacTHHijHTe b KOMHCH#ra h b flBeTe noflKOMHCHH 
BOflexa o^cHBeHH h njio^OTBOpHH flHCKycHH, 3a hhhto xofl ce flOKJiaflBame 
Ha BHcniHTe napTHHHH h flT>p^caBHH pT>KOBO,nHTejiH. IIocTeneHHO ce crania 
,a;o cbrjiacne no bchhkh ochobhh BtnpocH, CBtp3aHH c flsaTa npoeKTa. 

3a BHcniHTe napTHHHH opraHH Hanejio c Toflop )Khbkob 6eme oco6eHO 
Tpy^HO aa B3eMaT pemeHHe 3a yBejinneHHe Ha ijeHHTe. B o6ci>^cflaHHHTa no 
T03H BT>npoc ce roBOpeme cmt>tho 3a "npHBeacflaHe Ha ijeHHTe b CBOTBeT- 
CTBHe c o6eKTHBHHTe ycjiOBHH". He Mo^cex m ch oGacha 3amo napTHHHHTe 
h flT>p)KaBHH pi>KOBOflHTejiH H36arBaxa h HanpaBO ce CTpaxyBaxa aa roBOpOT 
3a yBejiHneHHe Ha ijeHHTe Ha #pe6HO h H3noji3Baxa no^o6Ha TepMHHOJionm. 
B3eMaHeTO Ha TaKOBa pemeHHe 6enie ocTpa o6eKTHBHa Heo6xoflHMOCT. 
L(eHoo6pa3yBaHeTO 3aflT>p^caiHe CTHMyjiHpamaTa pojia Ha ijeHHTe 3a e(J>eK- 
THBHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha HKOHOMHKaTa. PonHTa Ha ijeHHTe h 3HaneHHeTO Ha 
ocHOBHHTe TapH(J)HH h maTHH 3anjiaTH ocTaBaxa chjiho no/meHeHH, MaKap 
bt>b bchhkh floicyMeHra no npHJioaceHHe Ha HOBaTa CHCTeMa Ha 
pi>KOBOflCTBO Ha HapoflHOTO CTonaHCTBO aa ce noflnepTaBame TAXHaTa pojra 
h 3HaneHHe. Heo6ocHOBaHOTO 3ana3BaHe Ha e^HH h cbiiih ijeHOBH HHBa 
6euie h eflHH ot (JmieropHTe 3a nocTOHHHO yBejinnaBaHe Ha cy6cnflHHTe 3a 
peflHiia npoH3BOflCTBa h CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH. 

401 



npHCLCTBax Ha nocjieflHOTO 3ace/taHHe Ha BiopoTO Ha MnHHCTepcKHn 
ctBeT h CT>OTBeTHH pi>KOBOflHTejiH Ha Be/toMCTBaTa, ynacTBajin B CLCTa- 
B^HeTO Ha npoeKTa 3a pemeroie Ha U,K Ha EKII, MC h U,C Ha EIIC. CTaHKo 
To^opOB HH(|)opMHpa no Tejie(J)OHa To^op >Khbkob, kohto ecTecTBeHO 6eiue 
3ano3HaT MHoro ao6pe c npe^JiaraHaTa pe<J)opMa, h My npe/tJioacH cpemara 
aa npofli>Ji5KH npH Hero. >Khbkob Be^Hara ce ci>rjiacH h bchhkh oth^oxmc b 
Ka6HHeTa My b crpaaaTa Ha ^p^aBHHfl ctBeT. GraHKO To^opOB noapo6Ho 
h3jio^ch ocHOBHHTe nojioacemifl Ha npoeKTa 3a yBejiHHemie Ha ijeHHTe h Ha 
3anjiaTHTe. Cnefl pa3MAHa Ha mhchha ce B3e penieHHe no Te3H BtnpocH aa 
ce npoBe^e njieHyM Ha U,K Ha BKn. 

njieHyMi>T ce clctoa Ha 10.XI.1979 r. /JoKJia^H H3Hecoxa To#op 
>Khbkob n CTaHKo ToflopoB. Eeme ny6jiHKyBaHO ITocTaHOBJieHiie JYs 50 
"3a yBejinnaBaHe Ha 3anjiaTHTe Ha TpyaemnTe ce n npHBOK^aHe Ha ijemrre 

Ha eflpO H flpe6HO B CLOTBeTCTBHe C 06eKTHBHHTe yCJIOBHfl 3a pa3BHTHe Ha 

HKOHOMHKaTa h noBHinaBaHe Ha HefiHaTa e^eKTHBHoer." 

B pe3yjiTaT pojitfra Ha ijeHHTe b HauiaTa HKOHOMHKa ce noBHiiiH, tt>h 
KaTO TexHHTe HHBa flo rojiflMa CTeneH ce H3paBHnxa c peajiHHTe n Tana cb- 
fleficTBaxa 3a yBejinqaBaHe Ha npon3BOflCTBOTO h HeroBaTa e^eKTHBHOcrra 
My; ocHOBHHTe 3anjiaTH ei>mo ce yBejinnnxa, KoeTO pecJmeKrapa Bi>pxy 
4>opMHpaHeTO Ha Tpy^OBHTe Bt3Harpa5KfleHHH. IIoBHiiiaBaHeTO Ha ueHnre b 
Manna CTeneH 3aceraa ^ch3hchoto paBHnme, tbh KaTo 6euie KOMneHCHpaHO 
Hpe3 yBejiHneHHe Ha 3annaTHTe h Hpe3 cbotbctho yBejinneHne Ha cth- 
neHflHHTe, neHCHHTe, ^eTCKHTe ao6aBKH h pp. coijHajiHH pa3xofln. 

OnHaHCOBHTe pe3yjiTaTH ot o6iiioto yBejinneHne Ha ijemrre Bi>3JiH3axa 
Ha okojio 1 MJipfl. h 400 mjih. jib. Ot tax 3a pa6oTHa 3annaTa 6axa okoho 
900 mjih. jib., 3a coijHajiHH rniamaHna - okojio 250 mjih. jib., a okojio 200- 
250 mjih. jib. 6axa ocTaBeHH KaTO pe3epB 3a noKpHBaHe Ha flpyrn pa3xo^H 
(3a TpyaoBO Bi>3Harpa»cfleHHe h coijnajiHH pa3xofln). 3anoMHHJi clm Te3H 

IJH(J)pH, 3aiIIOTO OKOJIO TAX Ce BOflHXa MHOTO flHCKyCHH. 

PenieHHJiTa 3a npHJiaraHe Ha hobh maran h Tapncjmn 3anjiara 6eme no 
ctmecTBO yctBtpnieHCTBaHe h npofltJDKeHHe Ha pe(J)opMaTa ? koato 3anon- 
Ha aa ce npHJiara cjiea 1.1.1977 r. c nocTaHOBJieHne Ne 5, KoeTO komch- 
THpax no-rope. flencTBajnrre ao to3h momcht EHJT h ETM HMaxa pe^nua 
HeflocTaTbijH - Te He OTpa3ABaxa H3HCKBaHHOTa Ha pa3npeaejiHTejiHHTe 
OTHomeHHH, He cvjencTBaxa 3a 3acnjiBaHe CTHMyjinpamara pojw Ha 
pa6oraaTa 3amiaTa, b HeflocTaTbHHa CTeneH o6Bi>p3Baxa pa3Mepa Ha maT- 
HHTe n TapH(|)HHTe 3anjiaTH c pe3yjrraTHTe Ha Tpyzja, onpeaejiaxa pa3Mepa 

Ha BT>3Harpa)KfleHHflTa B 3aBHCHMOCT OT TpyflOBHfl CTa)K ? a He OT TBOp- 

necKHTe bi>3mo)khocth Ha TpyzjemnTe ce. 

402 



HoBHTe E1U,T H ETM aaBaxa bt>3mo)khoct: 

**-*3a nocjieflOBaTejiHO ocnrypflBaHe Ha npumjuna "3a eflHaKtB Tpya - 
e#HaKBa 3amiaTa", 3a onraMH3HpaHe cbOTHonieHMTa MOK/ty paGoraaTa 
3annaTa no OTpacjiH, fleHHOcra n npocjjecnn, 3a rtBKaBO 4>opMHpaHe Ha 3a- 
njiaTaTa ci>o6pa3HO jihhhhtc h TBOpnecKH KanecTBa Ha jiHijeTo, 3a npeMaxHe 
ypaBHHJiOBKaTa, noBnmaBaHe CTHMyjiHpamaTa Ha ocHOBHaTa 3annaTa 3a 
BHeflpflBaHe Ha HayHHO-TexHHHecKM nporpec, nofloGpHBaHe Ha KanecTBOTO 
h yBejiHnaBaHe npoH3BOflHTejiHOCTTa Ha Tpy#a. 

**-*3a ycbBi>pHieHCTBaHe CHCTeMaTa 3a KaTeropH3HpaHe Ha cto- 
naHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH h noflejieHHATa hm c onie^ Ha flH^epeHijHpaHO 
onpeaejiHHe paBHHmeTO h AHHaMHKaTa Ha paGoTHaTa 3annaTa Ha pt>kobo#h- 
TenHTe h cneijHajiHCTHTe; ycTaHOBeHH 6axa 5 KaTeropHH (BMecTO erapHTe 
12), ho ce yBejiHHH flHana30Hi>T b pa3Mepa Ha TapH(j)HHTe CTaBKH; ETM ce 
AH^epeHijHpa b 4 rpynn ci>o6pa3HO cneijH(|)HHHHTe ycjioBM h H3HCKBaHHH 
3a KBajiH(])HKaijHfl, ycjioBHH Ha Tpya h ap. 

**-*B EI1JT 6flXa (|)HKCHpaHH 140 flJTI>)KHOCTHH HaHMeHOBaHHfl CT>C 

cbOTBeTHa HananHa h 3HaHHTejiHO no-BHCOKa ropHa rpaHHija Ha ocHOBHaTa 
(maTHa) 3annaTa 3a BCflKa ajteokhoct; H3MeHeHH5rra Ha pa3Mepa Ha 3anjia- 
TaTa b Te3H rpaHHijH CTaBame bi>3 ocHOBa Ha aTecTMpaHe h KOMnjieKCHa 
oueHica, a 3a 3aeMaHe Ha HOBa fljii>)KHOCT ce npoBeacflaxa KOHKypcH. 

BtBOK^aHeTO Ha pe^opMaTa KaTO ijhjio h Ha ELLJT h ETM b nacTHOCT 
H3HCKBaine 3HaHHTejiHa no^roTOBKa ot CTpaHa Ha KTP3, MHHHCTepcTBaTa, 
CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH h TexHHTe noaejieHM. Te ao rojwMa CTeneH 
HMaxa Heo6xoflHMaTa 3a TOBa noaroTOBica, HaTpynaHa b npoijeca Ha 
pe(J)opMaTa Ha paGoraaTa 3annaTa npe3 1977-1979 r. Ha 15.XI.1979 r. 
KTP3 cbrjiacyBaHO c LJC Ha EIIC H3fla/te YKa3aHHH 3a pe/ja, HannHa, h 
ycnoBH^Ta 3a npHJiaraHe Ha ELLJT h ETM h Hape^Ga 3a floni>jiHHTejiHOTO 
TpyaoBO Bi>3Harpa^cfleHHe 3a cneijH(|)HHHH ycjioBna Ha paGoTa. KoMHTen>T 
no^roTBH h H3flaae h pczuma flpyra HOpMaTHBHH flOKyMeHTH h mctoahkh, 
KaKTO h yKa3aHH^[ 3a aTecrapaHe Ha KaapHTe h 3a npOBOKflaHe Ha KOHKypcH 
3a 3aeMaHe Ha hobh ajtbhchocth. IIo Te3H Bwipocn ce npoBe^e orpoMHa 
pa3^CHHTejiHa pa6oTa cpefl Tpy^OBHTe kojickthbh h oGmecTBeHocrra - 
ci>6paHHa 5 cpemn c kojickthbh, ceMHHapH. 

3a xofla Ha H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha nocTaHOBJieHHeTO othocho pe(])opMaTa Ha 
3anjiaTHTe KTP3 h MHHHCTepcTBaTa pe^oBHO HH(])opMHpaxa BiopoTO Ha MC 
h pa6oTHaTa rpyna npH LJK Ha BK1T no npnjio^ceHne Ha IIocTaHOBJieHHe 
No 50, b kooto BJiH3axa rpnnia OnnnnoB, Oitmh ^ohhob, To^op Eoachhob, 
CTaHHni BoHeB h ap. 

IIpHJio^ceHHeTO Ha hobhtc EIU,T h ETM TpaGBame aa CTaBa cnefl 

403 



H3in>jiHeHHe Ha peflima H3HCKBaHH^ b ctoTBeTCTBHe c Hapefl6HTe 3a 
opraHH3ai^HH Ha pa6oTHara 3anjiaTa. Ouemca 3a H3m>JiHeHHeTO Ha H3Hc- 
KBaHH^Ta ce npaBeme ot CbOTBeTHHTe pi>KOBOflHTejiH Ha BHcniecToamHTe 
opraHH3ai^HH h MHHHCTepCTBa, kohto cbrjiacyBaHO c KTP3 h LJC Ha BI1C 
flaBaxa ctrjiacHe 3a npHJiaraHe Ha ELLJT h ETM. 

Toflop Eoachhob HManie "cboh" pa6oTHa rpyna b LJK Ha EKH, kohto 
npeiieHflBame roTOBHOcrra Ha CTonaHCKHTe npe,nnpHflTH5i fla npHJiaraT 
HOBHTe 3anjiaTH h ^aBaine ctniacHe 3a TOBa. Taica toh H33eManie (J)yHK- 

IJHHTe Ha CbOTBeTHHTe fltptfCaBHH OpraHH H Ha CTOnaHCKHTe MHHHCTepCTBa 

h Be^oMCTBa /ja npeijeH5iBaT h ^aBaT ctrjiacHe 3a npHJioaceHHe Ha hobhtc 

IIiaTHH H TapH(J)HH Ta6jIHIJH. GbCTaBtT Ha Ta3H KOMHCHH HflMailie flOCTa- 

TtHHa HKOHOMHHecKa KOMneTeHTHOCT aa npaBH TOBa h He Hoceuie (J)op- 
MajiHa OTroBOpHOCT 3a CBOHTe peinemifl. Pa6oTHaTa rpyna 3a#i>p5Kame 
npHJio^ceHHeTo Ha pe(J)opMaTa ? ^onycKaiiie cy6eKTHBH3i>M, 3a6aBfliue ce 
CTHMyjiHpamaTa pojia Ha hobhtc 3anjiaTH 3a yBejinnaBaHe Ha npora- 
BOflCTBOTo, BHeapHBaHe Ha HayHHO-TexHHHecKM nporpec, yBejinneHHe Ha 
npoH3BOflHTejiHOCTTa Ha Tpy/ja h np. HHCTpyicropHTe - napTHHHH 

HHHOBHHIJH - CHCTeMHO H33eMBaxa npaBaTa H Safl-bJDKeHHHTa Ha pl>KO- 

BOflHTejiH Ha MHHHCTepCTBa h Ha CTonaHCKH opraHH3aijHH. XapaKTepHO e, 
ne mhhhctt>pt>t Ha TpaHcnopTa BacHJi LJaHOB, c kototo BeflHt^c pa3roBapflx 
3a npeofloJi5iBaHe Tpy#HOCTHTe no BHe,np5iBaHeTO Ha pec|)opMaTa b chc- 
TeMaTa Ha HeroBOTO mhhhctcpctbo, Me noctBeTBa: "HH(J)opMHpaH #p. 
To/top )Khbkob". 

* * * 

KaTO ce ptKOBOflex ot nyBCTBO 3a flT>Jir h ottobophoct h KaTO ci>3HaBax 
a6cojiK)THaTa Heo6xoflHMOCT ot CBoeBpeMeHHO npoBeacnaHe Ha pe(J)opMaTa ? 

HHeTO 3a6aB5IHe 6h HMaJIO H3KJIK)HHTeJIHO HeraTHBHH BT>pXy HKOHOMHKaTa, 

a3 peniHx #a ce aba npn To^op )Khbkob h aa ro HH(J)opMHpaM 3a 
nojioaceHHeTO Ha HemaTa. npeanojiarax, ne h toh Moace 6h cnoflejw 
MHeHHeTo Ha hakoh hkohomhcth, ne fl'bptfcaBHHflT 6iofl>KeT me Tpn6Ba aa 
OT^ejiH 6jih30 1 MJipfl. jib. 3a ocnryp5iBaHe Ha cpe^cTBa 3a <$ohr pa6oTHa 
3anjiaTa. E^hh ot yBaacaBaHHTe ot MeH ceKpeTapn Ha LJK nocTOHHHO 
H3Ka3Bame MHemie, ne npHJioaceHHeTO Ha hobhtc maran h TapH(J)HH 

3anJiaTH H3HCKBa OKOJIO 800 MJIH. JIB. OT flfcptfCaBHHfl 6KWKeT. C TC3H 

oiichkh toh HCKame aa 3JienocTaBa npaBHTejiCTBOTO h HeroBM npe^- 
ceaaTeji CTaHKo To^opoB. Tp5i6Banie fla My o6acH5iBaM, ne Te3H 800 mjih. 
jib. ca fla#eHH K aTO KOMneHcaiym 3a yBejinneHHeTO Ha ijeHHTe h ne TOBa He 
omeT5iBa 6iofl5KeTa. 

404 



EflHH noHeaejiHHK a3 Ha6pax Tejie(|)OHHHfl HOMep Ha To/jop 5Khbkob. 
06aflH ce e/jHH ot HeroBHTe ceicpeTapH. 06achhx My, ne HCKaM cpema c 
Apyrapfl 5Khbkob no BaaceH cjiyaceGeH BT>npoc. 

- ^o6pe ? Ka3a toh, a3 me flOKJia/maM Ha ap. 5Khbkob h me Bh CBi>p^ca 
no Tejie(J)OHa ? 3a /ja ce ^oroBopHTe. Cera toh He e b Ka6nHeTa ch. 

Cjie/j okojio nac cbiimflT ceKpeTap ce o6a/jH h Ka3a, ne 5Khbkob Moace /ja 
Me npneMe 19 h. b cpa/ja. 

Bhx ce noaroTBHJi flo6pe 3a Ta3H cpema, 3a /ja pa3cea BoncaKBH 
b^moachh CBMHeHH)! b Heo6xo#HMOCTTa h Bi>3MO^CHOCTTa /ja ce npoBe,ne 
pe(J)opMaTa ? KaKTO h /ja noKaaca Bpe/jaTa ot hchhoto 3a6aBAHe. Eax npoBen 
cb6paHH)i h cpenm c /jeceTKH kojickthbh Ha 3aBO#H h 4>a6pHKH, Ha 
6ojihhijh, HayHHH HHCTHTyTH h yHpeac/jeHM, c aKTHBH Ha oKpB^CHH opra- 
HH3aitHH h /jp. 06nKHOBeHHTe pa6oTHHim, c kohto HMax cpeum, pa36npaxa 
MHoro flo6pe cbiimociTa Ha pe(J)opMaTa. 3aTOBa a3 He Moacex aa npoyMea 

3amO HflKOH napTHHHH p'bKOBOflHTeJIH H33eMBaxa (jtyHKIJHHTe Ha 

j'bp^caBHHTe opraHH aa /jaBaT cbrjiacne hjih /ja OTKa3BaT Ha CTonaHCKHTe 
opraHH3auHH /ja npHJiaraT pecJjopMara, onpe/jejieHa c IIocTaHOBJieHHe N° 50. 
Ha apyrafl ^eH ? bi>b btophhk, 3ae,zmo cbc 3aM.-npe/jce,zjaTejiHTe Ha 
KTP3 ocTaHaxMe cjiea H3THHaHe Ha pa6oTHOTO BpeMe, 3a o6ct>ahm hakoh 
bmipoch. Kbm 18.30 h. neTOJii>HKaTa 3a3BT>Hfl, o6a,zm ce ceKpeTapKaTa Ha 
To,zjop >Khbkob. IIonHTa Me 3anjo He ct>m ce hbhji Bene b npHeMHaTa 3a 
cpema c )Khbkob. 06achhx, ne cpemaTa e rniamipaHa 3a yTpe, cpa/ja, KaKTO 
mh e ct>o6iu;hji HeftHMT Konera. 

- ,3pyrapOT To/jop )Khbkob npe/m ManKO ce Bi>pHa ot ci>6paHHe b 3ana 
'Teopra Khpkob", nperjie/ja cnncbKa Ha cpenmTe h noTBi>pflH /me ot tax, 
BKJiioHHTejiHO Ta3H c Bac. Ako CTe totob, MoaceTe /ja TptraaTe. 

OnncBaM TOBa He,zjopa3yMeHHe, 3amoTO to HMauie mhoto 6jiaronpMTHH 
nocjie/jcTBM 3a MeH. 

Tpa6Hax namcara c MaTepnajiHTe, KonerHTe mh noacejiaxa ycnex h 
o6emaxa m H3HaicaT 3aBpi>maHeT0 mh. Cjie/j 10 MHHyra 6ax b CTa^rra Ha 
ceKpeTapKaTa. Cjiea ManKO ot Ka6nHeTa H3Jie3e cbbctckh^t nocnaHHK h a3 
6ax noKaHeH aa BJi^3a npH To/jop )Khbkob. Toh 6euie abho yMopeH, ho c 
6i>p3H KpaHKH ce OTnpaBH ki>m no3HaTaTa mh ManKara MacHHKa, pT>KyBa ce h 
c acecT nocoHH /ja ce/ma. Pa3TBOpnx nanKaTa h 3anoHHax aa /joKJia/maM. 
Ha6jnoflaBax noBe/jeHHeTO My. Toil cjiymaine h ot BpeMe Ha BpeMe 
norjieacaame cxeMHTe h Ta6jiHHKHTe, kohto 6hx npHroTBHJi. Cjie/j 15-20 
MHHyra Me npeKtcHa h Ka3a: 

- flo6pe, ao6pe. Bne c jip. CTaHKO To/jopOB o6ci>,zjeTe h HanpaBeTe KaK- 
boto h Heo6xoflHMo... A 3HaeTe jih ? ne yTpe cyTpHHTa me HMa cbBMecTHO 

405 



3ace#aHHe Ha CeicpeTapHaTa Ha LJK h BiopoTO Ha MHHHCTepcKHfl cbbct? 

- A&, 3Han. IloKaHeH ct>m aa npHCT>CTBaM. 

- IU,e o6ci>#HM KpHTHHHO H5IKOH BtnpOCH Ha HKOHOMHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe 

Ha CTpaHaTa h me ce npHeMaT hakoh yKa3aHH5i. IlJ,e KpHTHKyBaM h e#Ho 
Bame H3Ka3BaHe no BtnpocHTe 3a npeMaxBaHe Ha flOTaijHHTe. 
^Chbkob Me norjie^Ha npofltJDKHTejiHO h upoffbnyKU. 

- MHHajiaTa ce/jMHija e HMajio 3aceaaHHe Ha MHHHCTepcKM cbbct h 3a 
e^Ho Moe npe#jio>KeHHe 3a HaMajwBaHe Ha cy6ciiflHHTe Bne CTe Ka3ajiH, ne 
e rjiynocT. 

- Apyrapio DKhbkob, TOBa e jrbflca. A3 HHKora He 6hx ch no3BOJiHJi #a 
Kaaca TaKOBa Heui;o, aa^ce He 6hx ch no3BOJiHJi 3a ceKyH/ja aa noMHCJia 
TaKOBa Hem;o 3a m>pBH)i ceKpeTap Ha napTHHTa. 

- CnoMHeTe ch. Pa3rjie^caajiH CTe npoeKT 3a peuieHHe 3a flOTaijHHTe h 
pa6oTHHTe 3anjiaTH. Bne CTe ce H3Ka3ajiH aa He ce npHeMa peuieHHeTo c 
mothbh, ne to e aScyp^HO, ne e raynocT. 

~ Apyrapio >Khbkob, HancTHHa onpeaejinx HanpaBeHOTO npefljioaceroie 
3a peuieHHe KaTO Heo6MHCJieHO h Heo6ocHOBaHO h HacToax, ne to He 6HBa 
m ce npneivia. 06ocHOBax ce h bchhkh npHCbCTBaum ce ctniacHxa c MeH. 
Ho TOBa npe/jjioaceHHe He e Bame, Bne He 6nxTe HanpaBHJiH TaKOBa 
npefljio^ceHHe. A3 cbm cnyuiaji h H3ynaBaji BauieTO OTHomeHHe h MHeHHe 
othocho flOTaijHHTe, npeflJioaceHHOTa Bh 3a taxhoto nocTeneHHO h 
o6ocHOBaHo npeMaxBaHe. 06cb^caaHOTO npefljioaceHHe 3a peuieHHe Ha 
npaBHTencTBOTO H3onanaBa BauiHTe Hflen, mhcjih h pa3d>)K,zjeHHfl, kohto 
MHoroKpaTHO CTe H3Jiaraji. A Han-HHTepecHOTO e, ne npoeKTbT HHMaine 
BHocHTeji, He 6euie o6hchcho ot koto h 3am;o ce BHaca. 

Pa3peuieTe ^a o6^chh KaKBO ce npeanarauie. CnrypeH ct>m, ne h Bne me 
onpeaejiHTe TOBa npe/yioaceHHe KaTO a6cyp/jHO. npe/yiaraine ce b 
CTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH, kohto pa6oTOT Ha flOTaiiHH, ot cyMaTa Ha 
nojiaramHH ce (H3pa6oTeHH)i) §onR pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa #a ce H3Ba#H ijMaTa 
hjih nacT ot cyMaTa Ha flOTaijHHTe h ot ocTartica Ha pe3yjrraTHBHHH (|)OHfl 
pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa aa ce onpe/jejMT HHflHBHflyajiHHTe 3annaTH Ha pa6oT- 
HHi^HTe, HH^ceHepHO-TexHHHecKHH h aflMHHHCTpaTHBeH nepcoHaji. C apyra 
#yMH, Te HHMa aa nojiynaT m>jiHH5i pa3Mep Ha nonaramoTO hm ce TpyaoBO 
BT>3Harpa)KfleHHe ? a b hakoh cjiynan H3o6m;o HHMa m nojiynaT 3annaTH. A 
KaKBO 03HanaBa TOBa? 3a bcckh rpaMOTeH ptKOBOflHTeji e acho, ne flOTa- 
i^HHTe b pe/mija cjiynan ca pe3yjiTaT ot HepeajiHO hhckhtc iiemi, Ham>JiHO 
ci>3HaTejiHO onpeaejieHH ot fltpacaBHHTe opraHH c apryMeHT, ne 3ary6HTe 
ot HepeajiHHTe ijeHH hjih HHCKaTa BT>3BpamaeMOCT Tpa6Ba aa 6i>flaT 
noKpHTH ot Siofl^ceTa. 

406 



Taxa HanpHMep, hakoh npe/jnpHHTHfl Ha MHHHaTa npoMHinjieHOCT pa6o- 
tht Ha /jOTaijHH, 3amoTO hm ca onpeaejieHH H3KynHH ueHH Ha BtrjiHiijaTa, 
kohto ca no-HHCKH ot ce6ecT0HH0CTra. Te3H Heo6ocHOBaHH ueHH He ce 
npoMeH)iT ot ctoTBeTHHTe opraHH, 3a #a He ce npaBAT npOMeHH Ha ijeHHTe 
no UflJiaTa np0H3B0/i;cTBeHa Bepnra. Ta3H "3ary6a" ce KOMneHCHpa Ha 
MHHHHTe npe/tfipHflTHa HMeHHO no/* 4>opMaTa Ha /joTaiyiH. Ako ce npHeMe 
npoeKTOpemeHHeTO, Te3H npe/jnpHflTHa miMa aa HMaT Heo6xo,HHMHfl dponR 
pa6oTHa 3anjiaTa h paGoTHHiyrre h ocTaHajiMT hm nepcoHan me ocTaHaT 
6e3 nojiaraiijoTO hm ce TpyzjOBO Bi>3Harpa^c/i;eHHe. A Te ca pa6oTHJin /i;o6pe, 
H3m>JiHHJiH ca njiaHOBHTe ch 3a^aHH. Bne ^o6pe Mo^ceTe #a npeiteHHTe 
KaKBH me 6i>«aT HKOHOMHHecKHTe, coitHanHHTe h nojiHTHHecKHTe nocjie- 
flHitn. ToBa, pa36npa ce, H*Ma #a 6t/i;e /jonycHaTO, /i;opH axo npoeKTOpe- 
ineHHeTo (J>opMajiHO 6eine npneTO. Eto 3aTOBa a3 ce npoTHBonocTaBHX Ha 
TOBa npoeKTOpemeHHe KaTO npe/i;ce/i;aTeji Ha KTP3. A3 H3m>jiHHX e/jHO CBoe 
3a/i;i>Ji>KeHHe. Tpa6Ba /ja Bh HH(|)opMHpaM, ne hhkoh ot npHCbCTBaiijHTe He 
noflKpenn npoeKTOpemeHHeTO. 

A3 Bh /joKJia/jBax 3a xo/ja Ha H3m>jiHeHHeTO Ha pe(|)opMaTa Ha 3anjia- 
THTe KaTO nacT ot H3m>jiHeHHe Ha IIocTaHOBJieHHe N° 50, ho ocHOBaTa Ha 
TOBa nocTaHOBJieHHe 6eme hmchho pe^opMaTa Ha ueHHTe Ha /jpeGHO, koato 
ce npOBe/je ycnenrao h Rasa /i;o6pH pe3yjiTaTH. 3anoHHa h pec])opMa Ha 

IteHHTe Ha eflpO B CbOTBCTCTBHe C 06eKTHBHHTe yCJIOBHfl H H3HCKBaHHfl. 

Pa36npa ce, ne He caMO ijeHHTe nopaacaaT ycjioBHM 3a /joTaijHHTe. HMa h 
flpyrn o6ckthbhh h cy6eKTHBHH (JmKTOpH. A3 nocoHBaM caMO e/jHH 
KOHKpeTeH npHMep. IIpe/yiaraM /ja ora/ja h #a /joHeca npoeKTOpemeHHeTO, 
3a /ja ce y6e/i;HTe, ne kbm Hero He e OT6enfl3aH bhochtcji h jinncBa KaKBaTo 
h r& 6hjio apryMeHTaitHM 3a HeroBOTO npneMaHe. 

)KHBKOB OTTOBOpHI 

- He. HflMa Hyaena. TaKOBa npe/yioaceHHe a3 He cbm npaBHJi. npoeKTO- 
pemeHHeTO HancTHHa e rjiynocT. A3 MHoroKpaTHO cbm o6pi>maji BHHMaHHe, 
ne Tp)i6Ba Ra, ce rbpen OTroBopHOCT, b t. h. h HKOHOMHHecKa 3a /i;onycKa- 
HHTe 3ary6n b npoH3BO/i;cTBOTO, 3a BHCOKaTa ce6ecTOHHOCT h np. Eto 
npHMep KaK ce raonanaBaT, /jec^opMHpaT yKa3aHHa. /Jo6pe, ne ce cpem- 
HaxMe ome flHec, a He Ha yTpenmoTO 3ace/i;aHHe. A3 cbm /jobojich ot 
pa3roBOpa. /JoBH^K/jaHe h #0 yTpe. 

KoraTO H3JiH3ax ot Ka6nHeTa, npe/i; BpaTaTa, 5Khbkob ce o6i>pHa ki>m 
MeH h naK nonHTa: 

- Bne tohho jih mh npe/jaBaTe cb/j'bpacaHHeTO Ha npoeKTOpemeHHeTO? 
HeBepoflTHO e aa ce npaBAT TaKHBa He /i;o6pe no/jroTBemi npe/yio^emifl... 

- /Jpyrapio 5Khbkob, HeKa #a /joHeca npoeKTa 3a pemeHHe! 

407 



- He, HHMa Hy5K£a. BtflH cnoKoeH. 

BtpHax ce b Ka6HHeTa ch, KbfleTO Me onaKBaxa Me 3aMecTHHK-npe,a;- 
ceflaTejiHTe Ha KOMHTeTa. Pa3Ka3ax hm bchhko. PeniHXMe aa aeficTBaMe no- 
peniHTejiHO 3a npOBOK^aHeTO Ha pe(J)opMaTa Ha 3anjiaTHTe b ctoTBeTCTBHe c 
pemeHHeTO Ha njieHyMa Ha UK Ha BKTI h nocTaHOBJieHHeTO Ha Mhhh- 

CTepCKHH CtBeT H CtC CtfleHCTBHeTO Ha CTaHKO ToflOpOB, 3aHHTepecoBaHH- 
Te MHHHCTpH H HC Ha EIIC. 

3aceaaHHeTO 3anoHHa b 10 h. Ha flpyraa aeH, cpjma, b 3aceflaTejiHaia 
3ana Ha MnHHCTepcKM ct>bct. Bchhkh noKaHeHH 3aexa onpeflejieHHTe hm 
MecTa. TyK 6axa ceKpeTapme Ha UK Ha BKQ AjieKcaH,m>p JIhjiob, TpHina 
OHJinnoB h OraflH ^ohhob, npeflceflaTejwT Ha MHHHCTepcKM cbbct 

CTaHKO ToflOpOB, HerOBHTe 3aMeCTHHIJH, MHHHCTpH, CbTpyflHHIJH Ha IJK H 

MHHHCTepcKM ci>BeT. Hakoh ot npHCbCTBaiiiHTe ce npaBexa, ne He Me 
3a6enfl3BaT. Bepoflrao 3Haexa, ne me ce oGcTOKAa h mocto H3Ka3BaHe, H3- 
BecTeH hm 6enie aohockt no moh a^pec h onaKBaxa HeroBHTe TeaeKH 
nocjieflHUH. A3 6ax cnoKoeH. >Khbkob 6enie HH(j)opMHpaH 3a peajiHOTO 
nojioacemie Ha HemaTa h flOHOCHHijHTe, 3aejiH bhchihtc eTaacn Ha ynpaBjie- 
HHeTO KaTO pT>KOBOflHTejiH h CBTpyflHHijH, HJiMame aa ce HacjiazwT Ha 
OHOBa, KoeTO onaKBaxa. Bee naic, atJiGoKO b ce6e ch ce TpeBoacex h 
BtJiHyBax: bchhko Moace aa ce cjiynn... 

CTaHKO ToflopOB OTKpH 3aceaaHHeTO h aafle flyMaTa Ha To^op >Khbkob. 
Toh HanpaBH H3JioaceHHe 3a hkohomhhcckoto nojioacemie Ha CTpaHaTa, 
o6i>pHa BHHMaHHe Ha OTpnijaTejiHHTe hbjichhh h TeHfleHUHH, o6ocHOBa 
Heo6xoflHMOCTTa ot npeflnpneMaHe Ha hobh MepKH h onepTa Bene ao6pe 
no3HaTHTe hh h MHoroKpaTHO noBTapHHH HacoKH: yBejinnaBaHe Ha npoH3- 
BOflCTBOTO, noflo6pHBaHe Ha KanecTBOTO KaTO ycnoBHe 3a noBHinaBaHe Ha 
KOHKypeHTOcnoco6HOCTTa Ha ctokhtc Ha bi>hhihhh na3ap, HaMajureaHe Ha 
BHOca h yBejinnaBaHe Ha H3Hoca, ocnrypflBaHe Ha aKTHBHO BtHiHHOTbp- 
tobcko caji^o, npnjiaraHe Ha flocTHaceHHOTa Ha HayHHO-TexHHHecKM npo- 
rpec, HaMajWBaHe Ha flOTaijHHTe, yebBtpineHCTBaHe Ha ijeHoo6pa3yBaHeTO 

H Ha HKOHOMHHeCKHfl MexaHH31>M H flpyTH nOflo6HH "flOKypHH", HO 

o6eKTHBHO Heo6xoflHMH npo6jieMH. HaKpaa 5Khbkob npefljioacn MC h 
OTflejiHHTe MHHHCTepcTBa aa npneMaT KOHKpeTHH pemeHHH no Te3H 
BtnpocH. ToBopenie etc 3arpH^ceHOCT h TpeBora. Benie KpHTHHeH ki>m ,3,101 

H CTOnaHCKHTe MHHHCTepCTBa. 

3anoHHaxa H3Ka3BaHH5i. IIptB roBopn AneKcaHfltp JIhjiob, a cnefl Hero 
rpnnia OnjinnoB h Apyrn, bkjuohhtcjiho h mhhhctph. Ectcctbcho, bchhkh 
noflKpen^xa oijeHKHTe h npefljioaceHHOTa Ha Toflop 5Khbkob, aopa3BHBaxa 
KpHTHHHHTe oijeHKH h npaBexa hobh npefljio^ceHHH, H3Jiaraxa cboh bhac- 

408 



#aHHfl ci>o6pa3HO CBOjrra o6nacT Ha rqvlhoct. 

A3 cbmo BflHrax pi>Ka 3a H3Ka3BaHe, ho CTaHKO To^opoB ce npaBeme, 
ne He Me 3a6ejifl3Ba. Toh HaBflpHO MHCJieme, ne To/jop )Khbkob e 3a6paBHJi 
fla nocTaBH 3a o6ci>)K,zjaHe MoeTO "npOBHHeHHe" no BMipoca 3a npeMaxBaHe 
Ha flOTaijHHTe Hpe3 HaMajiHBaHe Ha $OH^a Ha pa6oTHaTa 3annaTa Ha 
cTonaHCKHTe opraHH3aijHH. ^OHOCHHiprre HaB^pHO onaKBaxa, ne o6bh- 
HeHH^Ta kbm MeH me 6i>flaT ompaBeHH b Kpaa Ha 3ace#aHHeTO. To^op 
>Khbkob o6ane 3a6eji>i3a, ne BflHraM pi>Ka, h Ka3a: 

- CTaHKO, flafi flyMaTa Ha pp. HayuieB Toh «aBa 3HaK, ne HCKa aa ce 
H3Ka»ce. /Ja nyeM h HeroBOTO MHeHHe. KTP3 e (JjyHKijHOHajiHO Be^oMCTBO, 
HMa KOHKpeTHH 3a^aHH no o6ci>»cflaHHTe BtnpocH, HflMa ^a 3ani;HTaBa 
Be^oMCTBeHH HHTepecn, KaKTO HanpaBHxa TOBa hhkoh ot H3Ka3ajiHTe ce. 

A3 ce H3Ka3ax no npHJioaceHHeTO Ha pe(])opMaTa Ha pa6oTHaTa 3annaTa, 
no maraaTa h TapH(|)HaTa pe<J)opMa, no (])0pMHpaHeT0 Ha pa6oTHaTa 3annaTa 
h no opraHH3aijHfl Ha npoH3BOflCTBOTO h Tpyzja. 

Toflop )Khbkob CTaHa h Ka3a: 

- A3 Bnepa HMax MHoro d>fli>p»caTejieH pa3roBop c ap. HaynieB no bi>- 
npocHTe Ha flOTaijHHTe h pe(J)opMaTa Ha 3annaTHTe. IIo Te3H h flpyrn Btnpo- 
cn HHe flBaMaTa HMaMe e^HaKBO MHeHHe, hbjiho eflHHoayniHe -hch ce^Ha. 

3a6en5i3ax KaK paflocraa ycMHBKa 03apH jinijeTO Ha damco To^opOB. C 
o6jieKHeHHe Bi>3,zji>XHaxa h mkhhctphtc Cjie^ 3ace,zjaHHeTO MH03HHa ot 
npHctcTBamHTe noncKaxa ^a hm pa3Kaaca 3a BnepaniHHfl pa3roBop. 

Ome eflHH ni>T ce y6e«HX ? ne )Khbkob yMeeuie «a B3eMa npaBHJiHH pe- 
meHHH, KoraTO e ^ocTOBepHO HH^opMHpaH. 3a cbacajieHHe, 3a6ejiH3Bax ? ne 
Ae3HH(j)opMan;HOHHHflT noTOK h Heo6ocHOBaHHTe npe/yioaceHM 3a KaKBH jih 
He KOHijenijHH, kohto 3ajiHBaxa To^op 5Khbkob, npemrrcTBaxa B3eMaHeTO 
Ha flo6pe o6MHCJieHH penieHHfl no o6mHTe HacoKH Ha hkohomhhcckoto 
pa3BHTHe. 06eKTHBHaTa HH(])opMaijHfl HancTHHa e BaaceH 4>aKTOp 3a B3eMaHe 
Ha npaBHJiHH peuieHM, ho e HyaceH h yM, npo^ecnoHajiHa no^roTOBKa, 
KOJieKTHBHO o6eb)KflaHe Ha npo6neMHTe c mnpoK Kptr ot pi>KOBOflHTejiH h 
cnen;HajiHCTH ? orpaHHHaBaHe Ha cy6eKTHBH3Ma h ijeHTpajiH3Ma... 

Taica npHKJiioHH T03H HenpHATeH enH30fl ot ynpaBJieHCKaTa mh aeftHOCT 
b KopHflopHTe h "KyxHjrra" Ha BJiacrra. Toh e e«HO KpacHopeHHBO cbh- 
fleTencTBO KaK npe3 T03H nepHOfl ce peniaBaxa He caMO jiHHHHTe, ho necTO 
ntTH h pczuma ot Hafi-3HaHHMHTe Bi>npocH Ha HauiaTa HKOHOMHKa. 

* * * 

MHHHCTepCTBOTO Ha Tpyfla H COItfiaJIHHTe rpHflCH pa3BHBaUie 3HaHH- 

TejiHa Me^K^yHapo^Ha fleimocT, kohto 6euie npofltJiaceHa ot KoMHTeTa no 

409 



Tpy#a h pa6oTHaTa 3anjiara. 

Ha ITbpBO MflCTO, MHHHCTepCTBOTO ch ctTpyflHHHeine etc ct3flafleHaTa 
npe3 1919 r. MeacayHapo/qia opramnamiH Ha Tpyaa (MOT) b )KeHeBa, 
hhhto HJieH BtnrapHH e ot 1920 r. B npofltJDKeHHe Ha hhkojiko roflHHH 
ptKOBOflex GtJirapCKara fleneraijHtf, koato ynacTBauie b roflHinmrre cecHH 
Ha opraHH3aijH5iTa. YnacTBax b nneHapHHTe 3aceflaHHH h H3Hacflx flOKJiaflH 
no TeMHTe, npeanaraHH 3a o6ci>5«flaHe Ha Te3H cecHH. npecroflT mh b 
^CeHeBa o6HKHOBeHO Tpaeuie 5-7 #hh, a nneHOBeTe Ha aeneraijHflTa ynacT- 
Baxa b pa6oTaTa Ha cecnaTa ao hchhoto npniunoHBaHe. Cpemax ce c ptKo- 
BOflHTenHTe Ha MOT, oGmchax onHT c fleneraijHHTe Ha pa3HHHHH CTpaHH h 
ce KOHcynTHpax c nx no flHCKycnoHHHTe Btnpocn n npeflJioaceHHTe 3a 
macyBaHe pe30JiioitHH. Pa36npa ce, no,zwbpflcax nocTOAHHH KOHTaKTH c 
6tJirapcKH cneitHajiHCTH b MOT n c ptKOBOflHTenHTe h cnyacHTenHTe Ha 
npeflCTaBHTejicTBOTo Ha EtJirapna b iteHTpajiara Ha OOH b )KeHeBa. 

HMax bi>3mo5Khoct aa pa3rcieflaM MHoro HCTOpnnecKH, KyjiTypHH h 
npHpoflHH 3a6ene)KHTejiHOCTH Ha )KeHeBa h UlBenijapHfl. Hapea c TOBa, no 
npeflBapHTenHO ctrnacyBaHe c TtproBCKOTO hh npeflCTaBHTencTBO, noce- 
maBax pa3HHHHH 3aBOfln h npeflnpn^THH b }KeHeBa, BepH h LJiopnx, 3a aa 
ono3Han T^XHaTa opraHH3aijHfl Ha npon3BOflCTBOTO n Tpyaa, cncTeMHTe Ha 
3anjiamaHe 5 rpa(|)HKa Ha pa6oTHOTO BpeMe, CHCTeMaTa Ha aTecTHpaHe Ha 
paGoTHHitfrre, cneitnajincTH n ptKOBOflHTenn, CHCTeMaTa Ha o6yneHne h 
npeKBajiH(|)HKaitHH. 

MTCT n KTP3 noflfltp)«axa ninpOKa CHCTeMa Ha KOHTaKTH c peflHija 
HauiiOHajiHH AT>p-yKaBHH opraHH no Tpyaa n HMame noanncaHH aoroBopH 

3a flByCTpaHHO CtTpyflHHHeCTBO CtC CtOTBeTHHTe MHHHCTepCTBa H KOMH- 
TeTH Ha BCHHKH CTpaHH-HJieHKH Ha CtBCTa 3a HKOHOMHHeCKa B3anMonoMom 

(CHB) n c peflHija pa3BHBamn ce CTpaHH. Te3H #oroBOpH npeflBnayiaxa 
B3anMHH nocemeHHH, o6MflHa Ha onm, ctBMecTHa HayHHO-H3cneflOBaTeji- 
CKa aenHOCT, no^roTOBKa Ha cneitnajiHcra n H3m>jiHHTejiCKH Ka#pn n ap. 

Bi>b Bpt3Ka etc CKJiioHBaHeTO Ha floroBopn n H3m>nHeHHeTO Ha floro- 
BOpHHTe 3aatJi)KeHH^ HMax bi>3mo5khoct fla ce cpemHa n aa pa6oTH no 
MHoro Btnpocn c ptKOBOflHTenHTe Ha atpacaBHHTe opraHH no Tpy#a Ha 
coitnajincTHHecKHTe CTpaHH: npeaceflarejiflT Ha ^tpflcaBHHfl komhtct no 
Tpyaa Ha CCCP BjiaflHMHp rpnropneBHH JIomohocob h HeroBHTe 3aMecr- 
hhijh JI. An. Kocthh h npo(j). B. M. CyxapeBCKn; MHHHCTpHTe M. IIJaHijeji 
(HexocnoBaKHH), JI. KapaKam (yHrapna), T. PyflOJic]) n ^houi 06oaobckh 
(Ilojinia), n. Jlyny (PyMtHHfl), ^ao TxneH Txn (BneTHaM), KaKTO n npe#- 
ceflaTenHTe Ha ctoTBeTHHTe fltpflcaBHH komhtcth no Tpy#a JIxaMcypneH h 
P. ,D,arBa#apHC (MoHrojina), OcKap IlaflHJifl n X. BeHaBeaec (Ky6a). C tax 

410 



Hsrpa^HXMe MHoro aoGpH aenoBH h npH>rrejicKH B3aHMOOTHomeHHa, kohto 
He npecTaHaxa h cjie/j ocBo6o)K,neHHeTO mh KaTO npe/jce/jaTeji Ha KTP3. 

Hape/j c TOBa, ctmecTByBaxa h peamia (])opMH Ha MHorocTpaHHO 
cbTpyflHHHecTBO MOK/jy ,m>p)KaBHHTe opraHH no Tpy^a b paMKHTe Ha CHB. 
E)KeroflHO Ha poTaiiHOHeH npHHiinn b e/jHa ot CTpaHHTe-HJieHKH Ha 
opraHH3aitfDrra ce npOBOKflame nopeflHara CecM Ha pT>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha 
opraHHTe no Tpy^a. Te3H ctBemaHHa 6axa MHoro ao6pe opraHH3HpaHH, 
npoTHHaxa flenoBO h npn bhcoko B3anMHO yBa^ceHHe, n aaBaxa peflniia 
nojio^cHTejiHH pe3yjiTaTH 5 yKpenBafiKH aenoBHTe Bpi>3KH MOK/jy HJieHOBeTe 
Ha aejieraiiHHTe n TexHHTe pT>KOBOflHTejin. 

Mhoix) xy6aBH cnoMeHH cbm 3ana3HJi 3a Ocmoto cteemaHiie Ha 
pi>KOBOflHTejiHTe Ha flT>p)KaBHHTe opraHH no Tpyaa Ha CTpaHHTe-HJieHKH Ha 
CHB, KoeTO ce ct>ctoa b Ky6a npe3 anpHJi 1976 r. 3aceaaHHOTa npofltn- 
acnxa hakojiko flHH b eflHH KypopT 6jih30 flo XaBaHa. YcJIOBHOTa 6axa 
npeicpacHH, a pe3yjiTaTHTe - H3KJiK)HHTejiHO nnoflOTBOpHH. YHacTHHijHTe b 
cbBemaHHeTO noceTHXMe hakojiko pafioHa n rpaflOBe, 3ano3HaxMe ce c npn- 
poflHHTe h HCTOpHHecKH 3a6ejieflCHTejiHOCTH Ha Ky6a. Oco6eHO hh Bnena- 

TJIHXa 06HKH0BeHHTe Ky6HHIJH C TeXHHfl BeceJI H OnTHMHCTHHeCKH HpaB, c 

taxhoto TpyflOJiio6He ? c Bflpara, ne me npeoflOJieaT HKOHOMnnecKHTe ipya- 

HOCTH, npeflH3BHKaHH OT HKOHOMHHeCKaTa 6jIOKafla Ha CAIU, H OT necTHTe 

npnpoflHH 6e,n;cTBH5i. 

PtKOBOflHTejiHTe Ha fleneraiiHHTe 6axMe npneTH ot npe3HfleHTa On/ten 
KacTpo. Ky6HHCKH5iT hh KOJiera Ocicap naflHJia, kohto KaTO flOMaKHH 
npeflceflarejiCTBame cecMTa, HH(^opMHpa KacTpo 3a Hamara pa6oTa, 3a 
4>opMHTe Ha cbTpyflHHHecTBO h 3a B3eTHTe cbBMecTHH pemeHHfl. Hexocno- 
BaimoMT MHHHCTbp IU,aHijeji ot hmcto Ha ny^cflHTe fleneraitHHTe no3flpaBH 
OHflen KacTpo h cnoaejin BnenaTJieHMTa ch ot 6tp30TO hkohomhhccko h 
o6mecTBeHO pa3BHTHe Ha Peny6nHKa Ky6a. 

KacTpo roBopn 3a o6iijecTBeHO-HKOHOMHHecKHfl HanpeflT>K Ha CTpaHara, 
ho o6i>pHa noBene BHHMaHHe Ha HKOHOMHHecKHTe TpyflHOCTH h Ha Heo6- 

XOflHMOCTTa OT CbTpyflHHHeCTBO CT>C COIJHaJIHCTHHeCKHTe h flpyrHTe 

AeMOKpaTHHHH fli>p^caBH. rue/tax, cnymax h My ce Bt3XHmaBax. Bax npea 
jiereHflapHM Onfleji, BejiHKHAT peBOjnoiiHOHep, kohto npeo6pa3H jno6HMa- 

Ta CH CTpaHa, BflT>XHOBHTeJI H MT>flpeiJ 5 naTpHOT H HHTepHailHOHaJIHCT, 

3aBJia#flji cbpijaTa h yMOBeTe Ha mhjihohh xopa no CBeTa, nocBerajiH ce Ha 
6i>p6a 3a HaimoHanHa He3aBHCHMOCT h